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1.1.1. Introduction of Study Site:
Nagdaha is a wetland situated at Dhapakhel VDC-8 in the southern part of Kathmandu Valley, which is approximately 5 km away from Satdobato, Lalitpur. Nagdaha having approximately 1,91,660 sq meters in area is an important wetland. The main inflow source is natural spring while the water flows out to from two small wetlands. This Daha plays a significant role as temporary migratory habitat for birds. It is rich in biodiversity with flora and fauna diversity and has a great religious and recreational value. Water from Nagdaha is used by villages at Dhapakhel VDC for household purpose such as washing dishes, taking baths, washing clothes, drinking purposes and for religious activities. People heavily rely on Nagdaha for water resources to accomplish their household chores. Two other VDCs along with Dhapakhel VDC 8, where Nagdaha is situated were dependent on Nagdaha for drinking water but after the supply of drinking water from the government their dependency for drinking water has lessened where as they are still dependent for other household activities. Some of villagers are also involved in activities like fish farming, some function as ferry man rowing boat etc. Most of the House hold in Dhapakhel VDC is involved in agriculture activities. As being hugely dependent on agriculture, these house hold rely on Nagdaha for irrigation .For the purpose of irrigation a dam has been constructed which is closed to accumulate water for irrigation every June and is opened in August during the plantation period. Due to different activities of people, Nagdaha now has become much polluted. One of major problem of Nagdaha is eutrophication. Because of eutrophication some portion of Nagdaha is covered by aquatic plants or bloom. 1.1.2. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is defined as increase in the concentration of nutrient content to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the water body. In other terms, it is the “bloom” or great increase of phytoplankton in water body. Negative environmental effects include particularly anoxia, or loss of oxygen in the water with severe reduction in fish and other animals’ populations.
plants per acre of lake.6 2 . ln 2 / ln 2 = 1 6-1=5 10 x 5 = 50 The indices for the chlorophyll and total phosphorus are derived in a similar manner. Macrophytes are aquatic plants with steam and leaves . Nitrogen and phosphorous both stimulate plant growth. and the density can be measured in pounds of. instead of a Secchi depth value in the numerator. but they can be simplified for everyday use. reproduced below looks forbidding. but illustrates how the index was constructed. The original Secchi depth equation in Carlson (1977).Nutrients are leading cause of eutrophication.81 ln(CHL) + 30. TSI (CHL).The location of different species of plants can be mapped. the logarithm of which is zero.14. We can use following formula/ Index to calculate eutrophication: Calculating the TSI (tropical state index) The index is relatively simple to calculate and to use. the empirical relationship between chlorophyll or total phosphorus and Secchi depth is given instead. Plants are the primary users of nutrients. TSI (SD). The basic Secchi disk index was constructed from doublings and halving of Secchi disk transparency. and is used directly as measure of eutrophication. Three equations are used: Secchi disk. The base index value is a Secchi disk of 1 meter. For example. ln 1 = 0 6-0=6 10 x 6 = 60 Therefore. or ppb (parts per billion). If the Secchi depth were 2 meters. TSI (TP). Chlorophyll a is a component of the cells of most plants and can be used to measure the concentration of small plants in water such as algae. and total phosphorus. the TSI of a 1 meter Secchi depth is 60. Both are measured from samples of water and reported in units of µg/l (micrograms per liter). The simplified equations are below: TSI (SD) = 60 . the chlorophyll TSI is: The above forms of the TSI equations may illustrate how the indices were derived.Phosphorus is the most important nutrient. Chlorophyll a is measured from samples of water and reported in units of µg/l. chlorophyll pigments.41 ln(SD) TSI (CHL) = 9. but.
Temperature: Temperature affects the growth of plants the release of nutrients and the mixing of layers of water in lake.1. require more DO than warm water species. Fish in waters containing excessive dissolved gases suffers from “gas bubble disease” in which the bubbles block the flow of blood through blood vessels causing death. Eutrophic lakes occasionally have levels of DO below the minimum for fish to survive and fish kills can result.0 mg/l. Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 mg/l for a few hours can result in large fish kills. moving nutrients from the lake bottom up into the surface waters prompting algae blooms. Dissolve Oxygen (DO): Dissolve oxygen is the oxygen dissolved in water that is necessary to sustain aquatic life and its population. 1. As dissolved oxygen levels in water drop below 5.2. Adequate dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality.42 ln(TP) + 4. 1. Objectives: 3 .1. Natural stream purification processes require adequate oxygen levels in order to provide for aerobic life forms.3. aquatic life is put under stress.2. This is an eight inch diameter target painted black and white in alternate quadrants.1. Temperature measurements can determine if mixings occurs. A short distance of visibility means that there are suspended particles or algae cells in the water. Concentration above this level can be harmful to aquatic life. the greater the stress.The distance into the water column can be seen in the transparency . 1.TSI (TP) = 14. Transparency: Transparency or clarity of the water is measured using a device known as a Secchi disk. Oxygen is a necessary element to all forms of life.1.15 In order to know the present status of eutrophication following are important measures of eutrophication. Dissolve oxygen analysis measures the amount of oxygen dissolved in an aqueous solution. The lower the concentration.1. The disk is attached to marked line or measuring tape and lowered from a boat into the lake . 1. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air. Fish such as Trout.1. by aeration (rapid movement) and as waste product of photosynthesis.measured in feet or meters. Total dissolve gas concentration in water should not exceed 110 percent. an indication of nutrient enrichment.1.
4 . Our study also aims to find out the level of eutrophication at different depth of the pond which may support to analyze similar problem at different ponds. And problems associated with eutrophication along the study site. To determine nitrates and phosphate concentration and its impact on whole lake. hardness.• • To determine pH level of Lake water and its impact on aquatic life. find some solution to that problem and finally help those who are involved in preservation of this pond. • • • Significance of study: Since this pond has religious as well as aesthetic value our study may help to know the main problem related to the eutrophication. dissolve oxygen and biological oxygen demand of lake. To determine alkalinity. To determine the environmental effect of eutrophication.
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Due to insufficient data and information. uncontrolled weed growth.penelope . Gallinula chloropus ) .singhee (Heterophrutes fossilis) .T .Frog(Rana tigrina). quadrispinosa ) .jureli (Pyconnotus cafer ) and rangeen chaha (Rostratula benbhalensis ) and flora like singara (Trapa bispinosa . local people come together to clean the ponds . Due to this cleanup process ecologically endangered species such as wild rice (Oryzxa sp.bhringi jhar (Alternanthera sessilis) . over-exploitation of resources. washing clothes.163 wetland sites have been identified till date in Terai region and 2. agro-chemical and pesticides have affected the environment of the pond. 2006).323 glacial lakes from the High Himalaya region. it is difficult to provide the exact distribution of wetlands in Nepal.These ponds are historically important and were constructed for religious as well as secular reasons. lily (Nymphoides sp. Some experts have estimated about 500 men. (Report on World Wetlands day 2006-5) The Nagadha.made pond. unregulated sewage disposal. 2001) 5 . The water of this pond is used for fish farming. This annual cleanup activity has help to check the sediment deposition due to accumulation of decaying plants in the pond. simkukhura (Amaurornis fuscus . neel tauke (Anas platyrhynchos) . draining out of water. of which 100 are believed to be in Kathmandu Valley. slit deposition.) and lotus (Nelumba nucifera) are also removed from the pond.birds like panihans (Anas falicota . lotus ( Nelumba nucifera ) and so forth have been recorded from the pond. bathing and even wallowing of buffaloes .The last three activities are the main source of pollution of the pond. A. socio-cultural pollution and vegetation succession. This location is situated at the heart of human settlement due to which rapid human encroachment.They specially remove water hyacinth and other forms of weeds. 150 in the Janakpur area and the rest being distributed all over the country (Shrestha. eutrophication of this pond.Fulica atra . The permanent inflow and outflow is the central of attraction of the pond for some animals including birds.A. nyroca) . According to Joshi et al (2001) its altitude is 1340 masl with the coordinates of 27º37’53” South and 85º20’17” North. a natural pond situated at the heart of Dhapakhel VDC covers about an area of 5 hectares.carp (Cyprinus carpio) .) . fishes like buduna (Garra armandalei) . Some of these wetlands are in process of disappearance while others are vulnerable to various threats such as human encroachment. It is suggested that the patch of water hyacinth should be protested at the point source of pollution so that it would absorb pollution and other solid matters before they enter into the pond (Joshi et al. However every August on the occasion of Naga Panchami. its water quality and its surrounding.
nitrogen and Phosphorous both are measured from samples of water and reported in units of µg/l(micrograms per liter) or ppb(parts per billion). total phosphorous(TP).CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Water from various site of the Lake was collected in different season which was followed by laboratory experiment.Chlorophyll-a is also measured from sample and reported in units of µg/l. 6 .secchi disk depth(SD).chemical oxygen demand (COD).chlorophyll a concentration(Chl-a) and phytoplankton biomass (CA). We can calculate eutrophication by calculating total nitrogen(TN).
friendsofthebagmati. S (Eds) (2006) World Wetland Day 2006 Celebration: report. R and Yonzon.org. Friends of Bagmati. Kathmandu (web site : http/www.Reference Published by: Friends of Bagmati (FoB) Report on the world wetlands day 2006-5 Bastola.np/wwd2006-report) 7 .
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