Preliminary Phytochemical screening of selected Siddha Herbal medicines.

Thomas M.Walter* Pauline Vincent,C**


Siddha and Ayurveda are the two major Traditional Indian systems of Medicine. Siddha is widely practiced in the Tamil speaking areas of South India. Five frequently prescribed Siddha medicines (base powders – Chooranams) of herbal origin were selected and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Steroids, reducing

sugars, sugars, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were tested qualitatively in the selected medicines. All the five medicines showed the presence of Tannins. Anthroquinones and steroids are not observed in any of the herbal medicines examined. Since the study was conducted in a controlled and authenticated manner, the phytochemical results can be used for the standardization of the above said medicines.


Asst. Lecturer, P.G. Department of Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Govt. Siddha Medical College Hospital, Palayakottai, Tamilnadu, India.

Ph.D scholar, Center of Bio diversity and Bio technology, St. Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India.

The Siddha was flouriest in south and Ayurveda prevalent in the north. the pioneers of the system. According to Siddha literatures. The word ‘Siddha’ means ‘Perfection’ and those who attained perfection were known as ‘Siddhars’. Siddha which is largely therapeutic in nature has a rich heritage and history.Introduction: Among the Traditional Indian Systems of Medicine. Ennai – for external/Topical application) .mineral origin). According to tradition. ?? Calx (parpam and chenthooram . Siddha prescriptions usually consist of: ?? Base (fine powder – chooranam of herbal origin). ?? Pills (mathirai of herbal and herbo. The Siddhars were great scientists in anc ient times. Siddha is widely practiced in the Tamil speaking areas of South India. there are 64 dosage forms of which 32 are meant for Oral (enteral) route and 32 for parentral and external (including topical) applications.oxidixed and reduced form of purified Metals and minerals). Siddha Materia Medica: The resources of Siddha Materia Medica are classified into three major divisions namely Herbal. Some of his works are still standard books of medicine and surgery in daily use among the Siddha Medical practitioners and Traditional healers. ?? Decoctions (infusions – Kudineer usually of herbal origin) ?? Medicated oil (Thylam. the origin of Siddha system of medicine is attributed to the great Siddha Agastiyar. Metals & Mineral and Animal kingdoms.

(V. minerals and animal products should be used. Chooranam.K) 2.C) and 5. Panchakalpa Chooranam. Vembu.N.Materials and Methods: There is a very clear note in the Ancient Siddha literatures that the patient should be first treated with herbal products only (Kudineer. Nindrar Churingi Chooranam (N. pills etc) and if the desired effect is not attained. Nilavembu Chooranam.K) 3. (T. (T. then only metals.S. Thirikadugu Chooranam. The selected medicines are: 1. (P.V) 4. In accordance to this. five frequently prescribed Siddha medicines (base powders – Chooranams) of herbal origin were selected and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Thalisathi Vadaga Chooranam.V) .

Xavier’s College (XCH). Tamilnadu.M.S.G.C). St. After authentication from the Professor and Head of the P. Siddha Medical College (for Traditional Indian Medicine). The major ingredients. Palayamkottai. dosage. attached to Govt.M. T. they were subjected to purification methods as found in the Traditional Siddha literatures. G.C. In order to conduct authenticated screening.These medicines have literary evidence and are in regular therapeutic use in Siddha practice. Palayamkottai.S) of the Pharmacy. Palayamkottai. market samples of all the five medicines were avoided and they were prepared in the Gunapadam (Materia Medica) lab of Govt. .. therapeutic properties and literary evidence of the selected drugs are mentioned in Table no: 2. The phytochemical screening was done at the Center of Bio- diversity and Bio-technology.D. India.S. The medicines were prepared and subjected to phytochemical screening by authors themselves. The ingredients were collected from the Raw Drug Store (R. vehicle.N. Siddha Medical College (G. Department of Materia Medica.

Since the study was conducted in a controlled manner. a drug used in Traditional Indian systems of Medicine to treat constipation. The presence of Tannins is found in all the five medicines.Since the common vehicle for all Chooranams are water. This is only a preliminary screening and more research has to be undertaken to explore the wonderful therapeutic properties of these medicines. Conclusion: Out of the five Siddha drugs screened for Phytochemical properties. preliminary phytochemical screening has been done in distilled water extract for the presence of phytochemical constituents namely Steroids.). Alkaloids.K. . the same was used as solvent for all the five medicines. Tannins. Anthroquinones and Amino acids. Saponins. Reducing sugars. These extracts were concentrated and used for preliminary phytochemical screening following the procedure given by Brindha et al. is found to have the highest number of phytochemicals (except Steroids and Anthroquinones). Sugars. Results and Discussion: In the present investigation. (1981). Pancha Kalpa Chooranam (P. urinary tract infection and hypertension. Absence of Anthroquinones and Steroids in all the selected medicines is also observed. the phytochemical results can be used for the standardization of the above mentioned drugs.

T.K.V.V) . Thalisathi Vadaga Chooranam. N. Thirikadugu Chooranam. (T.V) 4.N.N. Nindrar Churingi Chooranam (N.K) 3. Chooranam Chooranam Chooranam Chooranam Chooranam - + - + - + + + + - + + + + + + + + + - + - + + + Absent Present 1. (V. Abbreviations: T.K) 2. Vembu. Nilavembu Chooranam.V.Table: 1. P. (T.K. (P. Phytochemical Screening of Selected Traditional Indian Herbal Medicines Serial No: 1 2 PhytoChemical Steroids Reducing Sugars 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sugars Alkaloids Saponins Tannins Anthroquinones Amino acids. Panchakalpa Chooranam. V.C.C) and 5.S.S.

Siddha Materia Medica (Vegetable division).K. Indigestion. Peptic ulcer.V.S. Hypertension. Flatulence. Curcuma longa. Dosage & Vehicle 1 to 2 grams Honey.dysuria Thirattu. fever. Sambasivam Pillai Agarathi. Chooranam Biophytum sensitivum. Chooranam Major Ingredients Zingiber officinalis. Piper longum. Constipation.C. Zingiber officinalis. Philter (for Mesmerizing or hypnotizing) 5 Vembu + Nilavembu Chooranam Azadirachta indica. Santalum album. Fever. Chooranam Taxus buccatta. Body pain. 2 P. Serial No 1 Name of the Medicine T. Page no: 461 Siddha Materia Medica (Vegetable). Piper nigrum. Anti-dote. . Vomiting. Chooranam Three Myrobalans. Night blindness. Information regarding the screened Indian Herbal Medicines. Piper longum. 3 T. 1 gram Water.K. Up to 1 gram with water.Table: 2. Part I. Piper nigrum. Page No: 230 1 to 2 grams 1 gram Hot water. Siddha Vaithiya T. Page no: 463 Water Dysentry. Elatoria cardamomum. Cough. 4 N. Jaundice. Andrographis paniculata. Indications Literary evidence The Siddha Formulary of India. Urinary tract infections.V.

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