PRISON CONDITIONS IN INDIA: The report of the All India Committee on Jail Reforms (1980-83) chaired by Mr. Justice A N Mulla, had observed that "prison administration in India has been of and on, a subject of criticism in the Press, the Parliament and the Judiciary". "Over-crowded prisons, prolonged detention of undertrial prisoners, unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of treatment programs and allegations of an indifferent and even in human approach of prison staff have repeatedly attracted the attention of critics over the year". Unfortunately, nothing much seems to have changed even during the intervening decade and more and there has been no worth while reforms affecting basic issues of great relevance to prison administration in India. There were in all 1,155 prisons of different kinds in India in 1991-92. These prisons are categorized as Central Jails (86), District Jails (252), and Sub Jails (718), Borstal Institutions / Juvenile Jails (21), open Jails/Camps/Farms (21), and some specialized Institutions (46). There are also 11 Women’s Jails in the country. The Mulla Committee had noted that a majority of persons lodged in prisons consisted of people belonging to the unprivileged sections of society, and that the majority of the prison population was from a rural and agricultural background. First offenders involved in technical or minor violations of law accounted for a large number of Prisoners. The Mulla Committee observed that a large number of offenders sent to prisons do not require any therapeutically correctional treatment. They are as normal as citizens outside prison walls are and they need to be protected from the harmful effects of exposure to prison life. The Committee recommended that "protection of society as an objective of punishment has been universally accepted and this can be achieved through reformation and the rehabilitation of offenders". While taking due note of the need to keep out of circulation for a longer time harmful, habitual, dangerous recidivist prisoners, the Committee came to the conclusion that a progressive prison system has to operate keeping in view the protection aspect as much as correctional and rehabilitation aspects.

Any study looking at the reform of prison administration must address itself to these two basic issues. And it is in the context of these same two basic issues that various aspects of human rights have also to be examined. In order to fully appreciate the magnitude of the problem and the parameters relevant to reforms in the context of human rights, it would be desirable to look at the evolution of prison administration over the years. The first ever committee on prison administration known as Prison Discipline Committee was set up in January 1836 and its report was received in 1838. A Commission of Enquiry into Jail Management and Discipline was next set up in 1864. Both reports indicate that the British regime was interested in prisons only from the point of view of administration and discipline. Ideas on the reformation or the welfare of the inmates had perhaps not yet crystallized. A conference of experts held in 1877 resulted in a Draft Bill being prepared governing the principles and practices of prison management. But the Act ultimately did not materialize. In 1888, the Fourth Jail Commission was appointed and from its object and scope, it is clear that even after a lapse of over a century solutions for the same problems are still being sought. This includes translating principles into effect in various jails, the cost of maintaining prisons, ensuring sanitary conditions, prison discipline, etc. However, the Prison Act of 1894, which is in vogue even today was the result of the 1888 Commission. This Act sought to streamline prisons administration and put it on a uniform footing throughout the country. It provided for separation of prisoners based on age, their civil or criminal status and on the basis of whether they were unconvinced or convicted criminals. The Medical Officers was required to visit the prison daily and examine prisoners confined in the cells for more than 24 hours. The Act also restricted employment of criminal prisoners sentenced to rigorous imprisonment to no more than nine hours on any day. The Medical Officer was made responsible for ensuring that the prisoner’s health was not injured by the work in which they were employed. No officer’s subordinate to the Superintendent was empowered to award punishments. Female and civil prisoners were specially excluded from the punishment of handcuffing or fetters or whipping. Incidentally, whipping was abolished by the Abolition of whipping Act, 1950.

The Act was "largely based on deterrent principles concerned more with prison management than with the treatment of prisoners and gave more consideration to prison offences and punishment than to their effect". Modern prison reform in the country can be said to emanate from the Indian Jails Committee of 1919-20. For the first time this report identified reformation and rehabilitation as the true objective of prison administration. The Committee recommendations that the care of criminals should be entrusted to adequately trained staff selected after careful scrutiny. It also rejected the idea of excessive employment of convict overseers and recommended the induction of technical staff in jail services. The Committee made the important recommendations that separate jails should be earmarked for various categories of prisoners, prescribing a minimum area of 75 square yards per inmate within the jail walls. It took strong objection to the presence of children in jails meant for adults. It recommended the creation of special courts for hearing of cases of juvenile delinquents and their housing in remand homes. It urged the holding of a conference of Inspectors General of Prison staff every alternate year. Many of the recommendations were not implemented on the ground that the subject of prisons was within the purview of the provincial governments. It is ironical that even today, one of the major stumbling blocks in ensuring uniformity in prison conditions all over India is the fact that prison administration is a state subject. Since Independence, a number of jail reforms committees have been appointed by state governments. However, it has not been possible to get even list of such committees from the Central Government agencies concerned. There was a report on Jail Administration in India by the UN expert, Dr. W.C. Reckless in 1951-52. His recommendations resulted in the revival of the conference of Inspector Generals of Prisons after a lapse of 17 years. An All India Jail Management Committee submitted its report in 1960. This resulted in the settings up of the Central Bureau of Correctional Services, which was later redesignated as the national Institute of Social Defence. A working group in 1973 suggested that Government should make effective use of alternatives to imprisonment as a policy measure and also highlighted the desirability

Further. problems of women prisoners etc. Justice A. The Krishna Iyer Committee from the basis of this Report. vocational training for prison inmate. The following are some of the more important aspects. it made wide ranging suggestions to amend laws and procedures to cut down on delays at the investigation and trial stages. living conditions in prison. treatment programs. operational. resulted in the setting up of the All India Committee on Jail Reform (1980 chaired by Mr. The report of the National Commission for women on "Custodial Justice for Women" (1993) merits attention. problems related to undertrials and other unconvicted prisoners. many of which do not cast any financial burden for their implementation. Besides highlighting the need to adhere to the provisions of law. The recommendations of the Mulla Committee touched upon legislative.N. security aspects besides matters like classification of prisoners. Mulla (popularly known as the Mulla Committee). and avoid custodial violence and lock-up illegalities to inspect police lock-ups and report on them. which if implemented would go a long way to make prison administration efficient. It said that developments of prisons and correctional administration should no longer be divorced from the national development process and prison administration should be treated as an integral part of the social defence component of national planning. medical and psychiatric services. The Mulla Committee examined all aspects of prison administration and made wide-ranging recommendations. . it made important recommendations with regard to the classification and treatment of offenders and laid down principles of follow-up and after-care procedures. detention in custody. humane end professional. The National Police Commission (1977-80) looked into issues like arrest. and delay in investigation (which contributes to the undue detention in custody of non-convicted persons). Persistent criticism about the manner in which the prison system was functioning and the fact that it did not measure up to the test of law and international standards of human dignity and preservation of fundamental human rights of prison inmates.of proper training of prison personnel and improvements in their service conditions. The report laid emphasis on the management of prisons to be entrusted to a cadre of professional. interrogation of women.

iii. Convening meeting of the Sentence Revising Board for the release. These serious deficiencies are compounded by unconscionable delays in the disposal of cases for various reasons and mismanagement in the administration of jails. inadequate diet and the like. 7. As an immediate undertaking. whenever possible. Women prisoners should be allowed to keep their children with them. 3. expediting the trial of cases including those of some 3000 foreign nationals in various jails in the country. Special prosecution officers should be available to present the case of women prisoners. 6. in most of the jails of the country.1. The courts in India have also laid down specific rules end guidelines in regard to matters like the right to physical protection (in re D. 2. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in its first Annual Report (1993-94) has expressed its deep concern about the "appalling conditions of over crowding. 4. the Commission is in touch with competent judicial and executive authorities in Delhi with a view to: i. 8. Segregating juveniles’ prisoners sentenced for minor offences from those serving longer terms for heinous crimes. . Separate jails should be provided for women. 5. on solitary confinement (in Sunil Batra’s as well as Kishore Singh’s case). women social workers. of those serving life sentence and who have already completed the maximum of 13 ½ years of their term. Women prisoners should be allowed to contact their families and communicate with their lawyers. Voluntary organizations of women should be encouraged to be associated with women prisoners. Medical check ups of women prisoners or under trials.B. and voluntary organizations. should be done by women doctors as soon as they come to prison. lack of sanitation. poor medical facilities. protection against physical assault (Sunil Batra’s case). ii. restrictions on handcuffing and bar fetters (in Prem Shukla’s case). all of which need to be remedied". Women constables should conduct searches. Women prisoners – like men – should be informed of their rights under the law.M Patnaik).

The right of the arrested person to request that a friend. Unless there is comprehensive reforms of the criminal justice system in its entirely. relative or other persons be informed of his arrest and the place where he is detained. Such an effort is long overdue and would be an essential and urgent step towards reform of vital spheres of public administration affecting human rights and human dignity. But what is required is a detailed look at the CJS as a whole. Pandurang Sansgui’s case). and the National Human Rights Commission have made numerous valuable recommendations to bring about not only improvements and reform in the jail administration but in the entire criminal justice system itself. ii. Various commissions and committees have examined problems relating to different elements of the criminal justice system (CJS). the National Police Commission. drawing upon talents from all the branches of the CJS. The duty of the Magistrate before whom the arrested person is produced. there is unlikely to be decisive change. The Mulla Committee. detention and interrogation). There are problems concerning such issues right from the stage of recording the FIR. Perhaps this matter could be remitted to a Criminal Justice Commission. iii. A police officer making an arrest should record in the case diary the reasons for making the arrest. the Court refereed to the National Police Commission’s finding that 60% of all arrests were either unnecessary or unjustified and laid down four requirements to be strictly followed: i. iv. seizure. v. The Supreme Court issued directions regarding the procedure to be followed when a person is arrested.the right to a speedy trail (in Hussainara Khattum’s case). implying there by that every arrest by the police has to be justified. and press interviews (in Prabhu Dutt’s case). to satisfy himself that these requirements have been complied with. arrest. An entry to be made in the police station diary as to who was informed of the arrest. etc. The duty of the police officer to inform the arrested person of this right. . In Joginder Kumar Vs State Of UP and others (1994). during investigation (which often involves search. freedom of expression (in P. Justice Krishna Iyer’s Committee.

violent crimes are outnumbered by others like suspected drug offenders. 1993) 1. In Delhi. Sensitivities in regard to human sufferings and the inescapable disregard of law have been dulled. parole. The results can be and in fact are very disturbing the Society is losing faith in the system of justice. Because of these. Given the will these numbers can be easily managed in the most modern. In many cases. sentencing. With a total prison population (Dec.96.987 the previous year the prison population works out to only 0. Unless the government agencies dealing with specific aspects of these processes and matters work in co-ordination and their efforts are complementary to each other. not to mention recidivism and relapse.240 and 1. jail life. The reasons for overcrowding in jail are many. and Maharashtra have prisoners far in excess of their capacity. Gujarat. the rule of law and public confidence in the credibility of the entire system has been shaken. Prisons in places like A.98.. Inordinate delays in trials result in many undertrails having to be detained in jail for unduly long periods – in many cases extending to years. prisoners who are facing charges of grave. Tihar Jail holds 8700 prisoners against a stipulated capacity of 2200. and a variety of others who have technically violated law. ticketless travellers. Railway alarm – chain pullers. together with the routine new additions. Therefore. Haryana. Many of them are in jail only because they could not pay the fines imposed on them by .02% in a country of nearly 890 million people.. 1.P.P. This. review. literally clogs the system.prosecution. the prison population is very small. professional. remission and rehabilitation. OVERCROWDING This is the most visible problem and yet no long term or shortterm remedies have been found. trial. cost-effective and satisfactory manner. there cannot be harmonious and purposeful results. M. Broadly speaking there are eight major problem areas. Even in absolute terms. which afflict the system and need priority attention. there is a very strong case for preferential attention to this area of reforms. In the current processes severe damage is caused to basic humanitarian considerations. the foundations of a free and democratic society are in serious jeopardy.

restraint by the police in resorting to unwarranted arrests by following the guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court would go a long way work to reducing overcrowding in jails. There has to be a conscious policy not to overcrowded prisons by finding alternative methods of dealing withstanding non-criminal offenders like ticketless travellers and alarm chain-pullers. In 1978. This aspect is dealt with subsequently. In some cases. This has resulted in overcrowding and accounts for 43.20% of the expenditure of jails according to our study. Therefore. During a visit to the Tihar Jail in Delhi. Under these circumstances. what with cases mounting in courts. the pitiable plight of under trials of Bihar Jails. We should guard against such an unhealthy development. On the contrary. On the contrary. the under trial prisoners . The National Police Commission pointed out that 60% of all arrests were either unnecessary or unjustified. prisoners prefer to continue in jail because they just cannot afford even a single meal a day outside! Then there are prisoners who prefer to spend a couple of months in jail then to pay "maintenance" to their wives as ordered by courts. the situation remains far from satisfactory. primarily due to enormous congestion in courts brought to light by K. could lead to release of violent offenders and professional criminals. DELAY IN TRIAL Trials delay in the courts has assumed very serious proportions. the problem of overcrowding can be solved or at least reduced only by a variety of measures. Rustomji resulted in the matter being noted by the Supreme Court. there has been no relief at all. apart from unsatisfactory prison management.courts. Kapila Hingorani. But even today. 2. we continue to read in newspaper of children of under trial women’s growing to adulthood in prison. thanks to a Public Interest Litigation initiated at the instance of Ms. National Police Commission and thorough police interest litigation (in the Hussainara Khattun’s case). Even though this problem has been highlighted by the Mulla Committee.F. This is has happened in some countries like the USA. Urgent solutions have be found reducing delays in trials. the situation seems to be getting worse.

It is only by the joint efforts of all these three links that there can be any semblance of improvement that under trial account for over 50% of the total jail population. it has taken more than eight years to examine witnesses and record evidence. Official witnesses. Mizoram. and helplessness about the enormous injury caused to them due to inordinate delays in courts. Madhya Pradesh. This is unpardonable. charge sheets are filed by the police very late leading to a long chain reaction. Goa. Nagaland and Orissa is above 60%. The legal requirement of having to give copies of relevant documents to the accused needs to be streamlined. Manipur. frustration. including about 3300 foreign nationals in various jails in the country. This stage of the judicial process has lent itself to corrupt practices.spoke with one voice and with deep anguish. Defense and prosecution lawyers make their own contribution to the prolongation of trials. and public witnesses can attribute this delay to procedural complexities and absenteeism in one form or another. However. The next bottleneck occurs in the course of service of summons to witnesses. the maximum delay takes place when evidence is to be recorded. judiciary and the legal profession are all to blame. No one aspect of prison administration has affected the human rights of prisoners as delays in trial. . The situation has further deteriorated after the separation of prosecution from the police leading to dilution in accountability and loss of effectiveness. for which the police. particularly because modern copying machines are now available and can easily replace the old. lawyers. In many places like Andhra. Assam. Maharashtra. In many cases. The Mulla Committee also made pointed reference to this matter. In some cases. which need to be set right. and the witness(es). The National Human Rights Commission has also taken note of this problem of delay affecting under trials. police. Delay commences at the investigation stage itself. often due to collaboration between the process server. which are often illegible. Karnataka. At present this contributes delay. time-consuming practice of making hand written copies.

in practice this rarely happens. the courts are also not without blame. A large number of recommendations have been made to reduce delays. A connected issue. In many cases. which further aggravates delay. Many of these aspects have been dealt with in the Mulla Committee Report and deserve immediate implementation. The Reports of the Law Commission National Police Commission and the annual conference of chief Justices must have also discussed this matter a number of times. friends and legal advisors leave much to be desired. In many districts. the sanctioned manpower is inadequate. In many jails conditions are appalling. On their part. Numerous seminars have been held. 4. such jails are no better than an unsatisfactory lock up. At the tehsil level jails not even rudimentary conveniences have been provided. with the result that the hearing gets adjourned causing avoidable delay. PRIVACY AND COMMUNICATION The arrangements for facilitating communication between prisoners and their relatives. On many an occasion. Latrine . But the fact is that no one has yet cut the Gordian knot! 3. Even though law requires that trials should be conducted from day to day till completed. HYGIENE Overcrowding has aggravated the problem of hygiene. the latest is one seminar on the Criminal Justice System organized by the Law Commission and the Bar Council of India.There are also lapses in producing under trials in courts on the dates of hearing. Cases are adjourned for a couple of months at a time. they are either not produced or produced late. though more relevant in the context of providing legal aid is the near total absence of any contribution from the legal community. This is due to the district police authorities not making available police escorts on the ground of non-availability of manpower.

prisoners due to be considered for premature release have been denied this privilege. pay cursory attention to peripheral matters and do not take pains to go into the details of major problems. including judicial and non official members. There should be a system of accountability for visitors. SYSTEM OF JAIL VISITORS Even though this system exists on paper. the Boards have not been fully constituted. and with particular emphasis on these having a bearing on human rights and human living conditions. The system of jail visitors is to be an effective and useful instrument. etc.and bathroom facilities are inadequate to cater to the daily minimum needs of prisoners. Inspite of this. which plans to take it up with the concerned authorities. 7. like the long and overdue detention of under trials. it has not proved effective in practice. there is no uniformity. The matter has attracted the attention of the National Human Rights Commission. the trials should examine all aspects of prison life. In some other States. Because of these omissions. problems faced by female prisoners. The Mulla Committee had noted that the remission system generally operates in an arbitrary manner with little regard to individual differences and the merits of each case. The Committee also observed that the grant of remission constitutes an area highly prone to corrupt practice if the discretion in this regard is not excerised judiciously. 5. The Delhi Sentence Remission Board has for example been virtually non-functional. OPEN PRISONS . who are privileged to look at and review the actual working of jails. SENTENCE REVISING BOARD The Model Prison Manual for granting remission was circulated to all States in 1960. which of the National Human Rights Commission. behind high walls! 6. Visitors. inadequacies of Medicare.

The Mulla Committee noted that this had not been adopted and the position has not changed since. both at the centre and in the States. ii. organizational structure and personal matters: The Mulla Committee had made the following recommendations: i. whose creation the Mulla Committee recommended. At present officers belonging to the IAS. IPS and Jail Departments are all being appointed as head of jail administration. a. as reported by the Mulla Committee. The State Secretariats do not have the requisite expertise in prison administration to assist the Government in taking appropriate policy decision. However. all over India.In 1991-92. from this Department. senior officers having experience of correctional administration and the requisite expertise should be posted in the Department of Prisons. 8. to the extent possible. iii. this has denied jail administrators the opportunity to meet and discuss problems of common interest and evolve strategies to introduce uniform practices. Annual Conference of IGPs: For all practical purposes no annual conference of IGs Prisons has been held for years. To begin with. there were 21 open jails/camps/farms in India though this number was 30 in 1980. occasional conferences have been held to discuss specific issues and developments of current interest. A Common Jail Manual: A "Model Prison Manual" was prepared as far back as 1970 and circulated to all States. ROLE OF NGOs . b. ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS a. An officer should invariably head the Department of Prisons and Correctional Services.

and g. c. The Supreme Court has upheld the validity of TADA but has given strict guidelines for the enforcement agencies to follow. The NGOs should play a greater role in creating the right kind of awareness about the prison administration and the core problems of correctional sub-systems with a view to eliciting public cooperation. Issues like custodial violence and deaths. after care and rehabilitation of offenders. Individual coaching to inmates pursuing higher studies.There is considerable scope for NGOs and voluntary agencies to work in the field of treatment. In specific cases courts of laws have given relief. Continued efforts to create public awareness particularly by social workers and NGOs would help immensely in ensuring that the law enforcement officials strictly follow the procedural aspects laid down by law and that they are accountable for that in any regard. . social work. They could also be appointed as non-official members on sentence reviewing boards for district and central prisons. If the services of well organized NGOs could be obtained on a regular basis. b. psychiatry. Running health camps. There is increasing public awareness in regard to human rights and the need to adhere to humanitarian laws. In conducting adult education and free legal aid programs. the media etc. law. d. f. medicine. Recently thanks to NHRC cases of persons under detention under TADA have been reviewed by the various state Governments and their number bought down drastically. could be utilized in the formulation of correctional policy by associating them with advisory committees at the national and state levels. Organizing recreational and cultural activities. it would be desirable to assign a role for them as visualized by the Mulla Committee in regard to the following: a. unduly long detention of persons under special laws like Tada. e. COFEPOSA etc have drawn wide spread public attention as well as judicial notice. Appointments of eminent citizens interested in correctional work as visitors to prisons. services of experts in education.

meditation. and relatives in this regard. In a number of jails in India the system of "Jail Panchayat" is being followed whereby the inmates of prisons themselves take active part and interest in improving their lot and in taking up issues of common interest with the jail administration. In the normal course such persons should have been sent to Mental Hospitals rather than to prisons. But there is no organized or systematic efforts to bring about reforms in a sustained and institutionalized manner because of a variety of reasons like lack of formal policy and commitment of the Government in this regard. An expert committee was set up by the Supreme Court of India. inadequate budget. magistracy. Sometimes ago. non availability of required professional skills among the persons in charge of jail administration and the failure to fully take advantage of available resources and facilities with NGOs. non-criminal mentally ill persons who are held in various jails in India. Even though the Mulla Committee made strong recommendations about the need to have more open prisons. There is also growing awareness among prison officials to maintain decent standards of hygiene and healthy environment within jail premises. teaching of yoga. Between July and September as many as 209 non-criminal mentally ill inmates were screened in UP jails and they were discharged. In Madhya Pradesh attempts are being made to achieve 100% literacy among prisons in some select prisons. In most of the prisons steps have been taken to impart vocational training with a view to help in rehabilitation of prisoners after their release from jail. In Gujarat the jail administration has issued instructions not to accept such persons in jail. jail administration. they are being directed to mental hospitals. a lot of initiative was taken by the prison in Imphal apart from improving health care. Ample opportunities are being made available to the prisoners to organize and take part in the cultural activities throughout the year. Instead. The committee has found close nexus between police. There have been attempts by individual officers to improve the living conditions in prisons as well as to introduce a variety of reforms in jail administration.There is another category of prisoners viz. In many prisons measures have been initiated to improve educational facilities for prison inmates. whose Report has brought out that increasing number of poor people are seeking police assistance in throwing the kith and kin behind the bars. The Report pointed out that mental hospitals completely lacked medical facilities and living conditions inside the jails were beyond one’s comprehension. etc. the progress in this regard is .

It is nearly 20 years since the submission of the Report of the All India Committee on Jail Reforms (1980-1983) headed by Justice A.Mulla. have not been implemented. There is little significant improvement on an all India basis. This only shows that if there is political will. A major break through in prison rights jurisprudence came in 1974 in D.M. Prison administration is a state subject and this often cited as the main reason for the Centre not being able to implement the recommendations of the Mulla Committee. One may ask why the recommendations of the Committee have not be followed both in substance and in spirit.N.B. A lot has been talked about the police. Patnaik (AIR 1974 SC 2092) and the court asserted that the mere detention does not deprive the convicts of all the fundamental rights they otherwise possess. The problems of prison administration need to be highlighted to focus public attention on this very vital sphere of social concern. even though an important limb of the criminal justice system has suffered neglect and lack of recognition. there shall be no difficulty in the Centre taking an active and direct interest in prison administration. The judiciary in India adopted a status quo jurisprudence and shown a lack of appreciation and concern by its ‘hand-off’ approach to the operations of prisons until 1980. the fundamental rights of prisons received a serious set back due to the negative attitude of Supreme Court. This will also help in ensuring uniformity all over the country besides making it possible and feasible to have a single all India cadre of jail administration. If it of making prison administration a central subject should be seriously considered. After Emergency the court shed its passivity and started upholding the . In many jails the prisoners do not get the benefit of free legal aid and assistance and the legal profession has not played its part fully in this regard. Jail administration in India. a little less about the courts and almost nothing about prisons and prisoners. During the Emergency. Similar reasons used to be given for not enacting an All India Children’s Act till the then Prime Minister put his full weight behind the Centre enacting legislation for the purpose.very little.

98. It was Maneka Gandhi (AIR 1978 SC 597) case. the Supreme Court held that "a necessary component of the right to life. the Supreme Court observed that "no prisoners shall be hand cuffed or fettered routinely for the convenience of the custodian’s escort". The Supreme Court reiterated the principle that "imprisonment does not spell farewell to fundamental rights" in Charles Shobhraj. The court encouraged the undertrials and convicts to "appeal confidently to the court brutalities of jail authorities". In 1977 in Hiralal (AIR 1977 SC 2237) and Mohd. 108 and 115-16 cases respectively. Sunil Batra displayed judicial concern for the miserable conditions of the prisoners to such an extent that for the first time in the history of the Court. In Francis Mullin (AIR 1991 SC 747). the court held that "the fact that a person is legally in prison does not prevent the use of Habeas Corpus to protect his other inherent rights". The crusading spirit behind the transformation is Justice Krishna Iyer. M. The Supreme Court in Hoskot (AIR 1978 SC 1548). which generated a strong current and converting the right to life and personal liberty in Art. and many other cases not only articulated new rights. 1978 to ascertain the existing conditions. Delivering the far-reaching judgement. the prisoner or detainee will be entitled is to have the interview with members of his family and friends".H. The Court also permitted the Citizens for Democracy (CFD). but .individuals basic rights and liberties. In Prem Shankar (AIR 1980 SC 1535). Giasuddin (AIR 1977 SC 1926). 91. The Post-emergency court has taken rapid strides in claiming prison justice. (AIR 1978 SC 1514) Sunil Batra (AIR 1978 SC 1675) is another important milestone in the field of prison justice and prisoner’s rights. a human rights group to formally intervene in the case. Kunnikal Narayanan (AIR 1973 Ker 97) challenged the prison authorities who prevented him from receiving "Mao’s literature" in the Kerala High Court held that the prisoners have to be paid reasonable remuneration and minimum wages for labour performed in prison. Moti Ram (AIR 1978 SC 1594) Hussainara (1980) 1 SCC pp. 93. the Supreme Court stressed for the first time the need for rehabilitation of prisoners. 21 into a great shield against deprivation of human rights. Beg along with Justice Krishna Iyer and Kailasam visited the Tihar Jail on the 23rd January. the Chief Justice of India. Sheela Barse (AIR 1983 SC 378).88.

The third major trend in prison administration involves an attempt to reduce the social barrier between inmates of the correctional institutions and the civilian community. There is also increasing interest in the possibility that the society or groups of prisoners can be utilised for therapeutic purposes. Group therapeutic and other devices aimed at increasing inmates participation in the routine affairs of prison administration are designed to reduce the barrier between the society and the administrative policy and to give the inmates desired degree of self-esteem and confidence. In the last ten years the process has accelerated and received world wide attention. legal assistance and justice. Participative management. diversification and experimentation. Tihar Prisons have a history of reformation programmes in tune with the current correctional philosophy. TIHAR PRISONS: Correctional programmes in prisons in nearly all parts of the globe show a significant trend towards specialisation. Education.also developed new techniques for dealing with complaints of prisoners and their demands for humane treatment. b. Bringing the community into the prison. Vocational activities and Moral Education etc. The reformation package tried out by the Delhi Prison Administration is popularly termed as "New Delhi correctional model". Cultural activities. Another important trend is the substitution of the individualized treatment to prisoners based on their reformative requirements for the earlier doctrine of equal punishment for same crime. Formation of a self-sufficient community of prisoners. The attitudinal change of judiciary in recent times is in consonance with the changing premises behind imprisonment emphasizing on rehabilitative aspects and treating prisons as correctional institutions. the basic characteristics of which are: a. c. have been going on in Tihar Jails for a long time as a part of the efforts of the Prison Administration for reformation of the prisoners. This model strikes a balance between the approaches of "Privatisation of Prison administration" and the "Half way houses". The New Delhi .

Prison Complex at Mandoli: It is proposed to construct 06 prisons along with necessary institutional buildings at Mandoli (East Delhi) on a plot of land measuring 68 acres. Apart from the nine prisons presently in operation it also houses Prisons Head Quarters. Jail No. In a year about 70.000 prisoners remain lodged in these prisons for different duration. Sheila Dikshit on November 08. guest houses. community center and barracks for staff and security forces. staff quarters.168 Crores for its construction. Open Jail At Baprola: . Jail Buildings: The present Tihar Prison Complex is located in an area of about four hundred acres. Expected sanctioned capacity is 3586 inmates. the following jails are also under various stages of planning/ construction: District Jail Rohini: The District Jail Rohini got inaugurated by Hon'ble Chief Minister of Delhi Smt. The Govt. It has been deeply appreciated. of Delhi has sanction Rs. 9 with capacity of 600 was inaugurated by Hon'ble Chief Minister of Delhi Smt. Tihar Jail Complex in New Delhi is one of the largest prison complexes in the world. Sheila Dikshit on 14.000-80.12. In addition to these. Vienna and other international and national conferences. 2005. This prison population has about 80% undertrials and includes about 464 women prisoners with about 53 children below 4 years of age dependent upon them. It comprises of nine prisons in the Tihar Complex with a total population of around 9766 prisoners against a sanction capacity of 5200 prisoners and one District Jail at Rohini with a total Population of around 1535 prisoners against a sanction capacity of 1050 prisoners.2004. The work is likely be start in June 2007.The capacity of the prison is 1050 inmates.correctional Model has been presented and discussed in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch at UNO.

. specialists in disciplines of Medicine. Skin. A number of outside hospitals with specialised medical facilities have been identified as referral hospitals. ECG. Leprosy detection and treatment programmes are going on with the help of NGOs. Dental and eye clinics have been setup with the help of non-governmental organizations. Eye. Also. ENT. A total of 78 doctors and 122 paramedical staff have been provided for round the clock medical paramedical support of dispensaries and hospitals in all the nine central prisons and one District Prison.000 prisoners and provide a long term solution to the current congestion problem.B. A large number of eminent doctors are assisting jail administration voluntarily. and AIDS & HIV+ wards are also functioning for prisoner patients in Central Jail Hospital. All these new prisons altogether will have a capacity to lodge 10. drug-addict case. Land for these Jail is being acquired. Every prisoner on admission in the prison is thoroughly medically examined and segregated for Medico legal case. These new prisons will have modern facilities for prisoners and prison management and will be equipped with state of the art safety and security systems. They would also facilitate lodging of prisoners in prisons closer to court complexes and thus save wasteful expenditure on security and transportation. Ortho. Hospital & Medical facilities: 1. Pathology Lab and other diagnostic facilities have been provided. Medicine. and Pappankalan (South-West Delhi). 02 more prisons are planned at Narela (North Delhi). are on our regular roll as Senior Residents. Special attention has been paid to health and medical care of prisoners. Dental. Pathology.A New Open Prison is proposed to be constructed at Dwarka project near Baprola village over a plot of land measuring 125 hectares. Other Proposed Prisons: Besides the above prisons. A Behavioral Therapy Ward exist in the Jail Hospital for mentally ill prisoner patients. Chest. 3. X-ray. Gynae etc. 2. Separate Casualty. Ortho T.

AAG (Aids Awareness Group). There is a need to keep the drug addict prisoners separate from rest of the prisoners for containing the problem of drug abuse within the prison system. 2 and 4 have been lodged together in a separate ward at CJ-8 under the supervision of trained personnel's. The women jail has a separate 10 bedded full equipped hospital with necessary Medical and Paramedical staff. A family care unit has been setup under one Assistant Superintendent to substitute family care and attention to prisoner patients admitted in outside hospitals. They are being provided special diet. 7.4. Large number of entrants to the prison come with the history of drug use. The experience shows that about 8% of new entrants come with drug addiction problems. 5.' 2000. which exists in all the jails. The new drug addict entrant joins the family as small brother (Chota Bhai) to be looked after by big brother. Those requiring any medical follow-up are advised to attend OPD subsequently. 6. The drug addict community in AASRA ward is given a family set up. An important step has been taken in this direction and the drug addict prisoners from CJ-1. This has greatly improved medical care and attention to prisoner patients. After detoxification drug addicts are transferred to special ward. of an NGO named An Association for Scientific Research on the Addictions (AASRA) from 20th Aug. These prisoners are screened at the stage of mulahiza itself and admitted to de-addiction centre for the purpose of detoxification and treatment of withdrawal symptoms. hospital admission etc. The old and sick patients are being given special treatment inside the jail. They are given treatment for about a week by psychiatrist. where trained NGO workers provide them counseling and monitor their behavior. The inmates are given a . In addition 220 drug addict prisoners are lodged at AASRA ward in Central Jail No.5 under supervision of NGO.2 and 70 in Jail No. with the older inmates free from drug for longer period being made the head of family and big brothers (Bada Bhai). Cases of seriously sick undertrials are taken up with the concerned courts for their bailing out/early disposal of case. Those found in good state of health are sent to their respective wards.

One Officer from NIC is posted in Tihar Jail for software development and IT Support. At Prisons Headquarters one Server has been installed for central database management. Attitude to work and responsibility is a key focus for the recovering addicts. 3 Central Jail Tihar. Computerisation of Prisons : Computerisation of all the jails have been started way back in 1994. sharing one's recovery. mood making sessions. There is one Computer Centre in each Central Jail and Distict Jail Rohini. gardening are run by An Association for Scientific Research on the Addictions (AASRA). . anger and brief workouts. Relatives of Prisoners can book meeting with the Prisoners over telephone and the details of the visitors are stored in database. so when the Visitor visit the Prisons. concept seminars. DFMD's & HHMD's etc. card making. NIC & NICSI are giving all the Hardware & Software support to Tihar Prisons Computerisation program. cooking.T. community meeting. This includes counseling. In addition. Also going in the way of advance technology like use of C. educational. education.C. These activities are integral to community building Special workshops like tailoring. candle making. Each Central Jail has been provided ten Pentium-IV Desktop for smooth functioning. A Local Area Network (LAN) has been setup in 2003 to connect all these Computer Centres through Fiber Optic Cable backbone. religious and cultural events are celebrated through out the year. family group. The work ethic is strengthened by participation in these workshops.structured schedule of everyday activities in order to promote recovery. he has just click his photograph and a Visitor pass is issued to the visitor.V. barrack meeting. Psychodrama is used effectively. There is a Central Public Relation Office (CPRO) and Public Inquiry Centre at Gate No. music. meditation. Sports are given special emphasis. and one Master/Main Computer Center in Prison Head Quarters. Prison Department is shortly introducing Biometric Finger Identification System wherein every newly admitted prisoners and escorts staff of DAP would be photographed along with their finger prints. and recreational activities.

A branch of Indian Bank and Delhi Public Library has been opened for the benefit of Jail Staff and their families. Personnel Management. Inventory Management. are proposed to be developed. An L.G.In near future Additional software systems of Hospital Management. An average of 300 convicts are engaged daily in different sections of the jail factory . Reformation Information Management. Two Guest Houses have been started in Tihar Jail Complex where visiting officials. Prison staff and their relatives and friends can stay. An Insurance Scheme for staff members christened as "Sarangi scheme" was started in 1997 at subsidised rates. which caters to the needs of staff members who unfortunately fall victim to accidental death or injury. Jail Factory: Jail Factory complex situated in Central Jail No. Tihar staff hostel with Welfare Canteen and mess facility has been opened to provide Break fast. of India for jail staff has been inaugurated in May. This will immensely help Jail Administration in proper Management of Prisons.P. lunch and dinner of the Staff at reasonable rates. Staff Welfare: Training and welfare of about 1332 Jail staff is duly taken care off. Gas Agency has been started in Tihar Jail Complex employing dependents of Jail Staff. A Dispensary under the aegis of Govt. A Multipurpose Community Centre and Tihar Tennis Stadium Complex has been commissioned.2 has been modernised keeping in view today's industrialisation and prison needs. 2000 to provide necessary medical facilities to all the staff members and their families. File Management etc.

K. Though it was contemplated for 400 women prisoners. Advani on June 3. lunch packets to the prisoners attending various courts in Delhi were supplied by a contractor. Sh. In 1998. Women Prison: A new central women's prison exclusively for women was inaugurated by Hon'ble Home Minister of India. tailoring. The product of jail factory not only meet the consumption requirements of Tihar Jails but are also sold to other Govt. Earlier they were lodged in one of the wards in Jail No. 2000.. This jail has a separate Mulahiza Ward (for first time entrants). The jail administration decided to supply these packets prepared by women inmates w. our factory items were displayed in an International Exhibition in London. carpentry. Our confectionery items Aloo Bhujia and Potato chips/Wafers which have been widely appreciated for excellent quality have been launched in the open market on 2nd Oct..1. 2000 in the brand name of T. muffins. visitor's area. files and carry bags.viz. baking. wide range of cookies and pickles and hand made stationary such as folders.K. a brand retail outlet named as "Tihar Haat" was inaugurated on 28. confectionery and paper making. due to their very good quality and competitive price. In the factory various vocations useful to them after their release are taught.J's. which were sometimes not found upto the mark. Departments and in the open market. kitchen. U. weaving. This one stop "Tihar Haat" offers a wide range of products under the brand name of T.e. The Products include bakery items like breads. Tihar Haat: In a move to give a fillip to the practice of productivity engaging the inmates in activites of their interest. Earlier. L. Sept.J's special by Honourable Chief Minister of Delhi. which were immensely appreciated by the global visitors. Regular teaching. 2000.f. a separate 10 bedded fully equipped hospital with necessary medical & paramedical staff and factory for vocational training. chemicals making. The food is now . 1. Type writing and Computer classes are held.7. yet presently more than 500 women prisoner along with about 70 children are lodged.03 at Jail Road. papads.

High Mast Lights (HML) have been installed in the Jail Complexes. mental and social ability. Creches/Balwari are being operated for children in association with NGOs Mahila Pratiraksha Mandal and Navjyoti Delhi Police Foundation. All the kitchens of Tihar Jails are using LPG as fuel for decade. Vital part of crèche has been to provide nutritious food to the children. games etc.G. cable TV network has been commissioned in the jails for educational facilities. one laudable achievement of the last 4 years has . so as to stimulate their physical. Since 1994.prepared under our watchful eyes in hygienic conditions and having more nutritive value and the women inmates engaged in cooking and packing of food are getting wages. Children are frequently taken to picnic for their recreation and development. of milk daily. Telephone. Apart from meals. Some children of the inmates have been admitted in various Govt. recreation and disaster management. rhymes.O's. Segregation: Though shortage of space is a major constraint in segregating prisoners as per various needs. sets have been provided in all the wards of the jails. Close Circuit Television Cameras have been installed in some of the Jails. Technological Advancement and Modernisation: T. Cottage homes/Schools with the help of N. Public Address System and Intercom facilities have been provided connecting all the important units of Prison Administration. All the children are vaccinated and properly checked at the jail dispensary.V. All the jails are on stand by generators for regular power supply. The main objective is to give them pre-nursery education and all round development through plays. kids are provided one fruit and 750 gms. .

Total segregation of adolescent and adult prisoners is maintained with the creation of Central Jail No. Experience has shown that about 95% of these prisoners go out on bails or otherwise within 3 months of their admission from the Mulahiza Ward. Delhi was the first state in India to abolish prisoner's classification on the basis of social status.been the creation of a Mulahiza Ward meant for prisoners admitted for the first time in non-professional offences for a period of upto six months. These prisoners are confined to this ward and have very little occasion of mixing with hardened and other criminals. The Jail Administration also takes all steps to segregate prisoners in conformity with the law and to ensure that newly admitted casual prisoners do not come in contact with the hardened prisoners even beyond the Mulahiza Ward to the extent possible. Delhi jail administration however does not take social status into consideration for classification of prisoners. Prison Statistics & (as on 30th April 2008) Total Capacity Male 5850 Female 400 Total 6250 Classification of Prison Population Prison Population Male Female 10847 454 Total 11301 Convicts Undertrials Detenues Others Total TOTAL Male 2182 8644 21 0 10847 11301 of Female 55 399 0 0 454 Age wise Classification (as on 30th April 2008) Prisoners . 5 for them. Hardened prisoners are lodged in high security enclosures created in each jail. Convicts and undertrial prisoners are lodged separately.

48 months 48 .65 Years 65 and above Total TOTAL Foreign (as on 30th April 2008) Male 1238 5691 3426 447 45 10847 11301 Female 25 113 242 61 13 454 Prisoners Male 87 328 18 433 490 Female 1 56 0 57 Convict Undertrials Others (Civil & Detenues) Total TOTAL Classification of Undertrials as per the Length of stay in Jail (as on 30th April 2008) PERIOD Upto 01 month 01 .03 months 03 .12 months 12 .18 .24 months 24 .60 months Above 60 months Male 1910 1816 1218 1211 1101 637 331 238 182 Female 103 59 35 57 69 33 21 15 7 .36 months 36 .21 years 21 .06 months 06 .50 years 50 .30 years 30 .

kho-kho. dance. cricket. are organised during winter sports festivals.06 months 06 . Inter jail cultural meets titled "Ethnic Tihar" are held during spring season every year in which competitions in music. sports like volleyball.05years 05 . basketball.Total TOTAL 8644 9043 399 Classification of Convict Prisoners as per term of imprisonment (as on 31st March 2008) PERIOD Upto 01 month 01 . In all the prisons.10 years Above 10 years Life sentence Death sentence Total TOTAL Male 62 67 102 125 132 224 451 314 696 9 2182 2237 Female 0 0 0 0 0 4 9 10 32 0 55 REFORMATION: Recreational Facilities: The prisoner's participation in games and sports activities within the prisons took a big jump with the organization of inter-ward and interjail competitions twice a year for the last over five years. kabbaddi. quiz etc. sher-o-shairi.02 years 02 . Eminent personalities from the field of sports and culture are invited on these occasions to encourage the .03 months 03 .12 months 01 . which are popularly known in the jail as "Tihar Olympics". carom etc. quawali. are organised for inmates. chess. painting.

Nandita Das inaugurated Pottery Unit in Tihar. Delhi are established at Tihar Prisons in which about 2640 and 1900 inmates students are enrolled respectively. Library with the support of NonGovernmental Organisations has been created in each jail. X-mas etc. All religious festivals like Holi. one year. DG/IG (Prisons) of various states. On Republic Day and Independence Day National Flag is hoisted in all the prisons. All Religious and National festivals are celebrated by one and all inside the prisons.. Study Centres of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). mental and cultural development and inculcate discipline. Archbishop of Delhi. Diwali. Computer training centres are also working in the Prisons for imparting computer education to the prisoners. Yoga-acharya Swami Ramdev Ji Maharaj. High Commissioner of Australia visited during last. Shiela Dikshit. Senior Government Officers from centre and Delhi State Govt. members of parliament. Educational Facilities: Both adult and formal education arrangements have been made for prisoners. . Educational activities are looked after with the help of Government resources as well as NGO's participation. The most important aspect of the education system in Tihar Jail is that educated prisoners voluntarily teach less educated prisoners. Guru Parv. Id. New Delhi and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Judges of Delhi High Court with other Judicial Officers of Subordinate Judiciary. An illiterate person landing in Tihar Jail can look forward to being literate if his stay is more than a week. Famous actress Ms. are celebrated by one and all. This is a big occasion which helps the jail administration to convey to the prisoners that "We Care". Sweets are prepared inside the prisons and sold to the visitors. On Rakshbandhan Day sisters/ brothers are allowed to meet the inmates and tie Rakhies.prisoners to take part in the sports and cultural events. Prominent dignitaries like Hon'ble Chief Minister of Delhi Smt. to foster their physical. These efforts have gone a long way in channelising the energy of the prisoners towards a positive direction. Members of National and Delhi Commission for Women. Members of International Committee for Red Cross.

Once in every year a Mahapanchayat is organised in all Central Jail on rotational basis. kitchen. The Mahapanchayat was an open meeting of prisoners taken by DG (Prisons) and it was held in the presence of . Judges. Director / Inspector General of various prisons. Expenditure on fees for IGNOU / NIOS courses is borne by the Government. More than 500 books on Gandhian philosophy were added to the library. Prisoners bodies called "Panchayats" are constituted to help prison administration in the field of education. Vice-Chancellor of IGNOU. Some of the inmates who joined the path of 'Reformation through Education' have been successfully rehabilitated.Capsule computer courses of six months duration are provided to the willing and eligible inmates with the help of NGO Sterlite Foundation. public works etc. Vocational classes in English/Hindi typing and Commercial Arts are conducted by Directorate of Training & Technical Education and certificates are issued to successful students. Masters in Tourism/Management/Computers Post Graduate Diploma in Distance Education are the main course studied in Tihar Jail. pens etc. For spreading the Gandhian Philosophy. Ministers. Many dignitaries including Chief Minister. Chairman NHRC. Many new courses like Bachelor or Art/ Commerce/Preparatory Programme Diploma in Creative Writing in Hindi/English. Panchayat System and Participative Management: Prisoners are encouraged to participate in the management of their welfare activities. is also being provided free of cost to inmate students. Study material like note-books. a Gandhi Centre has been established by Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti. vocational education. Government of India at IGNOU ward. Certificate in Human Rights. Sense of responsibility is inculcated in the prisoners to prepare them for social integration. Media persons and NGOs of International organisations had visited the centre during last one year and have appreciated the efforts of jail administration. legal counseling. in which panchayat members of all Tihar Prisons participated along with about 2000 prisoners to discuss problems of prisoners.

Meditation groups like Brahma Kumari Ishwariya Vishvavidyalaya. 2. Satya Narain Goenka. Besides giving the prisoners a sense of pride it also helps in letting the steam off which may otherwise lead to serious consequences. This gives an opportunity to all the prisoners to air their grievances before the head of the Prisons Administration i. book binding. The prisons look like a self-contained Indian village where the prisoners themselves regulate their welfare activities under the guidance of prison officials. In the year 1994 Tihar Jail created a history by organising a Vipassana Meditation camp for more than one thousand prisoners.4. where two courses of ten days duration are organised regularly.electronic and print media. The prisoners themselves manage prisoner welfare canteens. tailoring and cutting. inaugurated "Pagodas" meditation cells in the center. All such suggestions/Grievances are sympathetically heard and immediate redressal actions are initiated. In addition a programme for teaching various trades was started in other jails also both for convicts as well as undertrials. This programme includes pen manufacturing. Various trades are taught to convicts in the Jail Factory itself in Jail No. teacher of Vipassana. Sahaj Yoga Kendra have also opened their branches in Jails for imparting moral education. Since then a permanent Vipassana center has been opened in Tihar Jail No. which can go a long way in rehabilitating the prisoners after their release. to initiate steps.e. Sh. screen printing. Yoga and meditation classes were started in a big way with the help of various voluntary organisations. "The Sarpanch". Divya Jyoti Jagriti Sansthan. manure making. which has not only resulted in learning a trade but also provided monetary gains to the prisoners. shoemaking etc. Yoga and Meditation: For cleansing and disciplining mind. Staff members are also encouraged. In the year 1998. the Social Welfare Department of Delhi Govt. counseling and techniques of meditation . to attend meditation courses. For the post-release rehabilitation of the prisoners. Rehabilitation The study of the problems faced by the prisoners after release and the reasons for committing crime guided Tihar Jail Admn. provides loans for setting up self-employed units. envelope making. if allowed to accumulate.

appeals. The New Prison Act will formalise and institutionalise the participation of NGOs in Prison Management. the therapy serves as a reformatory process in several ways. Special Courts/Lok Adalats: In pursuance to the letter of Hon'ble Chief Justice of India in which suggestion was given to the Chief Justices of all High Courts that every Chief Metropolitan Magistrate of the area may hold his court once or twice in a month in jail to take up the cases of those undertrials who are involved in petty offences and are keen to confess their the prisoners. revision etc. typing and dealing with bail applications.2. on behalf of the Jail inmates. Majority of prisoners belong to economically poor class and are not in a position to avail the services of expensive lawyers. 2000 has been notified on 14.000 the demand for legal aid and advice has increased considerably. This has helped many prisoners in changing the whole approach to life. application. New Prison Act & Jail Manual The Delhi Prisons Act. where the educated and law professional cater to the legal aid requirements of their fellow prisoners in drafting petitions. The draft of Delhi Prison Rules is under consideration of the Government.2002 . Till date 75 courts have been organized and 3900 cases settled. it . which is psycho-therapeutic in nature. Creative Art Therapy: Creative Art Therapy. revision and appeal applications. Firstly and most importantly. special Lok Adalats were organised in the Jail complex. is used in several settings. All these efforts have shown encouraging results. the jail functioning will be strengthened and reformation activities will get a boost. Legal Aid: Legal Aid Cells exist in every Jail with facilities for drafting. With the introduction of the new legislation with modern concepts of Prison Management. misc. With the increase in prison population to about 13. There is a Legal Panchayat system in all the jails. In respect to prison setting.

Tihar. Central Jail No. 2. New Delhi Inter Continental. These prisoners are also rehabilitated by them after their release. sense of helplessness. Some of the NGOs have trained selected prisoners on various trades and have been bringing job for them against payment of remuneration. by encouraging and promoting Creative Art. Principals and Teachers of various educational institutions have been conducting various activities in the Prisons. Connaught Place. Art Gallery. Psychologist. 6. aggression. Therefore.helps to express. German. channelise and ventilate himself. 5. New Delhi Japanese Park. the classes in various languages like Urdu. Professors of I. Eminent Psychiatrist. are also held. New Delhi Kala Ghoda. ARTHUR ROAD JAIL:(MUMBAI) . Apart from the formal education with the NGO support. Central Cottage Industries Emporium. 4. the individual is able to release his pent up emotions and realize his worth as 'self' having a positive desire of improving himself both consciously and unconsciously. NGOs participation is mainly concentrated in the field of education. Retired Major General. These NGOs have had very sobering and positive impact on the psyche of the prisoners. Jahangir Art Gallery India International Trade Fair.4. French etc. Painting/Greeting Cards exhibition by adolescent prisoners was organized at venues:1. New Delhi. vocation and counseling. hopelessness and emotional problems. Pragati Maidan. Pitam Pura. 3.I. Opp. who have been shown the positive and constructive approach to life after interaction with them. Punjabi. a large number of respectable members of non-Governmental organisations.T Delhi. One has to keep in mind that anyone convicted or otherwise exiled from the rest of the world is initially bound to have tremendous anger. New Delhi Societal Participation in Reformation As a part of community participation in the reformation and social integration of prisoners after release.

in exchange for a little luxury like food or assurances of a job on release from the jail. which details his life on the run and his time spent in Bombay.Arthur Road Jail. sanitation and other facilities. the heavily-guarded prison has always been known as Arthur Road jail. Sodomy is rampant and the prevalence of HIV and tuberculosis is alarming. For those who belong to powerful gangs. a bollywood actor sentenced for his involvement in the 1993 bomb blasts in Mumbai. is Mumbai's largest and oldest prison. making them susceptible to sexual overtures. If they stood up against the overseers they were punished in terrible ways. for the people of Mumbai. Prisoners have to sleep in awkward positions. It is located near Sat Rasta (Seven Roads). which comprised of a stint in Arthur Road. a newly-installed jammer (to block out mobile signals) may have put an end to that. or gang leaders. who tip guards and officers generously. The prison features in Gregory David Roberts' award winning book Shantaram.000— far exceeding its capacity in terms of space. Around 180 prisoners are crammed in a cell designed to house 50. but the ration of water was very little. because of the treatment prisoners received from the inmate overseers. The jail was built to accommodate 1074 prisoners but the average number of inmates is generally over 3. A few decades ago. However. But for members of the crime syndicates. it was easy to control underworld activities from within the jail by mobile phone. It houses most of the city's prisoners. The cells were overcrowded and the prisoners had to sleep on blankets infested with lice. this prison was one of the most feared in India. between Mahalaxmi and Chinchpokli railway stations in the southern part the city. But. Many succumb to their seniors. built in 1926. a luxury lifestyle is always within easy reach. And now it has Sunjay Dutt. It was upgraded in 1994 to become a Central Prison and its official name is Bombay Central Prison. Space is at a premium inside. They were allowed to wash each day. .

We have excellent court verdict directions. it is understandable that they perpetrate such violence and tend to firmly accentuate on discipline and punishment and regard it as both legitimate and justified for all purposes.CONCLUSION The prison jurisprudence developed in recent years has served to empower prisoners where once they were disempowered. and innovative interpretations on paper but those have seldom been implemented in favour of those for whose benefit they have been decided. The problems afflicting prisons are many. It is the travesty of justice that despite a new jurisprudence coming forth from the Apex Court articulating new forms of rights and liberties to prisoners. Is this not a social goal worth achievement? .if they are cared for and administered in a systematic and humane manner. it remains non existent for a large percentage of illiterate. the jail population may even come down further. prolonged neglect and the imperatives of prison reforms do not create further delay. The number of prisoners in India is not much. When the prisons are used as a part of regime sponsored violence. ignorant and impoverished masses of this country and it did not change substantially the position of prisoners or prison system in India.

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