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S. PAL*, FIEEE AND S.N.PRASAD**.
The very fast growth of mobile telephones has significantly contributed to present day communication revolution throughout the world. World has shrunk. Any body can contact any body in most part of world today. There are two main parts to the vision of future communications. All to all communications is a vision in which all people can talk to anyone else in the world. Its technical challenge involves the telephone itself and how to connect many telephones together. User mobility is a vision in which users will be able to phone from wherever they are, whether stationary or mobile. Its technology involves replacing wires by radio links. In present review article the evolution of GSM telephones, its future growth, and some much talked about health related issues with it have been also presented.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* Deputy Director, Digital & Communication Area, ISRO Satellite Centre, Airport Road, P.O. Vimanpura, Bangalore-560 017, INDIA.email:email@example.com ** Communication System Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Airport Road, P.O. Vimanpura, Bangalore-560 017, INDIA. Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
1.0 Introduction: The acronym GSM was used for the first time in 1982, it stands for Groupe Spe’ciale Mobile, a committee under the umbrella Confe’rence Europe’enne des Postes et Te’le’communications (CEPT), the European standardization organization. Today GSM is deployed in more than 100 countries scattered all over the world, tens of million users with more and more adding every day. It is based on a set of standards worked out in Europe but now truly a global phenomenon. GSM today stands universally as The Global System for Mobile Communication. It is an extraordinary successful development of modern information technology. In fact the standardization initiatives of GSM Phase 2+ are coming from outside Europe. Depending upon the locally available frequency spectrum, different GSM radio interfaces are defined (e.g. 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz). GSM also stands for overall system complexity. Whether it is terminal or the exchange equipment, its hardware or software. It is nothing more than a network of computers. It adheres to the standard published by European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI). Beside the growth of subscriber numbers, the technology evolution of GSM is also continuing. Apart from its existing use of mobile telephony new services like mobile data internet and multimedia services are becoming more and more popular. The success of text messaging in Europe and usage of i-mode services in Japan which enables the delivery of Internet-like connection on mobile phones, has very high market potential for packet- oriented mobile data service. Licenses were issued for improvement in GSM based Second-Generation (2G) systems, into a Third-Generation (3G) systems based on Universal Mobile Technology System (UMTS) which would have needed radio capacity for data services with enhanced speech services. The services would be provided at higher data rates at 144 kbits/sec outdoor and 2Mbits/sec indoor. The standards General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) are enhancements of GSM standard to support packet-oriented data services with higher bit rates compared to GSM standard. Both GPRS and EDGE would support the data services before UMTS is developed. But these systems would be compatible with 3G networks. Since initially UMTS will be available in high-density subscriber areas, the outside area of UMTS would be serviced by GPRS with reduced quality of service and EDGE with comparable quality of service. Some of the planed 3G Services: • Audio: With 3G, MP3 files will be downloadable over the air directly to phone via a dedicated server. Due to bandwidth constraints, currently, users go online and downloaded files to their portable device over the fixed network which are then watched and listened to a later date- there is no real time audio and video streaming over mobile networks. Since even short voice clips occupy large file sizes, high-speed 3G mobile data services would enable mobile audio applications.
Voice Over Internet Protocol:
Another audio application for 3G is Voice over IP (VoIP)- the ability to route telephone calls over the Internet to provide voice telephony service at local call rates to anywhere in the world. VoIP will be available for the first time on mobile phones. • Still Images: Still images such as photographs, pictures, letters, postcards, greeting cards, presentations and static web pages can be sent and received over mobile networks just as they are across fixed telephone networks. The captured, images can then be sent directly to Internet sites, allowing near real-time desktop publishing. The size of the file for a picture depends on the resolution and type of compression. Typically each picture is between 50K and 100K in the JPEG format. This can be transmitted quickly using mobile packet data. • Moving Images: Sending moving images in a mobile environment has several vertical market applications including monitoring parking lots or building sites for intruders or thieves, and sending images of patients from an ambulance to a hospital. Videoconferencing applications. Moving images require higher data transmission rate and higher system bandwidth. However, improving compression techniques should allow acceptable quality video images to be transmitted using 64 kbps of bandwidth. 3G enables allows for high quality image transmission over the mobile network. As such, we see all moving video and image transmission application migrating to the 3G systems as soon as it becomes available. By the time 3G is here, full-length movies could be downloadable from Internet sites. • Virtual Home Environment (an Intelligent Knowledge based communicator):
Provide a Virtual Home Environment (VHE), a service that simply lets customers have seamless access to their home services from home, office or on the move and in any city as if they were at home. VHE is therefore aimed at roamers (a small subset of total mobile phone users). He should be also able to control remotely the household gadgets like TV, Washing Machine, Fridge, lights etc, by using a suitable smart card. • Down loading Software: In the twenty-first century, software will increasingly be downloaded electronically from the Internet rather than purchased as boxed product in stores. • GPS-GSM Integration: Recently the GPS-GSM integration work was carried out at Roke Manor Research. It is an example of how diverse technologies can be combined (Fig 32.0) to provide communications solutions. GPS-GSM is the combination of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a GSM mobile phone within a single handset. It allows the handset to be able to determine its own position to within a few meters anywhere in the world. Armed with this information, future phones will be able to utilize fully the location-based services provided by the latest IP and WAP systems. The market for these GPS receivers is very large.
For the integration, Roke Manor Research, USA is using a state-of-the-art, low power and minimal size GPS chipset that compliments the phone technology. Maximizing the level of integration (using standard components, manufacturing processes and minimizing component duplication) is a key design goal. The integration affects all aspects of the receiver, from investigating and developing novel antenna designs for this application, through to combining third party software into the customer's host platform. The result is a full 12-channel GPS receiver and a mobile phone all in one handset. The design takes into consideration important factors regarding both positioning and mobile handsets. It provides the user with the fastest possible time to first fix; and the chipset used is small enough to fit into the case and has sufficiently low power consumption to not significantly affect the stand-by and talk time of the mobile phone. 2.0 Evolution of mobile networks: Mobile radio system using simplex channel (push to talk) were first introduced in 1920s for police and emergency services. The development of the cellular concept in 1970s was a defining event, which played a significant role in evolution of mobile communication systems and networks around the world. Many different systems were developed using analog technique. Because of the nature of the interference characteristics of analog signals and the relatively limited analog technology options to combat them the current analog cellular systems are unable to meet futuristic visions (Fig 31.0). Communication every where, with every body, and at any time, a long cherished goal has come very close to realization in last few years with digitization of communication systems, enormous progress in microelectronics, computers, inventions of efficient algorithm and processing of all kinds of signals, as well as development of flexible communication protocols. The advantages of digital cellular systems can be listed as below: • About ten fold capacity increase over analog systems. • Reduced RF transmission and longer battery life. • International and wide area roaming capability. • Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authenticity). • Enhanced encryption capacity for information. • Big reduction in mobile sets compared to earlier analog mobiles. Today high end and cost effective communication systems are available. In the field of fixed networks- where the end systems are connected to the networks over a line (copper two-wire line, coaxial cable or a glass fiber)- the Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is gaining importance in Europe while in USA, packet-switched Internet is advancing, the satellite networks are gaining worldwide importance in individual communication. The future mobile and personal communication systems will represent evolution and enhancements of the present systems in direction of the following: • Increased capacity and coverage. • Global roaming and service delivery. • Capability to operate in different radio environments. • Support of higher bit rate data, internet, and multimedia services. • Global coverage using satellite constellations.
3.0 Classification of Mobile Communication Systems: The figure1.0 shows the phases of contemporary and future modern mobile communication systems. The unidirectional message systems (paging system) have very cost effective reachability and wide area coverage. For bi-directional, the genuine communication systems, the simplest system is the cordless phone (following DECT standard in Europe), with very limited mobility. A related concept is Radio in the Local Loop (RTLL) or Wireless in Local Loop (WLL). The wireless telephone booths have received less public acceptance. Cellular systems, however, have been extremely successful. First they started in form of special (trunked) mobile system following European Trans European Trunked Radio (TETRA)-which was used for business applications like fleet control. Whereas, cellular system are used predominantly for mass communication. They were very successful in analog form like Advance Mobile Phone System (AMPS) in America, the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in Scandinavia, or the C-Netz in Germany, and TACS in UK. The other competing or supplementing technology is satellite communication, which provides global, broadband and long-term services. The European standard GSM is based on the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) concept using eight time slots of 200KHz carrier frequencies. GSM is operating at 900MHz and 1800MHz in Europe and other countries worldwide and 1900MHz in America. In USA two additional TDMA systems are in use: IS-54 (D-AMPS) and further development IS-136 (Digital PCS) are in parts similar to GSM. IS-95 (cdmaOne) is based on Code Division Multiplex Access (CDMA), with carrier frequency bandwidth of 1.23MHz. It is also called Narrowband-CDMA (N-CDMA) system. IS-95 is also used in South America, Africa and Asia. A separate standard Personal Digital Cellular was developed in Japan. It is based on TDMA having three time slots per 25KHz channel at 800 MHz and 1500MHz. All these systems were designed to support speech services with data rates of 5Kbits/sec. With rapid increase in the Internet traffic volume in telecommunication networks, success of Short Message Services (SMS) in Europe and i-mode communication in Japan, an increase in data rate was evident. With this background the Third-Generation (3G) networks were standardized. As per the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the 3G systems would be able to provide the data services with higher data rates (144 kbits/sec outdoor high mobile, 384 kbits/s outdoor full mobile and 2Mbits/sec limited mobile indoor users). Six out of 15 proposals were accepted for the International Mobile Telecommunications at 2000MHz (IMT-2000) family of systems. They are grouped into four categories: W-CDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access systems comprise the Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) component of UMTS and the US standard cdma2000. TD-CDMA: Time Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA) system contains Time Division Duplex (TDD) component of UMTS and the Chinese Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA), which is integrated into UMTS-TDD mode. TDMA:
The Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) concept, further development of GSM and IS-136 has been as Universal Wireless Communications (UWC)-136 submitted to IMT-2000. FD-TDMA: Frequency Division - Code Division Multiple Access (FD-CDMA) is further development of European DECT standard for cordless telephony. It is clear from above that for 3G systems no unique worldwide standard can be chosen. The migration path from 2G systems to 3G systems could have different paths (Fig 2.0). In Europe, UMTS will be introduced as successor of GSM, while GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERANs) may complement UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRANs) in areas with small subscriber density. 4.0 GSM Architecture: The GSM Network Components: A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Fig. 4.0 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts (Fig 6.0). The subscriber carries the mobile station (MS). A base station subsystem (BSC) controls the radio link with the mobile station. The network subsystem, the main part of which is the mobile services switching center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. The mobile station and the base station subsystem communicate across the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio link. The base station subsystem communicates with the mobile services switching center. Each base transmitting station operates on a set of frequencies to avoid mutual interference. A couple of BTSs are managed by Base Station Controllers (BSC) handling functions like handover or power control. A number of BSCs are handled by one Master Control Centre (MSC) that controls calls to and fro from other networks. 4.1 The Mobile Station (MS): A MS (Fig 3.0) consists of the mobile equipment (the terminal) and a smart card called the subscriber identity module (SIM). The SIM is a microchip planted in a plastic card. A mobile set becomes mobile station when SIM is inserted into a GSM phone. A SIM contains an elaborate database. The SIM provides personal mobility, so that the user can have access to subscribed services irrespective of a specific terminal. By inserting the SIM card into another GSM terminal, the user is able to receive calls at the terminal, make calls from that terminal, and receive other subscribed services. The mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the international mobile equipment identity (IMEI). The SIM card contains the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system, a secret key for authentication and other information. The IMEI & the IMSI are independent, thereby allowing personal mobility. The SIM card may be protected against unauthorized use by a password or personal identity number. This bars the reuse of a stolen mobile simply by using any other SIM. A block diagram of MS has been shown in figure 5.0. A MS contains the following:
Antenna Combiner: Couples the transmitting & receiving signals to a common antenna. • A receiver: It receives the incoming calls at radio frequency. • A transmitter: Which transmits the out going signal at radio frequency. • Synthesizer: Provides the internal timing reference for the bit and frame clocks as also for the RF sources in the transmitter and receiver. • Voltage Controlled Oscillator: It provides a stable frequency source to the transmitter, receiver, and various control and signaling units. • Control & Signaling Unit: Performs all the control functions including power control, channels selection etc. signaling messages are generated, received and processed in this unit. • Channel Coder: Encodes or decodes a bit sequence from the demultiplexer or to the multiplexer. It processes both signaling and speech channels. • Equalizer, Demodulator, Demultiplexer: Compensates for distortions in received signals, extracts the bit stream and sorts the data into different time slots and frames into their appropriate individual logical channels. • Burst Building Unit, Multiplexer, Modulator: Places the coded bits in the proper burst structure and add the other required bits. The multiplexer assigns each burst to a time slot in a numbered frame in which it is to be transmitted. The modulator modulates the voice signal on to the RF carrier. Earlier mobile stations (e.g. GSM900) had most powerful class mobile station of power out put of 20watts but present day ones have MS 20W, currently the most powerful rating is 8W. A typical mobile handset is shown in figure below. 4.2 The Base Station Subsystem (BSS): The BSS is responsible for all functions related to radio resource management. Its functions include: • Radio resource control. • Frequency hopping and power control. • Handoff management. • Digital signal processing. The BSS is composed of two parts, the base transceiver station (BTS) and the base station controller (BSC). They communicate across a standardized interface between BSC and MSC (Abis interface). The BTS provides the physical connection of an MS to the network in form of Air-interface. On the other side, towards network switching subsystem (N SS), the BTS is connected to the BSC via the Abis-interface. The base transceiver station houses the radio transceivers (TRXs) that define a cell and handle the radio link protocols with the mobile station. Fig 7.0 shows a block diagram and signal flow of one BTS with one TRX. The GSM recommendations allow for one BTS to host up to 16 TRXs. In field, majority of the BTSs host between one and four TRXs. In a large urban area, they will be large number of BTSs. The base station controller manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio channel setup, frequency hopping and handovers as described below. The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the mobile service-switching center (MSC). The TRX (transmit/receive) modules
receive GMSK modulated carriers, demodulates them, do decryption, do signal processing, data formatting, measure signal strength, data encryption, burst formatting, and GMSK modulation of all downlink signals. Many areas use sectorized BTSs. Where several BTSs are located in one site but their antenna covers only an area of 120 or 180 degrees. A cell used with 1200 coverage allows reuse of frequencies in one sector. It also eases the demand of frequencies particularly in urban areas. BSC forms the centre of BSS. The BSC is in fact a small digital exchange with some mobile-specific extensions. BSC takes care of all the central functions and control of the subsystems (BSS). BTSs of an area are connected to the BSC via an interface called the Abis-interface. Large number of BSCs is connected to the MSC via the A-interface. It is also called Um interface. The MSC is only one sub-centre of a GSM network. Another sub-centre is HLR, which stores the data of a large number of subscribers. Every public land mobile network (PLMN) requires an at least one HLR. For a mobile-terminated (roaming) call, the network first establishes the current location area for the called mobile through signaling between the home location register (HLR) and the visiting location register (VLR). This process allows the call to be routed to the current serving MSC. When the subscriber moves out of the VLR area the HLR requests removal of the data related to a subscriber from VLR. The VLR represents a temporary data store, and there is one VLR per MSC. The temporary data stored in VLR includes: • Features currently activated. • Temporary mobile station identity (TMSI). • Current location information about MS (e.g., location area and cell identity). The equipment identity register (EIR) is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network, where each mobile station is identified by its international mobile equipment identity (IMEI). An IMEI is marked as invalid if it has been reported stolen or is not type approved. Every SIM contains a unique identifier IMEI. The EIR checks for authenticated terminal equipment so that stolen, fraudulent, or non type-approved terminals can be identified and denied service (by analyzing the related SIM data). 4.3 The Network Subsystems: The heart of the network subsystem is the mobile services switching center (MSC). It acts like a normal switching node of the PSTN or ISDN and additionally provides all the functionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers, and call routing to a roaming subscriber. The MSC provides the connection to the fixed networks (such as the PSTN or ISDN). The network subsystem uses signaling system used for trunk Signaling in ISDN and widely used in current public networks. A number of databases like: • Home Location register (HLR). • Visitor Location Register (HLR) • Authentication Centre (AuC) • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) are available for call control and network management. They also keep track of the MS and continuously update the records of the mobile.
The home location register (HLR) and visitor location register (VLR), together with the MSC, provide the call routing and roaming capabilities of GSM. The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network, along with the current location of the mobile. The location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signaling address of the VLR associated with the mobile station. There is normally one HLR per GSM network. The visitor location register (VLR) contains selected administrative information from the HLR, necessary for call control and provision of the subscribed services, for each mobile currently located in the geographical area controlled by the VLR. Normally the VLR is implemented together with the MSC, simplifying the signaling requirements The authentication center (AuC) is a protected database that stores a copy of the secret key stored in each subscribers SIM card, which is used for authentication and encryption over the radio channel. 5.0 Characteristics of Mobile Radio Channel: Multipath fading: Under ideal conditions the radio waves propagate in free space in a radialsymmetric pattern, i.e. received power Pr decreases with square of distance L from the transmitter (Fig 9.0). The received signal can be from direct and reflected paths as well. The signal received from multipath suffers different attenuation. This is also dependent on signal frequency, type of reflecting object and atmospheric conditions. The multipath signals reaching at a place can arrive at different phases, reducing the level sometimes or even canceling altogether. This is called fading phenomena. In certain time periods or time slots, the transmission can be heavily affected due to fading, whereas in other time slots reception could be better. For narrow band signals the whole frequency band is subjected to same propagation condition, and the mobile channel is considered frequency-nonselective (Fig 10.0). On the other hand if the bandwidth of signal is more (broadband signal), the individual frequencies suffer different degree of fading. It is called frequency-selective fading (Fig 11.0). Due to multi-path signal distortion the intersymbol interference can take place. In contrast to wire line transmission, the mobile radio channel is a very bad transmission media. Hence mobile transmission requires additional error compensating system. An equalizer, an efficient digital modulation, and channel coding measures are indispensable for mobile communication. 6.0 RF Characteristics: RF spectrum for GSM is: • 890-915 MHz uplink, • 935-960 MHz downlink; two more allocations exist for the next phase in USA and the rest of the world respectively. • 200KHz carrier spacing, data rate 270 Kbits/sec. • 124 pairs of FDMA channels with 8 voice channel per FDMA channel – i.e., 992 voice channels.
Power levels at handset range from 20W(class 1 max~43dBm) to max ~29dBm; the minimum is 20 mw (13dBm).
0.8 W (class5
7.0 Duplex Communication: Most frequent type of communication is bi-directional communication, which allows simultaneous transmission and reception. This is called Duplex Communication. Modern mobile radio systems are full duplex capable (Fig 12.0). Two basic duplex schemes exist: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). In FDD different frequency bands are used in each direction while in TDD periodic switching of signal takes place (Fig 8.0). The frequency of the signal remains same. For the communication between mobile and base station, the available frequency band is split into partial bands, to enable simultaneous sending and receiving. One partial band is assigned as uplink (from mobile to base station) and the other partial band is assigned as downlink (from base to mobile station). The frequency pairs are chosen to facilitate use of same antenna for uplink and downlink signals. However, for frequency diplexing steep narrowband frequency separating filters are required. The filters could be difficult to realize. Time duplexing is good and simple option. The directional separation is achieved by switching in time between transmission and reception, and thus no duplexing is required. 8.0 Multiple Access Procedures: A radio channel is a media shared by many subscribers in one cell. There are ample chances for collisions between the user signals. To avoid collisions mobile user should be given dedicated channel on demand. Multiple access (MA) technique is employed so that many users share the available spectrum in efficient manner. MA specifies how signals from different sources can be combined efficiently for transmission over a given radio frequency band and then separated at destination without mutual interference. Different possible multiple access schemes are shown below. GSM uses a combination of FDMA and TDMA multiple access on the Air-interface. Older mobile systems like C-Netz in Germany used only FDMA. But in FDMA system one specific frequency is allotted for every user during a call, the channel gets overloaded in highdensity routes. In TDMA system each user sends an impulse type of signal at same frequency but at different time slots (Fig 13.0) 8.1 FDMA: FDMA is very common multiple access scheme used in mobile communication. It is best suited to analog signals. The users share the available frequency domain, and a user is allotted a part of the frequency band called the traffic channel. Different systems using FDMA are the C-Netz in Germany, TACS in UK, and AMPS in the USA. In the C-Netz, two frequency bands of 4.44MHz are each subdivided into 22 channels each of 20 kHz bandwidth.
For these systems sharp filtering is required for duplex operation and to reduce adjacent channel interference. The realization of such sharp cut-off filter is practical limitation of the system. Features of FDMA: • Simplest access method to implement. • Loss of efficiency due to imperfect filtering. • Expensive RF elements at base station. • Usually used only with analog systems. • Easy system implementation. 8.2 TDMA: In TDMA technique the available spectrum is divided into narrow frequency bands (as in FDMA), which in turn is divided into a number of time slots. User is assigned a time slot that permits access to the frequency channel for the duration of time slot. The transmission takes place in burst mode. TDMA is a more expensive system requiring highly accurate synchronization between transmitter and receiver. The panEuropean digital system GSM employs a combination of FDMA and TDMA system. It is multicarrier TDMA system. A frequency range of 25 MHz holds 124 channels of 200 kHz bandwidth each; with each of these frequency channels containing again 8 TDMA conversation channels. The narrowband systems suffer frequency-selective fading phenomena as well as frequency-selective co-channel interference. Such phenomena are reduced by using TDMA with frequency hopping (Fig 14.0). In this scheme each burst of TDMA channel is transmitted on different frequency. Hence frequency diversity of signals takes place. Off course the hopping sequence must be orthogonal. Frequency hopping also provides added security against unauthorized eavesdropping on a call in progress. Features of TDMA: • More efficient uses of spectrum than FDMA. • Less expensive to implement than FDMA. • ISI (inter symbol interference) control may need complex handsets. • Burst synchronization problematic. GSM took into account of overload problem (which caused most mobile communication systems to fail sooner or later), by defining a two-dimensional access system. A FDMA/TDMA structure was resorted for GSM (Fig 16.0). Eight time slots (TSs) are mapped per frequency. Every impulse on frequency 1 is in burst form. Eight bursts from 0 to 7 form a TDMA frame. Each frame is assigned a fixed number, which repeats itself in a time period of 3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds, and 760 milliseconds. This time frame is called a hyper frame. Multiframes and super frames lie between the basic TDMA frame and the hyper frame. The hierarchy of GSM frames is shown in figure 17. A typical frame structure and normal burst structure has been shown in figure 18. The GSM standards for normal TDMA burst and different time lines of multiple bursts are shown in table-1.
TABLE-1. Time parameters of multiple TDMA frames: TDMA Frame Type Duration Bit 48/13 µs ≈ 3.69µs Time slot 15/26 µs ≈ 0.577ms TDMA-Frame 120/26 ms ≈ 4.615µs 26-Frame 120ms 51-Frame 3060/13 ms ≈ 235.385 ms Super frame 6.12s Perforate 3h 28min 53s 760 ms
Notes Smallest unit 156.25 bit 8 slots 26 TDMA frames 51 TDMA frames 1326 TDMA frames 2048 super frames
To avoid interference it is necessary that MS and BTS do not transmit simultaneously. MS transmits a few time slots after the BTS transmission. The amount of difference in timing depends upon the distance between the two. The effect of propagation delay needs to be taken care. 8.3 CDMA: CDMA are broadband system in which each subscriber uses whole system bandwidth (similar to TDMA) for complete duration of connection (similar to FDMA). All users with different codes use same frequency. The basis of CDMA is spread spectrum technique. The signal of one subscriber is spread over the whole transmission bandwidth (much more than the original signal bandwidth), using a spreading code (called pseudo-random noise or PN code). Typical spreading factor could be 10 to 1000. The spectral power density is decreased by band spreading, and communication is possible even below noise threshold. A common spread spectrum procedure is Direct Sequence technique (Fig 19.0). The data sequence is multiplied with spreading signal before modulation to generate band spread signal. The bit rate of the spreading signal is called chip rate. All the PN-code-modulated signals from different users are transmitted over the entire CDMA frequency channel. At the receiving end the spread signal is multiplied with the copy of spreading sequence to recover the message or data. A scheme showing CDMA is shown in Fig 19. If the direct sequence spreading is used, then it is called Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA). Another system is Frequency Hopping CDMA (FH-CDMA). In this spreading is done by a frequency hopping (changing) sequence. The frequency is changed during one transmitted data symbol. At receiving end the received data should be multiplied by same sequence to get back the transmitted message. Features of CDMA:
Most efficient spectrally. Needs very accurate synchronization. Range: CDMA can work with lower received signal strength than TDMA. Discontinuous Transmission (Frequency hopping): Helps to reduce interference and in principle, can increase system capacity (TDMA). It is more helpful in CDMA – i.e. when users stop transmission during pauses, this directly reduces interference to all other users in the same cell. • Power Control: reduces interference in both cases but it is much more critical in CDMA. Because all CDMA signals interfere with each other, if one is received more strongly than the others, then it will interfere more strongly and actually reduce overall capacity (i.e. in GSM, good power control can increase capacity; in CDMA bad power control can decrease capacity). • Bandwidth flexibility, and ability to support variable data rates and services: both access methods can be made to be equally flexible (BW on demand). • CDMA offers the advantages of frequency diversity and interference diversity (reduction in variance of interfering power), which enhance spectral efficiency and capacity. CDMA with single user detection is very flexible to support variable data rates and services, but this is offset by increased interference needing extremely stringent, fast and continuous power control. A simplified scheme of an uplink CDMA and its reception has been shown in figure 20. 9.0 GSM RF Interface: In Europe for GSM system two 25 MHz frequency band (Fig 22.0) have been reserved around 900 MHz. The range 890-915 MHz is used for uplink transfer between MS and BS and 935-960 MHz for downlink. This is divided into 124 carriers each paced 200 kHz apart. The Digital Cellular System (DCS) developed by ETSI based on GSM recommendations operates at higher frequency range of 1800MHz. The frequencies assigned for Europe are uplink 1710-1785 MHz; downlink 1805-1880 MHz. The signal uses Gaussian Minimum Shift keying (GMSK) modulation scheme (Fig 23.0) before transmission. GMSK has advantage of a narrow transmitter power spectrum with low adjacent channel interference on one hand and a constant amplitude envelope on the other hand. The speech encoding, modulation (Fig 24.0) and information transfer of signals takes place in duplex mode (Fig 21.0). TABLE-2. Radio Characteristics of GSM Parameters GSM Forward Channel 935-960 MHz Reverse Channel 890-915 MHz Carrier Spacing 200KHz interleaving Modulation GMSK Channel bit rate 270.8 Kilobits/sec Codec (full rate) 13 kilobits/sec Frame duration 4.6ms Channels/carrier 8 (full rate) 16 (half rate)
• • • •
MS Power level
0.8, 2.5, 8W
10.0 GPRS: 3G mobile radio networks like UMTS will provide data services with higher data rated than with 2G systems. UMTS may realize peak rates up to 14kbits/sec with wide coverage, up to 384 kbits/sec in hotspots and up to 2Mbits/sec in indoor scenarios. GPRS and EDGE are enhancement over existing GSM system. Packet-switching means that GPRS radio resources are used only when users are actually sending or receiving data. It is not dedicating a radio channel to a mobile data user. The main goal of integrating GPRS into GSM is to use GSM radio resources more efficiently than existing GSM Phase2 services. GPRS has been standardized by ETSI as part of GSM Phase 2+ development. The Phase2 + specifications include implementation of packet switching within GSM. GPRS brings Internet Protocol (IP) capability to GSM network. It enables access to wide range of public and private data networks using standard data protocol such as Transport Control Protocol (TCP)/Internet Protocol (IP) and X.25. The first GPRS based service was made available since 2001 in Europe. With new services the data rate would go up to 117 kbits/sec. The existing GSM network (Fig 25.0) does not support a packet data service. Integrating GPRS into GSM require additional components like GGSN and SGSN into GSM network, which provide packet switched service (Fig 26.0). Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN): It is an interface between Packet Data Networks (PDN) and other Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs). PDS provides addresses and routing to mobile subscriber via the SGSN. Service GPRS Support Node (SGSN): It is a mobile switching centre of GPRS. T he packet data addresses are evaluated, and mapped into International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). It is responsible for routing inside the packet radio network and resource management. It also provides authentication and encryption for GPRS subscriber. 11.0 Cellular Technology: As the frequency band available for mobile communication is very limited, it has relatively small number of channels available. For example, GSM system has an allocation of 25 MHz in 900MHz frequency range, amounting to only 124 channels each 200kHz wide. With eightfold multiplexing for each carrier, a maximum of 1000 channels can be realized. This number would further reduce if guard bands were taken into account. If the number of channels is to be increased to 100,000 or a million, then frequency reuse is a must and a cellular configuration (Fig 27&28) must be resorted. Allocation of frequencies in the cell is done such that mutual interference is avoided. The spatial frequency reuse concept led to the development of cellular technology, allowing a significant improvement in the economic use of frequencies. The essential features are as below. The area to be serviced is divided into cells (radio zones). For easier manipulation they are modeled as hexagons with base station in the middle. Each cell i receives a subset of frequencies fbi. Two neighboring cells must not receive same frequency to avoid mutual interference. At a distance D same frequency fb i could be assigned. When moving from one cell to another cell during conversation an automatic
channel/frequency change (handover) occurs. Which maintains the continuity of conversation. The spatial repetition of frequencies is done in regular and systematic fashion. The unwanted interfering signals at other frequencies would affect the reception quality. S Usefulsignal = N Neighborcell int erference + Noise The radio interference is essentially a function of co-channel interference depending upon frequency reuse distance D. Minimizing co-channel interference is a goal in any cellular system, since it allows better service for a given cell size, or the use of smaller cells, thus increasing the overall capacity of the system. Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a method that takes advantage of the fact that a person speaks less that 40 percent of the time in normal conversion, by turning the transmitter off during silence periods. An added benefit of DTX is that power is conserved at the mobile unit. The most important component of DTX is, Voice Activation Detection. It must distinguish between voice and noise inputs, a task that is not as trivial as it appears, considering the background noise. If a voice signal is misinterpreted as noise, the transmitter is turned off and a very annoying effect called clipping is heard at the receiving end. One the other hand, if noise is misinterpreted as a voice signal too often, the efficiency of DTX is dramatically decreased. Another factor to consider is that when the transmitter is turned off, there is total silence heard at the receiving end, due to the digital nature of GSM. To assure the receiver that the connection is not dead, comfort noise is created at the receiving end by trying to match the characteristics of the transmitting end’s background noise. Formation of clusters: The regular repetition of frequencies results in clustering of cells. In the cluster (Fig 29.0) whole band of frequencies can be used. The cells per cluster k, which determines the frequency reuse distance, define the size of cluster. The larger the cluster, the larger the S/N ratio. However, the larger the value of k, the smaller the number of channels and the number of active subscribers per cell. A typical cell structure of a real network is shown in figure 30. 12.0 Third Generation (3G) Mobile Systems: In the coming millennium, the convergence of information technology and telecommunications will open up unprecedented opportunities. Corporate and private users alike will be able to communicate with virtually unlimited speed and flexibility, while carriers and network operators will be able to tap vast new sources of revenue. Tomorrow's mobile users will demand access to fax, e-mail, online banking, e-commerce and even video with the same ease and convenience as in wired networks. But today's mobile radio systems with typical bandwidths of only 9.6 kbit/s restrict access to nonvoice services: a new solution is needed. The forecasts indicate that the wireless access to global telecommunication will reach 1 billion users by 2010. The emerging Internet environment would require interactive, multimedia, traffic based on high speed packet data transport. It will dramatically change the nature of telecommunication services. Efforts are on at regional/national/international levels to define third-generation mobile
telecommunication systems to meet future needs. The standards must be flexible enough to meet regional/national/international needs. The ITU has been working since 1986 towards the development of thirdgeneration mobile telecommunication standard. The standard is known as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT 2000). Until 1997 IMT 200 was known as Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication System (FPLMTS). IMT2000 (Fig 31.0) internationally also known as The Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) is the European standard for third-generation broadband mobile communication. It implements pioneering technologies for highly efficient radio-frequency access to fixed, cellular and satellite applications. With transfer rates up to 2Mbit/s, UMTS will mark a breakthrough in bandwidth, giving mobile users access to a variety of services beyond the boundaries of one network. And as UMTS has been developed from worldwide GSM footprints, it will provide backward compatibility to protect investments in current mobile networks. A key component of UMTS is its unified air interface. Using wideband or time-division CDMA multiplexing (TD-CDMA and FD-CDMA/W-CDMA) will deliver broadband and high-volume narrowband services to corporate and private users respectively. The wideband variant will even permit up to six independent services per connection. 13.0 Human Health issues of Hand held Mobile Phones: The increasing wide spread use of cell phones all over the world has brought back the fear of possibility of RF radiation borne carcinogenic development in users. Arguments and counter arguments were put forward on the issue, leading to a stale met. A study funded by the European union was constituted “to show conclusively that EM radiation emitted by mobile phones could affect human cells at energy levels generally considered harmless.” A four-year REFLEX project involving 12 groups of seven European countries carried out supposedly identical experiments. The results were compared. The conclusion as per project leader Franz Adlkofer of Verum Foundation in Munich, Germany was: “Electromagnetic radiation of low and high frequencies is able to generate a genotoxic effect on certain but not all types of cells and is also able to change the function of certain genes, activating them and deactivating them.” But many scientists including Michael Repacholi of WHO do not agree with results and feel that the experiments conducted by various groups were not completely standardized hence the results are not conclusive. More study is required to come to a conclusion. Ground breaking research to understand the effects of mm waves on skin is being carried out at Cranfield University at Oxford shire, UK. Dr. Clive Alabaster of Radar Systems Group at the university leads the study team. Sponsored by Anritsu the program has arrived at some preliminary results. Using the safety benchmark set by the UK National Radiology Protection Board (NRPB) of 10 mW/cm2, Dr. Alabaster calculated the temperature rise of skin exposed to this level of mm wave radiation for 30 seconds. He found that this exposure could heat up the skin surface by 0.20C. This heating would be hardly noticed by a human body. He wants to reconfirm the result and seeks to extend the study to variety of skin samples. 14.0 Conclusions:
A brief review of GSM telephony and its very fast evolution has been presented. The various aspects of futuristic 3G evolutions have been also presented. The current findings of health related issues with the use of mobile phones have discussed in this article.
Mobile/user terminals UT
Basetranceiver Base tranceiver system system BTS BTS
Basestation Base station Controller Controller BSC BSC
Mobile Switching Mobile Switching Centre Centre MSC MSC
Fig: 4.0 Components of a GSM system
Fig: 32.0 GPS-GSM Integration
GLOSSARY: A Channel The original analog channel in telecommunications Abis The interface between the BSC and MSC AMPS American Mobile Phone System BER Bit Error Rate BSC Base Station Controller BSS Base Station Subsystem BTS Base Transceiver Station BW Bandwidth CC Call Control CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CM Communication Management DTX Discontinuous Transmission EDGE Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power FPLMTS Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems (Now called IMT-2000) GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Centre GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying modulation GPRS General Packet Radio System GSM Global System for Mobile Communication HLR Home Location Register IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (Defined by ITU) ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ITU International Telecommunications Union IP Internet Protocol MS Mobile Station (GSM) MSC Mobile Switching Centre MSS Mobile Satellite Services MMI Man Machine Interface NCC Network Control Centre NM Network Management NMC Network Management Center OBP Onboard Processor OQPSK Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying modulation PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network Rx Receiver SIM Subscriber Identity Module SMS Short Message Service SNR Signal to Noise Ratio Tx Transmitter UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UT User Terminal. VLR Visitor Location Register
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