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CH V Narasimha Rao E-Mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Mail:email@example.com II/IV B-Tech E-
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR
Fluidization of Al2O3 - C binary mixture powder with weight ratio of 1:3 can be studied. Individual component powders and the mixture belong to Geldart C type. The fluidization behavior of the binary mixture has been compared with those of the individual components. Agglomerate bubble fluidization has been observed in each case. Agglomerate particle size has been determined during fluidization from terminal velocity, Ut ; density of agglomerates, ρ a, from bulk density of the static bed and minimum fluidization velocity, Umf from the Ergun’s Equation. Umf is maximum in case of the mixture. From the results from light scattering experiments of individual component particles, SEM studies and particle size determination from the terminal velocity it could be concluded that agglomeration takes place during fluidization. No transient fluidization has been observed in mixture powder while steady fluidization has been noticed in individual component powder.
Fluidization of binary particles is useful in many powder handling and processing applications. Manufacture of powders for advanced ceramic materials like Si3N4, AlN, TiN etc. needs fluidized bed reactors for production economics. Multi component fluidization is finding wide applications in coal combustion, waste treatment etc. During fluidization of these mixtures a dynamic equilibrium is established between mixing and segregation. Particles could be classified in different categories according to their size and densities. It has been observed that particles which belong to Geldart C category are difficult to fluidize. The main problem during fluidization of ultrafine particles arises due to agglomeration. Most of the advanced ceramic particles which have submicron sizes, thus, aiding sintering fall into this category. It is, therefore, necessary to keep the particle sizes as minimum as possible during their synthesis. The present topic is aimed at obtaining the parameters for fluidization of Al2O3 –C binary mixtures in air at ambient temperature for application in subsequent nitridation process to manufacture AlN paricles .
The fluidization behavior of binary mixture has been compared with those of individual components , Al 2O3 and C
When a fluid is passed at very low velocity the bed of solid particles does not move .If the fluid velocity is steadily increased, the pressure drop and drag on individual particles increases and eventually the particles start to move and become suspended in the fluid . Beds of solids fluidized with air usually exhibit aggregative or bubbling fluidization The fluidization experiment was carried out in fluid bed heat transfer unit . The bed height was measured form the scale attached with the column and the velocity of air was monitor by gas rotometer present along with the setup. Air was used as the fluidizing media. Two types of powder (Alumina and Graphite) and their mixture were fluidized. The mixture was prepared by taking alumina: carbon (1:3 w/w); dispersing in acetone and mixing for 4 hours in an attritor with the help of Al2O3 grinding media. This slurry was dried in tray drier. The powders were
sieved with 100-mesh sieve (147µ m). The powders were charged manually into the fluidizer coloumn
The bed expansion was uniform at low gas velocity, as the velocity of the gas is increased the materials are lifted in parts and then after rising to a certain height falls down. This is due to the material packup and the high cohesiveness between the particles. Channelings were found in the same velocity. When the velocity of the gas is further increased, materials of the upper portion of the bed start to fluidize. Further increase in the gas flow fluidized the entire mass and a convection of the particle has been noticed at this gas velocity. Some particles are carried away out of the bed in the column by pneumatic conveyance. The behavior of the particles corresponds to that of Geldart- type C in which the fluidization of primary particles is cumbersome with low gas velocity since they are very fine in size. Agglomerate fluidization has also been observed in case of fluidization of Geldart-
C particles Channeling and agglomeration took place during passage of gas within the bed due to high cohesiveness of the particles arising out of electrostatic charging on the surface of the particles. Smooth fluidization took place when the column was shaken by hand. .Shaking breaks the stable channels and aid smooth gas flow.
When the components were fluidized individually in the column the expansion behavior were analyzed by the viodage and superficial velocity of the gas The mass balance of the powders in the fluidized bed could be expressed as ρ a(1-ε )H= ρ bHo-----------------------------.1 Fluidized agglomerates may be considered as broken portion of the fixed bed i.e. when ρ p becomes the density of agglomerate ρ a≅ ρ
Hence, the bed voidage could be calculated as ε = 1- Ho/H-------------------------3
variation of bed viodage with gas superficial velocity
Voidage increases with the increase in superficial velocity of the gas in the column. It could be observed that the bed of carbon particles expands easily than that of the Al2O3 particles. The carbon particles should act, therefore, as floatsam and the Al2O3 particles as jetsam in the binary mixture. The expansion of the binary mixture is intermediate between those components. The variation of the superficial gas velocity Ug with the bed voidage ε , and terminal velocity Ut , can be determined by the empirical equation of Maude and whit more Ug = Utε
reasonably well in which the exponent ‘n’ is related to the properties of agglomerates, including their sizes, structures, shapes and roughness. Agglomerate size
could be determined from the terminal velocity using Stoke’s equation
2 d a (ρ a − ρ f )g
assuming that all primary particle form agglomerate during fluidization and the force by the gas flow balances with the gravitational force acting on the agglomerates. The calculated effective sizes of the fluidized agglomerates have been calculated from eqn. (5) and are shown in the table. The table shows that agglomeration of Al2O3 particles takes place during fluidization. Thus, these powders can be homogeneously fluidized without elution at velocities much higher than the minimum superficial gas velocities of the primary particles. For abnormal particle system at a low Reynolds number, Umf is calculated from the Ergun eqn.
(Φ s d p ) 2 ( ρ a − ρ f ) g ε 3 U mf = 1− ε 150 µ f
using the properties of the fluidized agglomerates and assuming that Φ s≈ 1, and listed in Table . Table shows the parameters effected in fluidization Materia dp µ m da µ m Ut ms-1 Umf ms1 l Al2O3 2.2 113 0.27 3.9 E-4 C 41 78 0.09 9.3 E-4 mixture 229 0.34 6.13 E3 n 3.15 1.4 2.35 Ret 2.02 0.47 5.14
In the present case the bed expansion behavior of Al2O3 particles whose particle size are very low is a little bit irregular in comparision with the other component C and the mixture . Reduced particle and agglomerate sizes of the mixture is due to attrition of the particles.
SEM photograph of Al2O3C mixture
Binary particles of different sizes and components like Al2O3 and Carbon could be fluidized homogeneously within a short gas superficial velocity range. Agglomeration of particles takes place during fluidization. Minimum fluidization velocity of the mixture is greater than the individual components. This is due to agglomeration of the particles in the mixture. However , mixture of Al2O3 and Carbon does not show any transient fluidization within the gas superficial velocity range studied.
da- diameter of agglomerate size m Ho - Initial height m dp- diameter of the particle m ε - viodage µ f - viscosity of the fluid Pa.s ρ p- density of Agglomerate kg/m3 ρ b- bed density kg.m-3 Velocity ms-1 Ut - Terminal Velocity ms-1 Ug - Superficial H- height m
Umf- Minimum fluidization Velocity ms-1
Geldart, D., Powd. Tech., 7, 285 (1973) Yao, W.*, Guangsheng G, Fei, W, Jun W, Powd. Tech., 24, 152 (2002) Iwadate, Y. and Horio, M. , Powd.Tech., 100, 223 (1998) A . marzocchella and P.Salatino and V.Di Pastena and L.Lirer AICHE, 46, 2175 (2000)
McCabe W.L., Smith, J.C., and Harriott, P., p160, Unit operations of chemical engineering, Mcgraw Hill, New York (1993)
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