Consider a beam of uniform crosssection

y
ΔA

Moment of Inertia of an Area
•Geometrical property and depends on its reference axis.
the smallest value occurs at the axis passing through the centroid.

x
ΔF=kyΔA

R = ∫ kydA = k ∫ ydA
M = ∫ ky 2dA = k ∫ y 2dA

•It measures the ability to resist bending.
the larger the moment of inertia the less bending will occur

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2

Moment of Inertia of an Area
z

Moment of Inertia of an Area
y

Moment of Inertia:
A

I x = ∫ y2dA
A

• by integration
dx x y x dy y

y

dA=ydx

I y = ∫ x2dA
y
r x

x

dy

y

Polar Moment of Inertia:

dA=(a-x)dy
dx x y x dy x
2

y

J z = ∫ r 2 dA
A
A

dI x = y dA
2

dI y = x dA

x

J z = ∫ ( x 2 + y 2 )dA

dI y = x 2 dA
a

J z = Ix + Iy
3 4

dI x = y dA
2

Find the moment of inertia about the x axis of the following figure:
Calculating Ix:

Area Moment of Inertia (Rectangular Area)
y

dA = bdy
h y x b

dI x = y 2 bd bdy
dy

h I x = ∫0 b y 2dy = 1 bh 3 3

5

6

1

Moment of Inertia (Circular Area)
r

y

du x

dJO = u 2dA

u O

The distance kx is referred to as the radius of gyration of the area with respect to the x-axis.
y

dA = 2πudu
r r J = ∫ dJ = ∫0 u 2 (2πudu ) = 2π ∫0 u 3du o o

A

Ix = k A
2 x

JO =
7

π

kx =
8

2

r4

Ix A

kx x

The distance ky is referred to as the radius of gyration of the area with respect to the y-axis.

The distance ko is referred to as the radius of gyration of the area with respect to the x-axis.
y

Iy = k A
2 y

y

A

JO = k A
2 O
x

A

ky =
9

Iy A

ky

kO =
10

JO A

ko x

Example A
y y2 = 100x

Solution
y y2 = 100x

I x = ∫ y 2 dA
y x

100 mm x 100 mm

Find the moment of inertia of the h d d shaded area about the x-axis.

I x = ∫ y 2 (100 − x)dy 2 y 100 I x = ∫−100 y 2 (100 − )d dy 100
100 −100

A

I x = 26.67x106 mm4

11

12

2

Example B
y 75 mm

Solution
y

I y = ∫ x2dA
A

Find the moment of inertia of the shaded area h d d about the y-axis.
x2 = 25y x

x

x2 = 25y

I y = ∫075 x2 (225− y)dx 2 x I y = ∫075 x2 (225− )dy 25

I y = 12.66x106 mm4

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14

Example C
y

Solution
y

I x = ∫ y 2 dA
A

y2 = 100 - x x

Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area about the x-axis.

I x = ∫ y 2 y 2 dy
10 0

y y2 = 100 - x x

I x = ∫010 y 4 dy

I x = 20x103 mm4

100 mm

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16

Assignment:
y
y = 2 sin x

Moments of Inertia of  Common Areas
Find the moment of inertia of the shaded area about its vertical centroidal axis.
x

0

π

17

18

3

Parallel Axis Theorem
y’ a x’ y

Inertia of the shaded area about the x’ axis is
I X ' = ∫ ( y ' ) 2 dA
A

Since y’ = y + b, then

I X ' = ∫ ( y + b) 2 dA = ∫ y 2 dA + 2b ∫ ydA + b 2 ∫ dA
A A A A

C

x r

dA y

z
b

x
y’

I X ' = I X + Ab 2
In a similar manner, it can be shown that I y ' = I y + Aa 2
x’

d

z’

Since J z ' = I x ' + I y ' , then J z ' = ( I x + I y ) + A(a 2 + b 2 )

Jz ' = J z + Ad 2

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Moment of Inertia (Composite Area)
It follows the same concept used in composite figures for First Moments!!!

Example D
0.9 m

I ( Specified Axis) Total = I1 + I 2 + I 3 + ... = ∑ I i
i

n

1.5 m x 1.8 m

Find the moment of inertia of the composite area about the x-axis.

• The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a given axis is obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the component areas A1, A2, A3, ... , with respect to the same axis.

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22

Solution
0.9 m

I x = I x1 + I x 2
where

Solution
2

I x = I x1 + I x 2

I xi = I xi + Ai d i

I x1 =

Components:
1.5 m
1

bh 3 bh + (1.8) 2 36 2 (1.8)(0.9) 3 (1.8)(0.9)(1.8) 2 I x1 = + = 2.66085 m 4 36 2 I x2 = bh 3 + bh (0.75) 2 12 (1.8)(1.5) 3 = + (1.8)(1.5)(0.75) 2 = 2.025m 4 12

PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM

I x1 = I x + A1d1

2

1.8 m
2

I x 2 = I x + A2 d 2

2

I x2

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I x = 4.68585m 4

4

y

Example E
y 100 mm

Solution

I yT = I y1 + I y 2
where

100 mm

Determine the radius of gyration of the shaded area with respect to y-axis.

100 mm

I yi = I yi + Ai d i

2

Components:
1

PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM

100 mm

I y1 = I y + A1d1

2

I y1 =

bh3 bh ⎛ 100 ⎞ 6 + ⎜ ⎟ = 16.67 x10 36 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠

2

2

I y2 = I y

I y2 =

π (100) 4
8

= 39.27 x106

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Solution

I yT = I y1 + I y2
ky =
I yT AT

I yT = 55.94x106

Example F
y 150 mm 75 mm

AT = A + A2 1

AT =

(200 100 π (100)2 )( ) + = 25.71x103 2 2

50 mm

ky =

55.94x106 25.71x103

= 46.65mm
60 mm

100 mm

Obtain the moment of inertia of the composite area about the yaxis

k y = 46.65mm
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y 150 mm 75 mm

Solution
50 mm

Solution
I y1 =
2

I yT = I y1 + I y 2 − I y3
where

I yi = I yi + Ai d i

(150)(150)3 + (150)(150)(75)2 = 168.75x106 12 (100)(75)3 + (75)(100)(187.5)2 = 2671875 106 . x 12

100 mm PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM 60 mm
1

I y2 =
I y3 =

I y1 = I y +

A1d12

bh3 I y1 = 1 1 + b1h1d12 12
I y2 = b2 h23 + b2 h2 d 2 2 12

π (60)4 π (60) 2
8 + 2

(60)2 = 25.447x106

Components:

2

I y2 = I y
I y 3 = I y + A3d 32

I yT = I y1 + I y2 − I y3 = 410.5x106 mm4

3

I y3 =

πr 4 πr 2
8 + 2

d 32

I yT = 410.5 x106 mm 4

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