Explanation on surface tension. How is surface tension measured? Eg. Force tensiometri, du nuoy ring.
Surface tension is a phenomenon where the molecules in the liquid are subject to attractive forces from adjacent molecules. If the liquid is in bulk, the attraction between molecules are subjected to be equal in all direction. At the surface, the net attractive forces is towards the bulk of the liquid. This phenomenon will reducing the number of molecules in the surface and increases the intermolecular distance. This will give the different characteristics of surface from the bulk and gives rise to surface tension and surface free energy. The measurement of surface tension. There are many kind of methods available for the measurement of surface tension and they are : 1. Force tensiometer- The measurement of surface and interfacial tension as performed by a sigma force tensiometer is based on force measurements of the interaction of a probe with the surface of interface of two liquids. This method can be divided into two and they are the Du Nouy ring method and the Wilhelmy Plate method. a) Du Nouy ring method : this method measures the force required to detach a platinum ring from a surface or an interface. The detachment force is equal to the surface tension multiplied by the perimeter of liquid detached. The equation can be written as : F = 2 ( R1 + R2) Where, F is the detachment force and R1 and R2 are the inner and outer radii of the ring. A zero contact angle of the liquid on the ring must be assured or the equation will not hold. Careful cleaning and flaming of the platinum loop and also by the use of silicone-treated ring for oils are the priorities in order to achieve the zero contact angle of the liquid. The ring must also lie horizontally in the surface. b) Wilhelmy plate method : this method utilizes the interaction of a platinum plate with surface being tested. The apparatus used in this method consists of a thin mica, glass or platinum plate attached to a suitable balance. When used as a detachment method, the plate is immersed in the liquid, and the liquid container is gradually lowered. The reading on the balance immediately prior to detachment is noted. The detachment force is equal to the surface tension multiplied by the perimeter of the surface detached. The equation : (WL W)g= 2(L+T) . WL is the reading on the balance prior to detachment ,W is the weight of the plate in air and L and T are the length and thickness of the plate, respectively. Immersion of the plate into the lower of two liquids in a container and subsequent detachment will give the interfacial tension. The method requires the contact angle that the liquid makes with the plate to be zero. This can be achieved by scrupulous cleaning and by roughening the surface of the plate. In addition, it must be ensured that the edge of the plate lies in horizontal plane.
especially in the stage immediately preceding detachment. . 3. This method is easily adapted for both surface and interfacial tensions and is therefore popular.this method is little used in pharmaceutical research. g is the acceleration due to gravity Ø is a correction factor.
. r is the radius of the tip. the surface or interfacial tension can be calculated from : =Ømg = ØV g 2 r 2 r Where m is the mass of the drop. Drop weight and drop volume methods. Capillary rise method . As contact angles are difficult to reproduce .2. achieved by careful cleaning. The cleanliness at all stages of the experiment is vital and adequate temperature control must be ensured. The capillaries used must be circular in cross-section and of uniform bore. And it is important that the tip is completely wetted by the liquid. The drop should also be formed slowly. The correction factors is required as not all the drop leaves the tip of the detachment and it is depend on the radius of the tip and the drop volume.If the volume or weight of a drop as it is detached from a tip of known radius is determined. is the density of a liquid. V is the volume of the drop.and it is considered to be the most accurate way of measuring surface tension and has been used to establish values for many liquids. As the surface of the liquid is undisturbed during the measurement. experiments are always run at = 0 (cos =1). time effects can be followed.