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ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS: Received power & Gain : Power Pt originates at transmitting antenna and radiates out into space. Assume that source Pt is used and that the power in the spherical space will be measured as the power per unit area. This power density called the poynting vector ρ or the outward flow of electromagnetic energy through a given surface area, is expressed as ρ = Pt/4 W/m. a receiving antenna at a distance r from the transmitting antenna with an aperture A will receive power Pr = ρA = PtA/4 W Also we have gain G = 4 A/ Effective radiated power: There is a standard way of specifying the power radiated within a given geographic area. The radiated power that can be transmitted should be converted to th amount of power radiated from an omnidirectional antenna . If a high gain antenna is used, the transmitted power should be reduced. There is a term called Effective isotropic radiated power(EIRP) It is referenced to an isotropic point source.The difference between ERP and EIRP is2db. Gain and pattern relationship:
ANTENNAS AT CELL SITE: High gain antennas: There are standard 6db and 9 db gain omnidirectional antennas. The antenna patterns for 6 db gain and 9 db gain are shown in figure.
Start up system configuration: In this omnicell consisting of omnidirectional transmitting antennas are used. Each antenna can transmit signals from 16 radio transmitters have three transmitting antennas which serve 45 voice radio transmitters simultaneously. Each sending signal is amplified by its own channel amplifier in each radio transmitter, then 16 channels pass through a 16 channel combiner and transmit signals means of a transmitting antenna. Two receiving antennas are commonly can receive all 45 voice radio signals simultaneously. Then in each channel, tow identical signals received by two receiving antennas pass through a diversity receiver of that channel. The receiving antenna configuration on the antenna must is shown in figure. Abnormal antenna configuration: Usually, the call traffic in each cell increases as the number of customers increases. Some cells require a greater number of radios to handle the increasing traffic. An omnicell site can be equipped with up to 90 voice radios. In such cases six transmitting antennas should be used as shown in figure . In meantime, receiving antennas is still two. In order to reduce the number of transmitting antennas, a hybrid ring combiner to combine two 16 channels is found.
Cell site antennas for omnicells (a) for 45 channels (b) for 90 channels For interference reduction use – directional antennas: when the frequency reuse scheme must be used, cochannel interference will occur. The co channel interference reduction factor q = d/r = 4.6 is based on the assumption that the terrain is flat. A 120 corner reflector or 120 place reflector can be used in a 120 sector cell. A 60 corner reflector can be used in a 60 sector cell. A typical pattern for a directional antenna of 120 is shown in the figure.
Azimuthal pattern of 8 db directional antenna. Location antennas: In each cell site a location receiver connects to the respective location antenna. This antenna can be either omnidirection or shared directional . The location receiver can tune a channel to one of 333 channels either upon demand or periodically. Setup channel antennas: It is used to page a called mobile unit or to access a call from a mobile unit. It transmits only data. The setup channel antenna can be an omnidirectional antenna or consist of several directional antennas at one cell site. In general, in both omnicell and sector-cell systems, one omnidirectional antenna is used for transmitting signals and another for receiving signals in each cell site. Space diversity antennas used at cell site: Two branch space diversity antennas are used at the cell site to receive the same signal with different fading envelopes, one at each antenna. The degree of correlation between two fading envelopes is determined by the
degree of separation between two receiving antennas. When the two fading envelopes are combined, the degree of fading is reduced; Equation is presented as an example for the designer to use.
Where h = antenna height, D = antenna separation. It should be aligned as shown in the figure . The use of the space diversity antennas is at the base station.
Diversity antenna spacing at the cell site (a)
b) proper arrangement
Umbrella- pattern antennas: In certain situations, umbrella- pattern antennas should be used for the cell site antennas. Normal umbrella- pattern antenna: For controlling the energy in a confined are, the umbrella-pattern antenna can be developed by using a monopole with a top disk as shown in the figure Broadband umbrella pattern antenna: The parameters of discone antenna in which one of the cones is extended to 180 to form a disk are shown in the figure.
Vertical-plane patterns of quarter-wavelength stub antenna on infinite ground plane (solid) and on finite ground planes severalwavelengths in diameter (dashed line) and about one wavelength in diameter (dotted line).
High gain broadband umbrella pattern antennas: A high gain antenna can be constructed by vertically stacking a number of umbrella pattern antennas as shown in figure E0 =sin[(Nd/2λ) cos φ]/sin[(d/2λ) cos φ] · (individual umbrella pattern) where φ = direction of wave travel N = number of elements d = spacing between two adjacent elements Figure shows the Discone antennas (a) Single antenna. (b) An array of antennas.
Interference reduction Antenna: A design for an antenna configuration that reduces interference in two critical directions is shown in figure. The parasitic element is about 1.05 times longer than the active element. MOBILE ANTENNAS: The requirement of a mobile antenna is an omnidirectional antenna which can be located as high as possible from the point of reception. However, the physical limitation of antenna height on the vehicle restricts this requirement. Generally the antenna should at least clear the top of the vehicle.
Roof mounted antennas: The antennas pattern of a roof mounted antenna is more or less uniformly distributed around the mobile unit when measured at an antenna range in the free space as shown in the figure . The 3 db antenna shows 3 db gain over the quarter wave antenna. However, the gain of the antenna used at the mobile unit must be limited to 3 db because the cell site antenna is rarely as high as the broadcasting antenna and out of sight conditions often prevail. The mobile antenna with a gain of more than 3 db can receive only a limited portion of the total multipath signal in the elevation as measured under the out of sight condition.
Mobile antenna patterns. (a) Roofmounted 3-dBgain collinear antenna versus roof-mounted quarter-wave antenna. (b) Window mounted“on-glass” gain antenna versus roof-mounted quarter-wave antenna. Glass mounted antennas: In this energy is coupled through the glass; therefore, no need to drill a hole. However, some energy is dissipated on passage through the glass. Its gain range is 1- 3 db depending on frequency. Its position is lower than roof mounted antenna. It also cannot be installed on shaded glass found in motor vehicles. Mobile high gain antennas: A high gain antenna used on a mobile unit has been studied. It should be distinguished from a directional antenna. In directional antenna the pattern is suppressed horizontally, in high gain antenna, the pattern is suppressed vertically. In a mobile radio environment the scattered signals at the mobile unit from every direction with every probability. That is why an omnidirectional must be used. Moreover
measurements reveal that elevation angle for scattered signals received in urban areas in greater than in suburban areas. Horizontally oriented space diversity antennas: The two branch space diversity receiver mounted on a motro vehicle has the advantage of reducing fading and thus can operate at a lower reception level. The discussion here concerns a space diversity scheme in which two vehicle mounted antennas separated horizontally by 0.5 wavelength can achieve this diversity.
Vertical separation between two mobile antennas. Vertically Oriented Space-Diversity Antennas: The vertical separation between two space-diversity antennas can be determined from the correlation between their received signals. The positions of two antennas X1 and X2 are shown in Fig. 8.51. The theoretical derivation of correlation is71 ρ(d/ λ, θ) = sin[(πd/λ) sin θ]/(πd/λ) sin θ A set of measured data was obtained by using two antennas vertically separated by 1.5λ wavelengths.
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