. Improving the efficiency of electric motors and

ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS
Document By SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY Email: help@matlabcodes.com Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com More Papers and Presentations available on above site

the equipment they drive can save energy and Energy Efficient Motors are the best solution to solve energy crisis NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) set standards for energy efficient motors and named them as premium efficiency motors. depends improves on losses, efficiency. reducing As efficiency them itself design

Improved

specifications help to improve the efficiency. ABSTRACT In the present day world, energy conservation by a small means plays a significant role in making huge profits for any industry. The present paper explains the need of improving energy efficiency and particularly in motors. In industries, motor driven systems represent about 60% of all the electrical energy used. Energy efficient motors are the best solution to solve energy crisis. NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) set standards for energy efficient motors and named them as premium efficiency motors. Comparison between the energy efficient motors and standard motors indicate the annual energy saved and thereby cost savings. reduce operating costs. . Energy efficiency should be a major consideration when we purchase a motor, as well as the more common considerations. "What’s the price and how soon can we get it?” There are three factors to be considered: 1Energy-efficient motors only provide savings when they're running. 2. Maximum savings and the fastest returns on investment. Any motor selection has to be properly engineered for its intended application .

1.0 INTRODUCTION:

Over half of all

electrical energy consumed is used by electric motors as shown in figure1.
1.1Definition An "energy efficient" motor is a motor that gives you the same output strength by consuming lesser amounts of power. For energyefficient motor’s performance must be equal or exceed the nominal full-load efficiency values.

The efficiency of a motor is the ratio of the mechanical power output to the

electrical

power

input.

This

may

be

identical list prices exhibit very different efficiency ratings.
2.0 FACTORS AFFECTING EFFICIENCY AND LOSS DISTRIBUTION

expressed as:

In 1989, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) developed a standard definition for energy-efficient motors. The definition, designed to help users identify and compare electric motor efficiencies on an equal basis.

Types of Losses :Various Types of losses that incur in a standard motor and a high efficient motor are indicated in the figure2.1.
Figure2.1

A sample database listing is shown in Table 1.1. The database contains the manufacturers’ name, motor model, fullload RPM, service factor, frame size, and list price. Table1.1
Figure2.1showing comparison of losses for a standard motor and an energy efficient motor.

Stator and Rotor I2R losses:

Stator and

Rotor I²R losses appear when heat is generated by resistance from current flowing in the stator windings, rotor conductor bars. These are major losses, typically account for 55% to 60% of total losses. Core losses: It has hysterisis and eddy current effects. These are independent of
Table1.1howing the comparision of standard motors and energy efficient motors of two different types viz. ODP, TEFC.

load and account for 20 to 25% of total losses. Efficiency is improved by the use of thinner gauge, lower loss core steel reduces eddy current loss. Motor operation closer to synchronous speed will reduce rotor I²R losses. Efficiency can be improved by using more copper and large conductors, lowers resistance and losses due to current flow.

Note that the nominal full-load motor efficiencies vary from 86.5 to 93.2 percent. Prices also vary. In many cases, motors with

Efficiency is improved by the use of longer core steel to design, reduces core losses due to lower operating flux densities
Table2.2

1.Low loss of thinner laminations reduce the Iron losses even at partial loads. 2.Thicker conductors and more copper contents reduce copper losses due to lower resistance. 3. Longer core length, uniform air gap between stator and rotor reduce stray losses. 4. Special design of fan reduce windage losses. 5. An energy efficient motor results in

Table2.2 shows various types of motor losses for a 1800 rpm motor for different ratings. Friction and Windage losses: These losses are independent of load. They account for 8 to 12% of total losses. Efficiency is improved by the use of optimized design, strict quality control procedures minimizes stray load losses. Stray load losses: These vary according to square of the load current, caused by leakage flux induced by load currents in laminations. They account for 4 to 5% of total losses. Efficiency is improved by the use of low loss fan design, reduces losses due to air movement. 3.0Modifications of the design to improve efficiency: Higher efficiencies are achieved by redesign of motors as follows:

lower energy costs when compared to a rewound standard-efficiency motor. 3.1Cost effectiveness: Energy-efficient

motor depends on factors like motor price, efficiency rating, annual hours of use, energy rates, cost of installation and downtime, and the availability of utility rebates or other incentives.

Figure3.1.1 Figure3.1.1 shows the drooping nature of efficiency of a standard at partial loads.

Figure3.2.1

shows the average life of the

motors increase with the increase in size of the motors of different ratings. Energy efficient motors require less

maintenance and have longer life because of lower motor operating temperatures. The
Figure3.1.2;Figure3.1.2 depicts the initial cost and the life time costs of a motor. Hence one should be careful in choosing motor which will bring down the life time cost. 3.2 Energy Efficient Motors:(EEMs) EEMs operate with efficiencies that are

energy efficient designs of multi-speed motors are not available. They are not suited for highly intermittent duty and special torque applications as hoists and cranes, traction drives, punch presses, machine tools and centrifuges.

typically 4 to 6 % higher than the standard motor. The power factor is same or may be higher compared to standard motors. EEMs withstand wider voltage, frequency fluctuations and higher ambient temperatures without breakdown. In the event of field repairs it retains rated capacity when repairs are carried out by less skilled workers and in inexact conditions Figure3..2.2. shows the annual energy savings of the motor with its increase in size.

Figure3.2.1

3.3 Case Study: Higher Efficiency Motors

Mean Big Savings and Better Reliability

Table3.3 shows the typical examples of high

efficient motors and standard motors of different ratings, with their efficiency at full load ,efficiency at 75% load ,additional cost incurred for a premium motor and annual energy savings.
Example One Example Two 50 hp, 1800 rpm, 25 hp, 1800 rpm, 460 V 460 V EPAct NEMA Standa Premiu rd m Full Load 93.1 Effici ency Effici ency (at 93.6 75% load) Meet s Yes EPAc t? Incre ment NA al Cost Ener gy Savin gs at 75% NA Load (6000 hrs/y ear) 94.5 EPAct NEMA Standar Premium d 92.4 93.6

95.1

93.1

94.1

yes

Yes

yes

$176

NA

$96

2,829 kWh/y

NA

958 kWh/y

4. Conclusion

Higher efficiency motors (HEMs or EEMs) standard increased are preferred than that of efficiency efficiency motors, saves because significant

amount

of

energy

consumed

and

encouragement

and

co-operation

therefore saves energy bill, costs incurred over maintenance of the standard motor . However EEMs may not always lead to lower power consumption.Sometimes there would be an increase in energy consumption rather than a decrease due to the smaller slip in selecting a suitable motor. So proper selection of high efficiency motors must be made according to the type of application and energy required. One should be careful in choosing proper rating, always avoiding over-sized motors.

extended. The authors also wish to thank the college management for all the cooperation. 6.REFERENCES: 1.Energy Efficiency Electrical Motors Selection Handbook prepared by Gilbert A. McCoy, Todd Washington Litman, State John.G.Douglass,

Energy Office Olympia,Washington. 2.Understanding Energy Efficient Motors prepared by Electrical Apparatus Services Association . 3.Saving Energy with high efficiency motors by Stefan Fassbinder, Leonardo Energy September 2007.

Document By SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY Email: help@matlabcodes.com

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The Dr.P.RAMANA authors thank REDDY

Engineeringpapers.blogspot.co m More Papers and Presentations available on above site

PROFFESSOR&HEAD, DEPARTMENT OF EEE for all the encouragement and

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