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# CHAPTER 10 : RATE OF REACTION

## 1. Many students have difficulty explaining

(i) What is meant by rate of reaction. Remember two points: it is the change
in volume or mass etc over a period of time. Time and change are often
omitted .

(ii) The affect of the factor on the rate of reaction. Frequency, name of ions
involve in collision are always omitted.

2. Remember that the total volume of gas released by the same amount of metal is
always the same when reacted with acid,. A common error is to think that
powdered metal, gives off more gas than larger metal of the same amount of
metal

3. The total volume of gas released by a catalysed reaction is exactly the same as for
an uncatalysed reaction.

4. In rate questions, a common error is to state the volume is increasing and not
mention the rate. Remember that the rate is getting less and less with time because
rate is the difference in volume divided by time

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SECTION B: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTION

a) Objective question

## 1. Which of the following equations gives the meaning of rate of reaction?

Antara berikut yang manakah memberi makna kadar tindakbalas?

time taken

Time taken

Time taken

## D Volume of gas liberated

Changes in mass of reactant

## 2. Which will react the fastest with hydrochloric acid?

Manakah akan bertindak paling cepat dengan asid hidroklorik?
A. powdered marble at 25oC
Serbuk marmar pada 25oC
B. marblechips at 400C
Ketulan marmar pada 40oC
C. powdered marble at 400C
Serbuk marmar pada 40 oC
D. marblechips at 250C
Ketulan marmar pada 25 oC

## 3. Which decreases the frequency of collision between reactant particles?

Manakah akan mengurangkan frekuensi perlanggaran antara zarah-zarah
bahan tindakbalas

## A. Raise the temperature of the reaction mixture

Manaikkan suhu campuran tindakbalas
B. Break the solid into smaller pieces
Pecahkan pepejal kepada saiz lebih kecil
C. Decrease the concentration of the solution
Mengurangkan kepekatan larutan
D. Increase the pressure of the gases
Menambahkan tekanan gas

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4. Potatoes cook more quickly in boiling vegetable oil than in boiling water. This is
because oil
Ubi kentang masak lebih cepat dalam minyak sayuran yang mendidih berbanding
dalam air yang mendidih. Ini disebabkan minyak

A. contains water
mengandungi air
B. replaces the water in the potatoes
Mengantikan air dalam ubi kentang
C. catalyses the cooking process
Memangkin proses memasak
D. boils at a higher temperature than water
mendidih pada suhu yang lebih tinggi daripada air

## 5. Which of the following is correct about catalyse?

Antara berikut yang manakah benar tentang mangkin?

A. The mass of catalyse will stay the same during the reaction
Jisim mangking kekal sama sepanjang tindakbalas
B. The catalysed reaction will produce more product than the uncatalysed
reaction
Tindakbalas bermangkin menghasilkan lebih banyak hasil tindakbalas
berbanding dengan yang tidak bermangkin.
C The particles in the catalysed reaction will have more energy than in the
uncatalysed reaction.
D Zarah dalam tindakbalas bermangkin lebih bertenaga berbanding dengan
yang tidak bermangkin.

6. The graph shows how the total volume of a gas given off changes with time.In
which time interval is smallest rate gas given off?
Graf menunjukkan bagaimana jumlah isipadu gas yang terhasil berubah dengan
masa. Dalam sela masa manakah kadar penghasilan gas paling rendah?

volume
of
gas

A B C D Time/s

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7. Three different metals, Cu, Fe and Mg, are each added to an excess of dilute
hydrochloric acid.The graph shows how hydrogen is given off.
Setiap tiga logam yang berlainan, Cu, Fe, Mg ditindakbalas dengan asid
hidroklorik yang berlebihan. Graf menunjukkan bagaimana gas dibebaskan

Volume of
hydrogen

Time/s

## Which metal gives which curve?

Lengkungan yang manakah mewakili logam.

1 2 3
A. Fe Ag Mg
B. Mg Ag Fe
C. Cu Fe Mg
D. Mg Fe Ag

8. In the graph, curve (X) was obtained when 1 g of granulated zinc reacted with
Total volume CO2
an excess of hydrochloric acid at 30oC.
Dalam graf berikut lengkung (x) diperolehi apabila 1 g ketulan zink
bertindakbalas dengan asid hidroklorik berlebihan pada 30oC.
X

time

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Antara perubahan berikut yang manakah akan menghasilkan lengkung ((Y)?

## A. 1.0 g of powdered zinc at 20oC

1.0 g serbuk zink pada 20oC

## B. 1.0 g of granulated zinc at 20oC.

1.0 g ketulan zink pada 20oC

## C. 0.5 g of granulated zinc at 40oC.

0.5 g ketulan zink pada 40oC

## D .0.5 g of granulated zinc at 20oC

0.5 g serbuk zink pada 20oC

9. In the graph, curve (P) was obtained when 1 g of granulated zinc reacted with an
excess of hydrochloric acid at 30oC.
Dalam graf berikut lengkung (P) diperolehi apabila 1 g ketulan zink
bertindakbalas dengan asid hidroklorik berlebihan pada 30oC.

## Total volume CO2

time
Which of the following changes would give the curve (Q)?
Antara perubahan berikut yang manakah akan menghasilkan lengkung ((Q)?

## A. 1.0 g of powdered zinc at 40oC

1.0 g serbuk zink pada 40oC
B. 1.0 g of granulated zinc at 20oC.
1.0 g ketulan zink pada 20oC
C. 0.5 g of granulated zinc at 40oC.
0.5 g ketulan zink pada 40oC
D. 0.5 g of granulated zinc at 20oC
0.5 g ketulan zink pada 20oC

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10. Which set of changes is most likely to make the reaction between a solid
metal and an acid safe for the students to use?
Antara set perubahan berikut yang manakah menjadikan tindak balas antara
satu pepejal logam dengan asid paling selamat untuk pelajar lakukan
.
Pieces of solid Acid Temperature
Kepingan pepejal Asid Suhu
A. Larger Less concentration Lower
Lebih besar Kepekatan lebih kecil Lebih rendah
B. Larger More concentration Higher
Lebih besar Kepekatan lebih tinggi Lebih tinggi
C. Smaller Less concentration Lower
Lebih kecil Kepekatan lebih kecil Lebih rendah
D. Smaller More concentration Higher
Lebih kecil Kepekatan lebih tinggi Lebih tinggi

b) Structure Questions

State three ways in which the rate of reaction between zinc and dilute sulphuric acid can be
increased.
Nyatakan tiga cara di mana kadar tindak balas antara zink dan asid sulfurik cair dapat
ditingkatkan.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Equal lengths of excess of magnesium ribbon were added to 3.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid
and to 3.0 mol/dm3 sulphuric acid.
Tiga pita magnesium yang berlebihan yang sama panjang ditambahkan kepada asid
hidroklorik 3.0 mol/dm3 dan asid sulfurik 3.0 mol/dm3.

## Write the equation for the reactions.

Tuliskan persamaan tindak balas.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

In which acid would the rate of reaction is higher at the start? Explain your answer.
Dalam asid yang manakah kadar awal tindak balas adalah lebih tinggi?Terangkan
jawapan anda.

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

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What would be the effect on the rate of reaction if the magnesium ribbon were replaced
Apakah kesan kepada kadar tindak balas jika pita magnesium diganti dengan serbuk
magnesium. Terangkan jawapan anda

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

How would the rate of reaction change if the concentration of the acid were changed to 6
mol/dm3.
Bagaimanakah kadar tindak balas berubah jika kepakatan asid diubah kepada 6.0
mol/dm3

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

A solution of hydrogen peroxide was allowed to decompose and the oxygen given off was
collected. A black solid was added to the solution at 5 minutes.The graph shows the change in
the total volume of oxygen evolved with time.
Satu larutan hidrogen peroksida dibiarkan mengurai dan gas oksigen yang terbebas
dikumpulkan. Satu pepejal hitam telah ditambah kepada larutan itu pada masa lima
minit.Graf menunjukkan perubahan isipadu oksigen yang dibebas dengan masa.

Total
volume
of
oxygen

Time in minute
5 10 15 20

## What is the effect of black solid on the rate of the reaction?

Apakah kesan pepejal hitam ke atas kadar tindak balas?

......................................................................................................................................

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What is the general name given to compounds causing this effect?
Apakah nama umum diberikan kepada sebatian yang memberikan kesan itu?

.....................................................................................................................................
Write the equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Tuliskan persamaa bagi pemguraian hidrogen peroksida.

...............................................................................................................................................

Sulphur was formed when hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate are mixed
Surfur terhasil apabila asid hidroklorik dan natrium tiosulfat dicampurkan.

## What would you see during the reaction?

Apakah yang akan diperhatikan semasa tindakbalas.

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

## State two ways to make the rate of reaction increase.

Nyatakan dua cara untuk meningkatkan kadar tindak balas

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

Why is sulphur dioxide gas cannot be use to calculate the rate of reaction?
Mengapakah gas sulfur dioksida tidak boleh diguna untuk mengukur kadar tindak
balas?

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

In this experiment, 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid is added to 50 cm3 of 1.0
mol/dm3 Sodium tiosulphate.
What causes the reaction to stop.
Dalam tindak balas ini, 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol/dm3 telah ditambah kepada 50
cm3 natrium tiosulfat 1.0 mol/dm3
Aapakah yang menyebabkan tindakbalas berhenti.

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

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……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

An experiment was carried out using excess small zinc granules and hydrochloric acid.
Hydrogen gas is formed and was recorded.
The initial experiment are marked as the 'P’. The experiment was repeated after varying the
reaction conditions.
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan menggunakan ketulan zink kecil berlebihan dan asid
hidroklorik. Gas hidrogen dibebaskan dan direkodkan.
Eksprimen awal di tanda sebagai ‘P’.Eksperimen diulang setelah diubah keadaan tindak balas

Volume
of
gas/cm3
X P Y

Z
Time/
sWhich experiment is going by double concentration of hydrochloric acid?
Eksperimen yang manakah dilakukan dengan menggandakan kepekatan asid hidroklorik?

..................................................................................................................................................

## Which experiment is going by half concentration of hydrochloric acid?

Eksperimen yang manakah dilakukan dengan mengurangkan separuh kepekatan asid
hidroklorik.

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

## Which experiment is going by adding the cooper(II)sulphate?

Eksperimen yang manakah dilakukan dengan menambahkan kuprum(II)sulfat.

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Which experiment is going by using larger zinc granules?
Eksperimen yang manakah dilakukan dengan menggunakan ketulan zink yang lebih
besar?

..................................................................................................................................................
The reaction of calcium carbonate with excess dilute nitric acid produces carbon dioxide. The
volume of carbon dioxide given off at 20 second intervals was recorded and plotted.
Tindak balas kalsium karbonat dengan asid nitrik berlebihan menghasilkan karbon dioksida.
Isipadu gas karbon dioksida yang dibebaskan direkodkan pada sela 20 saat kemudian
diplotkan.

volume
of carbon
dioxide /
cm3

Time/s

## Draw a graph on the grid.

Lukiskan satu graf pada grid.

## Calculate the rate of reaction at 30 and 60 seconds.

Hitungkan kadar tindak balas pada 30 dan 60 saat .

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Why does the reaction slow down?
Mengapa kadar tindak balas berkurang?

..................................................................................................................................................

SECTION C: PAPER 2
a) Structure Question

## 1. An experiment is conducted to determine the rate of reaction between 25 cm 3 of

hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 and 10.0 g of marble chips. The gas given off is
collected.. The table shows the result of the experiment.
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk menentukan kadar tindak balas antara 25 cm3
asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-3 dan 10.0 g ketulan kalsium karbonat. Jadual menunjukkan
keputusan eksperimen itu.

Time /s
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
Masa/s
Volume of gas/cm3
0 16 32 48 58 60 60 60

[Relative atomic mass: Ca=40; C=12; O=16. Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol-1 at
room condition]

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and
calcium carbonate.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik dengan
kalsium karbonat.

................................................................................................................................
[2 mark]

## (b) Calculate the average rate of reaction in the first 50 seconds.

Hitungkan kadar tindak balas purata dalam 50 saat yang pertama.

[1 mark]

(c) (i) Plot a graph of volume of gas against time on the graph paper provided.
Lukiskan graf isipadu gas melawan masa menggunakan kertas graf yang
dibekalkan.
[4 marks]

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(ii) Calculate the rate of reaction at 100 seconds.
Hitungkan kadar tindak balas pada 100 saat .

[3 marks]

SECTION D: PAPER 3
Structure Questions

## Diagram shows burette reading from two set of experiments.

Rajah menunjukkan bacaan buret dari dua set eksperimen

0.00 cm3

## Experiment 2 Initial reading Final reading

Write the initial and the final reading of the burette in the space provided.

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Tuliskan bacaan awal dan akhir buret di ruang yang disediakan bagi eksperimen I dan II.

Construct the table to record the initial and the final reading and volume of solution used.
Bina jadual untuk merekodkan bacaan awal,bacaan akhir dan isipadu larutan yang
digunakan.

Diagram shows the reading of the stop watch from two set of experiments.
Rajah menunjukkan bacaan jam randik buret dari dua set eksperimen.

## clock diagram time/s

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Experiment 3

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Record the reading of the stop watch of each experiment.
Rekodkan bacaan jam randik setiap eksperimen.

A student carried out an experiment to investigate the rate of the reaction between sodium
thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
50 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate solution was poured into a 100 cm3 beaker. The beaker was
placed on a cross drawn on a piece of paper. 10 cm3 of hydrochloric acid was added to the
beaker and the timer started.
The time was taken until the cross could not be seen. The time was recorded in the table.
Four experiment was repeated using different volumes of sodium thiosulphatethe but total
volume of solution kept constant. All experiments were carried out at 25 °C.

Seorang pelajar menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kadar tindak balas antara
natrium tiosulfat dan asid hidroklorik.
50 cm3 larutan natrium tiosulfat dituang ke dalam satu bikar 100 cm3. Bikar itu diletakkan atas
tanda pangkah sekeping kertas. 10 cm3 asid hidroklorik kemudian ditambah kepada bikar itu
dan masa dimulakan.
Empat eksperimen telah diulang menggunakan isipadu natrium tiosulfat yang berbeza tetapi
jumlah isipadu adalah tetap. Semua eksperimen dilakukan pada suhu 25oC

## 10 cm3 of hydrochloric acid

Beaker
Sodium thiosulphate
solution

marked on it

## State all the variables for these experiment.

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Berikan semua pembolehubah bagi eksperimen ini

Manipulated variables.
Pembolehubah dimanipulasi

.........................................................................................................................................

Responding variables:
Pembolehubah bergerak balas.

.........................................................................................................................................

Constant variables:
Pembolehubah dimalarkan:

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[ 3 marks ]

Based on the experiment complete the table with correct observation ant related inferences.

[ 3 marks ]

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b) Essay

Catalysts copper(II) oxide and manganese(IV) oxide can be use to increase the rate of
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Plan an experiment to find out which of these two oxides is the better catalyst for this
decomposition
Mangkin kuprum(II)sulfat dan magan(IV)oksida boleh digunakan untuk meningkatkan kadar
penguraian hydrogen peroksida.
Rancangkan satu eksperimen untuk mencari yang mana antara dua oksida ini adalah mangkin
yang lebih baik untuk penguraian hydrogen peroksida.

## Your planning must include the following items :

Perancangan anda haruslah mengandungi aspek berikut:

Problem statement
Pernyataan masaalah

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

## All the variables

Semua pembolehubah

## Lists of materials and apparatus

Senarai bahan dan alat radas

Procedure
Prosedur

Tabulation of data