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Ralph 1. U m l i e Irwin S. ludin
PROJECT NA!tlGEMEW lSrmm
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Kliem, Ralph L. Tools and tips for today's project manager / Ralph L. Kliem, Irwin S. Ludin p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN:1-880410-61-3 @bk: alk. paper) 1. Industrial project management. I. Ludin, Irwin S. I.. Title. HD69.P75K595 1999 99-24030 658.4'04 - - d ~ 2 1 CIP
Published by: Project Management Institute Headquarters Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania 19073-3299 USA Phone: 610-356-4600or Visit our website: www.pmi.org ISBN: 1-880410-61-3
Copyedited by Jennifer B. Baumgartner
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To: Tom, Doris, and Robert ThomasRLK ISL Marlene R. Ludin-
....................................----Charts and Graphs .. Affinity Diagram ------..............-........Change Management ---.. Analysis and Analysis Paralysis ------------------Authority -......-............-.......----------- xi xiii XV - - -- - 1 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 13 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 vii ..................... Benchmarking ............--------------.........-..............-----...Chunking ......--Brainstorming ......-.....-.--------..........--Daily priority Task Listing ........ Change Control Sheet ..-.......-..Controlling .--....-... Checkpoint Review Meeting .........-.-..... Chain of Command ......-.....-....-.. preface ..........-......-.....------------.....-..-...Critical Success Factors .-......-.....-...................Conflict Management ...........-.........-....Decision Table ---------.........................--............ Consultant Selection .......Decision Tree ...-......--.......-----Cause-and-Effect Graph ....-....Configuration Management .. Agenda .... Delegating ........ cost--------------------------------Crisis Management ---------...........-....Comenefit Analysis ......-...-......--.-........-.... Checklists .....-..I Data versus Information --------...... -----Contract Types .......................-..-..Contingency Plan ...........................Bell-Shaped Curve ..-----Critical Issues-'Action Items Log .............Figures---------------------------------Table .........Baselining -....................------------Decision-Making ...-............. ----CommunicationDiagram ....................--.......-...Deming Wheel ------...--------.......-...........................................-.....Breakeven Analysis ------------------............................-.......
Impact Analysis ...---------------..-----...................lmagineering .....Listening ..................6anttChar-t .-..........-.........-..................-......... Modeling .....--------.......................-Intemption Reduction ..---------... Meetings .......--Just-in-Time Delivery ..................----......................--.. Document Templates .........-............................---Heuristia 1..----........................-Leading ... IssueAction Diagram -..... Make-Buy Analysis ---.---.... Lessons Learned -----........... Memo of Understanding -----------------....--------......................... Myers-BriggsTypelndicator .---...... Minutes ........................ Input-Process-Output Analysis Model -... Diagramming ..............................-...........-................................---...... Mode .........-.................... Grouping .................---.....-. Flowchartirig ................... Interviewing.....- - 43 44 45 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 59 60 62 64 65 66 68 69 70 71 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 99 100 101 102 103 104 .-----v i e w s ........................................-.....-----------Frequency Distribution ----.........-....-.....................---MethodologyDevelopment ... Hypothesis Formulation and Testing -.....-----..-.............-. Goals and Objectives ...............----------------...-------.....------Efficienqand Effectiveness ........Information Center ....-------------... Entropy . Glossary ....-Facilitation (Workshops) ........-..-.Mean ......-....... History File ......... Matrix versus Task Force Structure .......................................... Key Contact Listing .................. Median ..........-.................. Mind Mapping .....................-................... E-mail .........................-..-........-....................Matrix . Equipment Usage Log -----... Flextime ... Metria ...........Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) -.......................-.Design Principles ....-.... Forms Layout ----........................ Negotiations -..................-....-.......... Fishbone Diagram ..-....--------Earned Value -...------......Net present Value ............---.....----................................------.....-..................................-....................----.....
.......-...---Responsibility Matrix ...-............-No! .......-...-Priority Setting ....-.............--..-...-Reuse .-..s Curve .........-......-.....----------------...-.........PERT EstirnatingTechnique.......-.......-....-............-.............................-.........-.......-.----Sampling -........-........-Sketch .-.......-.... Risk Management ---..................-.........-.......... ---.....-.-....................Probability ......... POSDCORB .-.........Problem Analysisand Solution ------------------Procedures .........-.Network Diagram... Quality Review ............-phase Breakdown..........-...Outline .-........-.......-.-.--Paradigms .-...-....-.....-Return on Investment -.-............-.---------------.........Participative Decision-Making .........-..........-.-.......................-....-....Recycle and Resale ............pareto Analysis ...........-Organizing .--....-......--Prototype . Quartiles ..........-........-.......-......-.--... Self-Directed Work Teams ...........-.........-..Project Life Cycle ---.-...... Planning ............-..........-.... peter Principle ............-----------------........-.........-.-......................-..--------.-........-..........--... Outsourcing ...........-..Reengineering ................. Presentations ..Scattergram ......-.............-Scientific Method ..........-... Replanning -------.. Nonmonetary Rewards -....Newsletter ...-.-----------.......................-.........-----------------.......-...------...................-.Objectversus Process Analysis ------------------Operations Manual -------....................-............-Payback Analysis ..-....-...-.Reports ..Single Point of Contact ............... - 105 107 108 109 110 112 114 116 117 118 119 120 122 123 125 126 128 130 132 133 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 157 158 160 161 163 164 166 167 169 170 171 ........-..-......-............................-................-......-..-.-...-...Process Streamlining ...................-....---..........-....Parkinson3 Law ......Overcoming Bottlenecks .....Projm office --...-.... -Project Announcement .. Requestfor Proposal (Response) -----------------Resource Leveling --..........P2M-7 Cycle -------.....................Organization Chart ------......................-.-....-......--..-.
..............-..-. Variability .....--------------Staff Meetings ..........-.........-.....Website ........ References ....-Work Breakdown Structure .................---------------Visibility Walnoom ............----Testing ..........T Account Decision-Making .Unity of Command --. Total Quality Management ...........................---------Supply Chain Manufacturing ------------------SWATTeams .....-.........-.....................-......................Appendix .....Videoconferencing ...-Telecommuting ................Software Selection ....- - - - - - - - - - 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 11 8 183 1 84 185 186 187 189 190 11 9 192 193 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 210 23 1 221 ...............................TelephoneTag ..-......Transportation Consolidation ...............-........ Systems Theory ....Virtual Teams --...... -...Teamwork ...........-.-Span of Control ..-.-..-......-.....................-. Standards ..... Speed-Reading -----------....----------------Status Review Meetings ----------..........-.................... Transactional Analysis .........................-........--........----...............................-. Viewfoils ............-.....-.................-.......-.............Value Management .... Validity Threats .....-.....Statement of Work (Understanding).............-............ Time Log ...........................Verification .......................................-............ Weighted Selection Criieria Approach ..........-........................Statistical Process Control Chart --........................----------Status Collection ------......Statistical Corruptions and Distortions .....-.................-........-....
..........--............Example of Table of Contents for an Impact Analysis Document ...--.---.....Breakeven Analysis Graph for Nu Product K ...............-Cause-and-Effect Graph ---........... 1F3 Resource LevelingforTool ShopL ......Document Templates for My Corporation ..Gantt Chart for Response to Proposal for Company XIZ ......Example of Calculating Mode .....Deming Wheel .-...............................114 Phase Breakdown for Nu Project ..................Input-Process-OutputAnalysis Model for Return on Investment . 1 6 Risk Management Cycle .......~ 2 cvcle 2 ~ ...............Samplesof Bell-Shaped Curves.............-....Grouping for Nu Product Corporation .........-...... 1 0 Network Diagram for Constructing R Building -..Issue-Action Diagram for Quality Assurance Group .........Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Affinity Diagram for IT Development Project M .....-......Lessons-Learned Document for Project XX ...... 1165 5 Curve for Nu product H ------....--.......1 0 Ego States Relationships ...--........-Chunking for a Microcomputer Desktop Configuration ..-..........Decision Tree for Fleet Vehicle Opportunity ....Sample Outline of an Operations Manual .............Examples of Task Force and Matrix Structure ...Cumulative Plot of Earned Value ........................---.........-......Organization Chart for Jigundo Corporation .....................................1 2 Scattergram for FastTrain .Mind-Mapping Diagram ...... FishboneDiagramforMachineShopL ----------------Flowchart for Workgroup Q ....Communication Diagram for Department Z .--------...........................143 Outlay for an Effective Report .......-.................1 7 Statistical Process Control Chart for Maintenance Shop Q ...-..I b6 Examples of Process and Object-Oriented Flow ..... 1B4 Formatof a Project Announcement ------------------..........----.........-...............................................1 6 Work Breakdown Structure of a Marketing Plan ............1 3 Outline for a Statement of Work (Understanding) ......---.......----..--............2~1 1 - t8 I i ........168 Two Categoriesof Span of Control ------------------....-.... Pareto Analysis for Little Theatre Wardrobe Department ......
...Critical Issues/Action Items Log for Machine Shop L .............. Frequency Distribution for Auto Body Shop R -------------Key Contact Listing for Harry Jones ............T Account Decision-Making Chart for R Construction Corporation --Time Log for Repair Shop M ...Contingency Plan for Outsourcing Agreement ................Matrix for Presentation to Jigundo Corporation ..-----.......................Payback Period for Machine ShopY ------------------Phases in a Project'sLife Cycle ............................Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Baseline Report for ProjectZ ...............-..Decision Table for Facilities Group ... Examole of Weiahted Selection Criteria Aooroach .....----Flextime Example .................6 17 28 34 36 39 52 56 61 82 88 129 1144 1157 1'88 194 209 xiii .............................Equipment Usage Log for Machine Shop Y .......... Responsibility Matrix for Z-Software Corporation -.....Daily Priority Task Listing for My Corporation .............-........ Change Control Sheet for Manufacturing Unit A ........
. wheres. and miracles to survive in this seemingly crazy environment. power. abilities. whats. Planningaefining the whos. information requirements mushroom. finance. you have only so much time. knowledge. It would be nice to have some handy compendium of tools and tips readily available as a reference for helping you respond efficiently and effectively. Information-converting data into a meaningful format. 1. 3. Time-making more of something that is becoming less available. 5. and their descriptions. and whys of projects. 6 . And you now have in your hands such a compendium. 2. the customers demand higher quality of output. and skills. To aggravate the situation. creativity-developing innovative solutions. and not so common. and it demands more from everyone. The eight categories. Additionally. the technological tools change constantly. People-addressing the human side of managing projects. tools and tips to help project managers deal with eight categories of challenges that stretch their knowledge. This book provides a list of common. 8. Methods/processes-applying ways of doing business to transform input to output.Preface B eing a project manager has never been more difficult than it is today. The work environment moves at a faster pace. the challenges they face daily fall within one of these categories. Organization-taking a structured approach for handling a host of situations. For most project managers. 7. whens. 4. are as follows. and processes must be continuously refined and redesigned to improve performance and develop innovative solutions. Meetings-assembling people to achieve a specific goal. skills.
The TnTs in this book are arranged alphabetically. Many project managers could have done a better. Although some of the TnTs appear to be commonsense. . If you need additional or more in-depth information on a topic. it also provides a listing of books that cover multiple topics. we have witnessed many project managers (including ourselves) who have applied the steps in this book and gained rich rewards as a result. To illustrate. smarter job if they had followed some of the simple steps suggested in this book. if you need to handle a large volume of data. you can refer to the Bibliography for suggestions. In the interest of helping you maximize the use of this book. do not let overconfidence fool you. We have seen many project managers go down inflames because they did not construct a good outline. you can look in the Appendix under the information category to identify a TnT to help you. It is divided into the eight categories and includes an additional general section. It will provide you with the TnTs to work smarter. not harder. however. Keep this book handy. On the other hand. Perhaps you will select the affinity diagram or a statistical calculation like the mean. each TnT is bucketed into one or more categories in the Appendix.
B2 .D3 . facts). Project M I -A1 -A2 . and it furthers understanding of the relationships among the items..A4 .83 . for Developing an Affinity Diagram w Assemble the population of items. It is based on the notion that certain items share a commonality.C3 -C4 -Dl . such as a characteristic. Arrange the categories and subcategories into a hierarchical relationship. w Identify the overall subject of the diagram. It brings simplicity to something that appears chaotic.84 -C1 -C2 . w Place the items into the appropriate category or subcategory.AFFININ DIAGRAM The affinity diagram is a technique for organizing a hodgepodge of items (e. Develop the different categories and subcategories for the items. The affinity diagram offers two benefits.g. ideas.D4 A Design A1 Database A2 Code A3 Screen A4 Architecture B Code B1 GUI B2 Machine 83 Application 84 Middleware C Mammals C1 User C2 Programmer C3 Architecture C4 Training D Requirements D l Screen D2 Data D3 Hardware D4 Data Figure 1 Affinity Diagram for IT Development Project M Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 1 .A3 -B1 .D2 .
you could address some topics. keeping in mind the total time available for the session. Make revisions to the agenda. assign responsibilities for each subtopic. it provides structure for a potentially mob-like situation. w Determine the most important subtopic. If prepared correctly. it covers topics meaningfully and logically. for example.An agenda is a prerequisite for an orderly meeting. Remember. It paces a meeting so the entire session does not concentrate. Just slapping topics on a piece of paper will not suffice. Second. If necessary. on one topic for fifty-nine minutes and on nine remaining topics for one minute. Distribute the agenda two to three days prior to the session. in doing so. it sets the time clock for a meeting. First. Finally. meaningful order that would better accomplish the goal. A good agenda has several characteristics. The agenda addresses the highest priorities first and then proceeds to the lowest ones. P I for Developing an Agenda Identify the overall topic of the session. and list the remaining ones in decreasing order. You should arrange your topics in an order that accomplishes the goal of the meeting. Send out the agenda for preliminary review. every meeting has the propensity toward disorder. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . it sets priorities. Allot a specific time to address each subtopic. If insufficient time remains. Identify the subtopics that comprise the overall topic. you can address the lower priority items at the next meeting and not leave any serious outstanding issues. but not in a logical.
and project costs. and allows for experimentation. high frustration levels.ANALYSIS AND ANALYSIS PARALYSIS Analysis is the process of breaking something down into its simplest components and identifying the relationships. Hence the term. It enables a simplified understanding of a process or object. if any. analysis paralysis can lead to project delays. and restrict the number of changes. analysis turns into paralysis. furthers communication. Obtain input or feedback from people who know the subject or are in authority and can say. in their eyes." Let the output of your analysis sit for awhile before revisiting it for modifications. Analysis offers advantages. A wide number of analysis techniques are available-from flowcharts to data flow diagrams. Sometimes. "It is done. analysis paralysis. Set a time frame for how long the analysis can take place. If not checked. It also develops better ideas and products. for Overcoming Analysis Paralysis Determine in advance the level of detail you want to achieve in describing a process or object. The result is that a long time transpires before action is taken. however. meaning some people unceasingly refine the breaking down of components and identifying their relationships until. it is perfect. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager .
objective. Simply defined. Charismatic authority is based upon innate personal qualities. Legal-rational authority is that given to a person by an institution.AUTHORIN Most people can recognize authority. you can determine who are the movers and shakers in an organization. and the basis for it. In other words. A sheik in the Arab world has authority because he fills a position based upon historic precedence. charismatic. these people do not have any formal authority. but it translates into real power that can have positive or negative consequences. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . The degree of authority depends on one's position in the organization. you can face a circumstance where a person holds a position that embodies two or three categories of authority. That's rare. Jim Jones. Typically. Frequently. and legal-rational. can help you. Your boss at work is another example. the higher up in an organization. This information enables you to determine who makes decisions and the importance of those decisions. it is having the power over people to accomplish some specific goal. but they have difficulty defining it. and Huey Long are examples of people with charismatic authority. Authority comes from many sources and can fall into one of three categories: traditional. Knowing who has what authority. Martin Luther King. only that granted by their followers. In the business world. Traditional authority is based upon what the term implies: tradition. or task. the more authority rests with a person. Rank in the military is a prime example of legal-rational authority. Certain people have power over others based upon historical factors.
w Look for where the meetings are held. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . w Identify who attends which meetings and who calls them. and so on.w To determine the type of authority that exists in an organization. w Look at the organization chart. taking action. observe the following steps. w Pinpoint who grants approvals for funding. identifying reporting relationships. w Pay attention to the formal and informal power structure.
Baselining offers two advantages.1.2 Table 1 Baseline Report for Project Z 6 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .0.Baselining is establishing what you release as the final output and using it to evaluate subsequent revisions. a Keep separate versions for review and audit purposes.0 1 . It is the document that everyone references when they must change it. it allows evaluating the impact of a change on your product.0. it enables you to control changes.I Release Identification January 2 February 5 May 11 Original Release Incorporate equipment changes Incorporate location changes 1.0 give each subsequent minor release a number like 1. forms. 3.2. hardware. you might have a report that will require many changes in the future. Date Subject Operator'sManual Operator'sManual Operator'sManual Version 1. Second. You can determine which changes are critical and can create a timetable to implement them. plans. Give the item being baselined a version number. For instance. You might designate the first report release 1. and so on. For example. You can baseline reports. software. 1. you can determine what aspects of your output will need altering and to what degree. and many other items. First. a If a change is necessary. a Obtain consensus on what constitutes the item being baselined. and so on. analyze and evaluate the impact on the item. and each subsequent major release as 2. for Baselining a Determine the characteristics of the item being baselined.
Draw an x-axis (horizontal line) to reflect the intervals. When actually taking the observations. T d 5 and Tips for Today's Project Manager 7 . Determine the skewness. In a normal curve. If the observations produce a skewed or asymmetrical curve. For a normal curve. between +3 sigma. then use the median to determine the measure of central tendency. then use the mean to determine the measure of central tendency. Determine the purpose of generating a bell-shaped curve. frequency distribution. the values fall within a specific area under the curve. and 99 percent. 95 percent. between +2 sigma.BELL-SHAPED CURVE The bell-shaped curve is also known as the normal curve of distribution. The bell-shaped curve lays the groundwork for performing a host of statistical calculations. Plot the frequency of occurrences. for Developing and Using a Bell-Shaped Curve Obtain a frequency distribution. Draw a y-axis (vertical line) to reflect the cumulate frequency of occurrence for each interval. These calculations include sampling. producing the shape of a bell. and dispersion. The concept behind the curve is that a sufficient number of randomly selected observations will fall in the middle. If the observations produce a bell-shaped or symmetrical curve. the plotting of the observations may be skewed or asymmetrical. probability. 68 percent of the values fall between +1 sigma. This reflects bias in the selection. Determine the class intervals for grouping the data.
Bell-Shaped Cuwe (symmetrical) Skewed Cuwe (asymmetrical) Figure 2 Samples of Bell-Shaped Curves Tools and 77ps for Today3 Project Manager .
it requires documentation of existing practices. Determine the objectives of the benchmarking. The key to effective benchmarking is to use reliable. One. Remain consistent and objective when applying the criteria. The criteria should be applied consistently. objective criteria when comparing and evaluating processes and practices. Develop criteria for selecting firms. Develop criteria for comparing and evaluating firms. Tools and ?ips for Today3 Project Manager . it identifies best practices. Benchmarking provides three advantages. Two. Three.BENCHMARKING Benchmarking is a tool for identifying processes and comparing them to determine best practices. Document the existing process. Identify the best practices. it encourages people to think about better ways of doing business.
Find a place isolated from distractions. norms. equipment. The world. however. social mores. Thus. places constraints on creativity in the form of role-playing. rank them from most to least important. When conducting the session. and laws. Brainstorming is a technique that will help overcome constraints and release creativity in people. Select the best idea(s) via consensus. After identifying all the ideas. and so on. It is an approach that engenders creative ideas from people by foregoing prejudices that lead to condemning any new idea. eliminate the nonvalue-added ones. 10 Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . History is replete with examples of people facing tremendous odds when attempting to create.Everyone has the capability to create. say the psychologists and psychiatrists. With the remaining ideas. make sure no derisive comments occur. Ensure the place is replete with supplies. constraints inhibit creativity. Identify the participants.
g. Draw a y-axis to reflect the cumulative costs. and so on.. The advantage of the breakeven analysis is to determine when the new product or service will be more economical than the existing one. service. service. Draw a line reflecting the costs of the proposed product. determine Identify the point where t:he two lines inter the payback period. and so on. and so forth. and so on. quarters. equal the costs of the proposed one. months. and so on.Breakeven analysis is determining when the costs of the existing product. Determine the costs for the proposed product. service. over time. Draw a graph to illustrate the relationship between the two. service. Draw a line reflecting the costs of the existing product. I I d for Performing a Breakeven Analysis Determine the costs for existing product. Draw an x-axis to reflect the time continuum (e. The point where the two costs equal each other is called the breakeven point. and identify the breakeven point. I Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 11 . years). service. over time.
Breakeven Analysis for Widgets 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 Income-Cumulative S In Thousands CostCumulative 6 8 10 Number of Units Sold Figure 3 Breakeven Analysis Graph for Nu Product K Tools and Tips for Tday's Project Manager .
or causes. Logically draw a line from a cause. a way exists to identify the causes of a problem that avoids repeating the process described above. Once you think you know the cause of the problem. you apply the treatment but discover that you've treated the symptom. It's called a cause-and-effect graph. a Note: A combination of several causes may exist to create an effect. Assign a unique identifier to each cause. So. T d s and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . You can pinpoint the cause of a problem and make the appropriate change rather than taking a SCUD-missile approach. Identifying causes and effects prior to implementing a solution saves you time and effort. for Developing a Cause-and-Effect Graph Identiftrall possible causes. You have to sift through hundreds. even thousands.CAUSE-AND-EFFECT GRAPH Analyzing today's business problems and distinguishing between causes and symptoms can prove virtually impossible. You can then test each cause and effect to determine if a relationship exists. Fortunately. Assign a unique identifier to each effect. of pieces of information. A cause-and-effect graph is a visual tool that reflects the interrelationships between causes and effects. to an appropriate effect. you repeat this process until you've addressed the right cause. which entails shooting at your target and hoping for a hit. a Identify all the possible effects of each cause.
_. Management Support Effect 4. Low Output Figure 4 Cause-and-Effect Graph Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .---_-----. Absenteeism ---. 5 Intermediate Causes 3..--2 -----Causes 1.-• ---. Employee Turnover 2.3.' ---. Performance Errors 5.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . A smart approach is to assign a backup who acts on your behalf while you're gone. a Select who will be the team leaders. w Support the chain of command throughout the endeavor. If you're the head of a chain of command and you disappear for awhile. or personality.g. Having a chain of command seems like commonsense to most business professionals. Establishing a formal chain of command in an organization or for your project will ensure continuity and engender responsibility and accountability.g. Yet many organizations operate without one. however. This circumstance arises because emergent leaders (that is. talent. a chain of command does form. w Evaluate the characteristics (e. those lacking formal authority) take charge by virtue of their skill.. It also establishes who is reporting to whom. Communicate the chain of command to everyone. perhaps through an organization chart. training) of the people. Identify the people available to support you. personality) and qualities (e. is necessary because it ensures coordination and communication among people in an organization. You can rest knowing that someone is filling your shoes while you do something else..CHAIN OF COMMAND The chain of command. Inevitably. keeping in mind span of control. you can cause havoc because the boss is out. also referred to as the formal pecking order. for Developing a Chain of Command w Identify the goals of your endeavor. education. even if informally.
you can be proactive rather than reactive. Toolsand Tips f r Today3 Project Manager o . for Developing a Change Control Sheet m Identify the source for a blank change control sheet. description. Perhaps the biggest advantage. List the essential information to be recorded on the sheet. You complete the change control sheet for each change and store completed sheets in a three-ring binder. your answer is yes. Identify the destination for a double-sided change control sheet. w Determine the desired number of copies of a completed sheet and what to do with them. too. that is. and actual implementation date. One way to manage changes is through a change control sheet. however. or product. you needed a way to manage such changes. You can then take a rational approach to handling change. is that the change control sheet allows you to manage change rather than it manage you. More than likely.CHANGE CONTROL SHEET Think about the past. The change control sheet records changes you released to your report. s d h a r e . disposition change. requested date change. like a report or software program. you had to change it? More than likely. The change control sheet offers two main advantages. Each sheet should capture the source of the change and submission date. Develop instructions for the sheet. and as soon as you released it. Have you ever developed something at work. It provides a historical record of changes made and offers you an opportunity to control changes and prioritize them. criticality.
Source Submission Date Requested Date change Approved by / Date Disposition Change Other Areas / Interfaces Effected Remarks Processing of Raw Material at Station 100 October 10.19XX October I 5.19XX Purchasing (order quantity levels) None Table 2 Change Control Sheet for Manufacturing Unit A .19XX October 1 1.19XX M. Overseer / October 10.
or corrective. it encourages anticipating the impact of a change and taking appropriate actions to minimize or preclude negative impacts. w Establish criteria for prioritizing changes. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Second. w Establish criteria for categorizing changes. and evaluating changes. Second. for Change Management w Select a medium for recording changes. prioritizing. and so on. and it is easy to react to it. minor priority. A better way to approach change is to manage it. least of all a project environment. The benefits of change management are threefold. First. First. rather than react. requirements. or not a priority. Establish a change board for categorizing. it sets up a change board. and decide their fate. such as major. Third. Document and communicate the change management process. Third. training programs. The purpose of the board is to categorize and prioritize changes. it provides a means for placing changes into categories. Change is common. usually consisting of two or more individuals. The way to do that is to establish policies and procedures for identifying and evaluating changes. documents. whether to designs. evaluate them. Effective change management has three characteristics. it instills confidence in everyone that the project manager has control of the project. minor. to changes. w Document a change from identification to its eventual disposition. it provides a means for prioritizing a change. it may determine whether a change is an immediate priority.CHANGE MANAGEMENT Nothing remains static. for example. it allows the project manager and the team to respond.
Determine the type (e. uncluttered and readable) and concise and should require little or no explanation. ensuring clarity and conciseness. for Developing Charts and Graphs w w w w Determine the purpose. legend. They also ease analysis and evaluation. ensure the audience can see and read it. histograms. Add a title. line graphs. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . legend.g. Prepare the chart or graph. flowcharts. bar chart). If used in a presentation. They can communicate information more effectively than text and can display information more compactly. At a minimum. It should also include a title. Define the audience. and date. Some examples of charts and graphs include line graphs.. and date.C H AAND GRAPHS ~ Charts and graphs are visual ways to display data. bar charts. and maps. an effective chart or graph should be clear (that is. Charts and graphs provide many benefits. pie charts.
for Developing Checklists w w w a Identify the major categories of topics. you'll find that the time spent building them will never exceed the time saved using them. Under each category.CHECKLISTS Nobody cari remember or think of everything. medicine. It serves as a reminder to perform some activity or to review something. An excellent way to overcome that frailty is to develop checklists. A checklist is nothing more than a listing of items related to a particular subject. You can organize checklists in many ways. It is just one of our shortcomings as human beings. or randomly. You can use checklists for routine and nonroutine tasks or inspections. Checklists serve many purposes. That is. list items of relevance. Periodically review the checklist to determine your progress. and they ensure consistency of action if more than one person performs the action. education. are available to everyone with access to them long after the author departs. however. you can arrange their contents chronologically. therefore. especially for people with declining memories. Tools and Tips forToday's Project Manager . the items in the checklist are recorded and. No matter how you organize checklists. and facilities maintenance. No matter what your profession (military. and so on). including physical security. You can also use checklists for any topic. They prevent oversights. computing equipment. you can use them. uiminal justice. sequentially. alphabetically. They also prevent reinventing the wheel. For example. List the categories in order of descending importance. Arrange the items within each category in descending order.
Take minutes of the meeting. it pays to stop work. Gather input from the attendees about the agenda. Determine the date. time. Gather input from the attendees about the date. you can do the same thing through a checkpoint review meeting. and location of the meeting.CHECKPOINT REVIEW MEETING Sometimes. Determine the topic(s). and location. You can then determine what did and did not go well. A checkpoint review meeting occurs at the conclusion of major tasks or phases in your project. time. When working on a project. Twls and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 21 . Identify the list of attendees. You not only evaluate what did and did not go well. for Developing a Checkpoint Review Meeting Develop an agenda. and reflect on the progress you've made. pause. but you also decide whether to proceed or take a different approach. Publish the minutes.
a Identify the relationships among the components. or just about anything else into varying levels of components and subcomponents. a Identify what shared elements create relationships among the components (i. and allows for easier assignments. many people do not fathom that concept. for Chunking a Take a big picture view of the subject. Determine the major components of the subject.CHUNKING How do you stir-fry an elephant? Easy. Chunking entails dividing a topic. paying close attention to natural divisions. Chunking improves understandability. they take on a topic to write about in an article or manage a project that's so large they're doomed from the start. You cut it up into manageable pieces. MicrocomputerDesktop Configuration Hardware _________^_________ Memory System Random Read-only Software Storage A e 1 Tape Diskette L k Operating Utilities A Application Word Processing Project Management Spreadsheet Figure 5 Chunking for a Microcomputer Desktop Configuration 22 Tools and Tips for Todayf Project Manager . furthers traceability. commonalties). system. enables better tackling of effort.. Instead. Unfortunately.e.
The formal structure is reflected in an organization chart that displays the reporting relationships among individuals or business units. Compile the statistics. It also assists in determining where to apply technology that could enhance communication between individuals. Generate conclusions from the data (e. A communication diagram shows the interactions. However. or level of communications. areas for improvement). such as an office. for Developing a Communication Diagram H H H H H Identify all the major participants in the communication process on the diagram. Determine the length of time and the medium for monitoring communications among participants. It will help in identifying who communicates with whom.g. you can identify and document informal relationships by developing a communication diagram. it helps you identify political alliances and learn how to use them to your advantage. No such chart exists to reflect the informal power structure or the relationships that exist between individuals without the formal endorsement of management.Management experts have long speculated that two organizational structures exist in most business environments-formal and informal structure. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . The communication diagram helps you to determine the primary and secondary communications occurring in a workplace and to decide whether to change existing patterns. Have the participants record their communications with each other. Finally.. between two or more individuals in a specific setting.
Social Events Figure 6 Communication Diagram for Department Z Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
contract terms). 2. and it controls costs and schedule slides via evaluation. Good configuration practices require setting up an infrastructure to support all five phases of the life cycle for configuration management. 4. Maintain a good audit trail. It also provides an audit trail for analyzing causes to problems. Configuration management offers many benefits. These practices are set up early in a project and are followed throughout the project life cycle.. developing lessons learned. Determine the standards for evaluations (e. and conducting project reviews and audits. Provide infrastructure for capturing and evaluating changes. schedule. 3. Define the standards. 5. It falls under the rubric of change management. Publish reports regularly. It reduces the opportunity for scope creep. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 25 . A typical life cycle for configuration management observes the following 1.CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT Configuration management is a formalized discipline for setting and managing changes to baselines. Publish changes. Document requests for changes. and performance baselines. Evaluate changes. Record results. Follow accounting of configuration elements. Establish and follow procedures for configuration documenting and reporting.g. for Configuration Management Establish cost.
not the symptoms. is to manage conflict. is a tool that can offer many advantages. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . It can exist between people and organizations. The key. w w w w Keep personalities out of the conflict. Address the cause. for Conflict Management w Recognize that conflict is neither good nor bad. It can help identify important issues and can cause resolution to occur. Identify the cause of the conflict. Assess the facts. w Monitor the situation. but managing it is especially difficult between two or more people. Seek consensus of the cause of the problem and the eventual solution. Look at the big picture. It can also spark new ideas for improvement and can generate enthusiasm for a particular endeavor.CONFLIC~ ANAGEMENT M Conflict will always occur. it cannot be avoided and will always be present in some form. Maintain objectivity. however. Unfortunately. Conflict management. even after resolution of the conflict. not the persons. not conflict avoidance or confrontation. and keep it constantly in mind.
for Selecting Consultants Ask for references and history. Selecting a good consultant offers several benefits. accumulating productivity gains. Conduct periodic review sessions with consultants. Select from a list of consultants. reliable consultant can be worth its weight in gold. T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Consider personality attributes. including gaining invaluable advice and insights.CONSULTANT SELECTION Finding a good. One challenge is that hiring a good consultant is difficult primarily due to a dearth of information about the person. and applying incorrect advice. the penalties for selecting the wrong one can be high and may involve disrupting the permanent workforce. Not surprisingly. incurring excessive charges. Know the terms and conditions of the contract. Avoid relying solely on cost. Define clearly the service or deliverables or both. and avoiding high overhead attributed to hiring permanent staff.
Description Criticality Probability of Occurance Possible Responses Consequences of Each Response Failure to Meet Service Levels High Moderate 1. often a form. complete a plan to help you take the right response in the future. high) for each one. and time. Hire In-House Staff 1. Temporary Agreement with Another Vendor 2. In other words. such as for problems or circumstances related to people. High Cost 2.g. Determine the possible responses. that captures anticipated problems.A contingency plan is a document. determines their criticality. Absorb Overhead Table 3 Contingency Plan for Outsourcing Agreement Tmlsand Tips for Today's Project Manager . If a scenario arises that you failed to account for. it is a method for not getting caught with your pants down. and presents any appropriate responses. Determine the likelihood of occurrence (e. equipment.. low. for Developing a Contingency Plan m Identify all the possible scenarios that can occur. Before beginning any project. consider completing contingency plans for every possible scenario and storing them in a three-ring binder. facilities. money. I You can develop contingency plans for just about any subject. m Determine the impact of each one. Identify the most important scenarios according to predefined criteria. supplies.
Three varieties of contracts exist--cost-plus, fixed price, and time and The cost-plus contract requires payment of costs incurred for the service provided. In some circumstances, pure cost-plus contracts can be modified to include fixed, incentive, and award clauses. The fixed price contract requires paying a specified amount for the service provided. In some circumstances, pure fmed price contracts can be modified to include escalation, redetermination, and incentive clauses. The time and material contract requires payment for services using a specified labor rate (e.g., hourly) and materials cost. A well-written contract offers three benefits. One, it prevents miscommunication between the major parties. Two, it prevents rework that results from misunderstandings. Three, it reduces the cost impact of fixes since the opportunity for rework has lessened.
Ensure that no ambiguities exist in the contract by clarifying all terms and conditions in writing. Prior to contract negotiation, determine requirements, particularly must-haves and nice-to-haves. Obtain solid, expert advice on legal and subject matters prior to signing the contract. Use the contract to develop the statement of work (or understanding). Periodically revisit the contract to determine compliance. w Determine the risks associated with each contract type.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
Controlling is ensuring that a project occurs according to plan. Of particular note are variances between what was planned and what has occurred. There are several obvious advantages for controlling projects. One, it ensures effective accomplishment of goals and objectives. Two, it encourages more efficient accomplishment of goals and objectives. Three, it prevents crisis management from becoming a routine affair. Four, it enables consistent, realistic determination of priorities in a dynamic environment.
Hold frequent meetings with key participants. Keep a constant finger on the pulse of the project's performance (e.g., cost, schedule, quality). Maintain a project database to track and monitor performance. Apply good change- and problem-management techniques.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
for Performing a Cost/Benefit Analysis
Define the current and proposed product, service, and so on. List all major assumptions for the analysis. Calculate the investment, implementation, and operating costs. Perform a breakeven analysis. Calculate the payback period. Calculate the rate of return. Calculate the net present value. Perform the calculations for different scenarios. Evaluate the differences among the scenarios. List recommendations. Select the most appropriate recommendation.
Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager
Determining the cost of a product, service, and so forth, involves calculating a combination of three variables: investment, implementation, and operations. The investment costs are the initial monies invested in the product or service to get it started, such as buying hardware. Implementation costs are costs incurred while getting the product or service implemented, such as labor. Operating costs are recurring costs, or those needed to keep the service or product available and ongoing. . Knowing the costs of a product or service enables calculating other formulas for a costhenefit study, calculations that include the payback period and net present value.
for Determining the Cost of a Product or Service
Exactly define the product, service, and so on. Determine the elements that comprise each of the major cost categories (investments, implementation, and operating costs). Calculate the annual or cumulative costs. For annual costs: C (Investment and Implementation Costs) + Yearly Operating Costs
Life of the Product, Service, and so on.
u For cumulative costs:
Z (Investment and Implementation Costs) Yearly Operating Costs)
+ (Number of Years *
Where C means the summation of
Tools and Tips for Today'sProject Manager
CRISIS ANAGEMENT M
Sometimes all hell breaks loose. Order turns into chaos. No one is in control. Sound familiar? It should. It's called a crisis, and if you're not careful, it can overwhelm you. What you must do is handle a crisis in a manner that allows proaction rather than reaction. The way to accomplish this feat is through crisis management. Typically, people react to a crisis. They implement a solution to satisfy short-term needs and treat the symptoms rather than the causes. Such reactions only quell the crisis instead of solving it, and they cause a crisis to reerupt later when the circumstances encourage it.
for Crisis Management
w Remove the emotional content from the situation. Gather the facts and data of the situation. Look at the big picture. Define the problem. w Identify the possible causes. Determine the true cause(s). Develop a solution that addresses the cause(s). w Implement the solution. Seek feedback. w Make revisions, as necessary.
Tools and Tips for Today's Projert Manager
For each entry in the form. priority. person assigned. Archive the items over time. Write the items in the log. suspense date. the entries are items not included in the work breakdown structure or schedule. Date: Actual Date Person Suspense Completion Identifier Description Assigned Assigned Date Date Comments 001 Machine Q January 3 Critical to Delivery Mr. description. for a Critical Issues/Action ltems Log Identify the critical issues/action items. there are accompanying pieces of information: unique number. Big January I 9 January 31 Recalculate Mean Time Between Failures Table 4 Critical Issues/Action ltems Log for Machine Shop L Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . The benefits of the log include raising visibility to the entries.CRITICAL ISSUES/ACTION LOG ITEMS The aitical issues/action items log is a form that you complete to record significant actions to perform in the future. actual completion date. date assigned. and serving as a record their completion or incompletion. Often. and comments. generating commitment to resolving them.
These functions are called uitical success factors (CSF). supplies. You can only identify those functions. will it affect the overall performance of the business? If your answer is yes. w Determine which processes need improvement. To identify a CSF. that affect the bottom line. and attention. w Rank the processes in descending order according to importance in achieving the goal. After identifying CSFs. you must ask yourself this simple question: If that function fails. facilities. For instance. money. or processes. especially the most important ones. Toolsand Tips for Today's Projm Manager . w Identify the processes or tasks for achieving the goal.CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS When analyzing or solving a business problem. you cannot possibly understand every detail. you give priority to CSFs when allocating time. Implement the improvements. you also prioritize them when allocating resources. for Determining Critical Success Factors w Identify the main goal of your activity. you can then concentrate on fixing or improving that function as opposed to the ones of lesser significance.
you rank each task according to priority. Priority 3 Completed by 4 P. Using this listing. for Determining the Daily Priority Task Listing w w w w Determine the overall goals to achieve for the day. Besides helping you manage your time and set your priorities. For each task. After completing each task. have been met. you also set a tentative completion time.The daily priority task listing shows all activities or tasks that you must complete on a particular day.M. it also gives a historical record of your performance. The advantages to the daily priority task listing are many.M. Set a certain time to accomplish the goal. record your initial next to it. Task Status of Jigundo Account with Melissa New mice Furniture Resolution with Mike Budget Resolution for Next Quarterwith Rick Joint Merger with MeggaCorp(business plan) with Tonya 4 4 P. Conduct a follow-up review with yourself to determine whether the goals. This information will also help you evaluate your work performance and identify your accomplishments. Noon Table 5 Daily Priority Task Listing for My Corporation 36 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .M. 2 1 3 P. especially the most important ones. Rank the goals according to descending importance.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . current. not information overload. is useful. what you and other people need is information. Verify the accuracy of the information. Information. and meaningful. Data have none of these characteristics. Put the information into a comprehensible format. relevant. information is transformed data. Information. If they wanted to communicate their message. fl I for Managing Data and Information Identify what information you need and why. is data that are processed into some meaningful form. they probably succeeded. How many times have you read a report filled with facts and figures that added little to the substance of the document? Or attended a presentation where the speaker provided slides and charts crammed with superfluous data? If the writer and speaker wanted to confuse you and others.What we face today is data overload. Remember. therefore. Organize the data according to some criteria or a criterion. This distinction is important because many people confuse the two. then they probably failed. Identify what data are necessary to get the information. however. Data are facts and figures that have no meaning in themselves. The distinction is quite subtle but has a big impact on our lives. Search the data for the desired information. not data. Hence.
and. if necessary. Select the alternative for achieving each objective. avoid loss of objectivity. Determine specific objectives that are based on the goal. Take the emotions out of the situation. trust your intuition. treat it as an assumption until you can confirm its status. w Monitor performance in achieving objectives. recognize all constraints imposed on decision-making capabilities. Define the specific goal you want to achieve from the decision. w Develop alternatives to achieve the objectives. w Evaluate alternatives to achieve the objectives. Finally. if doubt still exists. making a decision is not dreadful if you follow some simple guidelines. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . such as schedule or budget. First. for Effective Decision-Making w Look at the big picture."Decisions! Decisions! Decisions!" is the cry of people who loathe even the idea of making a decision. Second. distinguish between assumptions and facts. Yet. but if any doubt exists over whether a piece of information is a fact or an assumption. w Take corrective action.
000 Greater than $1.a. yes or no). Rules Conditions Actions Less than or Equal to $1. It is an illustrative tool used in handling the mass of information bombarding you when making a decision. Basically. Decision tables are often used with--or in place of-procedures that address circumstances when many conditions exist that require a unique action.. determine whether the action should be taken (e.000 Maintain existing contracts Investigate new contracts Upgrade existing equipment Purchase new equipment X X Table 6 Decision Table for Facilities Group Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Develop a table with the conditions listed in the top row and the actions listed in the left-most column. It shows what actions to take in response to one or more conditions.A decision table eases decision-making. a decision table shows the conditions requiring action and the appropriate responses to one or more of those conditions. for Developing a Decision Table Identifv all the conditions that might exist. Where a condition intersects with an action in the table.
Later. and they may be compressed into a decision table. Sometimes decision trees become so long that you end up producing a voluminous number of pages. rn Logically draw lines reflecting the sequence of conditions and the appropriate actions to take for each condition. Some people use decision trees during planning sessions in a large room where they tape or paste the diagrams on a wall. Note: Each condition should have at least two actions from which to choose. for Developing a Decision Tree rn Identify all the conditions that might exist. Identify all the possible actions to take in response to a given set of conditions. Provide vehicle from existing fleet Fleet vehicle available? drive more than 50 thousand miles Purchase new vehicle for fleet Provide rental Figure 7 Decision Tree for Fleet Vehicle Opportunity Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . the decision tree is converted to a decision table for incorporation into a document. They are used to determine actions in response to given situations. One benefit of a decision tree is that it gives a visual depiction of all the conditions and actions of a decision. They are also easy to construct and follow.DECISION TREE Decision trees make decision-making easier by identifying a series of conditions and actions.
w Follow up periodically on the results being achieved. They know how to allow people to manage and conduct tasks so they can concentrate on other matters. Identify the desired characteristics of the delegatee. However. Remember that you can delegate work but not responsibility.Effective managers know how to delegate. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Delegating tasks helps you and the delegatee. You are the one responsible for ensuring that the delegatee performs the task cost-effectively. delegating is an art and requires will power on your part to make it work. Determine the desired results. offering assistance and providing sufficient information to do the job. Communicate your expectations to the delegatee. for Effective Delegating w Determine exactly what to delegate.
Act makes revisions. It also provides a model that leads to improved performance and is adaptable to a wide number of situations. Do executes the steps of the plan. These are the four basic elements of the Deming Wheel for decision-making. Act. for Applying the Deming Wheel Learn as much about the circumstances as possible. A benefit of the Deming Wheel is that it is a simple model to follow. Plan determines what to achieve. Check obtains feedback. each spin lending a greater level of refinement. Do. Execute the plan (do). The wheel continues to turn. Continue following the wheel to refine the achievement of results. Take corrective action (act).DEMING HEEL W Plan. Figure 8 Deming Wheel 1 42 Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Check. Determine what you want to achieve (plan). Obtain feedback (check).
meaning that the parts are distinct components. w Ensure each component and its interfaces have been tested for reliability. Further. products.g. Develop alternative designs for meeting the customer's requirements. keeping modularity in mind. procedure. however. and the interfaces between the components are standardized and simple. product. It is highly modular. I T d s and lips for Today's Project Manager . they also provide flexibility in responding to the customer's needs. The availability of these options is due to new. Determine the interfaces between the components (e. which are helpful to anyone developing a process.Design is the conceptual.. A well-designed item has several characteristics. basic design-principles. functional. The principles allow for reusability of components for building other processes. Applying these basic design principles offers several benefits. w Determine the overall components. i procedures. offering the customer few options. Key components make up the structural integrity of the overall item. they not only guarantee a high level of quality through the use of tested parts. w Identify the key components and interfaces. designs were inflexible. Today. w Develop standard characteristics and formats for components and interfaces. but they also allow the collection of meuics to measure quality and overall performance. exchange of data). and each part is defect-free prior to its union with the overall item. and physical structure of a system or product. Document the relationship and interfaces among the components. designs increasingly offer customers more options. or systems. In the past. By allowing a m x and match capability. or system-regardless of industry. v for Design Principles w Define the customer's requirements.
g. Make the print legible. Do not use more than nine objects on a page. date. otherwise." Yet too many pictures seem to follow the corollary rather than the Confucian wisdom. for Effective Diagramming Provide a legend. But there is a corollary that he failed to add: 'Rnd a picture shouldn't take a thousand words to explain. title. They also prevent misunderstandings that often arise from text. page number). the Chinese scholar. Provide useful header information (e. Leave plenty of white space. only to emphasize a point. The benefits of pictures are many. Use color sparingly. 1 44 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Use symbols consistently. it clutters the screen.." once noted Confucius. and they encourage questions that further clarify the message.'R picture is worth a thousand words. They communicate a lot of information in a short period of time.
they only fill in the details according to the organization of the template. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Developing Document Templates w Identify the major segments of the document. When using templates. People can then complete the report according to the template. w Build the template using a word processing package. w Arrange the details within each segment into some logical order (e. w Divide each segment into finer detail. You can provide report templates in many ways. main body.. time). usually consisting of an introduction. and they complete the documents according to those outlines. w Note: Always archive the master file. spatial. Templates also save time because people do not spend time developing a document from scratch.Many people frequently produce report templates or outlines of documents.g. people will find reports more readable due to the improved organization. People will then complete the applicable template and print the document. and conclusion. Or you can store the templates on a diskette and distribute the diskette to those who need it. w Use cut and paste to reuse parts of the template. Templates not only provide standardization and facilitate reading of reports. You can develop master copies of templates and have people photocopy them as needed. but they also reduce the chance of miscommunication.
or value of the work completed. One. it is a reliable tool for measuring the efficiency of a project from a cost and schedule perspective. earned value is not widely used. A value greater than 1. It uses three variables to evaluate performance: w budgeted cost for work scheduled (BCWS) w budgeted cost for work performed (BCWP) w actual cost for work performed (ACWP). A value less than 1. The difference between the BCWS and the BCWP indicates the degree of schedule variance. However. it can be generated easily through popular project-arrangement software programs. These three variables are used to calculate cost variance (CV) and schedule variance (SV).ACWP The schedule variance is calculated using this formula: SV = BCWP . Two. it can be displayed in tabular or graphical form to show the relationship between A C W BCWS.0 indicates efficient schedule or cost performance. Tools and Tips for Tday's Project Manager . Three. The schedule and cost variance can be converted into indices indicating (behind or ahead of) schedule or cost.0 indicates inefficient schedule or cost performance. Earned value offers three benefits.EARNED VALUE Earned value is evaluating project performance via the relationships between cost and schedule. and BCWP. The cost variance is calculated using this formula: CV = BCWP . valid status collection methods. respectively. The differences between the plot lines for the BCWS and ACWP indicate the degree of cost variance. it requires some previous training or experience.BCWS A cumulative plot (see Figure 10) is generated for A C W B C W and BCWS. The differences between the plot lines for ACWP and BCWP indicate the earned value. and it involves self-discipline in employing consistent.
for Using Earned Value w Establish cost and schedule baselines for a project. Regularly plot or calculate the values for A C W BCWS. and BCWP. reliable status collection methods. Use earned value to determine whether corrective action or replanning is necessary.ACWP = Cost Variance ACWP .BCWP = Schedule Variance Time Figure 10 Cumulative Plot of Earned Value Tools and 'lips for Today% Project Manager .BCWP = Earned Value BCWS . BCWS ACWP Cumulative Funds BCWP BCWS . w Employ consistent.
Calculate the cost for implementing each alternative. by adding. Indeed. Tools and 'Tpsfor Today's Project Manager . after the fact. you want equilibrium between efficiency and effectiveness in whatever you do. Reduce expenditures by another 10 percent!" cries management. Select the alternative that provides the desired level of cost savings.EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Efficiency is how much waste results from your activities. Too much emphasis on effectiveness can lead to wasteful expenditures. Ideally. the business world emphasizes efficiency. Determine the desired levels of cost savings you want to achieve. "Cut here. or resequencing the tasks. Cut there. Determining the effectiveness of an organization often remains an abstract concept until year-end when performance assessment occurs. deleting. Identify the different ways to achieve the goals. Monitor how well the tasks achieve the overall goal. you 'want to maximize the attainment of your goals. w Put the tasks in a sequence. if necessary. Determine the tasks to execute the selected alternatives. Effectiveness is how well you are achieving your goals. Seek moderation in achieving both. Take corrective action. Typically. Ideally. everyone realizes what was efficient but not effective and vice versa. Ideally. sometimes the two can conflict. changing. Take action by following the sequence of tasks. Then the assessment arrives too late. for Achieving Efficiency and Effectiveness w Determine the overall goal of the endeavor. Too much emphasis on efficiency results in cheap and shoddy performance. you want to minimize waste to achieve high efficiency.
T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . E-mail offers several benefits.. rn Respond to messages within a reasonable time (e. and send messages). When creating messages. the downsides to E-mail are its tendency toward information overload. setting aside time to read.g. It communicates information quickly and efficiently and keeps communication open. even when senders and receivers are separated by great distances. However. It also allows people to budget their time (e. Include source and destination when creating messages. spam (unwanted messages). Make backup copies of important E-mail messages. people can send and receive electronic messages. conciseness.E-MAIL W1th the rise of distributed computing. E-mail has become a mainstay of business communications.Just about anywhere in the world. logic). create. Web technology. practice principles of good business writing (e.g. for Using E-mail Establish a set time each day to send and generate messages. clarity.. and groupware. Read or create the most important message first. and wading through superfluous messages.g. within twenty-four hours).. creating a global village in the truest sense. Delete any unnecessary messages.
where. the high level people who endorse the change. In other words. Implement the idea(s). start small and keep the scale manageable. Change involves three types of people: change agents. Obtain top management support for your proposal. implementing change-whether needed or not-becomes difficult. Performing functions becomes more important than achieving goals. for instance. In this type of organization. you will upset the status quo and face resistance from individuals or groups benefiting from entropy. All three play an important. and how. change targets. why. and change sponsors. people who receive the change. Take corrective action. change targets. Monitor performance. people who introduce change. meaning that organizational energy has a tendency toward inertness. Entropy often occurs after an organization has achieved its goals in the past and then chooses to rest on its laurels. wha w w w w w when. T d 5 and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Ove~oming Entropy w Develop a proposal for your idea by identifying the who. With any idea. it grows fat fiom prosperity. and change sponsors. if necessary. Identify change agents.ENTROPY Have you ever worked in an organization that lacked energy? One that seemed more interested in following its own internal rules and standards than operating to fulfill its reason for existence? This organizational lethargy is called entropy. interrelated role in successfully overcoming entropy in an organization. If you want to change a procedure.
and you and your colleagues can schedule your time accordingly. By reviewing earlier logs. You know when people will use the equipment. Name Start Date Start Time Stop Date Stop Time 12 A. It is kept on a clipboard. Identify the destination for a completed log. a person specifically records her name. Develop instructions for the log. or in a three-ring binder. Finally.An equipment usage log tracks how and when equipment is. and will be used. you can also determine the extent to which people used the equipment and can decide whether additional equipment is necessary. for Developing an Equipment Usage Log 4 Identify the source for a blank log. and an explanation for using the equipment. The equipment usage log offers several advantages. next to the equipment and is completed daily. List the essential information to be recorded on the log.M.M. the actual or planned start and' stop dates (including time frames). you can determine whether people use the equipment for the right reasons. has been. Explanation Melissa November 7 2:30 P. In the log. November 8 Diagnostic Testing and Repair Table 7 Equipment Usage Log for Machine Shop Y Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Determine the desired number of copies of a completed log and what to do with them.
it involves more than speaking before an audience.FACILITATION (WORKSHOPS) Facilitation is a key skill used in workshops that have a specific objective to achieve. Remain objective and focused. produces consensus on major issues. w Set up parking lots for issues you will return to later in the workshop. for Facilitation (Workshops) w w w w w w w Invite the right attendees. Establish checkpoints throughout the workshop to determine satisfaction of participants. It generates cornrnitment to the results. Encourage participation from everyone. and encourages information sharing and communications. It also requires maintaining objectivity while simultaneously steering attendees A well-facilitated workshop offers three benefits. Ask a scribe to take notes. Twls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . w Be prepared (e. Thus.. Obtain consensus on key issues.g. have equipment and supplies available). Follow an agenda.
Determine which smaller problems contribute to the overall major problem. That statement has special relevancy when analyzing business practices to identify and remove problems. The benefits of the fishbone diagram are many. Then. For each criterion. and machines-the four Ms. Methods \ Machines Lack of Standards \. material. On each line for a criterion. methods. for Developing a Fishbone Diagram w Draw a horizontal line through the center of page and then w w w w write a two. Determine criteria for evaluating the problem.or three-word description of theproblem. and connect it to the horizontal line. record problems associated with it. It is easy to prepare and encourages collaboration among all the people involved in the process being analyzed. One way to accomplish this is by using the fishbone technique. determine what contributes to the major problem and develop the appropriate solution.mnterchangeable Below Glade Material Untrained Opentors Manpower Material Numerous Processing Errors Figure 11 Fishbone Diagram for Machine Shop L 54 Tools and Tips for TodaysProject Manager .Someone once said that nothing exists that cannot be improved. repeat this until you have one line for each criterion. It also serves as a basis for preparing procedures and is useful for analyzing a wide number of process problems. Draw a line at an angle. The technique requires assuming that you can analyze a major business problem by looking at four criterion: manpower. identify problems associated with it.
in one simple sentence. For each W. where. All procedures and events involve people. Answering the five Ws helps you acquire that information. what. you have sufficient information to make decisions or conduct further inquiry. For instance. record what you know and even what you do not know. For the latter. what. and why. and why.The five Ws are who. Or you can combine one or more of the three methods. have a reason for existence. Armed with answers to the five Ws. You can obtain information that answers the five Ws in several ways. You can conduct interviews. and so on. develop questionnaires. and accomplish something. conduct follow-up questions to obtain the answers you need. where. On a sheet of paper or using computer software. I Twls and Tips forToday's Project Manager 55 . occur at a certain time and place. process. list the five Ws: who. when. when. You can use the five Ws to find information when conducting research. I 1 ' for Defining the Five Ws Describe a situation. you can use it to obtain information regarding an undocumented procedure or an event that has occurred. or review documentation. Be sure to leave enough space between each one to record information.
w Track performance to determine whether productivity gains have been realized.9 A. w Revise policies and procedures to reflect flextime arrangements. and it increases morale and productivity.5 P. for Using Flextime w Set guidelines for maximizing benefits. . however.. Emphasize that variable hours are for routine work. Everyone works a core set of hours. which ensures the availability of all people for a specific time period. 8 A.M. .M. Flexible Hours Core Hours Flexible Hours Table 8 Flextime Example Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . .M.FLEXTIME Flextime is providing variable working hours for employees. which allows them to arrive and depart from work within a window of time (e.6 P. 5 P. plus-orminus one or two hours).g. w Establish core and variable hours. Flextime reduces absenteeism and overtime.M.M. 9 AM.
In essence. and are easily followed. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 57 . w Place a title and page number on each page. Flowcharts are easy to build. and then land. If you want to gather information for a flowchart. the map was their version of a flowchart. They also clarify points of confusion and use less verbiage to explain a process. pilots in monoplanes flew routes according to sketches. such as a barn. They are easily constructed. w Use active verbs plus an object to describe what each symbol means. and then would correlate it with what was shown on the map. or you can take an existing narrative procedure and draw the flowchart while reading the document. They would fly east. It is best to restrict the number of symbols to nine or less (excluding arrows). looking for an open field with a light. for Flowcharting w Identify the process to diagram. Flowcharts are essentially maps that illustrate the sequenced tasks and events of a procedure or process through the use of symbols. you can do it in two ways. w Note: Concentrate on sequence when drawing. They would spot an object on the ground. The map might also direct the pilot to fly northeast for three minutes. w Ensure the print is legible. You can draw them by hand using a template or with a microcomputer equipped with graphics software. for example. Provide a legend. I Avoid putting too many symbols on a sheet.FLOWCHARTING In the days prior to navigational equipment. You can interview people and sketch the flowchart as people speak. if not lengthy. looking at their hand-drawn map and at the ground. w Draw the flowchart from left-to-right or top-to-bottom or both.
Despite some people's dream of a paperless office, the reality is that forms are still present and have even proliferated in most offices. Like Gresham's law on money, the bad outweighs the good. If you agree that forms will remain and increase in quantity, then you will agree that they should be well designed with the following characteristics. Forms must be clear and concise and should have a source and destination. They should also contain a completion date, instructions (other than "Fill in the information below"), logical field flow, approval section, form number, and latest issue date. Forms are beneficial for capturing and retaining information. They also provide an excellent audit trail and are reproducible.
rn Determine the user of the form. Determine the people who will complete the form. rn Provide instructions for completing and submitting the form. w Ensure that the form has a unique number and the latest issue date.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
Quite often, data come into the office in what seems like piles. Somehow, you must turn that data into information. Developing a frequency distribution is one way to do this. A frequency distribution involves categorizing data and then determining how many occurrences appear in each category. The frequency distribution quickly tells you how the data are distributed-that is, what categories hold the most data and which ones hold the least. You can convert the distribution into percentages by dividing the total occurrences into the subtotal for each category and multiply that figure by one hundred; the cumulative percent is one hundred. Armed with these numbers, you can develop preliminary conclusions. You can determine what categories in the distribution have the most importance, assuming the categories with the most occurrences is indicative of those that are most important. You can also determine which categories are the least important and which categories might indicate an anomaly. Then, you can investigate further about the reason for their existence. A frequency distribution offers several benefits. It gives you a handle on large volumes of data. It can also help determine patterns or trends and can facilitate decision-making.
for a Frequency Distribution
r Develop criteria for stratifying data.
Sort the data according to criteria. Plot the data to determine the norm and the anomalies, or calculate the norm to discover the anomalies. Draw conclusions from the information.
Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager
Number of Repairs per Year
Cost of Repairs per Year ($)
Cost per Repair ($)
Percentage of Total Repairs
100 450 1,200 1,750
10 30 60 100
3 6 10
1 50 (45013)
200 (1,200/6) 175( 750/100) 1
Frequency Distribution for Auto Body Shop R
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
In the early 1900s, an industrial engineer named Henry Gantt wanted to display-in calendar days-how long it took to complete a series of tasks. So he developed the Gantt chart, also called a bar chart, and scheduling has never been the same. A Gantt chart is an illustration containing a series of bars showing the calendar, or flow time, for each task. Each bar begins on the left when it starts and ends on the right when it finishes. It may contain other information, too. For example, it may provide an activity description and names of people responsible for completing each task. Although using the bar chart has become popular, it does have its shortcomings. It does not show dependencies or relationships among tasks-for example, which task comes first, then second, and so on. It also does not distinguish between critical and noncritical tasks. Because of its shortcomings, the Gantt chart is not the best tool to manage the details of a project. However, if you want to communicate about schedules with higher management, then the bar chart is a good tool. With the bar chart, you can summarize your detailed schedules because management does not want all of the details, only summary information.
for Developing a Gantt Chart
H H H
Identify the tasks for your project. Determine the flow time for each task. Determine the start and stop time for each task, keeping in mind the sequence of each task. On the left side of the paper, list each task. Draw bars reflecting the flow time for each task, using the start and stop time for each task.
T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager
Task Review request for proposal Respond to proposal Submit best and final offer = Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 - Figure 13 Gantt Chart for Response to Proposal for Company Xn Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager .
Some people use similar terms which have different meanings. Limit the definition of the term to no more than two sentences.g. communication can prove difficult among people working on a project or within an organization... keeping in mind not to use the term in the definition itself.GLOSSARY In an age of specialization. for Developing a Glossary Identify terms that are used in a text (e. It helps to reduce miscommunication and misunderstanding..g. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . and other people use esoteric terms that even experts in the field don't understand! If you're in charge of an organization or a project. If you don't want to develop a glossary. You can include the glossary as part of an administrative or technical manual or as a stand-alone in hard copy or electronic media form. you might consider developing a glossary. boldface or italics) for ease in locating it. or use existing definitions. A glossary offers two advantages.g. and it provides a convenient way for people to find definitions rather than wasting time developing or seeking one. Develop new definitions. Arrange the terms in some order (e. It might contain definitions of terms and acronyms that few people know or understand or are only particular to your environment. alphabetical). The glossary need not be exhaustive. then you might consider purchasing and distributing a technical dictionary that everyone can reference. user manual). Highlight the term (e.
on the other hand. they provide unity of direction for an organization (e. Three. list the objectives. project team). For each goal. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . An example is: "Build a worldclass product. are specific." The advantages of goals and objectives are threefold. company. for Developing and Using Goals and Objectives Define the overall goals you want to achieve. An example is: "Build software modules with a level of quality that is no less than six sigma. measurable items that tell whether the goal has been achieved.g. Publicize the goals and objectives. w Consistently take measurements to track progress. Goals are statements or descriptions of intent that describe what to achieve in the future. One or more objectives lead to the achievement of a goal or several goals." Objectives.GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Contrary to popular belief. they provide a means for determining the effectiveness of work. they provide an ability to track progress. Two. Develop measurements to determine how well the objectives are being met. goals and objectives are not the same.. Ensure that all people involved with the attainment of goals and objectives provide input. One. They are broad rather than specific.
Some people look for ways to simplify life. One way to achieve simplicity is through a process known as grouping. or remove them. Develop a unique category for the anomalies. for Grouping Determine the overall boundary of the data being analyzed. Flag those elements that do not fit within a category. It also facilitates identification of patterns and creates an order out of the data. Having grouped the data.Many people allow themselves to become swamped by details. It reduces complexity and avoids analysis paralysis.. good versus bad data. he then tries to extrapolate the relationships between those groupings. Develop some artificial criteria for categorizing the different elements of what falls within the boundary. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . thereby letting themselves make life more complex than it really is. This person takes the datum and groups it into logical components. Group the elements according to the criteria. The grouping process begins with a person looking at nonsensical data and deciding to make some logical sense of it. i. Grouping offers several benefits.e.
Higher Risk Mass Consumer Testing New Product -Lower Risk Grouped Information Figure 14 Grouping for Nu Product Corporation Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager .New Technology Limited Market Survey Mass Consumer Testing Traditional Manufacturing Techniques High Sales Price Promotional Offering Nonsensical Data Limited Market Survey New Product .
They are based on the concept of generalizations. Anticipate positive and negative consequences. Heuristics are quick.Heuristics are simply rules of thumb for dealing with a given situation. when action needs to be taken. for Heuristics Identify the major elements of an item or situation. inexpensive. The downside is that applying the wrong heuristic can have negative and unforeseen consequences. and effective. Define the problem or situation in a simple sentence. generalizations are made about a given item and situation. They are beneficial when time and money are not available for conducting an indepth analysis. Determine the goal of applying a heuristic. and make preparations to capitalize on the positive and manage the negative. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Identify the fundamental relationships among the elements.
reports. Logically organize the sequence of files. Kept in a manila folder or an electronic file. A history file will be of no use to you or anyone else if it contains partial information or if its contents look like a swirl of paper. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 69 . a project history file contains documentation about a specific project. Just about anything can go in the folder. Finally. You can also trace the progress of your project. Such information is then easily referenced when planning for the future and analyzing the past. You can clarify any ambiguities and answer any questions. for Developing a History File w w w w Prepare a file for each topic. Label each file. including original and revised documents. Keeping a history file provides several advantages. and completed forms. memorandums. you can transfer your project to someone else with minimum difficulty because the other person can read the file and can start on the project early. minutes. statistics. Some documents to include are schedules. The key to having a useful project history file is to update it regularly and organize the contents logically. Periodically purge the files for dated or irrelevant material.A project history file is a way to keep records and data. budgets and expenditure records.
The difference is then assessed to be significant or insignificant. I 70 Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . A common approach for testing a hypothesis is the test of significance. also known as an inferential error. There is one major benefit of hypothesis formulation and testing. Type I1 occurs when the null hypothesis is accepted even though it is. There are two types of these errors: type I and type 11. false. Hence. it remains speculation until tested. Basically. from a sample. Determine the desired confidence level or level of significance. A problem with having a null and alternate hypothesis is that an incorrect conclusion can be drawn. Determine the sample size. in fact. A hypothesis has two parts: the null hypothesis (Ho) and the alternate hypothesis (Ha).HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION AND TESTING A hypothesis is nothing more than a statement that requires verification. this entails assessing the degree of difference between the null and the alternate hypothesis. Calculate the differences between the expected and actual results. Hypotheses are useful for verifylng inferences from data and for determining the differences between observations and expectations. It provides a means for testing inferences so that decisions can be made without relying on false assumptions. Type I occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is. The probability of one of the differences being more wrong than the others is called the significance level. true. in fact. The null hypothesis is a negative statement while the alternate hypothesis is phrased positively. P I for Hypothesis Formulation and Testing w w w w Define the null and alternate hypothesis. The degree of certainty is the confidence level.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .Imagineering is picturing in your mind what you want to do or create and then introducing it into the real world. imagineering allows you to define what you hope to achieve and what will be required. It also anticipates the difficulties you may encounter. and it permits you to experiment in your mind with what the ideal will look like before you actually take action. effort. which saves time. circumstance. anger. Formulate in your mind the perfect image of the desired object. of what you hope to see. and resources. Some frustration. then. Naturally. remembering every detail. Let the image take different forms. for lmagineering w w 4 w w w Find a quiet area and sit down. Execute the image. reality will hit you in the face. Simply create a mental image. Select the image that best captures your wants and needs. inuoduce the ideal into the real world. What is produced in the real world looks different from the ideal because the limitations of your capabilities to impose the ideal will soon surface. Plan for implementing the image. Nonetheless. in ideal form. and disillusionment often surface no matter how well the person performed imagineering. Take corrective action. and so on.
An operational perspective assesses change by looking at the ways it modifies a process or procedure. One way to assess the magnitude of a change is to conduct an impact analysis. An impact analysis involves defining a change and determining its affect on the current mode of doing business. it helps in managing the introduction of a change. Conducting an impact analysis offers two benefits. for Conducting an Impact Analysis w w w w w Define exactly what the change is. One. Prepare an impact analysis document. it enables proaction rather than reaction to change. and two. An economical perspective assesses change by looking at the financial affects of the change. operational. Determine the technical impact of the change. Determine the operational impact of the change. and economical.IMPAC~' ANALYSIS Changing an information system or an organization can have varying impacts. T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Determine the economical impact of the change. A technical perspective assesses change by looking at the ways it modifies a system. It requires assessing a change from three perspectives: technical.
Economical lmpact A. Description of Proposal Change II. Tools E. Resources B. Breakeven Point C. Hardware B. Procedures D. Description of Current Environment A.I. Software N. Technical Impact A. Constraints Ill. Processes C. People B. Operational lmpact A. Procedures C. Schedule V. Return on Investment Figure 15 Example of Table of Contents for an lmpact Analysis Document . Costs B.
an information center must be updated regularly. Determine the needed equipment. memos. facilities. videocassettes. Keep the information center updated regularly. Tdls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . it is a place where considerable pedestrian traffic occurs. For instance. copy centers. and it is a place to clarify misunderstandings or stop rumors. Determine its location. and so on. It might also have audiovisual equipment for people to use or borrow temporarily. it might have a whiteboard or bulletin board for recording or hanging messages. for Setting Up an Information Center I w w w w Identify the overall goal of the information center. such as coffee rooms. documents. Identify the different ways to present information. For instance. It is a convenient place to compile and distribute important information. Because it serves as a communications hub for employees. supplies. bulletins. In addition to informative media. people will not have confidence in it. an information center might include newsletters. The advantages of an information center are twofold. or audiocassettes. break rooms. an information center can have useful equipment and furniture. Determine the topics to cover. It contains many items of informational value.An information center is a central place where people go to acquire or communicate information. and company libraries. Otherwise. procedures. policies. It might also contain blank copies of commonly used forms. Often.
offices. and operations.In business. You can also see the relationships among all the different people or organizations in a business. draw a line between them to reflect that relationship. and produce outputs to sustain themselves and to expand. Outputs. and reports. On the left of each process. Processes. On the right of each process. and plants) use inputs. list all the processes that can occur for the entities being analyzed. information. Using the IPO analysis model also reduces the complexity in understanding how an organization operates. list the outputs that feed it. manpower. such as managerial or labor. and out~uts-and identifine the interrelationshi~s amone them. list the inputs that feed it. The model rests on the assumption that business entities (such as firms. Viewing a business in terms of the IPO analysis model enables seeing the interrelationships of all the activities in a business from various perspectives. include functions. which are the results of processes. I for Developing an Input-Process-OutputAnalysis Model On a sheet or paper or using computer software. which transform inputs into output. include products. and money. For a process that either receives or feeds other processes. perform processes. Inputs might include nonlabor resources. processes. The IPO analysis model offers many advantages. Note: Label the line to describe what is being transferred between the Drocesses. data. one way to understand your environment is to use the inputprocess-output (IPO) analysis model. actions. I T d l s and Tips for Today's Project Manager 75 . It simplifies reality by breaking your business environment into three components-inputs.
Investment Return (%) b Input Process Output Figure 16 Input-Process-Output Analysis Model for Return on Investment Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
Interruptions constantly enter your office from different sources-the intercom. set and address priorities. the telephone. the janitorial service. You can focus your concentration. the secretary. for Interruption Reduction w Keep your door closed during certain times of the day. if possible. Small wonder you get any work done at your office. Choose an isolated place in your building to work. your colleagues. Through perseverance. or have voice mail or a secretary screen your calls. and increase productivity. The advantages of reducing interruptions are obvious. you can acquire time to do your job. w Work at home.~NTERRUPTION REDUCTION In today's business world. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 77 . finding time to work quietly can be an impossible task. Yet it's not a lost cause. w Put your phone on call forwarding.
You need to prepare yourself. structured. you need to avoid influencing the interviewee to mimic what you want to hear. disruptions. and face offs. During the interview. Set the date. if Because interviewing is not easy. It enables you to gather a large volume of information over a short period and gives you insights into a topic that you would not ordinarily discover. rn Collect as much background information prior to the session to familiarize yourself with the interviewee and the subject. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Create a positive atmosphere. unstructured). time.g. and location far enough in advance for both you and the interviewee to prepare. Determine the approach to questioning (e. Interviewing offers several advantages. for Effective Interviewing Determine the goals and objectives that you want to achieve during the interview session. you need to plan in advance for the interview session by doing research.Most people do not have the interviewing skills of a seasoned professional. Yet you do not have to be a seasoned professional to conduct a decent interview. keeping the interview free from distractions. It can also lead to further sources of information.you know what to do..
and record that relationship. Unraveling the complex relationships can prove trying. However. an issue-action diagram can help simplify the complex arrangement. An issue-action diagram offers several advantages. The issue-action diagram is essentially a decision tree that logically flows from left to right. Identify the logical relationship between the issues. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Developing an Issue-Action Diagram List all the issues involved. Note: Use arrows to reflect the direction of the relationship. it provides a better understanding of a situation via simplification of the relationships among issues. It uses a series of branches to determine the most appropriate action to take. Finally. or write it in the form of a declarative sentence when a choice is not applicable. Two. Write each issue in the form of a question that reflects a choice of action. analyzing a situation or circumstance often involves multiple issues rather than a single one. One.ISSUE-ACTION DIAGRAM In the business environment. Once the linkages of the issues are complete. being sure to thoroughly define each. its simplicity allows for better communication with those affected by the issues. determine the appropriate actions to take. it is easy to develop.
I No + Issue-Action Diagram for Quality Assurance Group . Figure 17 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .Adions to Take Issues Yes Use the standard Has the standard Yes been established? No standard .Has theverified? been No Verify the standard v Is a standard necessary? I Yes ---- .
w Good customer-supplier relationships are important. reduces inspection costs. w Obtain the involvement of people affected by the JIT delivery system. w Long setup times are bad. w Keep order quantities small. w Track performance of processes. Institute reliable. It also solidifies relationships with users and improves quality. w Employee involvement is critical. Further. w Small lot sizes are better than carrying large inventories. w Develop reliable production schedules. it emphasizes a pull (customer-driven) rather than push (manufacturer-driven) provision of services. JIT is predicated on the following principles. w Waste is negative. It keeps inventory low. w Quality is important. statistical process control). including service industries.. for Just-in-Time Delivery w Prepare for cultural change. w Reliable production schedules are necessary. JIT offers many advantages. quality measures (e.g. w Establish a good working relationship with suppliers.JUST-IN-TIME DELIVERY Just-in-time (JIT) is a delivery approach for materials. Although used in the manufacturing arena. Tools and 'lips for Today3 Project Manager . it is applicable to other environments. and streamlines product or service delivery processes.
You can build the key contact listing using a word processing. phone number. networking). wisdom. skill. spreadsheet. including knowledge. and any background information that may be of use. whether to verify the information or to renew ties (e. You might place people on the listing for many reasons. Name Jim Bill Fred Tile Chief Financial Officer Chief Information Officer Chairman of the Board Location Building 5 Building 3 Building 6 Phone Number x-3456 x-5678 x-1000 E-mail jimajigundo Organization 20 30 10 billajigundo fredajigundo Table 10 Key Contact Listing for Harry Jones 82 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .g.g. Make it a point to occasionally contact these people. and then can reprint and distribute it. expertise). For each person. organization. Organize the listing of key contacts according to some criteria or a criterion (e. for Developing a Key Contact Listing Identify the key people that can affect your performance. You can alter the data as changes arise.. E-mail address. or physical prowess. or database package on a microcomputer. you can record the information on index cards and store them in a cabinet. title. A key contact listing offers several advantages: other people can refer to it. you don't have to depend on other people to find out who's who. and you can retain the knowledge of who's who even after the person with that information departs. list their name.. If you do not have a microcomputer. Frequently update the listing. personality. location.A key contact listing presents the names of people that you feel are important in meeting your needs.
One. objectives. Of course. and path. Leadership offers three obvious benefits. They also must generate a sense of urgency and enthusiasm for accomplishing the goal. Track and monitor progress in achieving the goal. Constantly communicate the goals. They also provide a path for achieving the vision. it encourages greater cooperation among all the participants. w Place as much importance on the soft skills (e. it terminates with the effective and efficient achievement of goals and objectives. But how does a project manager do that? Leaders provide a vision-that is. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 83 . often called synergy. Without good leadership from the project manager. and path. the chances of a successful outcome are diminished.g. is not enough. they communicate to people a solid visualization of the end result. they must sustain interest via communication and maintain everyone's focus. objectives. scheduling.All projects require leadership. Three.g.. they must generate in people a sense that the project's goal is their own goal and that the path is their path. Further. Develop a path to achieve the goals and objectives. developing a vision and a path. Above all else. Two. active listening. Encourage ownership in the goals.. ' for Effective Leading w w w w Define the goals and objectives of the project. finance). albeit important. Leadership involves inspiring people to perform in a manner that meets or exceeds requirements. interpersonal relations) as the hard ones (e. it results in greater productivity than the sum of the individual parties.
Contact people for their input on relevant topics. Cost 6. w Incorporate revisions. Schedule Delivery 5. Project Shortcomings 8. in essay or bullet-list form. and why for both. Conclusions Figure 18 Lessons-Learned Document for Project XX Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . It should then be distributed sopeople truly learn the lessons. that notes what did and did not go well on a project.LESSONS LEARNED A lessons learned is a document. It should contain an overview of your project and a listing of major activities and should describe what went positive. It also has other benefits: it keeps you from repeating mistakes and helps others to avoid them too. Project Successes 7. w Distribute the document to the appropriate people. Scope 3. Recommendations 10. Organizational Structure 4. and it should not be filled wiih pli~"tu&sand self-promotion. The lessons-learned document helps you to learn from your mistakes and appreciate your successes. what went negative. 1. Description 2. Approaches/Directions Using Hindsight 9. Circulate the document for review. for Lessons Learned Develop an outline of the lessons-learned document. Draft the document. Compile the input.
However. It also enables determining what is and what is not important. After awhile. for Effective Listening Focus on the message. This can start affecting our work performance-all the more reason to have good listening skills. it avoids misunderstandings. w Empathize. Avoid making distracting mannerisms or comments.LISTENING In today's high-technology environment. commonly called tuning out. and it builds bridges rather than walls. Tools and lips for Today3 Project Manager . we become desensitized to the noise. Maintain eye contact. don't sympathize. but we stop listening. We still hear. Finally. Do less talking and more listening. Use expressions that communicate you are listening. we are continuously barraged with noises from people and machines. not on the individual. Listening is advantageous because it enables collecting a large amount of information. listening requires great discipline.
and maintainability of the product. schedule. Make-buy analysis offers two benefits. the key elements are times for building and delivering the product. Select the best alternative that satisfies the objective@)or specification(s). and the time value of money. For schedule. For each alternative. It involves looking at different alternatives and using cost. the key elements are reliability. Determine cost. Determine the different alternatives to pursue. It precludes embarking on inefficient and ineffective projects. and quality criteria. 86 Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Make-Buy Analysis Define the objective or specifications of the product. the key criteria are development and sustaining costs.MAKE-BUY ANALYSIS The make-buy analysis determines whether to purchase or build a product. payback period. schedule. For cost. For quality. and it provides a basis for good contract negotiations and planning. and performance requirements to evaluate alternatives. repeatability. apply requirements.
Establish and integrate processes. Together. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . integrated system for managing the resources of a corporation. Encourage teamwork among the process owners (e. Actually. bills of material. Finally. It includes processes from business planning to scheduling with suppliers. from business planning to production scheduling. quantity and quality are satisfied. engineering and design). Ensure production control and scheduling disciplines are in place.MANUFACTURINGRESOURCE PLANNING (MRP 11) MRP I1 is a comprehensive. Document the MRP I1 system. MRP I1 is used with just-in-time techniques because MRP I1 focuses more on satisfying the quantitative requirements of work orders than on quality. it encourages improved satisfaction of customer requirements. It also encourages better planning and teaming among all the players. Ensure controls exist to preclude inventory excesses and shortages..g. which is more narrowly focused and considers mainly production scheduling. and requirements. Increasingly. MRP I1 is the successor to material requirements planning (MRP). MRP I1 offers many benefits. It reduces the need to keep excess inventory.
they provide a good basis for making decisions. Auditors develop them to identify the relationships between threats and controls. Activity Monday X Tuesday Wednesday X Thursday Friday Prepare presentation Presentation dry run Deliver presentation X Table 11 Matrix for Presentation to Jigundo Corporation 88 Twls and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Many business professions use matrices. Systems analysts develop them to identify the relationship between inputs and outputs for a computing system. w For another set of data. w Develop a set of symbols to reflect the type or strength of the relationship. for Developing a Matrix w For one set of data. especially to display relationships in a compact chart. Matrices offer several advantages. for many purposes. w Draw the appropriate rows and columns in the matrix. identify the number of columns reflecting the number of entries in the matrix. w In each row. too. identify the number of rows reflecting the number of entries in the matrix. They enable displaying a large amount of information in a compact form. They are also easy to prepare and show relationships among pieces of information. You can use them. Draw a large rectangle. place the appropriate symbol to reflect the type or strength of the relationship. Finally.MATRIX A matrix compactly displays the interrelationship between two or more datum.
Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 89 . Its principal downsides are burnout and conflict over resource usage. Its principal downsides are loss of commitment to a project. for Determining Whether to Use Matrix or Task Force Structure w Determine the availability of resources with the requisite w w w w skills. and later in its life cycle. Determine the desired level of visibility for the project.MATRIX VERSUS TASK FORCE STRUCTURE There are two basic organizational structures for most projects: matrix or task force. This structure offers the benefit of sharing resources. It also provides management the flexibility to cease projects and start new ones without having to hire and fire people. Determine the desired degree of autonomy for the project team. Determine the historical precedent for using matrix or task force structure for the type of project. concentration of effort. Determine the desired level of organization flexibility. and experimentation. The task force structure is used when resources from various functional organizations work full-time on a project. A m t i structure is used when resources from various functional organiarx zations work on multiple projects. The task force structure offers the benefits of visibility. especially among people with a rare expertise. declining morale.
The common formula for the mean is: - X=W n The C (sigma) symbol represents the summation of the x observations. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Sum the observations. the total number of observations. andk. the mean. the dispersion between the lowest and highest values can skew the results of the calculation. for Calculating the Mean Determine the number of observations. is the sum of all observations divided by the total number of observations. but it does have its downside. The mean is easy to calculate. Take the observations. also called the average. Divide the sum of observations by the number of observations to derive the average. If the number of observations is small.MEAN The mean. It does not require preparing data before calculating it. n.
If an even number. the downside is that it requires preparing the data before calculating it. pick the two middle values. However. add them together.MEDIAN The median is the midpoint average for a range of values. H For an even number of values: median = (summed values of the two middle values) /2. Fifty percent of the values are above the midpoint. It is also not affected by extreme values. The benefits of the median are that it is easy to calculate. Determine whether an odd or even number of observations exist. If an odd number. Take the observations. and divide the sum by two to get the median. Sort the data. The following equations show the common formulas for the median. pick the middle value. for Calculating the Median Determine the number of observations. H Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . and 50 percent are below it. m For an odd number of values: median = the middle value.
Identify all equipment and supply requirements. teaming. controlled. Pace the meeting according to the agenda. Facilitate. Why? Because meetings are often poorly planned. of course. For a meeting to be meaningful. the meeting.g. List the attendees. and led. consequently. everyone should feel that a need or want was satisfied in the end. It also encourages interaction and. do not have to be that way. It distributes information to wide numbers of people and provides the opportunity to resolve issues. Meetings. leaving little time for discussion? Where everyone strayed from the main issue? The answer to one or more of the above questions is probably yes. It also requires that the focus remain in sight at all times during the meeting. Twls and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Solicit everyone's input. in the form of minutes)..while enabling sharing of experiences and knowledge that would ordinarily not occur. The benefits of an effective meeting are many. don't dominate. Document the results of the meeting (e. Running an effective meeting requires advance preparation. organized. Identify any remaining issues. for Conducting Effective Meetings H H H H H H H Determine the goal of the meeting. Prepare an agenda. Set the time and location. whether listed or not listed on the agenda.MEETINGS Have you ever attended a meeting where sharp disagreements were the norm rather than the exception? Where everyone concentrated on one topic at the expense of others? Where a few people dominated while the rest remained silent? Where decisions were the result of conformity (often called the move-toward-control tendency) rather than intelligent discussion? Where decisions were rushed.
MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING
A memo of understanding records any agreements made during a meeting. It is sent to all attendees and other parties, like senior managers, who must keep informed of the results. It states the objectives of the meeting as well as when and where it occurred. It also identifies who agreed to what. Several advantages acuue from a memo of understanding. First, it cements agreements and reduces misunderstandings. Second, it serves as a historical record of the agreements made. Third, it serves as a source document for subsequent actions. Finally, it reduces finger pointing since it reduces the opportunity for people to accuse others of not abiding by their agreements.
for Developing a Memo of Understanding
w Date the memo. w Identify all the addresses, including direct recipients and those receiving courtesy copies. w Identify the subject in a few simple words. In the text, record the most important information first, followed by the least important. Sign the memo along with your phone number, mailstop, and E-mail address so that others can contact you.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
A methodology is a formalized approach for managing or executing a process or project. It includes tasks, responsibilities, deliverables, and evaluation criteria. A good methodology has several characteristics. It is documented, and it presents a road map that is easy to follow. It is also definitive but flexible enough to use in responding to different situations, and it provides illustrations of inputs and outputs. A methodology offers several benefits. It provides guidance in handling ambiguous situations, provides discipline in managing or executing a process or project, and improves productivity. It also generates confidence a and ~rovides common standard for o~eratina. "
for Methodology Development
w Obtain input from the users of the methodology. Document the methodology. w Define inputs and deliverables. Provide a sequence of tasks to implement the entire methodology. Define all terms. w Distribute or provide access to the methodology. w Use plenty of illustrations and examples. w Keep it current and easy to use.
Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager
Metrics are measures used to establish standards and track progress against those standards. Metrics and quality are often associated together; however, metrics can be used for establishing and tracking performance with respect to cost, schedule, people, and many other areas of interest. Good metrics have certain characteristics. They are based upon expected versus actuals and upon some objective criteria. They are also applied consistently to determine trends and to identify and analyze variances to expected results. The benefits of metrics are threefold. They help to track and monitor performance. They also help to identify areas for process improvement. Finally, they provide an audit trail to determine the cause of anomalies.
for Establishing and Using Metrics
Define the purpose of a metric. Determine its algorithm. Define its audience. Establish a means for collecting data. Determine where to get the data. Document the process or subject being measured. Determine the standard to measure against. Determine how to display the results of the measure (e.g., graph, chart).
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
Mind mapping is a technique that enables you to brainstorm, that is, to let your thoughts flow freely. It works by allowing spontaneous thoughts on a particular topic to flow unchecked, then recording them on paper. While writing each thought, you draw a circle or bubble around each one and connect it with a related idea. Remember, each bubble represents a thought, and each thought is connected to a related one. When mind mapping, do not evaluate an idea until you've completed the entire diagram. If you judge too early, you will consciously and subconsciously filter ideas. After completing mind mapping, you must bring order to your creation. Go through the diagram and eliminate, add, or modify ideas. Then create some sort of sketch, memo, or report by referring to the diagram. Mind mapping is advantageous because it is easy and can be fun to do. It also enables the identification of relationships among ideas.
for Mind Mapping
rn Clear your mind of all preconceived notions. On a piece of paper or using computer software, draw a circle. Inside it, write your main thought. rn Start drawing circles, writing the applicable thought inside each one. rn Note: Related thoughts should be close to each other. As you draw circles, be sure to draw a line connecting all the related thoughts, which will show their relationships.
Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager
location. Type the minutes. they provide information for decision-making. Distribute for comments or review at the next meeting. One. Minutes can be useful if they have certain characteristics. Tools and lips for Today's Project Manager . Three. time. No finer example exists than what occurs in a committee meeting. The advantages of minutes are threefold. Attach copies of the minutes and supporting documentation. Publish the minutes. they reduce the learning curve for people new to an organization or project. but minutes are a way to ensure follow-through. and the purpose of the meeting. for Taking Minutes w w H H a w Determine the level of detail for the minutes. Two. Incorporate revisions. Identify on the minutes the date. They should contain sufficient detail about who said what and should be reviewed prior to publication. They also should be distributed to everyone who participated in the meeting. they capture who said what. thereby providing an audit trail.One of the greatest fears people have is committing themselves to what they have said or promised to do and then not following through.
MODE The mode is the most common value that appears in a distribution.9 Sorted List of Numbers with 7 as the Mode Figure 21 Example of Calculating Mode 100 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .7.7. for Calculating the Mode Determine the number of observations.8.3 Unsorted List of Numbers 1.4. Take the observations.9. Count the value that appears the most frequently.1. The formula for calculating the mode is to count the value that appears the most frequently. 5 8. The downside occurs if there are two or more modal values.7. The benefits of the mode are that it is easy to calculate and does not require preparing the data if the number of values is small.7. sort them..4.2. If the number of observations is large.2. 6.3.6. 5.
and consistent. it is a compact way to display information. Whether mathematical or graphical. provides clarity. Some are mathematical. Two. it communicates more clearly than narrative text. It simplifies understanding. w Obtain feedback and improve the model over time. A model provides three advantages. T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager 101 . such as Monte Carlo simulations. for Modeling Determine the purpose of the model.Modeling is using a physical or graphical representation to explain how a process or object works. When drawing the model. One. people who use them must first learn how to interpret them and see the value for their use. Test the model prior to releasing it to the public. and maintains consistent symbology. simple. A good model has certain characteristics. keep it clear. A wide range of models exists. three. Some are graphical like data flow diagrams and flow charts. Develop a standardized set of symbols with respective definitions. it can be used to demonstrate ideas. Include a legend and title.
for Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Understand the four preferences. Match tasks to perform with the personality type. intuition versus sensation. Determine the personality type. The resulting sixteen personality types manifest themselves through relationships. is not easily applied to real-life situations. and so forth. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . and therefore. Another benefit is that it has widespread acceptance. relationships. One benefit of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is that it is based on reliable research. and judging versus perceiving. The challenges of the indicator are that it requires considerable training. viewpoints. There are sixteen personality types predicated upon the confirmation of four preferences. thinking versus feeling. viewpoints. of people. and so on.MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a psychological tool for determining personality preferences. Observe the attitudes. attitudes. interests. The four preferences are extroversion versus introversion.
objectives. Select one person as the primary negotiator. It also furthers understanding and gives new insights and ideas. It encourages communication and teaming. Know when to push and when to yield. Ensure that the negotiation team is united and behind the goals. Be flexible instead offluid. The negotiators have a strategy. Finally. it's not surprising that so many negotiations end in a stalemate. for Conducting Effective Negotiations Determine your goals and objectives. Effective negotiations share some other common characteristics besides having a win-win result. Effective negotiation offers many benefits.A common misperception is that negotiation is a winner-take-all endeavor. In reality. Know as much as possible about the opposition. Determine a strategy for achieving goals and objectives. Seek a win-win result. and strategy. the most desirable outcome of a negotiation is a win-win result in which everyone feels good about the agreement. it provides the groundwork for taking action. and the negotiating team is unified. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Hence. The team also knows as much as possible about the opposition. including their goals and objectives.
Calculate the net present value.000 (1 + . If the resulting calculation is greater than that earned at a bank. Determine the interest rate. Use the following formula for each proposal on computer software: Net Present Value = Savingsyear I (1 + Interest Rate) Savingsyear 3 (1 -I-Interest Rate) + Savingsyear 2 (1 + Interest Rate) + . for Calculating the Net Present Value Calculate the cost of a proposal.000. It accounts for the time value of money. Calculate its savings.000 1.05) (1 + .Cost of Proposal Example: The savings for any given year is $1.2. It provides the financial basis for deciding whether to make an investment.000 = $723.05) + . Net Present Value = (1 +-+- 1. The cost of the proposal is $2. Determine the number of years that savings will occur (e. The advantages of NPV are twofold. the interest rate is 5 percent (or .Net present value (NPV) is a method for selecting an alternative that offers the best investment.05).000 1. 104 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . as well as identifies which alternative provides a rate of return greater than that provided by a financial institution. A negative value suggests investing it in a different place of higher return. then it is okay to make the investment. three-to-five years).24 B Note: A positive value suggests investing in the proposal.05) .000. It also is a widely accepted method for making financial investments.g..
NETWORKGRAM DIA A network diagram is a schedule to follow during a project. and you can use it to communicate with your project team. the path with the largest sum is your critical path. who want only summary information. when to complete them. It also gives you the critical path containing those tasks and tells you which tasks need top priority and must be addressed without delay. The advantages of a network diagram are twofold: you can use it to manage the details of your project. avoid using it to communicate with senior management. calculate the dates. and tlle duration of each task. for Developing a Network Diagram Identify the tasks to perform. You can calculate it by adding the durations of activities on each path. The network diagram presents a wealth of information to help you manage your project. It consists of tasks arranged logically with each one having a start and finish date. However. You can identify the critical path because it is the longest path through the network diagram. It shows the tasks to complete. Determine the flow time for each task. move from left to right in the network diagram. T d s and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 105 . and in what sequence. Note: To calculate the start and finish dates. Logically connect the tasks together to reflect the desired sequence for performing them.
Obtain approvals Plan building Day 1 Perform construction . r Draw blueprints Day 91 Legend Purchase site Rent office space -+Critical Path Figure 22 Network Diagram for Constructing R Building Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
Assign writers to the topics. and business issues are just some categories of topics to cover in the newsletter. you can create a relatively professional-looking document containing graphics as well as text. technology. Prepare the article(s). Your newsletter doesn't need a Madison Avenue look. the larger the number of people affected by a project. the greater the need for a newsletter. either electronically or in hardcopy. It serves as reference material for new and existing employees. Identify topics that will help achieve the purpose. Within minutes. Reproduce the newsletter. It can cover a wide spectrum of topics. including graphics. for Developing a Newsletter Identify the purpose of the newsletter. The best time to prepare a newsletter is when you're working on a project that requires visibility and the support of many people.A newsletter is a communications medium. With the power of desktop publishing offering WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) capabilities. It also serves as a communications tool for employees wanting to learn the latest about a topic. Tmls and Tips for Today5 Project Manager . procedures. The newsletter can help you keep them current on what has been and will be happening. A newsletter offers many benefits. w Determine the layout. you can produce a master document that's ready for reproduction on a copier-no need to mess with typeset or ink. Policies. Generally.
this reluctance to say no is the reason for the demise of careers for many professionals. (Do not say that they are higher priority. If it fails to r further your goal (s).) You are then sending a subtle message that the person must wait. and evaluate it from the perspective of your main goal (s).No! "No!" is a two-letter word that most of us learned to say at two or three years old. you hate to say no. Listen to the request. will go someplace else. The long-term result only angers colleagues and superiors who will discover your inability to deliver at some future date. What matters is not saying no. experience. They have been asked to do something that may be unsuitable to their skills. and availability. for some strange reason. which she may not be willing to do and. accompanied with an explanation. adults reply with a three-letter word"Yes!"even when we really want to say no. Tmls and Tips for Today'sProject Manager . therefore. it builds self-confidence and self-respect. It avoids overcommitting yourself and keeps you from putting yourself in a situation that you do not want to be in. you can tell the person asking you to do something that you will address her need after you complete a long list of items. ask the requester to determine which is more important. we found it difficult to use the word. give it a priority relative to yours. They said yes when they really wanted to say no just to keep peace with colleagues and superiors. Muster the courage to say no. T y to understand the reason for the request. instead. Finally. for Saying No! Keep your main goal(s) in the forefront of your mind. Saying no offers several advantages. The urge for acceptance overwhelms the need for setting priorities and not worrying about what other people think. Hence. If you're like many people. Here are some key points to help you learn to say no. but how you say it. If you are given more than one request of equal priority. Sometimes you can say no by never saying it. For instance. As we grew older.
it continually offers people nonmonetary rewards. they'll remember the reward and will continue the fine support. Understand the history behind the types of awards given. You can also take people to lunch or even dinner. Develop objective criteria for determining who should receive what reward. Perhaps the greatest practitioner of the nonmonetary reward is the military. Several nonmonetary rewards exist. such as praising people to their boss. or you can give them tickets to a social event. The next time you need their help. Maintain objectivity in administering the evaluation criteria.Most people believe rewards come only in monetary forms. both management specialists. T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . The idea of nonmonetary rewards is not new but is often overlooked in the business world. you can reward people for doing something without offering money. Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. even if you have no formal authority. have developed useful theories on the topic. Determine the frequency and overall value of the reward. for Determining Nonmonetary Rewards M Identify the principal values of the organization. The positive side for rewarding people for their help is that it serves as an investment. In reality. and sending a thank you card. You can give nonmonetary rewards that cost you only time and a little effort. Any of these rewards are appreciable for a job well done. writing a letter of appreciation and sending it to their management. You may simply give them a pat on the shoulder or a handshake.
Booch. Whether object analysis or process analysis. history of application. Its advantages are its ease of application. for Using Object versus Process Analysis Determine the purpose of the analysis (e.g. and Rumbaugh. is associated more with mainframe environments and process-oriented environments. and reengineering. understand: the notation overall architecture desired characteristics of models. Both object and process analysis have their origins in the information technology arena.Increasingly. Some popular object analysis approaches include ones by Coad and Yourdon.. Determine whether flow of control is an issue.. The fundamental difference between the two is that object analysis relies on the relationships among entities (e. Its advantages are its reflection of real-world objects and their relationships and its translation to more contemporary business practices (e. object-event programming. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Gane and Sarson. Some popular process analysis approaches include ones by DeMarco. reengineering). analysts).g. organizations) while process analysis relies on the exchange of data among processes.g. and limited number of varieties. people. and Hatley and Pirbhai. object analysis is becoming the preferred mode of modeling vis-his process analysis. clients. Note: Object analysis handles flow of control better than data flows.. Process analysis. Object analysis is becoming more popular with the advent of client/ server computing. use for objectoriented programming). although widely used.g. Determine which type of analysis is more familiar to people (e.. Jones.
PROCESS FLOW Legend Current Earnings OBJECT-ORIENTED FLOW Deduction Many Deductions to One Total Current Earning Many Current Earnings to One Total Current Earning Total Current Earnings One Total Current Earning to One Earnings Statement Earnings Statement Figure 23 Examples of Process and Object-Oriented Flow .
equipment. hardcopy. phone and equipment lists. w Determine the contents of the manual (e.g. personnel. organization). Determine the binding.. transportation. You can have copies of forms and instructions for completing them. logistical. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Assign someone to initially develop and eventually maintain the manual. organization charts. The operations manual is advantageous because it is a communications medium that provides standards and guidelines for doing business. Determine the mode of distribution (e. or a project can have an operations manual. forms. and other administrative matters. and anything else you deem important.. w Prepare a table of contents. What goes in an operations manual? Plenty. Web). Your operations manual need not look like the product of a giant publishing house. for Developing an Operations Manual I w Determine the scope of the manual. entire organization. You can also group the contents according to some logical schema and separate each group by a divider.g. if applicable.An operations manual is a compilation of administrative documentation that people reference during their daily activities. An office. You can place the material in a three-ring binder. copies of procedures on personnel.
Overviews A. Personnel B. Introduction A. Administrative A. Table of Illustrations II. Organization Ill. Policies C. Table of Contents C. Figure 24 Sample Outline of an Operations Manual . Vision B. Background and History C. Preface B. Appendices V Index . Procedures N.I.
The chart should reflect minimum layers to meet managerial needs. however. a supervisory position should have no more than ten people reporting to it and not less than five. If you can't explain how your organization chart will help contribute to meeting organizational goals and objectives. Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for instance. No chart should contain positions that contribute little or nothing toward achieving an organization's goals and objectives. If the chart leads your organization in a different direction. An organization chart offers several benefits. No chart should contain a structure that obscures reporting relationships by having. it should maximize resource usage. First. and too few reflects a span of control that is too narrow. product. it should contribute to attaining organizational goals and objectives. Second. For instance. It also clarifies communications and enables structuring in a manner that increases effectiveness. Fifth. it should reflect an optimum level of responsibility and accountability. it should improve communication and reporting relationships. it should streamline operations. or a combination thereof. Whichever one you choose. Third. then change it. a position reporting to more than one supervisor. Too many reflects a span of control that is too wide. Fourth. region. It clarifies reporting relationships and identifies responsibilities. You can draw an organization structure based upon function. Too many layers produces waste and breeds inefficiency.ORGANIZATION CHART The organization chart graphically shows reporting relationships using a series of boxes and lines. The boxes represent positions and lines that reflect the reporting relationships. you'll have performance problems. the organization chart should seek to achieve several objectives.
Caliph Director. Maintain effective spans of control with each functional and process unit. F~nance Figure 25 Organization Chart for Jigundo Corporation Tmls and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Operations C. Boss Pres~dent J. West Coast U. East Coast E. Oldy S.for Developing an Organization Chart Identify the functional and process units. the entire organization has clear reporting relationships and effective spans of control. Angel Supemsor. Attle S. Paydurt Supemsor. D. Conn Director. Hark M. overall. Ensure that.
Finally. a well-organized project can largely run on its own. Some specific actions for organizing a company or project include: developing and publishing an organization chart w establishing regular communications (e. and developing documentation media (e.g.. defining reporting relationships. for Organizing w w Determine the goals of a project. Determine processes for executing the project. w w 116 Twlsand Tips for Today's Project Manager . Organizing not only applies resources efficiently and effectively.Organizing is setting up an infrastructure to manage a project effectively and efficiently.. Conduct an inventory of resources available to the project. reports). reports) and approaches (e. forms. keeping in mind the audience (e. senior management). Develop media (e. staff meetings) w setting up information centers w developing and publishing forms and reports.g... Determine the communications requirements for conducting the project.g.g. Assign resources in a manner that best achieves the goals. The infrastructure includes assigning responsibilities. Document the processes.but also focuses on the major issues of a project..g. meetings) for capturing or dispensing information.
OUTLINE Many people go through agony when writing even the first sentence of a memo or report. spatially. and outlines mimic it. The experience is so intense. All documents have the same three-part structure. Yet they could have avoided such humiliation by drafting an outline before writing the first sentence. compose the words introduction. discussion. goals. list the major points presented in the discussion. discussion. scope. In the discussion. It not only forces you to organize your thoughts. and objectives of the subject. or through a mixture of the three. Finally. but it also provides the structure for preparing a presentation or a narrative document. that they dose the door to their office and copy the work of someone else or take their work home and have their spouse complete the first draft. In the conclusion. chronologically. On a sheet of paper or using computer software. Outlining offers several benefits. list the goals. list the details for each topic that you identify. for Building an Outline I H H H H Define the topic for the outline in one sentence. but it does not rehash the discussion point by point. and objectives of the document. The conclusion summarizes the highlights covered in the discussion. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . You can organize topics and subtopics sequentially. The three parts are the introduction. in fact. In the discussion.. The introduction provides an overview of the topic. leaving sufficient room for the next step(s). arrange each topic and the subtopics in logical order (e.g. spatially). and conclusion. and conclusion. This part typically consumes 10 percent of the outline. Under the introduction. The discussion covers the major topics and their subtopics. it provides a means for seeking input prior to preparing a draft. This part typically consumes 80 percent of the outline. It covers the scope. This part consumes 10 percent of the outline.
One. it can save money. Include a contract service-level agreement. it can provide better quality of service. It can be used for just about any function or process.Outsourcing is having a third party provide services that would ordinarily be offered in-house. Select from a list of outsourcing vendors. and can demoralize the workforce. The only question is whether it is cost-effective vis-A-vis the same function or service in-house. Determine each vendor's capability to provide the desired level of service. Investigate the history of each outsourcing vendor. and three. Identify critical and noncritical functions and processes. outsourcing can boomerang in three ways: it can cost more in the long run. can cause dependency on third parties. Outsourcing offers three-benefits. However. it can provide flexibility. w Perform cost-benefit and value analysis under different scenarios. replete with rewards and penalties. 118 Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . for Deciding Whether to Outsource Define requirements for functions and/or processes. Two.
for Overcoming Bottlenecks Develop a flowchart of the as-is process as it occurs with the bottleneck. such as when the volume of traffic increases. You should fix the cause of the traffic jam. A good way to do this is to view the bottleneck as a car on a highway that stalls and blocks the autos behind it. perhaps at a less opportune time. Identify points that increase cycle time. It also increases morale by removing opportunities for frustration to arise. The benefits of overcoming bottlenecks are obvious. that causes work to pile up. which may get the traffic moving again but will not eliminate the cause of the jam. it shortens the time of delivery to the customer and reduces the need for inventory. when. Sooner or later the traffic jam will occur again. Further.A bottleneck is a snag in the business process. It enables productivity to hum. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 119 . or a way of doing business. Develop a flow chart of the to-be process that will eliminate the bottleneck. little progress occurs because the bottleneck acts as a traffic jam. thereby increasing efficiency and effectiveness. but the tendency is to go around the stalled car rather than fix it. why. When work piles up. where. So what do you do? You analyze the problem and determine the cause of the bottleneck. such as too many review and approval cycles. what. Identify the who. and how for each step in the flowchart. preventing any further movement forward.
and outputs. 120 Tools and 'lips for Today's Project Manager . and measures of success. responsibilities. outputs. for Applying the P * MCycle ~ Determine goals of the project. The outputs meet specific criteria. For each task. People have specific responsibilities for performing those tasks in order to create specific outputs. For each output. tasks. Inputs feed specific tasks. It consists of five elements: inputs. Determine the tasks to accomplish the goals. A major advantage of the cycle is that it is a simple model to follow. or quality criteria. called measures of success. determine the inputs. It also provides a model that leads to improved performance because it spirals and is iterative.The P2Mz (practical project management methodology) cycle is the decisionmaking model for use in a project environment. responsibilities. determine the measures of success.
Inputs Figure 26 P2M2 Cycle Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
Identify the values and beliefs that will resist the achievement of goals and objectives. rn Identify which people and organizations contain the values and beliefs that will further achieve the goals and objectives.A paradigm is a model. a crack in the paradigm lays the groundwork for a new one with its own values and beliefs. it provides an all-encompassing way to interpret and interact with the world. resistance to change. Execute the plan. complete with values and beliefs. Develop a plan for capitalizing on the values and beliefs that support achieving the goals and objectives and overcoming resistance. The downside is that they can lead to rigidity. In other words. and reliability. especially when multiple paradigms exist. The advantages of paradigms are that they provide order. consistency. A paradigm can last a long time. Identify the values and beliefs that will support the achievement of the goals and objectives. for Dealing with Paradigms Define the goals and objectives to achieve. It is important to be able to manage the impact of paradigms. Sometimes. predictability. and bias. as long as it works. that is used to perceive reality. Identify which people and organizations harbor the values and beliefs that lead to resistance to achieving the goals and objectives. 122 J d s and Tips for Today%Project Manager . Almost immediately the new paradigm replaces the old one.
It helps to distinguish the actual causes and helps differentiate between what is and is not important. The Pareto chart illustrates the causes of effects. Segment the line into parts for each type of criterion. With the chart. draw the bars in descending orderthat is. Draw a y-axis (vertical line). Tools and Tips forToday3 Project Manager . Pareto analysis offers several benefits.. resources. then down to the least.g. for Performing Pareto Analysis 4 w w w w Compile and sort the data according to some predetermined criteria. you can address those causes with the highest frequency of occurrences instead of those with low frequency. as it did in the early part of this century when the great Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto developed the idea while studying crime and wealth concentration. Graduate the y-axis to reflect the cumulative frequency of occurrence (e. Draw a vertical bar to reflect the cumulative frequency for each type of problem. Draw an x-axis (horizontal line). draw the bar with the highest frequency of occurrence first. the Pareto analysis rule has even greater relevance in other environments.The idea that a few can determine an outcome is known as the Pareto analysis rule. total number). Over eighty years later. w Note: For readability. The Pareto analysis rule makes sense. It is also easy to perform after the compilation of data. The Pareto chart is a bar chart that highlights and differentiates the major cause from the minor causes. and effort to the most important causes. This rule assumes that 80 percent of the effects are attributed to 20 percent of the causes. not the least important ones. In other words. you can dedicate time.
Figure 27 Pareto Analysis for Little Theatre Wardrobe Department Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
for example. This syndrome occurs when people say they're 90 percent done with a task. even if it means procrastinating. and it gives you clues into what tasks to monitor more closely than others. Give more time to top priorities. Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . It enables you to reevaluate time estimates. If you have ten hours available to do a job. until. they slide the final completion date. w Use reliable estimating techniques. Parkinson's Law makes sense. The basis for this law is that people will fill the vacuum created by the time assigned to perform a task. Take frequent measurements on performance. Having too much time to complete a task leads to statusing games like the 90 percent syndrome. you'll take the full ten hours to complete it. The question then arises: whatever happened to the last 10 percent? Understanding Parkinson's Law provides several benefits for project assignment. It also encourages maintaining a healthy skepticism when status information is submitted. at the last minute. Maintain visibility of those measurements. business professionals and managers allude to Parkinson's Law. For most tasks. for Ove~oming Parkinson's Law Determine priorities. It states that work expands to fill the time available for its completion.PARKINSON'S LAW In today's business environment.
you'll likely use participative decision-making. If you become evaluative before making a decision. One. You want quality input. but setting an unrealistic deadline can mean little or no input. participative management does not absolve the decision-makers from responsibility or accountability. remain objective. Failure to solicit input from those people makes implementing your decision difficult because you lack command and control over them. Three. eases implementation of a decision. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . the likelihood of a flawed decision increases.A misconception exists in the business world that participative decisionmaking means that everyone makes the decision. contrary to popular belief. It builds commitment. Two. Receive input whether or not you agree with it. Here are three tips to remember when using this method. It also encourages involvement from people who can affect the outcome of a decision. and lowers the potential for resistance. The responsibility and accountability for a decision still rests with the decision-maker. The idea is to receive all input so you can make the best possible decision. provide sufficient time to solicit input from everyone. Whatever your position within an organization. What participative management really involves is one or more individuals receiving input from all pertinent individuals prior to making a decision. use participative decision-making when your decision affects several critical people who are not within your chain of command. Also. many people believe that receiving input from other people dilutes the responsibility or accountability for the decision. Participating decision-making offers several advantages. Avoid setting a rigid deadline unless circumstances demand it. For some reason.
frequent staff meetings. Provide opportunities for input (e. Conduct follow-up with participants after making the decision.I w for Encouraging Greater Participative DecisionMaking Seek input prior to making a decision.g.. Take the initiative in obtaining input. one-on-one sessions). Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager .
service. and so on. of course. Calculate its cumulative cost. fees. prior to calculation. and should be accounted for when determining the payback period. Draw a matrix to reflect the varying rates of return for each alternative. R Note: Decide whether to deduct taxes. service. These include taxes. and so on. for Determining Payback Analysis R R Exactly define the new product. and so on. and so on. It also facilitates deciding whether to proceed. calculate the expected annual rate of return. Determine the payback period by using the following formula: Investment Average Year Return on Investment R R R For each alternative for a new product. There are. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . The benefit of payback analysis is determining which new variety of product or service offers the greatest return to offset investment and implementation costs. service. fees. Select the alternative that offers the most desirable rate of return.Payback analysis is simply determining the number of years that it takes for a new product. and so forth. Perform a breakeven analysis. to accumulate earnings to pay for itself. a number of variables that affect the payback period of a new product or service.
Alternative ($ in thousands) Year 1 A 100 50 50 50 50 B 60 60 60 60 60 C 50 50 50 50 100 2 3 4 5 Total Return 300 300 300 Table 12 Payback Period for Machine Shop Y .
The most pessimistic (mp) estimate is the time needed to complete a task under the worst conditions. One. although it is time consuming. The PERT estimating technique involves the use of three variables for calculating the overall time to complete a task. The PERT (program evaluation review technique) estimating technique can help you do that. chatting about nonwork-related topics). it gives more reliable estimates. most pessimistic.PERT ESTIMATING TECHNIQUE Determining the time needed to complete a task is difficult.g. The most likely (ml) estimate is the time needed to complete a task under normal conditions. it is superior to other estimating techniques. time for going to the restroom. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . making it impossible to completely account for them. The most optimistic (mo) estimate is the time needed to complete a task under the best conditions. The expected time is then adjusted to account for nonproductive time (e. and most likely times. Two.. The three variables are the most optimistic. it is easy to calculate. The best approach is to develop an estimate that you have a high level of confidence in reaching. Three. An unlimited number of variables are involved. The variables are used for the expected time. The PERT estimating technique offers several benefits.
.me I Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 131 . which equals 110 percent or 1 . = mo + 4 (ml) + mp r 0 w Example: Most optimistic time is ten. w For each task. w Estimate the percent of nonproductive time. Estimate.) w Example: Nonproductive time is 10 percent (or 100 percent plus 10 percent.. Adjusted Expectedtime = 1. most likely.lo). determine most pessimistic. w Note: Do this for only the lowest levels of the work breakdown structure..for Using the PERT Estimating Technique w w Develop a complete work breakdown structure. Adjusted Expectedh. w Calculate the adjusted expected time for each task. w Calculate the expected time for each task.10 x 20 = 22 Hours Adjusted Expected. most likely and most pessimistic is thirty. = (NonproductiveTime) x (Expecte%.. and most optimistic times.
These people are often negative. Peter introduced a principle that struck a universal chord when he published the Peter Principle. you'll recognize that a person who has reached a level of incompetence often becomes an obstacle to greater performance or change. because they do not want anyone to surpass them or upset their position. do not bother dealing with that person directly.Lawrence J. R Go around the individual. even when communicating with that person. and who will not. which would only reinforce their feelings of incompetence and may threaten their position. R Tools and Tips for Today'sProje3 Manager . a corollary to the Peter Principle exists: a person who reaches a level of incompetence is an obstacle to progress. Hence. They're like brick walls that won't let anything pass. Understanding the Peter Principle offers two benefits. technique. w Make your case with facts and data. Keeping the Peter Principle in mind. It helps you in identifying who will embrace your idea. It said that in a hierarchy. It applied to both public and private institutions. and so forth. every individual rises to a level of incompetence and advances no further. even hostile. It will also help you in developing an effective strategy for bypassing the brick wall. The Peter Principle was simple and relevant to everyone working in a bureaucracy. for Dealing with People Who Have Made the Peter Principle a Reality Recognize that the person is a manifestation of the principle.
and increases understanding. such as requirements and design phases occurring at the same time. It also helps to identify the relationships among the tasks and the different outputs created throughout the life cycle of a project. you will find the need to revise the output to increase its usefulness. Experiment with determining the sequence of those blocks. Identify the major blocks of activities or phases. Breaking projects into phases offers many benefits. you create a way to fulfill requirements and explore different approaches to meet those needs. such as feasibility.If your projects are like most. then requirements. and so on. you place the output into the real world. they can occur linearly. In the requirementsphase. you acquire as much information as possible to complete your project and try to determine what you must fulfill before completing your project. they have five phases: feasibility. and implementation. Or some phases can occur in parallel. For example. Tools and Tips forToday's Project Manager . In the design phase. requirements. design. In the build phase. Identify the demand to produce. In the implementation phase. you investigate whether your project is possible and acquire enough preliminary information on whether to continue the project. allows for better planning. It simplifies the management of a project. No doubt. you do something to meet the requirements and design. build. In the feasibility phase. which involves constructing the output that you will deliver upon the project's completion. for Phase Breakdown Identify the product to build or the service to deliver. for each phase. These phases can occur in several sequences. Select the sequence that best serves your needs.
Feasibility possibility Requirements fulfill before project completion Design to fulfill requirements Build for delivery Implementation the real world Figure 28 Phase Breakdown for Nu Project Tmls and Tips for Today3 Project Manager .
PLANNING Planning is determining in advance the goals to achieve and the path for achieving them. Estimate time and costs. it enables more effective application of resources. how it must be done. Second. it answers what must be accomplished. Tools and lips for Today's Prcject Manager . it allows for determining how well a project is accomplishing its goals. First. especially if they need a sense of direction and a defined path to follow. w Estimate hours needed to perform each task in the work breakdown structure. Develop a work breakdown structure.Planning offers many advantages. In other words. Third. Determine the results to achieve. Planning in an organization or for a project involves the following specific actions. w Allocate resources. w Develop schedules and other road maps. . Develop a schedule. Assign people to each task. and when it must be done. it builds confidence in the people who must do the work. for Planning w Define the goals and objectives.
coordinating. directing. and budgeting. 136 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . obtaining useful feedback.POSDCORB Just about any project involving two or more people requires POSDCORB. reporting. Planning entails deciding what tasks to perform. Identify all budgetary activities. reporting. which stands for planning. organizing. Identify all major organizing activities. making decisions. One benefit of POSDCORB is that it is easy to remember. then determining their logical sequence and the time allotted to do them. designating or allocating monies to make the project happen. Identify all directing activities. staffig. acquiring people to fulfill organizational structures and responsibilities. in for Implementing POSDCORB H H H H Identify all major planning activities. and budgeting. organizing. coordinating. defining organizational structure and responsibilities. Identify all reporting activities. Another is that it has been applied~successfully the past. Identify all coordinating activities. Identify all staffing activities. directing. Failure to perform one or more of these tasks can seriously impair the progress of your project. staffing. ensuring that all activities and events occur smoothly.
and conclusion. Finally. Finish before the allotted time. and the conclusion summarizes the main points in the body and ties back to the introduction. All presentations have three logical parts: introduction. 1 ' for Delivering Effective Presentations w Avoid speaking more than fifty minutes without a break. Encourage questions from the audience. Maintain eve contact with the audience. Presentations. effective presentations involve more than standing before people and talking. Use visible media (e. The body presents the major points and the supporting details for each one.g. when designed and delivered well.While you may not have a gift for oratory. The introduction presents the purpose of the presentation. They communicate information clearly and concisely. you need to grab attention. I Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . However. w w w w Avoid distractive mannerisms. they provide an opportunity to further understand a topic. You also have the onus of getting them to listen to what you have to say and take action with it. In the introduction. overhead transparencies.. Be natural. body. computer generated slides). you need to inspire the audience to action. offer several benefits. you can still give presentations that will enhance your career. In the conclusion. The introduction and conclusion are key for communicating your points even though they comprise only a small portion of the presentation. and they motivate people.
As requests come in. request. You must decide what goes into each category. and tasks change constantly. you might categorize them according to high. failure to do so will result in a show stopper. failure to do so will not be an immediate show stopper but will become one later if left unattended. Your decisions will depend on the nature of the demand. It also makes effective use of time and other resources. Medium priority means addressing those items after handling the high priority ones. noting a completion date and time. for Priority Setting Determine your goal(s). It is troublesome because demands. or low priority. Priority setting provides obvious advantages. medium. It allows you to focus your energies and attention and enables you to address the most serious concerns first. evaluate them from the perspective of achieving the goal (s). Classify the goal(s) as high. High priority means addressing those items immediately. For example. Categorizing is not an objective process.Setting priorities requires making hard decisions continually. Despite the difficulty in making a decision about priorities. No mathematical calculation exists that will make your decisions easy. Focus on the high priority request(s). or task and on your experience. 138 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . the process is simple: you categorize requests. and tasks. demands. and low priority. failure to do so will not become a show stopper. requests. Low priority means addressing those items if time permits. medium.
binomial distribution). A subset of an outcome is an event. An occurrence of an event can happen when two or more events have no dependency on each other.Probability is determining the likelihood or odds that an event will occur. m Determine the appropriate probability distribution to calculate (e. the probability of an event can be calculated with or without prior observation. The sum of all probabilities must equal a value of one. Probability calculations are useful for predicting outcomes. Calculate the probabilities. w Determine whether probabilities should be calculated prior to or after trials. therefore. then the probability of their joint occurrences is the product of their individual probabilities. Or an event can happen when two or more events are exclusive of each other. Determine the appropriate sample size. normal distribution. If no dependency exists between events. for CalculatingProbabilities I Determine the objective of the calculations. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 139 .g. then the sum of their individual probabilities determines the probability of an occurrence of any event. Regardless. If a dependency exists. for predicting outcomes of random trials. Conduct tests to verify the accuracy of the predicted probabilities. Determine if the events are independent or exclusive of each other. and it occurs when realized during a trial.. They are also useful for determining the accuracy of predictions. It is useful.
Problem analysis offers two benefits: it forces recognition that a problem exists and impels you to take action. work. Yet problems are not necessarily bad. Wherever there are people. Take corrective action. for Problem Analysis and Solution I w w w w w w Recognize that the problem exists. It then requires taking appropriate action. It also demands the ability to divorce the symptoms from the causes. 140 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . or on vacation. It repeats itself continually to ensure the solution still works. technological advancements. They can become the springboard for new ideas. Problem analysis requires that you first know a problem exists. Define the problem. we all have problems. but only after identifying alternatives and testing. The key is to handle a problem correctly. Determine the solution. Implement the solution. and better careers. Yet problem analysis does not stop after implementation. Identify the causes of the problem.PROBLEM ANALYSIS AND SOLUTION Whether at home. Seek feedback. problems exist. Test the causes.
Define the scope and purpose. They reduce the effects of employee turnover or retirement as well as the learning curve for new staff. Edit for readability. Contrary to popular belief. These people may depart from the organization due to promotions. Furthermore. and diagrams. too much narrative text creates a mental block and makes searching for key information difficult. when. They also provide standards and guidelines for conducting business. sickness. what. They provide specific answers regarding who. Verify the contents. and how. if necessary. they do not look like an eighteenth-century novel. Develop an outline of the structure and contents. for Developing Procedures w w w w w w Determine the topic. minute details. Procedures offer several advantages. Procedures document how to perform tasks or conduct specific activities. They also have plenty of white space. they are clear and concise. not exceeding more than a few pages. and so on. They are brief. Define the audience. charts. and understanding. they give preference to pictures. why. The last thing you want are procedures that cover insignificant. that is. where. Yet few organizations record this information in procedures. Finally. Draft the procedure. w Make revisions. Toolsand Tips for Today" Fmject Manager . vacations. death. w Publish the procedure. You'll only waste time and money. Finally. information. Well-written procedures share some common characteristics. preparing procedures on just about every conceivable topic is unnecessary and counterproductive. Procedures should only exist for topics concerning essential activities or atypical circumstances. they clearly define responsibilities and activities.Relying on a few people for the information needed to perform a task makes little sense. rather than narrative text to facilitate comprehension.
you can then develop solutions that streamline your organization. poor workmanship. for Process Streamlining Encourage the people doing the work to participate. but does so wastefully. and positions having no productive value. prepare flowcharts. You can review organization charts. Develop a more efficient and effective process. To streamline. Some examples are: duplicate effort. Communicate the results.As an organization expands. illogical task sequence. perform Pareto analysis. it improves morale by lowering frustration. Finally. you must recognize organizational waste when you see it. It can still achieve its goals and objectives. or new. The benefits of process streamlining are obvious. needless tasks. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . excessive delays. collect statistics. distribute questionnaires. it develops less-efficient organizational structures to conduct business. known as effectiveness. Identify areas of potential waste. Document the existing process as a narrative or graphic. You have several methods available for identifying waste. Perform a comparative analysis between the existing and proposed. and interview people. Using the information you acquire. Streamlining is the process of identifying inefficient organizational structures and then making work proceed effectively. unequal workload distribution. missed deadlines. efficiently. It reduces waste and shortens the delivery cycle. process. It also increases output. and smoothly.
the project manager. The benefits of a project announcement are twofold. a Determine the contents. and schedule. and it shows management's support of the project. for Creating a Project Announcement a Identify the recipients of the announcement. including name and purpose of the project. subject).g. mail stops. Identify signatories of the announcement. especially when signed by senior executives.. date.PROJEC~ ANNOUNCEMENT The project announcement is a memo or bulletin that announces a project to a company's workforce. Date: To: Subjed: [Paragraph giving name and purpose of the project and name of the project manager] [Paragraph stating start and end dates of project plus any other relevant details] Signature 1Date Block of Executive Figure 29 Format of a Project Announcement Tools and Tips forToday's Project Manager 143 . a Identify the header information (e. It gives visibility to a project. It can be in electronic or hardcopy form or both.
w Identify output to date and evaluate its completeness. most projects progress through a life cycle consisting of several phases. including its definition and common output. such as schedule and resource requirements. w Interview key participants for the project. reports. it indicates how well the project is progressing. a project that progresses from start to finish passes through five phases: conception. In theory. Knowing what phase of the life cycle a project is in offers three benefits. it indicates what may or may not have been done already. The matrix in Table 13 shows each phase. for Determining the Phase of a Project w Review project documentation (e. has its own unique characteristics. it indicates what important issues the project may be facing. to some extent. Three.g. w Review databases that feed automated scheduling software.. though some projects may not progress through all the phases. Phase Definition Developing an Idea of What the Project Is to Build Developing a Plan for Realizing the Vision Executing the Plan Delivering the Product to the Client Putting the Product in the Control of the Client Output Conception Formulation Implementation Installation Sustaining Idea Plan Components of a Product Completed Product Operational Product Table 13 Phases in a Project's Life Cycle Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . and sustaining. network I diagrams) in the project history files. formulation. Two.Every project. implementation. One. installation. However.
it functions as a convenient meeting place. It is also a place to obtain a panoramic view. that is. whiteboards.PROJEC~ OFFICE A project office is a central place to lead. a view that avoids burying yourself in details. It displays this information on walls. and so on. equipment. blackboards. Keep the project office open. documentation. it serves as a convenient communications hub. F for Establishing a Project Office w w w w Identify the goals of the project. especially individuals supporting the project on a full-time basis. control. Identify the supplies. and close the activities of a project. One. required to monitor the performance of the project. too. Three. diagrams. Two. is also an information center. Keep it as the central communications hub throughout the life cycle of the project. A project office. It contains charts. It houses the project team. therefore. information. The benefits of a project office are threefold. Sketch the outlay of the office on paper or by using computer software. and easel pads. it can even have audio-visual equipment. organize. Depending on your needs. Set up the project office before the project begins. and schedules. it can serve as a central storage facility. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . plan.
You can also build a prototype that's just short of the final system. Imagine spending considerable money. if necessary.PROTOTYPE You can build prototypes for many items. Make revisions. outhouses. Or you can create a prototype that's simply a sketch on paper of the ultimate product.you must discard it! A prototype avoids that circumstance. and effort on and something only to discover it's no good. F I for Developing a Prototype Define the requirements or specification. automobiles. Tools and lips for Tw'ay'sProject Manager . It comes in different forms. Develop the fundamental structure of the prototype. Document the prototype. Verify the prototype to see if it satisfies the requirements or specifications. you save not only time and money but also gain effort and confidence. buildings. Hence. particularly when the investment in time and money will be large. airplanes. Building a prototype on a project makes good sense. a Determine whether to build upon the prototype or throw it away. including sculptures. and reports. homes. time. Prototyping has several benefits. You will only be investing a fraction of money on a scaled down version of the final product. computing systems. What if you don't like the prototype? Then throw it away and build a new one. and you can build a crude model of the final product that has little or no capabilities.
The reason for this is that other attendees. remember the following points. Limit them to one or two hours. which is not too small or too large to inhibit discussion and still provides opportunities for different opinions. including the developer of the product. Limit attendance by peers. If anyone feels otherwise. Take notes. However. return to your desk. To hold an effective quality review session. you want seven to nine attendees. The objective is for frank and open discussions regarding output and deliverables. not minutes. The purpose of a quality review session is to identify shortcomings of the product. break it into smaller segments to be held at different times. may feel they are being evaluated and will be less inclined to speak their minds. Keep the sessions short.QUALITY REVIEW A quality-review session is an informal session held with colleagues to review output prior to a product's release. you may want to revise the product at the review session. and incorporate those ideas that have merit. Keep the number of attendees small. not people. not people. or a checkpoint review meeting. staff meeting. not the individual. The benefits of a quality review session are obvious. The key word is informal. It's not like a board of inquiry. Under no circumstances should management attend. personalities will clash. and nothing will be accomplished other than drawing battle lines. on ideas that may improve the product. All attendees should recognize that this is the spirit of the session. Tools and Tips for Tday3 Project Manager . In fact. If the session must go longer. Evaluate the output. the best approach is to record all suggestions. They also foster a safe environment for identifying shortcomings of output and encourage creative thinking about how to overcome them. They encourage open discussion about the product. Ideally.
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . if possible. and location. w Conduct the session. Invite attendees. w Develop an agenda. w Take notes during the review. time. Distribute material for review in advance. Set up the date. w Incorporate feedback.for Conducting a Quality Review w Determine the purpose.
From the value after the previous quartile. w Calculate the third quartile like the second quartile. Example (using sixteen observations): Divide the total number of observations by four. m Note: The remainder will be the fourth quartile. and draw a line. 16/4 = 4 w From the top (or left-hand side). and the bottom one is the fourth quartile. The top quartile is called the first quartile. count the next 25 percent of the observations. It is also simple to apply. Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager .QUARTILES Quartiles involve dividing a distribution of values into four equal parts. and draw a line. count to the last observation in the top quartile. Quartiling provides a convenient way to evaluate a distribution. and draw a line. for Dividing a Distribution into Quartiles w Sort the distribution into either ascending or descending order.
Look in storage areas and cabinets. Some firms recycle items like those above. such as furniture and equipment. not so much as to recoup expenditures but to raise funds for charitable causes. The benefits of recycle and resale are obvious. including money. In addition to recycling. the firm gains goodwill as well as money. Here is a short list of items that you could recycle: copier paper. it can be good public relations. By doing so. Finally. opportunities exist for recycling. a firm can sell nondisposable items to recoup expenditures. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . It saves resources. for Recycle and Resale w w w w Look in cluttered areas. microcomputers. and other office equipment. If it's like most offices. cardboard boxes. and aluminum cans as well as parts from copiers. It also reduces inventory and can reduce taxes. Identify items that have not been touched in awhile.RECYCLE AND RESALE Think about your office. Identify items that have become less important or obsolescent due to new technology. It can sell these items to employees or to the public as well as give them to a charitable institution.
Reengineering. and effort. Dedicate the team members to the project. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Have the team focus on the to-be rather than on the as-is process. Perform an in-depth risk assessment. change champion. in contrast to total quality improvement. requiring large investments of time. The team focuses on a major change. Further. change agent. Reengineering offers several benefits if it succeeds.. change target). capitalizing on technology enablers and breakthrough opportunities. To perform reengineering. The idea behind reengineering is to develop and implement a new process. Develop a thorough understanding of the existing and new process. Identify key players (e. When a better process is put in place. it increases the global perspective of employees because reengineering requires participants to understand the existing and new processes. The reengineering project deals with a complex set of issues in a high-risk environment. a project team is formed. It can also improve the competitive position of the firm. it can provide dramatic gains in productivity.g. labor. for Petforming Reengineering H rn rn rn rn Develop a project plan. Seek concurrence on a standard modeling technique and tool. involves radical change.
. w Determine which current activities can continue and which can cease. or the progress. the complexity of work may have been greater than expected. Evaluate the impact of the replanning. Finally.g. Distribute the new plan. w Dedicate sufficient resources (e. Two. 152 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . budget cuts) may have occurred. The scope may have expanded. for Replanning Identify the causes. One. money). and team members. and extraneous actions (e.Sometimes a project doesn't proceed as planned. people.. senior management. equipment. time. it provides the opportunity to develop realistic. Obtain appropriate buy-in for the new plan from clients. The downsides to replanning are slowing project momentum and consuming already limited time and resources. Replanning offers three benefits. meaningful plans. it requires project managers to keep afinger on the pulse.g. for the replanning. replanning may become necessary. Under these and many other circumstances. not the symptoms. w Communicate the new plan. of a project. it can generate commitment on teams that have experienced high turnover.
audit trails. They provide effective communications. reports must meet certain criteria. To be effective. date. The benefits of well-designed reports are obvious. w Define the audience. and must be timely. They are primarily a communications tool for managing the performance of organizations and people. They must serve a purpose. Determine distribution. should contain only relevant information.Reports play a vital role in any organization. Include a title. for Developing Reports Determine the purpose. Determine frequency of production. and performance management. and point of contact on the report. legend. <Date> <Title> <Headings> <Source> 4 b <Relevant Information> <Report Numben <Page Numbeo Figure 30 Outlay for an Effective Report Tools and Tips forToday3 Project Manager .
Second. Conduct internal reviews of the proposal draft. It enhances the reputation of the firm. they cover three components: technicality (e. management (e. for Developing Responses to a Request for Proposal H H H H H H Understand the client's needs and specifications.g. standards). Determine whether generating the proposal is in line with the strategic plan. Conduct a risk assessment.. 154 Tools and fips for Today's Project Manager . and discern the scope of work. Third. First. Conduct an internal capabilities-assessment. even if the firm doesn't win a project. Make revisions. Submit it to the requestor. Interested vendors then prepare a response. payment schedule).g. and cost (e. legal). A well-written response to a proposal request offers two benefits. Good responses to a proposal include the following characteristics.REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RESPONSE) A request for proposal is a document that specifies requirements and expec- tations potential vendors must satisfy..g. Use good project management disciplines. they have been reviewed for accuracy and from a legal perspective. they follow the requested format. and it encourages a teaming environment.. they are written clearly. Fourth.
effort. determine the flow time and total hours to complete it. You can then apply those savings in time. resource leveling eliminates the hiring and firing of people as well as the amount of time. An unleveled histogram displays extensive variations between peaks and valleys. too many people causes operating costs to increase and produces decreased gains in productivity. Assign people to each task. Draw an x-axis (horizontal line) to reflect the time scale (e. for ResourceLeveling For each task. effort.. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Draw a y-axis (vertical line) to reflect cumulative time (e. identifying the hours per day (or whatever units and increments you choose) to work on it. In other words. Resource leveling is the way to achieve that optimum level. Too few people causes existing staff to spread themselves too thin. Ideally.. you want an optimum level of people.Quite often. Resource leveling is a method that reduces the peaks of having too many people and the valleys of having too few people in an organization or a project. A leveled histogram-which is what you hope to achieve-refleas minimal peaks and valleys. This process is called leveling because you try to smooth the profile of the histogram.g. A histogram illustrates how well an organization uses its people. resulting in superficial work and missed deadlines. weeks). and expense to more productive activities. there are two types of histograms. an office or business operates with too few or too many people. days. unleveled and leveled. You can convert an unleveled histogram into a leveled one by shortening or lengthening the flow time or total hours to complete a task. hours).g. In addition. it enables having a steady workforce available to meet needs. and expense associated with that endeavor. Actually.
g.. Task Design Test Implement Name Jim (J) Ted (T) Ted (T) Flowtime (days) 4 3 2 Total Hours 20 24 16 Hours to WorkIDay 5 8 8 Hou 1 1 1 Days Unleveled (per task assignments above) Days Leveled (if tasks are rearranged) Figure 31 Resource Leveling for Tool Shop L T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Change. the histogram by modifying the hours per day the person(s) works and replotting the results until the differences in peaks and valleys are less. Note: You repeat this step until you identify all occurrences of work. day) by first locating the day on the x-axis and the number of hours working that day on the y-axis. Note: The areas with the steepest differences in peaks and valleys are the best candidates for making reassignments. or level. Look at the resulting histogram to identify peaks and valleys.Plot the cumulative hours for a given period (e.
The responsibility matrix offers several advantages. and it improves coordination because everybody knows the responsibilities. place an x or some other meaningful symbol(s) to reflect that relationship. especially after giving everybody on the project a copy. it gives everyone visibility for their work. It might be useful to broadcast the matrix to ensure visibility. of course. list the names of individuals. It engenders accountability. Finally. commitment. Names Task Develop user manual Obtain approvals Distribute user manuals Melissa X Rick X X Nicole X X X Table 14 Responsibility Matrix for Z-Software Corporation T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager 157 . It may also identify the degree of responsibility for each task. Along the top (x-axis) of the page. list the tasks to perform. for Developing a Responsibility Matrix On the left side (y-axis) of a sheet of paper.A responsibility matrix is a method for identifying who is responsible for performing specific tasks. and consequently. When a relationship exists between a task and a person to perform it. A responsibility matrix is no good. if it isn't distributed to the people who must do the work.
000 30. it can then start generating a profitable rate of return. which is calculated by subtracting the operating and implementation costs from the expected return. for Calculating the Return on Investment w For the first year. The ROI is then calculated for the subsequent years that the product or service will be in effect.000 50.RETURN ON INVESTMENT The return on investment (ROI) assumes that once all the costs have been recovered for a product. such as implementation and operating costs as well as the expected rate of return in the first year. Example: Money Generated in the First Year Operating Costs Implementation Costs Return on Investment $ $100.he operating and implementation costs frbm the expected amount.000 20. calculate the return on investment by subtracting . service. some information must be available. and so forth. The benefits of the ROI are that it helps to determine whether to make the selected investment or to invest it somewhere else. The approach is to sum the expected return on investment generated for each year.000 Tools and iTps for Today's Project Manager . To calculate the ROI. The resulting value is the return on investment for the first year.
000 ** 15. bank savings account). if applicable. service. or to invest the money somewhere else (e.For each subsequent year in the life of the product.000 ** $30.000 * Return minus operating and implementation costs ** Return minus operating costs Determine whether to invest in the product. subtract the operating costs from the expected amount of return. Example: Expected Rate of Return for the First Year Expected Rate of Return for the Second Year Expected Rate of Return for the Third Year Return on Investment $ 5.000 * + + 10.. and so on. and so on.g. service. .
For reuse to occur successfully. process. and procedures. Reuse is using the components of a product. or system that have been successfully developed and applied in the past.g. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . w Establish standards for the components and their interfaces. and money. The advantages to reuse are many. processes. Identify conditions for reusing specific components. There must be a cataloging of items to reuse. data. for Reuse rn Identify the components for reuse. w Put the components under configuration control. It saves time. Items of frequent reuse are software. and there must be good documentation about each component.Reinventing the wheel doesn't always make sense. certain conditions must exist. standards for the exchange of data). There must also be standards set for the components themselves and their interfaces (e. It also increases productivity and speed of delivery and improves both quality and communication. It takes time and effort away from concentrating on more important issues and problems.. Set up a reuse library or repository. w Document the components and their interfaces. documentation. hardware. It also wastes resources. Reuse is a tool for eliminating the tendency to reinvent the wheel. effort.
w Develop a list of components. There are many categories and levels of risk. or system. It allows for knowing the strengths and weaknesses of a project. and control. It also enables knowing what measures are in place to deal with risks. each with its own probability of occurrence and level of impact. components. process. for Risk Management w Understand the project. w Develop a list of threats and their applicability to each component. w Identify probabilities of occurrence and impacts. risk analysis. Risk reporting is reporting on the results of the risk identification. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . and processes potentially affected. it gives advance warning about a threat and provides time to prepare for its impact. w For controls that are inadequate or nonexistent. Risk analysis is converting information gathered into identification. process. Risk management offers many benefits. or systems as thoroughly as possible. analysis. or vulnerabilities. and risk reporting. Finally.Risks. Risk control is identifying controls that are or should be in place to deal with a threat. risk control. determine what actions to take. There are essentially four elements to risk management. Risk identification involves identifylng the risks. are always present. and their relationships are cyclical: risk identification. w Identify controls that are in place and should be in place. product. and it helps in identifylng the probability and impact of a threat. w Prepare findings and recommendations. product. w Prioritize threats and components.
Risk Identification A Risk Analysis v Risk Reporting Risk Control Figure 32 Risk Management Cycle Tmlsand Tips for Today's Project Manager .
The idea is that by taking a sample.g. bias should be minimized.. a Define the class intervals. the sample is randomly selected.SAMPLING Sampling is examining an entire population based upon the collection of data from a subset of that population. Samples can also be taken from homogeneous and heterogeneous populations. Sampling can be random or purposeful. a Determine the desired confidence level. reliable sampling has three common characteristics. a Determine the size of the sample. homogeneity can be obtained through subdivisions (e.. Furthermore. First. Second. everyone with blue eyes) to select an item. a Determine the type of sample. Sampling is more beneficial than examining an entire population because it is cheaper and faster and has a history of success behind it. a Use a random number table to select the first sample. Samples can be segmented according to some grouping and class. if applicable. however. Third.g. for Sampling a Determine the population to sample. sex and race). Regardless of the type of sampling. a Develop inferences from the results. Random sampling occurs when every item in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Purposeful sampling is using a specific criterion (e. When sampling from a heterogeneous population. Tools and lips for Today3 Project Manager 163 . it can be automated and can be used in a wide variety of environments. the sample must be representative of the population. you can make inferences about the entire population.
It is not only easy to build. it can identify the measure of central tendency. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .and y-axes. It can also show the relationship between two variables and can identify anomalies.The scattergram is a graph that identifies the relationship between two variables. Finally. H Note: Observe all anomalies (plots outside the main body). Conduct further research to identify the contributors to the average and the anomalies. Record the instances of the relationship between the two variables. reflecting cumulative graduations of scale. but it is also easy to interpret. Plot the data. a y-axis (vertical). Draw the x. P I for Building and Interpreting a Scattergram H R H R R Identify the two variables. and plots that reflect instances of axial relationships. The scattergram offers several benefits. or average. It consists of an x-axis (horizontal). Draw a line that bisects the main body of the plots to reflect the average.
5X X 4- Speed (miles per hour) 210 0 I I I I I I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time (hours) Figure 33 Scattergram for FastTrain Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager 165 .
g. frequency distribution). Tmlsand Tips for Today's Project Manager . The scientific method can be applied in many ways in the project environment... model). The scientific method offers several benefits. survey).g.g.g. It provides a disciplined approachfor solving problems and has a history of success behind it. It can be used for analyzing. it remains a useful tool for developing new ideas and other concepts and testing them for verification and validation. verification of the model). Collect facts (e. for Applying the Scientific Method Develop an idea.. it is modifiable to accommodate for different environments. It also works well with other business tools and techniques. and developing processes. Develop an explanation for the facts found (e.The scientific method has been around for centuries. concept. Conduct a test of the explanation (e. Today. and it can be used to generate new ideas for developing new products or processes. Summarize the facts (e. Finally. revising.. and so on.
It also provides the means for anticipating potential cost problems in the future.g. the planned and actual should match. The S curve can be plotted for individual groups of tasks or for an entire project. for Constructing and Using an S Curve Draw a horizontal line (x-axis) reflecting a time continuum (e. The difference between the planned and the actual lines plotted on the chart indicates a positive or negative cost performance. As data are accumulated.S CURVE The S curve is a line chart that shows the planned versus actual cumulative costs for a project. Ideally. or entire project. It allows you to determine the overall cost performance for a task. plot the cumulative cost for a specific point in time. 4 Tools and Tips forToday's Project Manager . Finally. Connect the planned plots using a dotted line. Draw a vertical line (y-axis) reflecting the graduated cumulative costs for your project... months).g. w Plot the planned cumulative cost for the project at periodic time intervals (e. weekly). resource. Connect the actual plots using a solid line. days. The S curve offers several benefits. it provides an audit trail on the overall performance of a project.
Cumulative Cost I I I I I Planned Point of Origin Time Continuum Figure 34 5 Curve for Nu Product H T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
and encourage teamwork.g. Procure the necessary resources for the team to accomplish its mission. team building) for people working on self-directed work teams. for Managing Self-Directed Work Teams Provide adequate training (e. specific goal to achieve. The benefits of self-directed work teams are that they generate a greater sense of commitment and ownership. The basis for them lies in empowering the team and granting decision-making authority.Self-directed work teams are multidisciplinary groups that function autonomously to accomplish a specific goal. Encourage good teaming etiquette. planning. reduce layers on management. Allow the necessary autonomy for the team to accomplish its mission. with all members sharing the responsibility for the results. Ensure that the team has a clear.. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
or processes-ther than the project manager or the person at the top of a functional organization. processes. it becomes increasingly difficult to determine who is responsible for specific activities. procedure. for Establishing a Single Point of Contact Define activities. It encourages a sense of responsibility and accountability. Distribute the name and contact information for each single point of contact. procedures. and so on. procedures. can lessen the effects of growth in size and complexity. process. Tools and 77ps for Today's Project Manager . Determine the requisite level of skills and knowledge for each single point of contact. procedures. and so on. or a group of activities. or project. processes. procedure. Document responsibilities for each single point of contact. Assign a person as a single point of contact for a specific activity.SINGLE POINT OF CONTACT As organizations or projects grow in size and their processes become more complex. It also forces managers and project managers to delegate. This results in wasted time and effort to find the right person to contact. process. and so on. whether for an activity. Establishing a single point of contact. There are other benefits to establishing single points of contact.
It is clear. or explanation to communicate. even if continued on another page. w Use symbols consistently. A good sketch has certain characteristics. It also reduces the possibility of misunderstandings and confusion and is easier to maintain than narrative descriptions. A sketch provides several benefits. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 171 . It relies on images or symbols to communicate. fact. make sure the contents can be viewed easily by the audience. it is concise. It enables people to visualize the whole picture rather than only a subset. w Add a legend. Keep sketches uncongested by having no more than ten components on a page.SKETCH A sketch is a diagram that communicates a specific idea or fact or provides an explanation. Develop standard symbols to reflect the topics. Finally. and it is self-explanatory to a large extent. its contents are applied consistently. If placed on a transparency. for Developing a Sketch w Identify the idea.
for Software Selection Process Identify requirements and specifications (e.g. that is. loaded on a computer.g. and they perform repetitive functions and complex calculations. Expect a learning curve. it should have a logical flow. and then people are expected to use it.. One. and even where (e. user-friendliness. Two. weighted selection criteria approach). when will it be available. it provides users with software that meets their needs. or packages. A package is purchased. Evaluate multiple products from multiple vendors rather than just selecting from a preferred vendor. it reduces the frustration that people experience with new software.Software tools. who the package is for. even after training. Provide adequate training for a smoother transition. hardware. A software selection process provides four benefits. compatibility. how it will be used. H H H Tools and Tips forToday's Project Manager . This results in frustrated users who vent their anger at the software when in reality. helpdesk services). it provides a consistent approach for selecting software. The selection should be objective and should satisfy the needs of the users. type of . Use an objective approach for selecting software (e. functionality. it should define what features are needed. Four. are tremendous productivity aids.. Three. They help to process large volumes of data. it reduces the chances of unwanted software just sitting on a shelf. the computer) it will be employed. little forethought is given to the acquisition of software.Any software selection should be methodical. Unfortunately. the problem lies with the process of selecting the package. Specifically.. . Test the software against requirements and specifications.g.
Wide Span of Control Narrow Span of Control Figure 35 Two Categories of Span of Control Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 173 . Divide the team into subgroups. The bubble. Assign individuals with the best leadership qualities as leads over a subgroup. On organization chart. Effective span of control offers two advantages. Ideally. Evaluate the leadership qualities of the individuals. of course. It also ensures the efficient and effective use of resources.Span of control is a theory that says a person can control seven to ten people effectively. the degree of control degrades. it appears like a flat pancake with a bubble on top of it. Span of control is important if you are a project manager because you may have to appoint leads to supervise other team members. and the remainder are the people supporting him. It provides the right level of overseeing. You can have wide and narrow spans of control. Beyond ten people. somewhere between high and low. not to exceed ten people and no less than two. you want an optimum level. is the person in charge. P I for Developing an Effective Span of Control Identify the number of people on the team. A wide span of control entails controlling a large amount of people.
Important information and ideas can be located quickly. getting a feel for its overall structure and tone. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . Peruse the introduction and conclusion first to obtain general information about the subject. for Speed-Reading w Skim through the entire document. Speed-reading offers several benefits. and so on. you can revisit sections for additional information. if necessary. speed-reading is one tool for doing just that. charts. w When perusing pages. It also expedites the learning curve. noticing key words and phrases. The keys are identifying the main ideas and the logical flow of the document. and it enables better use of time. The keys to speed-reading are not reading word-by-word or perusing illustrations. diagrams. avoid reading one word at a time and looking at footnotes. Then.In an area of information overload. for information content. While skimming. w Traverse the center of the document. Fortunately. notice the headings and subtitles to get an understanding of the subject matter. w While skimming. notice the illustrations. it is difficult to find what is important.
Develop and distribute a standardized agenda that can be tailored for each meeting. Publish the minutes or notes. It also follows a planned pattern. Encourage information sharing. It has one or more objectives to achieve. and has a positive atmosphere. if possible. A good staff meeting offers several benefits. It also enables sharing of knowledge. Like other meetings. It builds esprit de corps and resolves potential misunderstandings and conflicts.A staff meeting is a regularly scheduled session where people assemble to receive and distribute information and share knowledge and experiences. Take minutes or notes. Finally. Hold the meetings at regular intervals-at the same time and location. it requires good planning and organization prior to holding it and effective management while being conducted. Allow everyone the opportunity to participate. for Holding Successful Staff Meetings I Identify the participants. and expertise. information. Keep meetings short. An effective staff meeting has certain characteristics. it encourages participation from everyone. specifically topic and time frames. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . and accessible. they ensure a minimum. Seek feedback from key individuals. A misconception exists that control must exist over all activities within an organization. w Communicate the standard. Unlike guidelines. expected level of performance. but it also leads to overcontrol. for Developing Standards Determine the goal(s) of the standard. standards require compliance. definable. it is groundless if a standard is clear. recordable. They also communicate expectations of performance and provide uniformity when conducting business. objective. B Develop the standard. Not only is this impossible. easily applied.A standard is a level of performance that communicates specific expectations when conducting business. Compliance to standards sometimes generates fear. Gather input from key individuals during the development of the standard. Standards should only exist when necessary. Develop the standard based upon the input. Standards are beneficial because they provide an objective means for measuring performance. Obtain buy off on the standard. Document the standard. Although the fear is understandable. measurable. Finally.
IX. it generates commitment by all three parties. for Developing a Statement of Work (Understanding) I Identify the major parties. reduces misunderstandings. Quality Considerations WI. and desired qualities of the final product. is an agreement among the project manager. and the client. Constraints Schedule Considerations V. Three. Two. senior management. Background Ill. it provides agreed-upon baselines to evaluate performance. I. Negotiate in good faith. responsibilities. It describes-at a high level-what is to be built. Assumptions A. The SOW offers four benefits. Cost and Budget Considerations VI. Finally. Scope C. Responsibilities W 1 Amendments 1. the major milestone dates. Provide spaces for signatures or initials. Signatures Figure 36 Outline for a Statement of Work (Understanding) I Tools and Tips for Today's Rojojea Manager . it encourages communication and. and constraints. consequently. it addresses assumptions early in the project. Introduction II. One.The statement of work (SOW).more informally known as a statement of understanding. Purpose B. assumptions. Identify the major contents.
Some statistics. statistics are calculated and flashed around without any thought about their level of accuracy. Some statistics may have been calculated incorrectly. w Contact the developers of the data.. for Identifying Statistical Corruptions and Distortions w Determine the purpose of the data that will be used. The benefits of identifying the potential statistical corruptions and distortions are twofold. The assumption or intent is that a statistic can be generalized. use it with caveats. it leads to more accurate decisions because a decision-maker knows the weaknesses in the data being used. if possible.STATISTICAL CORRUPTIONS AND DISTORTIONS From time to time. for example. discard it). are cited without knowing the individual biases that went into the development of the statistics or the institutional influences that may have heavily influenced the results. it halts propagating bad information that can lead to faulty conclusions in a study. too. they are intentionally misused to support a particular viewpoint or action. Two. w If corruptions and distortions were used. First. thereby providing inaccurate results. w Identify the developers of the data. to obtain the assumptions and statistical approach used. Sometimes. Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . determine the disposition of the statistic (e. Some statistics about a narrow population are used to make inferences about a whole population.g.
It also helps to identify problems when they arise. A SPC chart provides several benefits.STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL CHAM A statistical process control (SPC) chart graphically displays data about some process or product. Draw a line perpendicular to the y-axis to reflect the mean or average of the variable. it aids in capitalizing on anomalies that may.. months). Note: Both the upper and lower control limits represent the acceptable range. lead to better processes or products. Identify anomalies for further analysis.g. based upon samples or observations. in fact. measurement criteria). Any data falling outside that range may indicate a problem or an opportunity for improvement. Further. when plotted. experience. The data.g. are collected over a period of time. Plot occurrences over a period of time.. anything outside the lines represents anomalies or deviations. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . should fall within an acceptable range. The data. Note: The mean may be based on your knowledge. Draw a dotted line perpendicular to the y-axis to reflect the upper control limit. Draw a y-axis (vertical line) for a variable (e. or tolerance level. or statistical calculation. for Developing a Statistical Process Control Chart Draw an x-axis (horizontal line) to reflect a time continuum (e. It provides for effective monitoring of processes. Draw a dotted line perpendicular to the y-axis to reflect the lower control limit.
--..---........--..... X X 5 - 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 Months Figure 37 Statistical Process Control Chart for Maintenance Shop Q Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .-.....-....-..............-15 - X Acceptable X x 10 .-......-.$ in Thousands 15 X 10 ------'I--....
such as talking with other colleagues. you talk with someone regarding a specific task. that people rattling off status so they'll be left alone for whatever reason. Collect status regularly. Tools and Tips for Today5 Project Manager 181 . but this action is filled with pitfalls that can hinder the validity of your feedback. That's known as the 90 percent syndrome. First. Third. you deal with untruthful people. he never finishes the task on time or within budget. you will have to seek it. seek other sources of information. you can make a rational decision. who will tell you anything to get you offtheir back. You can overcome these and other obstacles by following a few simple guidelines. and observing work are three ways to obtain feedback. Unless you have some mechanism in place to receive regular feedback. When facing these people. you face a lack of available information. Holding meetings. w Document your findings and the logic behind your final assessment. In doing so.STATUS COLLECTION Status collection is an action that you take to determine the progress made in achieving your plans. They will resist any effort to provide the feedback that you need. you will not only have a historical document for future reference but also an understanding of how your project got to where it is today. People can predict when you'll need feedback and can prepare accordingly. and you ask how much he has completed. Stay objective.is. Armed with complete information. Second. Make your assessments after you receive all the facts. Early in the project he replies. For instance. interviewing people." but much later. "I'm 90 percent done. you occasionally deal with defensive people.. Avoid giving the impression that all you want to hear is positive feedback. you will hear only what you want to hear and not what you need to hear.
Cleanse the data. Set up regular intervals for collecting data. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . m Determine the format of the data. Identify the sources of data.for Conducting a Meaningful Status Collection Determine the means for status collection. Collect the data.
it provides the grounds for effective assessment of a situation or project. You can do that by conducting a status review meeting. Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . w Hold the meetings at regular intervals-at the same time and location. particularly the people responsible for the work being performed. for Conducting Effective Status Review Meetings w Determine exactly what to cover at the meeting. Develop and distribute a standardized agenda that can be tailored for each meeting. It provides time for open dialogue to discuss key business and technical areas with respect to meeting cost. w Remain objective by focusing on the facts and data. It also communicates to people that you're serious about your project and that you hold them accountable for their performance.STATUS REVIEW MEETINGS Occasionally. if possible. The biggest advantage of a status review meeting is that it helps you stay abreast of what people are doing on your project and how well they are doing it. schedule. Like other meetings. schedule. and quality criteria. not on the people. w Identify all the participants. Finally. The right people attend. you will want to know how well you're progressing according to the plan that you developed for your project. it requires good planning and organization prior to holding it and effective management while being conducted. and quality. An effective status review meeting has certain characteristics. A status review meeting is a regularly scheduled session where the people working on a project give feedback on progress to date regarding cost.
finance. engineering.g. Now. integrated manufacturing approach using leading-edge technologies to produce and deliver goods and services to the customer.g. and JIT. SCM is a comprehensive.. B Identify which areas (e. the Internet) and builds a closer relationship with both suppliers and customers. and functional participants (e. for Applying Supplier Chain Manufacturing Identify all the suppliers.SUPPLY CHAIN MANUFACTURING First came material requirement planning (MRP). Working closely with suppliers and customers. The benefits of SCM are many. it requires teamwork among all the disciplines and reduces inventory. and JK.. particularly just-in-case inventory. w Identify all the processes (e. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Develop models of the entire manufacturing operation. Furthermore.. production) of the supply chain leverage the use of new information technologies (e.. It is this integration and scope that gives SCM its distinctive character. inventory. It can still employ the tools and techniques of M W MRP 11. a manufacturer produces based upon pull (customer-driven) rather than push (manufacturer-driven) considerations. procurement. Unlike MRF) MRP 11.g. planning. logistics. there's supply chain manufacturing (SCM). All the disciplines (e. handling.. SCM looks at all processes and players as an integrated system.g. Develop a close relationship with suppliers and customers that includes sharing information about inventory and planned production. customers.g.g. Internet tools). manufacturing) are an integrated unit. logisticians).. Then came manufacturing resource planning (MRP 11) followed by just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing. engineering). It also capitalizes on the use of the newest technology (e.
One.. Ensure that ownership by client and replacement project team members exists. The benefits of using SWAT teams are threefold. and using a SWAT team decreases ownership among the permanent replacements. SWAT. Two. schedule). they can shorten the life cycle of a project.SWAT TEAMS The SWAT team concept is taken from the police response teams that deal with emergency situations. These teams are called special weapons and tactics-hence. they can clarify assumptions and issues early. Create a smooth transition when passing the project infrastructure from the SWAT team to its successor. work breakdown structure. The downsides are that SWAT team members can burn out. Ensure that the SWAT team documents its efforts. In project management. Three. SWAT teams are used to create and set up the infrastructure for a new project under the aegis of a project manager. and then a normal project team replaces the SWAT team. they can get a project up and running early. for Using SWAT Teams Identify specific goals and deliverables for the team. Tmlsand Tips for Today's Project Manager .g. These teams develop and implement plans (e. Ensure that the replacement team understands the output of the SWAT team.
With it. System theory entails viewing an entity. activities. such as the ecosystem. outputs. triggers) that enable processes to occur m outputs (e.g. such as an organization. for Applying Systems Theory Draw symbols (e. forms.g. Draw symbols (e. or both processes (e. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager .g. information) between symbols. circles) for the major functions or processes that occur.. You must identify those elements to understand your working environment. computer. and other systems. you can also reduce the complexity of the environment and concentrate on what matters. machinery.. as consisting of several elements.. It will provide you with a better understanding of your work environment. Add a legend at the bottom of the page.. Systems theory offers two main benefits. products) that result from the execution of processes boundaries (e. data. boxes) reflecting the major actors or playms.g.... and process(es) with actor (s).g. people. are all ways to view something as a set of elements interacting to produce output. data. Draw lines connecting a process with another process(es). organizations) who make decisions or receive inputs.g. The basic elements of a system are: participants (e.. and it can help you to understand how your organization or work environment operates. procedures that transform or transfer inputs or outputs or both) inputs (e. actor with another actor (s). Label the lines to indicate what flows (e. This viewpoint is called systems theory.g. internal and external points with the environment and other systems). missile.SYSTEMS THEORY Financial.g.
list advantages.T ACCOUNT DECISION-MAKING Some business professionals toss dice to help them make a difficult decision. such as four points for a great disadvantage and zero points for no disadvantage. such as four points for a great advantage and zero points for no advantage. A negative result means the opposite. T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . T account decision-making entails listing and weighing the advantages and disadvantages. Leave a blank column on the far right to calculate the differences. list disadvantages. is to come to a decision using some logical process. One method is to use T account decision-making. On the left side. for Performing T Account Decision-Making Draw a large t on a sheet of paper or use computer software to create one. T account decision-making is beneficial because it is simple and quick and provides a structured approach for making a decision. however. Others rely upon intuition. On the right side. Note: A positive result means the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Assign a weight for each disadvantage. then summing the weight for each alternative and selecting the best one. Sum both columns and subtract the total score of the disadvantages from that of the advantages. The best approach. Assign a weight for each advantage.
BUILD NEW COMPLEX Advantages Disadvantages Difference Weight Item 4 4 Weight 3 2 Item Costly to Build ~ i Property ~ h Tax Area Tax Write-off Larger Facility Convenient Location 3 Total 11 5 11-5=6 Table 15 T Account Decision-Making Chart for R Construction Corporation T d s and Tips forToday's Pmject Manager .
Appoint a leader commensurate with the style of the team. Ensure that the resulting plan is communicated to everyone on the team. Ensure that team members understand their roles and realize their impact on the results of the team's efforts. Reasonable deadlines to accomplish goals. 7. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 189 . and facilitates coordination. 8. Autonomy. meaning the combined energies are greater than the sum of individual actions. 10. 6.Building teamwork is no simple task. A record of activities. A definable mission.Patience. Effective teams have these ten characteristics: 1. 5. 4. builds trust. or the latitude to make decisions regarding the team's destiny within the scope of the mission of parent organizations. Fewer than ten people. A leader. However. Participation from everyone. Team members who understand expectations of performance. It encourages communication. Limit membership to no more than ten people. Resources to accomplish missions. 3. 2. for Teamwork Define the mission of the team. Teamwork offers many obvious advantages. you must make synergy happen. Have people on the team participate in determining how to complete the mission. It also increases individual and group effectiveness and improves efficiency. It requires that mechanisms be in place to enable everyone on the team to synergize. 9. Set a deadline for completing the mission.
g. Three. and telecommunications. software. One. H Conduct periodic follow-up with telecommuters.. It is a major contributor to the virtual office concept because it applies Web technology. Provide flexibility in scheduling work hours and days. m Provide adequate hardware. pager. microcomputer. it empowers people. mobile computing. H Establish core days whereby telecommuters work together one or more days at a central office. it reduces the need for office space. telecommuting will grow in popularity. As office space becomes more expensive and traffic congestion more prevalent. Its challenges are providing adequate technical equipment and support and obtaining a willingness to alter managerial styles to accommodate the new working environment. Telecommuting offers three benefits. H Employ different modes of communication (e. it generates accountability for results. Two. groupware. Twls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Telecommuting Provide adequate technical support. m Use deliverable-based management.TELECOMMUTING Telecommuting is working from home for an employer. and distributed computing architecture. telephone).
or cellular phone. Carry a pager or cellular phone to communicate with whomever wants to talk to you. like a secretary. You may be attending a seminar. It also increases productivity. set up appointments for you. Meanwhile. Leave an alternate number where you can be reached via a secretary. but you're unavailable. money. you try to call these people back. Combating telephone tag provides several obvious benefits. It saves time and.You're off to meetings. if available. Use voice mail or E-mail. voice mail. Upon returning to the office. for Ove~oming Telephone Tag w Restrict your availability for receiving calls to certain times in a day. Finally. and it creates more time and energy for focusing on priorities. pager. people are trying to contact you. You may be walking about the shop floor. Have someone. Twls and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . it reduces the annoyance and frustration that comes with telephone tag. consequently. and they are not in! This is called telephone tag.
g. Determine all requirements and specifications. By testing a product. Testing offers several benefits. It should also follow a plan and should have ample cans to test against. for Testing Determine the product to test. software). White box testing is looking at the internal. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .. Further. not avoid. w Determine the test cases. Good testing should have certain characteristics to ensure objective. Black box testing is focusing on inputs and outputs but not on the internal workings of the device. The criteria. intricate workings of the product as well as the inputs and outputs. Determine the approach. physical inspection) or automated (e. w Retest. Evaluate the results. reliable. Testing should use definitive criteria. it lessens the opportunity for embarrassment or legal problems.Testing is the process of applying criteria against a product to determine errors or defects. The approach can be black box or white box. tools. specifications. or modify the product and then retest. and it should seek to find. Record the results.g. Execute the tests.. Determine the tool($ to conduct testing. Tools may be manual (e. giving the customer a feeling of confidence when using the product and the developer a feeling of confidence when delivering the product. and valid results. It provides the customer with a product of higher quality. if necessary. it should be done by someone outside the product's development. and approach are the key elements of the testing process. errors. The criteria usually consist of the customer's requirements. w Develop a test plan. and industry standards.
you record what events occurred. you can develop performance standards for yourself and other people. compose the words event. w Determine the length of time for collecting information. Using the time log. and your slowest work moments and how you spend them. for Developing and Using a Time Log Determine the reasons for using the log. w Compile and analyze the data. You now have information that tells you much. you can adjust your workflow so that it's more even and the work peaks are lower. be sure to take several recordings at random time periods. One. Select randomly the intervals to record information about the events. the types of interruptions you receive. at what time. you will have a more realistic view of how well you or other people use time.TIME LOG Sometimes people aren't aware of how they spend their time. It leads to identifying better ways to use time. Three. you can take several actions. rn On the top of a sheet of paper or using computer software. A time log offers several obvious benefits. The medium to do that is the time log. Using this information. It tells you when your peak periods are. and duration. whether at home or the office. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . That way. and for how long a period of time during the day. One way to avoid wasting time is to record how you have been using it. time. you can identify the interruptions that you receive and the best way to work around them. To extract meaningful information from a time log. It also provides information for streamlining operations and using resources more efficiently. It can even provide an audit trail for work that was done. Two.
M. 11 A. 12130. P 3 1 4 Table 16 Time Log for Repair Shop M Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .M.M.Event Time Duration (hours) Find and fix electical short in Machine 1 Replace servomotor in Machine 2 Determine cause of air conditioningpower surge and fix 8 A.
It encourages better relationships with suppliers and promotes a greater understanding of processes and the big picture. Institute cultural changes (e. defining requirements). also referred to as total quality control (TQC). education. Focus on the customer (e. One of the fundamental principles of TQM is focusing on the customer. documenting processes. for Implementing Total Quality Management w w w w Document processes.g. Encourage participation from the people doing the work. is a comprehensive approach for improving processes to satisfy the customers' needs. relying on facts and data to make improvements. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . it encourages ownership from the people doing the work. obtaining employee involvement (especially key people involved with the processes). and so forth. Some of the tools and techniques for doing TQM include: w benchmarking w data analysis Deming Wheel w flowcharting interviewing statistical process control.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Total quality management (TQM). training)..g. TQM offers several advantages. Communicate the results. specifications. It also provides for continuous improvement.. Establish standards to measure against. and maintaining good customer-supplier relationships. Finally. Other principles include exercising continuous improvement of processes.
it is a relatively simple approach for detecting and diagnosing interactions. w Define the issue or problem. child. for Using Transactional Analysis Identify the players. The parent ego state reflects authoritarian. like crying and pouting. Whatever tool is used depends on the person's knowledge and mastery of the tool. and adult. Transactional analysis offers two benefits. Recognize the ego state for each player (child. adult) by observing feelings and interaction.TRANSAC~IONAL ANALYSIS Transactional analysis is a psychological tool that describes how people interact. Once it is learned. There is also a large body of knowledge behind it. The adult ego state reflects mature feelings and actions like being cool-headed and realistic. feelings and actions. The challenge of transactional analysis is that it is one of many tools for analyzing interactions. or directive. parent. It is based on three ego states: parent. Parent Adult Figure 38 Ego States Relationships 196 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . The child ego state reflects childlike feelings and actions. Develop a win-win solution for all players. All three ego states interact to form transactions.
H Note: You can experiment with different sequences. gas). The benefits for transportation consolidation are obvious: it saves time. Record the approximate time of arrival. Quite often. you can take one trip rather than three separate ones. Determine the intermediary steps to the final destination. of course.. for Performing Transportation Consolidation H H H H Determine the final destination. spatial sequence alone will set the priority. On a sheet of paper or using computer software. If you ever have to question which location you want to visit. for example.g. The key is to identify the sequence that minimizes effort and maximizes efficiency and effectiveness. keeping in mind the time to arrive at the final destination. Connect the intermediate stops in a sequence that minimizes time and effort (e. If you must visit three different places. You'll need to identify the sequence that you will follow in going to these locations. Draw symbols reflecting the intermediate stops. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . delivery time. draw a symbol at the top of the page representing the final destination. giving preference to their geographical outlay and the time that they are open. prioritize the sites and then select the best spatial sequence. money.Transportation consolidation involves minimizing the number of trips that you have to take to accomplish a given number of tasks. with the most immediate location having the highest importance. and effort. This takes planning.
If performing as a project manager. T d s and Tips for Today's Project Manager . it improves decision-making. you need to develop an organizational structure that applies this principle. A person has no question regarding who gives orders. Sometimes. Two. A person knows whom to ask for a decision and their chain of command. Set up a joint meeting with them. One. Three. Applying the unity of command principle provides three advantages. a struggle will arise over whom to devote the most time. the two bosses give contradictory signals or instructions. One boss gives direction while the other grants pay raises. Ask them to set priorities. a circumstance that can lead to problems for the person doing the work and the managers. unity of command provides for clear reporting. A good example of poor unity of command is a person reporting to two bosses. A struggle may also arise over whom to display loyalty if a conflict arises between the two superiors. Ask them to clarify their expectations of your performance. it reduces tension and confusion. how to raise a concern by notify~ng for Unity of Command Identify the superiors that you are reporting to. If a person must support two superiors at the same time.UNITY OF COMMAND The unity of command principle states that a person should report to one immediate superior only. Meet jointly on a regular basis to reevaluate expectations and priorities.
or people measures what it is supposed to. w Prioritize those threats. products. A number of threats can occur that can skew or bias inferences. w Identify all the potential threats to validity. and people. These include the time that the evaluation occurred. Tools and Tip5 for Today's Project Manager 199 . tendency to generalize from a narrow band of test. products. and institutional pressures. for Dealing with Validity Threats w Define the goals and objectives of the study or data collection. to ensure that whatever tool is used to measure processes. One benefit of knowing about the possible threats to validity is that you can quantify the results of your testing or study. therefore. inferences from the data could be erroneous. w Determine how to account for the influences of those threats.VALIDINTHREATS Collecting data is important to analyzing and evaluating processes. the tool or technique used. sequence of collection actions. services. Another benefit is that you can take compensatory actions to offset the influences of specific validity threats. It is imperative. and estimate their probability of occurrence. Otherwise. flawed criteria.
Finally. being able to incorporate intangible results into a tangible analysis. with one major difference. w Align the project's goals with corporate direction. not necessarily for its financial payoff. or ROI. First.. w Define metrics before the project begins. You should understand that it is sometimes difficult to measure the value of the intangibles. for Using Value Management Ensure your project is value-added before you begin requesting funding. Identify tangible benefits. Psychometrics is the practical application of quantifying intangibles. Identify intangible benefits.VALUE MANAGEMENT Value management is similar to return on investment. It incorporates intangible data into the results in addition to the more conventional cost and schedule notion. i. Value management offers three benefits. w Identify control points throughout the project's life cycle. they still hold meaning and importance. 200 Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Second. especially if the value of the project has lessened. This provides upper management with control points and measurements to better assess the value of the project as it continues through its life cycle. Incorporate risk factors. work is selected for its value. however. Nobody likes throwing good money after bad.e. One type of analysis called psychometrics bridges this measurement gap. the introduction of risk factors provides a fuller picture of the evolution of the project's payoff. metrics are put in place before monies are allocated to start or continue work.
The standard deviation measures the dispersion about the mean. mean deviation. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest observations. The mean deviation determines how much an observation varies from the mean. Its purpose is to measure the dispersion between the two. There are a number of calculations to determine variance: range.~ e a n ) ~ Number of Observations I Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager 201 .Variability is the difference between what is expected and the actuals.Mean) __ . The standard deviation determines the how far individual observations are from the arithmetic mean. The range gives the spread between the highest and lowest value. The mean deviation is an observation's value subtracted from the mean. and standard deviation. iation Sum of (Observations.Lowest Value Mean Deviation = Sum of (Observations. for Calculating Variability rn The formulas for calculating all three values are: I Range = Highest Value . p-.
w Determine whether revisions are necessary to the item-toverify or with what is actually occurring. people. assuming everyone will follow orders. You can interview people. a specific procedure).g.Many people in business suffer the same fate. w Compare the item-to-verify with what is actually occurring. organization) as possible. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Verification w Determine exactly what to verify (e. procedures. However. w Take corrective action. reports.. They issue policies. You can discover how well you've implemented your ideas in many ways. It provides an opportunity to see if linkage exists between decision and implementation. w Note deviation(s) . and other documents that preach. You can also collect and review statistical information or metrics to determine the impact on your organization. they fail to verify if their pontifications have been implemented. Quite ofien. It also enables questioning whether you made a wise decision and helps you to determine whether corrective action is necessary. Or you can walk around the company and observe. they stay in their office and disregard the need for verification.. The advantages to verification are obvious.g. w Gather as much background about the environment (e.
software. w Recognize that videoconferencingis an inferior substitute for face-to-face communications. high-technology centers. encourages greater teamwork. This is because the levels of intimacy and intuition that prove useful to meetings are impossible to achieve in a videoconferencingsession. Keep the dialogue focused on the subject. w Use scheduled times for transmission.g.. No longer is videoconferencing restricted to large. and network environment. w Apply other technologies (e. and reduces opportunities for misunderstandings. however. can never replace face-to-face comrnunications.VIDEOCONFERENCING Web and PC-based technology have enabled videoconferenang to acquire a greater presence in the business environment. whiteboards) to supplement image and audio transfers. people can talk and see others in realtime over greater distances. Videoconferencing offers many benefits. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Videoconferencing. It enables faster communications. With the right camera hardware. for Using Videoconferencing w Ensure that the technology exists at all locations.
they can be used to encourage audience participation. or pack them with so much information that people become confused. they can help you communicate with the audience with relative ease. read them while speaking. They can communicate information to a wide audience.Viewfoils. They either use too many. but meaningfully. If used correctly. Viewfoils provide obvious advantages. have become standard features at presentations. w Use large print. 204 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . Avoid cluttering. Finally. They can also present information in an interesting manner. for Developing Clear. w Give preference to graphics over text. Unfortunately. many speakers have abused the use of viewfoils. or transparencies. w Use colors. Meaningful Viewfoils Use them sparingly.
. I 1 r for Usina Virtual Teams H Provide adequate technical support. Three. One. A virtual team offers several benefits. it requires a technical support infrastructure.g. Revise policies and procedures. The advent of distributed architectures. groupware. it requires revisions to long-standing company policies and procedures on topics like insurance coverage or work schedules. Provide for opportunities for team members congrega from time to time. Two. and mobile computing have made virtual teams a reality.A virtual team is a group of people working together to achieve a common goal even though they are geographically dispersed. Internet technology. I Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .g. facilities) and layers of management. Create well-defined deliverables and schedules along with meaningful performance criteria. Have a willingness to empower people. It empowers people and reduces overhead (e. There are three challenges regarding virtual teams. it requires a change in managerial philosophy. using a deliverable-based rather than a task-based management approach.. e.
w Consistently update the displays. it serves as a convenient place to track and monitor performance. technical diagrams. work breakdown structures. for a Visibility WallIRoom w Determine information to display. The visibility room provides several benefits. The focus of the outlay should be centered on the needs of the audience and the message to communicate. including schedules. The room. statistical charts. and just about any information of value. Tmls and Tips for Today's Project Manager . It should also be updated frequently to be of use. Finally.VISIBILITY WALIJROOM The visibility room is a communication medium for a project. a visibility wall or room should be well planned in advance. financial information. It is an effective medium of communication. Sketch the layout. contains a wide array of information. and it is an excellent place to hold meetings. responsibility matrices. To be useful. sometimes a wall instead. w Place the information displays on the wall(s).
Keep links current. phone numbers. it provides easier access to information. Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager . for Building and Maintaining a Web Site Define the purpose and audience for the Web site. One. Two. Three. it must address a specific need of a specific audience and must be kept current. browsers) and cheaper. A distributed computing architecture. not replace. and contact names. Provide addresses. make Web sites easier to create and maintain. more powerful hardware. Provide the necessary hardware and software to optimize performance. To maximize the benefits of a Web site. Use audio and graphics to support. conduct business. offers three benefits.. it encourages greater communication among people. service. along with user-friendly software (e. or project. Use good grammar and spelling. whether for an intranet or the Internet. it provides visibility of a product. the main purpose.Web technology is revolutionizing the way companies in general. and even projects in particular. A Web site.g.
although it is time-consuming. and assigning a weighted value to each one. Finally. Assign a weighted point value to each requirement. Assign a point value for each requirement. multiply the assigned point value by the weighted value.WEIGHTED SELECTION CRITERIA APPROACH The weighted selection criteria approach is an objective way to prioritize alternatives and select the best one based upon the highest score. multiply the point value by the weighted value. For each requirement. assigning a point value to each one. It is easy to use. This approach involves listing requirements. Select the alternative with the highest score. The weighted selection criteria approach offers two benefits. The goal is to remove as much subjectivity as possible from the decision. add all the calculated points for each alternative. For each alternative. Next. for Using the Weighted Selection Criteria Approach m List the requirements for selecting the best alternative. sum the products in the column. The total points will determine the relative importance of one task vis-A-vis another. for each requirement. and it provides an objective approach for selecting the best alternative. 208 Tools and Tips for Today's Project Manager .
in a manner similar to an outline. The more detail. for Developing a Work Breakdown Structure On a sheet of paper or using computer software. You can unfold a work breakdown structure into many different layers.WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Quite often. It engenders accountability on a project because you can assign specific tasks to individuals supporting you in the work breakdown structure. Under each component. Instead. which will also indicate the relationships among elements. It also serves as the basis for developing realistic time estimates and schedules. list the components. write the overall product to develop or s e d c e to provide. logical way. A work breakdown structure is a top-down listing of tasks. is expanded into subtasks. moving from broad to specific. each subtask can then be expanded into greater detail. it forces thinking about what you'll do prior to beginning your project. They could have avoided the shock if they had developed a work breakdown structure. Note: Use only one or two words. Just below the overall product or service. Tools and Tips for Today3 Project Manager . and the more detailed the work breakdown structure. such as steps. Finally. people handle a project without approaching it in a manageable. the easier it is to track progress. for example. the better. and it lessens the chance of duplicate effort because everyone knows exactly what to do. list the tasks to build it. Note: Use an action verb and object in the description. A detailed work breakdown structure offers several advantages. they jump in only to find that the effort was much greater than they had anticipated. Each task. Use a numbering scheme to uniquely identify each element in the work breakdown structure.
4 Edit marketing plan 1.3.3 Conduct market research 1.3.1 Describe the service 1.1.3 Describe marketing strategy 1.5 Publish marketing plan Figure 39 Work Breakdown Structure of a Marketing Plan .2 ldentify customers 1.2.0 Marketing Plan 1.1 Describe objectives for strategy plan 1.1 ldentify competitors 1.2 Describe the market 1.2 ldentify marketing objectives 126.96.36.199 Develop marketing strategy 1.2.
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Yourself: New York: AMACOM. 1993. Time Axelrod. Managing Software Development Projects. Barnes. Inc. Lakein. Pollar. Alec. CA: IDG Books Worldwide. Getting thelob Done! Englewood Cliffs. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Ralph L. The Secrets of Successful Project Management. The 15 Minute Organizer. Keane. Successful SeIf-Management. Time Tactics of Very Successful People. CA: Crisp Publications. Ludin. Your Work. Douglas. Project Management: As I f People Mattered. Larrie.365 Ways to Simplify Your Work Life: Ideas That Bring More Time. Kliem. Douglas. Robert J. Time Management for Dummies. Chicago: Financial Publications. Alan. Kliem. Boston: Keane. 1993. 1991. Odette. Greissman.Graham. Randolph. 1990. 1996. 1995.. CA: Crisp Publications. 1991. and Bany Z. New York: Marcel Dekker Sons. Productivity Management. Goals and Goal Setting. and Satisfaction to DaiZy Work. Freedom. Project Management: From Idea to Implementation. 1997. Rouillard. Marion E. Emilie. Manage Your Time. Haynes. 1986. and Ken L. Robertson. Irwin S. Paul R 1993. 1994. Bala Cynwyd. How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. Merrill E. Marion E. References . Whitten. CA: Crisp Publications.. Posner. Medo Park. Practical Time Management. Inc. 1989. Menlo Park. Practical Project Management Methodology. 1990. PA: Primavera Press. 1991. Eugene. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1989. CA: Crisp Publications. NJ: Prentice Hall. Foster City. and Donna N. New York: AMACOM. Mayer. Jeffrey J. Menlo Park. Alan and Jim Holtje. Haynes. 1991. Eugene B. Timm. New York: NAWDutton.201 Ways to Manage Your Time Better (QuickTip Survival Guides). Alan. 1995. Ralph L. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1997. OR: Harvest House Publishers. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Neal. The Time nap. MacKenzie. Menlo Park.
CATEGORY Methods1 Processes X X X X X X TnT Affinity Diagram Agenda Analysis and Analysis Paralysis Authority Page # 1 2 3 4 Creativity Information Meetings X Organization People Planning mme X X X CommunicationDiagram ConfigurationManagement Conflid Management 23 25 26 X X X X X X X .
CATEGORY TnT Consultant Selection Contingency Plan Contract Types Controlling Page # 27 28 29 30 Creativity Information Meetings Methods1 Processes Organization X People Planning Time X X X X X X X X X Diagramming Document Templates Earned Value 44 45 47 X X X X X X X X X .
Overcoming Bottlenecks P2M2 Cycle 119 120 122 X X X X X X X X Paradigms X .
CATEGORY TnT Pareto Analysis Parkinson's Law Participative Decision-Making Payback Analysis Page # 123 125 126 128 Creativity Information Meetings X Methods1 Processes X Organization People Planning Time X X X X X X X X X X Project Office Prototype QualityReview 145 146 147 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .
CArrGORY TnT Quartiles Recycle and Resale Reengineering Replanning Page # 149 150 151 152 X X Creativity Information Meetings X Methods/ Processes X X Organization People Planning Time X X X X Sketch Soflware Selection Span of Control 171 172 173 X X X X X X X X .
Past data on this subject has involved mostly case studies. but this book provides practical information those implementing information systems can use now Pinto and Millet offer practical information on "approaching the subject from a managerial. perspective. ISBN: 1-880410-52-4 (paperback). and how they handle multiple projects. particularly those who like to cook! Practical. to increasingly complex dishes or meals for groups that in turn require an understanding of more complex project management terms and techniques. ISBN: 1-880410-58-3 (paperback) . rather than a technical. The survey is a valuable tool to help narrow the field when selecting the best project management tools. More than two hundred software tools are listed with comprehensive information on systems features. cost analysis. and cost reporting. implementation success and failure." The second edition of this work covers such topics as implementation theory prioritizing projects. single dishes. resource analysis. SECOND EDITION Successful implementation of information systems technology lies in managing the behavioral and organizational components of the process. ISBN: 1-880410-59-1 (CD-ROM) SUCCESSFUL INFORMATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION. performance analysis.KNOWLEDGE WITH PUBLICATIONS FROM PMI PROJECT MANAGEMENTSOFTWARE SUHVEY The PMI@Project Mamgemmt Softwaare Suwey offers an efficient way to compare and contrast the capabilities of a wide variety of project management tools. how they perform time analysis. charting. and tidbits of information provided with the recipes are interestingand humorous. The transistion between cooking and project management discussions is smooth. project tracking. critical success factors. and more! ISBN: 1-880410-66-4 (paperback) RECIPES FOR PROJECT SUCCESS This book is destined to become the reference book for beginning project managers. logically developed project management concepts are offered in easily understood terms in a lighthearted manner. made from the bottom up. and much more. They are applied to the everyday task of cooking-from simple. such as homemade tomato sauce for pasta.
for the first time. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Project fi Program Risk Management by R.r Success by Vijay K Verma Principles ofProject Management by John Adams. independent. then introduces the concept of Portfolio Management to timeline multiple projects. Max W~deman.THE FUTURE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT The project management profession is going through tremendous change-both evolutionary and revolutionary Some of these changes are internally driven while many are externally driven.Jr. principles. Project Management: A System Approach to Planning. and handle emergencies. Davidson Frame Organiring Pr0jectrf. et al. Cleland. Koppelman Efective Project Managemmt: How to Plan. and interdependent levels of project podolios. Here. Scheduling. and procedures. Manage. Sixth Edition by Harold Kerzner . This book represents the beginning of a journey and through inputs from readers and others. It says that you must first have a strong foundation in time management and priority setting. PMPRESOURCEPACKAGE Earned Value Project Management by Quentin W Fleming and Joel M. A Guide to the Project Management Body . Mantel. a well-respected futurist firm and other authors. et al. and Controlling. and Deliver Projects on Eme and Wthin Budget by Robert K Wysocki. is a composite view of some major trends occurring throughout the world and the implication of them on the profession of project management and on the Project Management Institute. determine their resource requirements. it will continue as a work in progress. et al. ISBN: 1-880410-71-0 (paperback) THE JUGGLER'S GUIDE TO MANAGING MULTIPLE PROJECTS This comprehensive book introduces and explains task-oriented. putting you in charge for possibly the first time in your life! ISBN: 1-880410-65-6 (paperback) NEW RESOURCES FOR PMP CANDIDATES The following publications are resources that certification candidates can use to gain information on project management theory. techniques. Meredith and Samuel J.fKnowkdge ( P M B O P Guide) by the PMI Standards Committee Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager by Vijay K Verma The N w Project Management e by J. Third Edition by Jack R. Editor Pmject Management Carebook edited by David I. Read the views of the 1998 PMI Research Program Team.
and PC/Mac compatibility PMI PUBLICATIONS RARYCD-ROM LIB Using state-of-the-arttechnology. ISBN: 1-880410-12-5 (paperback). and distribute your project plan standards. 8MB RAM. PMI offers complete articles and information from its major publications on one CD-ROM. PMBOKm Q8rA Use this handy pocket-sized question-and-answerstudy guide to learn more about the key themes and concepts presented in PMI's international standard. More than 160 multiple-choice questions with answers (referenced to the PMBOK" Guide) help you with the breadth of knowledge needed to understand key project management concepts. procedures.1 or greater. ISBN: 1-880410-13-3 (hardcover) INTERACTIVE PMBOK GUIDE This CD-ROM makes it easy for you to access the valuable information in PMI's PMBOK" Guide. As "management by projects" becomes more and more a recommended business practice worldwide. PMBOK" Guide. and procedures used and proven by thousands of professional project managers and leading corporations. This interactive multimedia CD-ROM based on PMI's PMBOK" Guide will enable you to customize. the PMBOK" Guide becomes an essential source of information that should be on every manager's bookshelf Available in hardcover or paperback. ISBN: 1-880410-21-4 (paperback) PMI PROCEEDINGS LIBRARY CD-ROM This interactive guide to PMI's annual Seminars & Symposium proceedings offers a powe&l new option to the traditional methods of document storage and retried. Features hypertext links for easy reference--simply click on underlined words in the text. research.A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENTBODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOKm GUIDE) The basic management reference for everyone who works on projects. Minimum system requirements: 486 PC. Contains complete paper presentations from PMI '92-PMI '97 with full-text search capability convenient onscreen readability. and Windows 3. and technical writing. and the s o h a r e will take you to that particular section in the PMBOK" Guide. Project Management Journal (1990-97). standardize. including PM Network (1990-97). CD-ROM drive. mouse. and methodology across your entire organization. Follow the steps. training. Serves as a tool for learning about the generally accepted knowledge and practices of the profession. and A Guide to the Project Management Body OfKrzmuledge. . 10MBfree disk space. Multimedia illustrations using 3-D animations and audio make this perfect for both selfpaced training or for use by a facilitator. standards. Electronic indexing schemes and sophisticated search engines help to find and retrieve articles quickly that are relevant to your topic or research area. the PMBOK" Guide is an official standards document of the Project Management Institute.Offers full-text search capability and indexing by PMBOK" Guide knowledge areas. or other pointing device.
ISBN: 1-880410-30-3 (paperback) Organizing Projects for Success Human Aspects of Project Management Series. Verma ISBN: 1-880410-40-0 (paperback) Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager Human Aspects of Project Management Series. Gary Rafe. Vijay K. Karen M. Todd Palmer.Jeffrey Mosher . Joel M. Cleland. Vijay K. ISBN: 1-880410-57-5 (CD-ROM) How to Turn Computer Problems into Competitive Advantage Tom Ingram ISBN: 1-880410-08-7 (paperback) Achieving the Promise of Information Technology Ralph B. Pinto. Vijay K. Volume 3. Peg Thoms. Jeffrey Trailer. Volume 2. Koppelman ISBN: 1-880410-38-9 (paperback) . Volume 1. Verma ISBN: 1-880410-42-7 (paperback) Earned Value Project Management Quentin W Fleming. Nigel J. A. Yaroslav Vlasak ISBN: 1-880410-18-4 (paperback) PMI Book of Project Management Forms ISBN: 1-880410-31-1 (paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-50-8 (disketteversion 1. Bursic. Verma ISBN: 1-880410-41-9 (paperback) Managing the Project Team Human Aspects of Project Management Series. Karen M. Michele Govekar ISBN: 1-880410-10-9 (paperback) Annotated Bibliography of Project and Team Management DavidI Cleland.ALSO AVAILABLE M PMI FRO Project Management for Managers Mihily Gorog. Richard Puerzer. Bursic. ISBN: 1-880410-47-8 (paperback). Sackrnan ISBN: 1-880410-03-6 (paperback) Leadership Skills for Project Managers Editors' Choice Series Edited by Jeffrey K Pinto. Cleland. Richard Puerzer. Yaroslav Vlasak ISBN: 1-880410-45-1 (paperback) Project Management Casebook Instructor's Manual Edited by David I.0) Principles of Project Management John Adams et al. A.Jeffrey W Trailer ISBN: 1-880410-49-4 (paperback) The Virtual Edge Margery Mayer ISBN: 1-880410-16-8 (paperback) ABCs of DPC Edited by PMI's Design-ProcurementConstruction Specific Interest Group ISBN: 1-880410-07-9 (paperback) Project Management Casebook Edited by David I. Smith ISBN: 1-880410-54-0 (paperback) Project Leadership: From Theory to Practice Jeffery K.
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