2648 / A , ROAD H , GIDC METODA, RAJKOT - 360021, GUJARAT INDIA TEL :- +91 2827 287868 ; FAX :- +91 2827 287869 CELL :- +91 93766 17600; CELL :- +91 98242 17600; E-MAIL :- smk@micmacindia.com ; ; Map We introduce ourselves as designers, manufacturers and exporter of following plant and machinery Soap Plant and Soap Machinery We manufacture soap plant and soap machinery for making soap viz. toilet soap, detergent soap, laundry bar soap and detergent powders. Oil Mill Machinery and Edible oil refinery We manufacture oil mill machinery and edible oil refinery for producing edible cooking oil from various oil seeds. Tyre Retreading Machinery and Plant We can supply complete plants for tyre retreading plant and machinery to remould , rebuild and retread old tyre cost effectively . Cement Concrete Mixer We can supply concrete mixers suitable for building of houses, factories, roads, etc. Pulverizer Maize mill We manufacture small pulveriser for grinding of maize, wheat, herbs, sugar, cereals, minerals and various chemicals.

Centreless Grinder Machines We manufacture centreless grinder machines for through feed and infeed for centreless grinding of various spare parts. Lathes with Copying Attachment We manufacture lathes with copying attachment for copying the object being turned. The lathe fitted with Hydraulic copying attachment boosts the production of conventional lathes. Workshop Machines We can supply various machines required in a workshop.

History and Use of Soap

Previously soap had been used as medicine. 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. The Celts. whether the Romans learned its use and manufacture from ancient Mediterranean peoples or from the Celts. The importance of soap for washing and cleaning was apparently not recognized until the 2nd century A.D.000 B. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. They later discovered that this same cleansing substance was formed when animal fat was soaked down through the wood ashes and into the clay soil. Sodium Lye (Al-Soda AlKawia) NaOH was used for the first time and the formula hasn't . The urine contained ammonium carbonate which reacted with the oils and fat in wool for a partial saponification. The word "soap" appears first in a European language in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis. but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair. he mentions rather disapprovingly that among the Gauls and Germans. Factually. . A formula for soap consisting of water. soap was discovered on Sappo Hill in Rome by a group of women rinsing their clothes in the river at the base of a hill. the Phoenicians prepared it from goat's tallow and wood ashes in 600 BC and sometimes used it as an article of barter with the Gauls. is not known. The Arabs made the soap from vegetable oil as olive oil or some aromatic oils such as thyme oil. the Greek physician Galen mentions it as a medicament and as a means of cleansing the body. alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. They noticed the clothes coming clean as they came in contact with the soapy clay oozing down the hill and into the water. we know that soap has been around for about 2.800 years. According to Pliny the Elder.D. from which the word soap is derived. below a higher elevation where animal sacrifice had taken place. from urine to make a soaplike substance. The writings attributed to the 8th-century Arab savant Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) repeatedly mention soap as a cleansing agent. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt.C. People called fullones walked the city streets collecting urine to sell to the soapmakers. named the product saipo. Early Romans made soaps in the first century A. who produced their soap from animal fats and plant ashes. men are likelier to use it than women Soap was widely known in the Roman Empire. The earliest known evidence of soap use are Babylonian clay cylinders dating from 2800 BC containing a soap-like substance. inhabitants of Britannia.Soap in Ancient Times Myth has it that in 1. which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes.

was boiled with locally available olive oil. instead of tallow. sent Lady von Schleinitz a parcel containing soap from Italy. Before commercially-produced lye was commonplace. Cont. As late as 1672. Arabian Soap was perfumed and colored. A. Castile soap. a small . the soap was made to float to the surface. From the beginning of the 7th century soap was produced in Nablus (Palestine). which eventually became the generic name. which hardened further as it was aged. Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). By adding salty brine to the boiled liquor. soap production in the Middle Ages centered first at Marseilles. he accompanied it with a detailed description of how to use the mysterious product. They also had special soap for shaving. It was commercially sold for 3 Dirhams (0. Fine sifted alkaline ash of the Salsola species of thistle. Although some soap manufacture developed in Germany. In the 13th and 14th centuries. the substance was so little used in central Europe that a box of soap presented to the Duchess of Juelich in 1549 caused a sensation. later at Genoa. without losing its whiteness. made entirely from olive oil. this was a dangerous procedure (perhaps more dangerous than any present-day home activities) which could result in serious chemical burns or even blindness. Because of the caustic lye. leaving the excess lye and impurities to settle out. Leo. called barilla. some of the soaps were liquid and others were hard. Soapmaking in England in the Middle Ages The first English soapmakers appeared at the end of the 12th century in Bristol.3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD. forming jabon de Castila. soap was made by mixing animal fats with lye. was produced in the Kingdom of Castile in Europe as early as the 16th century (about 1616). In Europe. Soap History. when a German. where it could be skimmed off by the soap-boiler. it was produced at home for soap making from the ashes of a wood fire. Soap in the Middle Ages Historically. This produced what was probably the first white hard soap.changed from the current soap sold in the market. then at Venice.

000. a German chemist. Not until 1853 was this high tax finally abolished. at a sacrifice to the state of over £1.community of them grew up in the neighborhood of Cheapside in London. Soap came into such common use in the 19th century that Justus von Liebig. Soap was certainly known in . when cheap factory-made soap began to flood the market. declared that the quantity of soap consumed by a nation was an accurate measure of its wealth and civilization. In those days soapmakers had to pay a tax on all the soap they produced. After the Napoleonic Wars this tax rose as high as three pence per pound. Before this because of the high cost of soap.000. ordinary households made do without soap until about 1880. soap-boiling pans were fitted with lids that could be locked every night by the tax collector in order to prevent production under cover of darkness.

The end result was water so dirty and murky. When baths were taken. people (shall we say) had an "air" about them that they tried to overcome by wearing sachets of herbs around their necks or carrying these sachets in their pockets. When soap was used it was primarily used for cleaning linens and clothes rather than the human body.England in the sixteenth century but as it was made of fat. Since little emphasis was placed on using soap for bodily cleanliness. Early Soap Production .hence the saying "Don't throw the baby out with the bath water". whether soap was used or not. and fat was needed for making candles and rushlights. it was always a prerogative of the rich. that a small child could literally be lost in the water . the bath water was traditionally shared among the family members with the small children being bathed last.

This mixture was then boiled. ashes were added again and again as the water evaporated. the fatty acids could then react with the alkali carbonates of the plant ash to form soap (this reaction is called saponification). Animal fats containing a percentage of free fatty acids were used by the Celts. This method probably prevailed until the end of the Middle Ages. Through this process. The production of . chemically neutral fats could be saponified easily with the caustic lye. The presence of free fatty acids certainly helped to get the process started.Early soapmakers probably used ashes and animal fats. Simple wood or plant ashes containing potassium carbonate were dispersed in water. and fat was added to the solution. when slaked lime came to be used to causticize the alkali carbonate. During this process a slow chemical splitting of the neutral fat took place.

The method of producing soap by boiling with open steam. was another step toward industrialization. Michel Eugène Chevreul. and produced in essence a detergent rather than a soap such as our ancestors used. people felt compelled . introduced at the end of the 19th century. who in 1823 showed that the process of saponification is the chemical process of splitting fat into the alkali salt of fatty acids (that is. The industrialization of soap making though tended to use more chemically produced ingredients and less natural ingredients. soap) and glycerin. With World War I and the shortages of fats and oils that occurred.soap from a handicraft to an industry was helped by the introduction of the Leblanc process for the production of soda ash from brine (about 1790) and by the work of a French chemist.

These detergents. This has caused in some people super sensitivity to these "soaps". many of these synthetic detergents have found their way into our skin care products. leading to the invention of synthetic detergents. and coat our clothes. while being able to clean our clothes effectively. scent. Like facial creams.to look for a replacement for soap. and dry atmospheres. sun. they act largely by replacing lost water and laying down an oil film to reduce subsequent moisture loss while the body's natural processes repair the damage. . and allergies plus a general drying out of the skin. Increasingly. wind. skin irritations. Unfortunately. are comprised of harsh chemicals that clean. rashes. we are required to use hand creams and lotions to prevent or reduce the dryness and roughness arising from exposure to household detergents.

there has been a grassroots return to making "natural" soap in the home. Soap History 3 Return of Natural Soap In recent years. These cottage industries make soap from ingredients found in nature for its skin care qualities rather than a synthetic soap which relies upon laboratory-made .In modern times. soap had gained public acceptance as an instrument of personal hygiene. By the 1950s. Manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late nineteenth century. and advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States helped to increase popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms.

as we use more and more harsh. we run the risk of losing natural defenses and continually needed greater synthetic intervention. Skin care is but one facet of this phenomenon. foreign substances. "As we become more and more comfortable with synthetics in all areas of our lives. Synthetics are more stable in more situations and less expensive in the long run unlike the fats and oils which differ slightly from tree to tree and region to region.chemicals to make the soap look and feel and act in a certain way. but. It is tempting for soap manufacturers to lean toward synthetics and away from natural materials. Our skin is remarkably capable of functioning on its own to protect us. As Susan Miller Cavitch states in her book The Natural Soap Book: Making Herbal and Vegetable Based Soaps. we alter the body's chemical makeup and leave our skin without its natural .

is still used by those who make soap as a hobby. .the way of nature or the way of the lab. decide which route to go . as individuals. moisture.defenses. We risk becoming dependent on stronger and stronger synthetics to take the place of the body's natural systems. Many come up with their own recipes using different butters and essential oils to help those with sensitive skin or who just want to pamper their skin so that it retains its elasticity. Many of these soapcrafters have expanded their soap making from a hobby basis to a business basis to make natural soap more available to the public at large. The traditional name "soaper". for a soapmaker. and smoothness." Some individuals have chosen not to use the commercial "soaps" and continue to make soap in the home. We must each. Those who make their own soaps are also known as soapcrafters.

and make special soaps such as clear soap (aka glycerin soap). soap which contains excess fat. it can leave users with a "greasy" feel to their skin. where fats such as olive oil react with lye. Soapmakers sometimes use the melt and pour process. is more skin-friendly than industrial soap. usually. such as the historical hot process. where a premade soap base is melted and poured in individual molds. if not properly formulated.The most popular soap making processes today is the cold process method. emollients such as jojoba oil or shea butter are added 'at trace' (the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to . though. Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that. Superfatted soap. and in that the glycerin is not removed. Some soapers also practice other processes. an excess of fat is used to consume the alkali (superfatting). Often.

spearmint. chamomile. olive oil. peanut oil and soybean oil various butters like shea butter. and cocoa butter for extra moisturizing capabilities other nutrients such as sweet almond oil. castor oil. calendula oil. rosemary.thicken). various clays. geranium. after most of the oils have saponified. cottonseed oil. so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap. lavender. carrot root oil. aloe vera. avocado oil. palm kernel oil. Natural soapcrafters today have many different ingredients to select from to produce wonderful and varied soap bars. etc for scenting . eucalyptus. jojoba oil. These ingredients consist of: • • • • base oils available in today's market such as coconut oil. mango butter. avocado oil. palm oil. and seaweed essential oils including peppermint.

Rural demand is growing. 2001 data for Year-End 2000 Overview of the Indian Soap Category India is a vast country with a population of 1.030 million people. gels.and therapeutic effects • and various herbs and spices for color Consumer Trends Inside the Soap Category in India Soap is a product that many people might take for granted or consider rather ordinary.390 million (US$)* industry with over 50 mass market brands. Scented or unscented. But in some markets the sales potential for soap is only beginning to be realized.032 million (US$)* business in India. and liquids. making it the second largest category in India (detergents are number one). Rural consumers in India constitute 70% of the population. soap is a $1. soap is a part of our daily lives. in bars. At the end 2000. with more and more soap brands being launched in the discount segment targeting the lower . soap was a $1. but all income levels use soaps. which fall under different segments (see table below). In the United States. *Source: Information Resources Inc. People belonging to different income levels use different brands. but for some. IFF's marketing experts offer the following overview of this growing category. lathering up can be a treasured part of a morning or nightly routine. Household penetration of soaps is 98%.

00 36 cents Super Premium 35. For some brands. However. and a bar of soap. and South. which . It was renamed The Tata Oil Mills Company and its first branded soaps appeared on the market in the early 1930s. Soap became a necessity for the moneyed class by around 1937. the soap is plodded based on its size with the logo by a machine. in the state of Uttar Pradesh. These soaps have a strong medicated/germ killing connotation. fillers.00 10 cents Discount 7.g. positioning their brands as a way to remove dirt and clean the body. Brand Positioning Then and Now Soap manufacturers originally targeted their products to the lowest income strata in urban as well as rural areas. mug. Lever Brothers England introduced modern soaps by importing and marketing them in India. Consumer Use Today Toilet soaps are always used in the bar form—there is no other form in the Indian market—and they are used in the bath. carbolic acid) as an active ingredient to remove body odor. Soap Price (per 75 gram cake) Segment in rupees in US$ Carbolic* 5.) in a large pot and heating them up to 70 degrees while they are stirred manually. actives.00 15 cents Popular 11. India is divided into four regions: North. Although most of the urban houses have a shower facility. people bathe by using a bucket of water. Consumer Preferences Consumer preferences are varied and are more regionally specific. that positioning persists even today with a focus on removal of body odor and keeping the user healthy. the mixing process is called milling and this is done by a rotary operated machine and not manually. Showers are a distant dream for 70% of India’s population. they started marketing cold process soaps. perfume. the industry flourished all over the country. soap positionings are moving towards skin care as a value-added benefit. In a machine made soap.* During World War I.00 23 cents Premium 17. Once the mixture is ready.socio-economic strata of consumers. showers are seldom used because of the scarcity of water. the soap industry floundered. Mr. East. North West Soap Company created the first soap manufacturing plant in India. West. In the urban areas. Jamshedji Tata set up India's first indigenous soap manufacturing unit when he purchased OK Coconut Oil Mills at Cochin Kerala around 1918. History of Soap in India During the British rule in India. etc. OK Mills crushed and marketed coconut oil for cooking and manufactured crude cold process laundry soaps that were sold locally. In 1897. • Consumers in the North prefer pink colored soaps. but after the war. *Cold process soaps are manufactured by mixing all ingredients (soap base. which was situated in the city of Meerut. In villages.00 75 cents * The carbolic segment consists of soap that has crysellic acid (e. However. who live in the villages where there is not even a regular supply of drinking water. they usually bathe by the river bank or village ponds.

department stores have good display counters and this is the only place where consumers get a first hand experience of shopping and choosing from available options. which is largely dependent on proximity to consumers’ homes. However. there are very few department stores and the “Indianised” version of department stores are called “Sahakari Bhandars.• • have floral profiles. Consumers in the West exhibit preferences for strong. as they are the chief decision-makers in terms of soap purchase. which are positioned on the beauty platform. one would find such a shop at every corner and they are the main sources of soap purchase for the lower socio-economic classes. Consumers exhibit loyalty to these stores. Hence. and they are primarily set up to dispense cigarettes and chewing tobacco. Preferences are more for the pink soaps with floral fragrances. • Marketing Soap is primarily targeted towards women. About 75% of soap can be bought through these different types of outlets: Kirana Store: This is the most common source for buying soap. Here the fragrance preference is for more sophisticated profiles reflecting their lifestyles. However. hence no particular preference skews.” It is still a fairly new concept. Here consumers buy across the counter and do not have an option of browsing through display shelves. Pan-Beedi Shops: These are really small shops. The East is not a big soap market. impactful fragrances and somewhat harsher profiles compared to the North. almost like handcarts. which they call test launch markets. which usually forms a part of the month’s grocery list (which is purchased from these Kirana Stores). In the South. Freshness soaps with lime and citrus notes are also popular preferences as the climate in the North is very hot and citrus/lime scented soaps are seen to be refreshing. primarily rose. Consumers here do not exhibit high brand loyalty and are ready to experiment and try out new brands. . Medicated positionings like germ killing and anti-bacterial are marketed to families. These kinds of shops exist by the dozen in rural areas. Department Store: In India. most fast moving consumer goods companies tend to launch their new brands in these markets. Here soap prices are also discounted below the retail prices. the skew is towards specific soap segments like the Herbal/Ayurvedic profiles and also the Sandal profiles.