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‣ ‣ ‣ ‣

mergesort sorting complexity quicksort animations

**Reference: Algorithms in Java, Chapter 7, 8
**

http://www.cs.princeton.edu/algs4

Except as otherwise noted, the content of this presentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.

Algorithms in Java, 4th Edition

· Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne · Copyright © 2008

·

May 2, 2008 10:43:36 AM

Two classic sorting algorithms Critical components in the world’s computational infrastructure. Full scientific understanding of their properties has enabled us to develop them into practical system sorts. Quicksort honored as one of top 10 algorithms of 20th century in science and engineering.

• •

• • • •

Mergesort. Java sort for objects. Perl, Python stable sort.

Quicksort. Java sort for primitive types. C qsort, Unix, g++, Visual C++, Python.

2

‣ ‣ ‣ ‣

mergesort sorting complexity quicksort animations

3

Mergesort Basic plan. Divide array into two halves. Recursively sort each half. Merge two halves.

• • •

input sort left half sort right half merge results

M E E A

E E E E

R G G E

G M M E

E O O E

S R R G

O R R L

R S S M

T T A M

E E E O

X X E P

A A L R

M M M R

P P P S

L L T T

E E X X

Mergesort overview

4

Mergesort trace

lo

hi

merge(a, 0, 0, 1) merge(a, 2, 2, 3) merge(a, 0, 1, 3) merge(a, 4, 4, 5) merge(a, 6, 6, 7) merge(a, 4, 5, 7) merge(a, 0, 3, 7) merge(a, 8, 8, 9) merge(a, 10, 10, 11) merge(a, 8, 9, 11) merge(a, 12, 12, 13) merge(a, 14, 14, 15) merge(a, 12, 13, 15 merge(a, 8, 11, 15) merge(a, 0, 7, 15)

0 M E E E E E E E E E E E E E E A

1 E M M G G G G E E E E E E E E E

2 R R G M M M M G G G G G G G G E

3 G G R R R R R M M M M M M M M E

4 E E E E E E E O O O O O O O O E

5 S S S S S S O R R R R R R R R G

6 O O O O O O R R R R R R R R R L

a[] 7 8 R T R T R T R T R T R T S T S T S E S E S A S A S A S A S A M M

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E T X A M P L E T A X M P L E E T X M P L E E T X M P L E E T X M P E L E T X E L M P E E L M P T X O P R R S T X

**Trace of merge results for top-down mergesort
**

result after recursive all

5

Merging Goal. Combine two sorted subarrays into a sorted whole. Q. How to merge efficiently? A. Use an auxiliary array.

a[] k input copy left reverse copy right 0 1 2 3 4 merged result 5 6 7 8 9 final result 0 E E E A A A A A A A A A A A C C C C C C C C C C E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E G G G G G G M M M M M R R R R R R R T T

6

aux[] 6 C C C 7 E E E 8 R R R 9 T T T 0 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 9 8 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 E E E E E E E G G G G G G M M M M M M M R R R R R R R R T T T T T T T T T T R R R R R R R R R E E E E E C C A i j 0 E E 1 E E 2 G G 3 M M 4 R R 5 T 6 R 7 E 8 C 9 A

1 E E E

2 G G G

3 M M M

4 R R R

5 A A A

Merging: Java implementation

public static void merge(Comparable[] a, int lo, int m, int hi) { for (int i = lo; i <= m; i++) copy aux[i] = a[i]; for (int j = m+1; j <= hi; j++) aux[j] = a[hi-j+m+1]; int i = lo, j = hi; for (int k = lo; k <= hi; k++) if (less(aux[j], aux[i])) a[k] = aux[j--]; else a[k] = aux[i++]; }

reverse copy

merge

lo aux[]

i

m

j

hi

A A

G G

L H

O I

R L

T M

S

k

M

I

H

a[]

7

Mergesort: Java implementation

public class Merge { private static Comparable[] aux; private static void merge(Comparable[] a, int lo, int m, int hi) { /* as before */ } private static void sort(Comparable[] a, int lo, int hi) { if (hi <= lo) return; int m = lo + (hi - lo) / 2; sort(a, lo, m); sort(a, m+1, hi); merge(a, lo, m, hi); } public static void sort(Comparable[] a) { aux = new Comparable[a.length]; sort(a, 0, a.length - 1); } }

lo m hi

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

8

Mergesort visualization

first subfile

second subfile

first merge

first half sorted

second half sorted

result

Visual trace of top-down mergesort with cutoff for small subfiles

9

Mergesort: empirical analysis Running time estimates: Home pc executes 108 comparisons/second. Supercomputer executes 1012 comparisons/second.

• •

insertion sort (N2) computer home super thousand instant instant million 2.8 hours 1 second billion 317 years 1 week

mergesort (N log N) thousand instant instant million 1 second instant billion 18 min instant

Lesson. Good algorithms are better than supercomputers.

10

Mergesort: mathematical analysis Proposition. Mergesort uses ~ N lg N compares to sort any array of size N. Def. T(N) = number of compares to mergesort an array of size N. = T(N / 2) + T(N / 2) + N

left half right half merge

• • • •

Mergesort recurrence. T(N) = 2 T(N / 2) + N for N > 1, with T(1) = 0. Not quite right for odd N. Same recurrence holds for many divide-and-conquer algorithms.

Solution. T(N) ~ N lg N. For simplicity, we'll prove when N is a power of 2. True for all N. [see COS 340]

11

**Mergesort recurrence: proof 1 Mergesort recurrence. T(N) = 2 T(N / 2) + N for N > 1, with T(1) = 0. Proposition. If N is a power of 2, then T(N) = N lg N. Pf.
**

T(N)

N

= N

T(N/2)

T(N/2)

2 (N/2)

= N

T(N/4)

T(N/4)

T(N/4)

T(N/4)

4 (N/4) ...

= N

lg N T(N / 2k)

2k (N/2k) ...

= N

T(2)

T(2)

T(2)

T(2)

T(2)

T(2)

T(2)

T(2)

N/2 (2)

= N N lg N

12

**Mergesort recurrence: proof 2 Mergesort recurrence. T(N) = 2 T(N / 2) + N for N > 1, with T(1) = 0. Proposition. If N is a power of 2, then T(N) = N lg N. Pf.
**

T(N) = 2 T(N/2) + N given divide both sides by N algebra apply to first term apply to first term again

T(N) / N = 2 T(N/2) / N + 1 = T(N/2) / (N/2) + 1 = T(N/4) / (N/4) + 1 + 1 = T(N/8) / (N/8) + 1 + 1 + 1 ... = T(N/N) / (N/N) + 1 + 1 + ... + 1 = lg N

stop applying, T(1) = 0

13

Mergesort recurrence: proof 3 Mergesort recurrence. T(N) = 2 T(N / 2) + N for N > 1, with T(1) = 0. Proposition. If N is a power of 2, then T(N) = N lg N.

• • •

Pf. [by induction on N] Base case: N = 1. Inductive hypothesis: T(N) = N lg N. Goal: show that T(2N) = 2N lg (2N).

T(2N) = 2 T(N) + 2N = 2 N lg N + 2 N = 2 N (lg (2N) - 1) + 2N = 2 N lg (2N)

given inductive hypothesis algebra QED

14

Mergesort analysis: memory Proposition G. Mergesort uses extra space proportional to N. Pf. The array aux[] needs to be of size N for the last merge.

two sorted subarrays merged array

E A

E E

G E

M E

O E

R G

R L

S M

A M

E O

E P

L R

M R

P S

T T

X X

Def. A sorting algorithm is in-place if it uses O(log N) extra memory. Ex. Insertion sort, selection sort, shellsort.

Challenge for the bored. In-place merge. [Kronrud, 1969]

15

Mergesort: practical improvements Use insertion sort for small subarrays. Mergesort has too much overhead for tiny subarrays. Cutoff to insertion sort for ≈ 7 elements.

• • • •

Stop if already sorted. Is biggest element in first half ≤ smallest element in second half? Helps for nearly ordered lists.

biggest element in left half ≤ smallest element in right half

two sorted subarrays merged array

A A

E E

E E

E E

E E

G G

L L

M M

M M

O O

P P

R R

R R

S S

T T

X X

Eliminate the copy to the auxiliary array. Save time (but not space) by switching the role of the input and auxiliary array in each recursive call. Ex. See Program 8.4 or Arrays.sort().

16

Bottom-up mergesort Basic plan. Pass through array, merging subarrays of size 1. Repeat for subarrays of size 2, 4, 8, 16, ....

a[i] 7 8 R T R T R T R T R T S E S E S A S A R T S T S A S A S T S A M M

• •

lo

m

hi

merge(a, 0, 0, 1) merge(a, 2, 2, 3) merge(a, 4, 4, 5) merge(a, 6, 6, 7) merge(a, 8, 8, 9) merge(a, 10, 10, 11) merge(a, 12, 12, 13) merge(a, 14, 14, 15) merge(a, 0, 1, 3) merge(a, 4, 5, 7) merge(a, 8, 9, 11) merge(a, 12, 13, 15) merge(a, 0, 3, 7) merge(a, 8, 11, 15) merge(a, 0, 7, 15)

0 M E E E E E E E E E E E E E E A

1 E M M G G E E E E G G E E E E E

2 R R G M M G G G G M M G G G G E

3 G G R R R M M M M R R M M M M E

4 E E E E E O O O O E E O O O O E

5 S S S S S R R R R S O R R R R G

6 O O O O O R R R R O R R R R R L

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E X A M P L E T X A M P L E T A X M P L E E T X M P L E E T X M P E L E X A M P L E E X A M P L E E T X M P L E E T X E L M P E X A M P L E E E L M P T X O P R R S T X

Trace of merge results for bottom-up mergesort

**Bottom line. No recursion needed!
**

17

Bottom-up mergesort: Java implementation

public class MergeBU { private static Comparable[] aux; private static void merge(Comparable[] a, int lo, int m, int hi) { /* as before */ } public { int aux for static void sort(Comparable[] a) N = a.length; = new Comparable[N]; (int m = 1; m < N; m = m+m) for (int i = 0; i < N-m; i += m+m) merge(a, i, i+m, Math.min(i+m+m, N));

} }

Bottom line. Concise industrial-strength code, if you have the space.

18

Bottom-up mergesort: visualization

2

4

8

16

32

64

**Visual trace of bottom-up mergesort
**

19

‣ ‣ ‣ ‣

mergesort sorting complexity quicksort animations

20

Complexity of sorting Computational complexity. Framework to study efficiency of algorithms for solving a particular problem X. Machine model. Focus on fundamental operations. Upper bound. Cost guarantee provided by some algorithm for X. Lower bound. Proven limit on cost guarantee of any algorithm for X. Optimal algorithm. Algorithm with best cost guarantee for X.

lower bound ~ upper bound

• • • •

Example: sorting. Machine model = # compares.

access information only through compares

**Upper bound = N lg N from mergesort. Lower bound = N lg N ? Optimal algorithm = mergesort ?
**

21

Decision tree

a < b yes no

code between comparisons (e.g., sequence of exchanges)

b < c yes

a < c no yes no

a b c

a < c

b a c

b < c

yes

no

yes

no

a c b

c a b

b c a

c b a

22

Compare-based lower bound for sorting Proposition. Any compare-based sorting algorithm must use more than N lg N - 1.44 N comparisons in the worst-case. Pf. Assume input consists of N distinct values a1 through aN. Worst case dictated by height h of decision tree. Binary tree of height h has at most 2 h leaves. N ! different orderings ⇒ at least N ! leaves.

• • • •

h

at least N! leaves

Compare tree bounds

**no more than 2h leaves
**

23

Compare-based lower bound for sorting Proposition. Any compare-based sorting algorithm must use more than N lg N - 1.44 N comparisons in the worst-case. Pf. Assume input consists of N distinct values a1 through aN. Worst case dictated by height h of decision tree. Binary tree of height h has at most 2 h leaves. N ! different orderings ⇒ at least N ! leaves.

• • • •

2h ≥ N! h ≥ lg N ! ≥ lg (N / e) N = N lg N - N lg e ≥ N lg N - 1.44 N

Stirling's formula

24

Complexity of sorting Machine model. Focus on fundamental operations. Upper bound. Cost guarantee provided by some algorithm for X. Lower bound. Proven limit on cost guarantee of any algorithm for X. Optimal algorithm. Algorithm with best cost guarantee for X. Example: sorting. Machine model = # compares. Upper bound = N lg N from mergesort. Lower bound = N lg N - 1.44 N. Optimal algorithm = mergesort.

• • • •

First goal of algorithm design: optimal algorithms.

25

Complexity results in context Other operations? Mergesort optimality is only about number of compares. Space? Mergesort is not optimal with respect to space usage. Insertion sort, selection sort, and shellsort are space-optimal. Is there an algorithm that is both time- and space-optimal?

• • •

Lessons. Use theory as a guide. Ex. Don't try to design sorting algorithm that uses ½ N lg N compares.

26

Complexity results in context (continued) Lower bound may not hold if the algorithm has information about The key values. Their initial arrangement.

• •

**Partially ordered arrays. Depending on the initial order of the input, we may not need N lg N compares.
**

insertion sort requires O(N) compares on an already sorted array

**Duplicate keys. Depending on the input distribution of duplicates, we may not need N lg N compares.
**

stay tuned for 3-way quicksort

Digital properties of keys. We can use digit/character comparisons instead of key comparisons for numbers and strings.

stay tuned for radix sorts

27

‣ ‣ ‣ ‣

mergesort sorting complexity quicksort animations

28

Quicksort Basic plan. Shuffle the array. Partition so that, for some i

• •

•

**- element a[i] is in place - no larger element to the left of i - no smaller element to the right of i
**

Sort each piece recursively.

Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare 1980 Turing Award

input shuffle partition sort left sort right result

Q E E A A A

U R C C C C

I A A E E E

C T

K E

S S

O L L L L L

R P P P M M

T

E

X

A

M

P

L O O O U U

E K S S X X

U I M Q C X partitioning element U T M not less U O O T P P M Q Q Q Q R R R R S S X X T T

I E K not greater E E E I I I K K K

Quicksort overview

29

Quicksort partitioning Basic plan. Scan from left for an item that belongs on the right. Scan from right for item item that belongs on the left. Exchange. Continue until pointers cross.

a[i] i initial values scan left, scan right exchange scan left, scan right exchange scan left, scan right final exchange result -1 1 1 3 3 5 5 j 15 12 12 9 9 5 5 0 E E E E E E E E 1 R R C C C C C C 2 A A A A A A A A 3 T T T T I I I I 4 E E E E E E E E 5 S S S S S S K K 6 L L L L L L L L 7 P P P P P P P P 8 U U U U U U U U 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I I I I T T T T M M M M M M M M Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q C C R R R R R R X X X X X X X X O O O O O O O O K K K K K K S S v

• • • •

Partitioning trace (array contents before and after each exchange)

30

Quicksort: Java code for partitioning

private static int partition(Comparable[] a, int lo, int hi) { int i = lo - 1; int j = hi; while(true) { while (less(a[++i], a[hi])) if (i == hi) break; while (less(a[hi], a[--j])) if (j == lo) break;

before v

lo hi

**find item on left to swap
**

during

v

i j

v

v

find item on right to swap

after

lo

v

v

i

v

hi

if (i >= j) break; exch(a, i, j); } exch(a, i, hi); return i; }

check if pointers cross swap

Quicksort partitioning overview

swap with partitioning item return index of item now known to be in place

31

Quicksort: Java implementation

public class Quick { public static void sort(Comparable[] a) { StdRandom.shuffle(a); sort(a, 0, a.length - 1); } private static void sort(Comparable[] a, int lo, int hi) { if (hi <= lo) return; int i = partition(a, lo, hi); sort(a, lo, i-1); sort(a, i+1, hi); } }

32

Quicksort trace

lo initial values random shuffle 0 0 0 0 3 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 11 13 14 14

i

hi

5 2 1 3 12 10 7 9

no partition for subarrays of size 1

13 15

15 4 1 0 4 4 15 11 9 6 9 8 11 15 15 14

result

0 Q E E A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

1 U R C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

2 I A A E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

3 C T I I I I E E E E E E E E E E E E E

4 K E E E E E I I I I I I I I I I I I I

5 S S K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

6 O L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L

7 R P P P P P P P P P M M M M M M M M M

8 T U U U U U U U O O O O O O O O O O O

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 E X A M P L E I M Q C X O K T M Q R X O S T M Q R X O S T M Q R X O S T M Q R X O S T M Q R X O S T M Q R X O S R M Q S X U T M Q R S X U T P Q R S X U T P Q R S X U T P Q R S X U T P Q R S X U T P Q R S X U T P Q R S T U X P Q R S T U X P Q R S T U X P Q R S T U X

Quicksort trace (array contents after each partition)

33

Quicksort: implementation details Partitioning in-place. Using a spare array makes partitioning easier, but is not worth the cost. Terminating the loop. Testing whether the pointers cross is a bit trickier than it might seem. Staying in bounds. The (i == hi) test is redundant, but the (j == lo) test is not. Preserving randomness. Shuffling is key for performance guarantee. Equal keys. When duplicates are present, it is (counter-intuitively) best to stop on elements equal to the partitioning element.

34

Quicksort: empirical analysis Running time estimates:

• •

Home pc executes 108 comparisons/second. Supercomputer executes 1012 comparisons/second.

insertion sort (N2) computer home super thousand instant instant million 2.8 hours 1 second billion 317 years 1 week

mergesort (N log N) thousand instant instant million 1 second instant billion 18 min instant

quicksort (N log N) thousand instant instant million 0.3 sec instant billion 6 min instant

Lesson 1. Good algorithms are better than supercomputers. Lesson 2. Great algorithms are better than good ones.

35

Quicksort: average-case analysis Proposition I. The average number of compares CN to quicksort an array of N elements is ~ 2N ln N (and the number of exchanges is ~ ⅓ N ln N). Pf. CN satisfies the recurrence C0 = C1 = 0 and for N ≥ 2:

CN = (N + 1) + (C0 + C1 + ... + CN-1) / N

partitioning left

+ (CN-1 + CN-2 + ... + C0) / N

right partitioning probability

• • •

**Multiply both sides by N and collect terms:
**

NCN = N(N + 1) + 2 (C0 + C1 + ... + CN-1)

**Subtract this from the same equation for N-1:
**

NCN - (N - 1) CN = 2N + 2 CN-1

**Rearrange terms and divide by N(N+1):
**

CN / (N+1) = (CN-1 / N) + 2 / (N + 1)

36

Quicksort: average-case analysis

• •

From before:

CN / (N+1) = CN-1 / N + 2 / (N + 1)

**Repeatedly apply above equation:
**

CN / (N + 1) = CN-1 / N + 2 / (N + 1) = CN-2 / (N - 1) + 2/N + 2/(N + 1) = CN-3 / (N - 2) + 2/(N - 1) + 2/N + 2/(N + 1) = 2 ( 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + . . . + 1/N + 1/(N + 1) )

•

Approximate by an integral:

CN ≈ 2(N + 1) ( 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + . . . + 1/N ) = 2(N + 1) HN ≈ 2(N + 1) ∫1N dx/x

•

**Finally, the desired result:
**

CN ≈ 2(N + 1) ln N ≈ 1.39 N lg N

37

Quicksort: summary of performance characteristics Worst case. Number of compares is quadratic. N + (N-1) + (N-2) + … + 1 ~ N2 / 2. More likely that your computer is struck by lightning.

• • • • • • • •

Average case. Number of compares is ~ 1.39 N lg N. 39% more compares than mergesort. But faster than mergesort in practice because of less data movement.

Random shuffle. Probabilistic guarantee against worst case. Basis for math model that can be validated with experiments.

Caveat emptor. Many textbook implementations go quadratic if input: Is sorted or reverse sorted Has many duplicates (even if randomized!) [stay tuned]

38

Quicksort: practical improvements Median of sample. Best choice of pivot element = median. Estimate true median by taking median of sample.

• • • • • • • •

Insertion sort small files. Even quicksort has too much overhead for tiny files. Can delay insertion sort until end.

~ 12/7 N lg N comparisons

Optimize parameters. Median-of-3 random elements.

Cutoff to insertion sort for ≈ 10 elements.

Non-recursive version. Use explicit stack.

guarantees O(log N) stack size

**Always sort smaller half first.
**

39

Quicksort with cutoff to insertion sort: visualization

input

partitioning element

result of first partition

left subfile partially sorted

both subfiles partially sorted

result

40

Quicksort with cutoff for small subfiles

‣ ‣ ‣ ‣

mergesort sorting complexity quicksort animations

41

Mergesort animation

done untouched merge in progress input

merge in progress output

auxiliary array

42

Mergesort animation

43

**Botom-up mergesort animation
**

this pass last pass merge in progress input

merge in progress output

auxiliary array

44

Botom-up mergesort animation

45

Quicksort animation i

first partition

v

second partition

done

j

46

Quicksort animation

47

Which sorting algorithm?

data type hash heap sort link list push find root leaf tree null path node left less exch sink swim next swap fifo lifo

original

data fifo hash heap exch less left leaf find lifo push tree null path node list link sort sink swim next swap type root

?

data find hash heap leaf link list push root sort tree type exch fifo left less lifo next node null path sink swap swim

?

data find hash heap leaf link list push root sort tree type null path node left less exch sink swim next swap fifo lifo

?

data exch fifo find hash heap leaf left less lifo link list null path node push tree type sink swim next swap sort root

?

data hash heap type link list push sort find leaf root tree left node null path exch less sink swim fifo lifo next swap

?

data exch fifo heap find link hash left less path leaf lifo next root list push null swap node swim sort type sink tree

?

data exch fifo find hash heap leaf left less lifo link list next node null path push root sink sort swap swim tree type

sorted

48

Which sorting algorithm?

data type hash heap sort link list push find root leaf tree null path node left less exch sink swim next swap fifo lifo

original

data fifo hash heap exch less left leaf find lifo push tree null path node list link sort sink swim next swap type root

quicksort

data find hash heap leaf link list push root sort tree type exch fifo left less lifo next node null path sink swap swim

mergesort

data find hash heap leaf link list push root sort tree type null path node left less exch sink swim next swap fifo lifo

insertion

data exch fifo find hash heap leaf left less lifo link list null path node push tree type sink swim next swap sort root

selection

data hash heap type link list push sort find leaf root tree left node null path exch less sink swim fifo lifo next swap

merge BU

data exch fifo heap find link hash left less path leaf lifo next root list push null swap node swim sort type sink tree

shellsort

data exch fifo find hash heap leaf left less lifo link list next node null path push root sink sort swap swim tree type

sorted

49

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Princeton University - Algorithms

Princeton University - Algorithms

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- Lec12 Search Sort
- Assignment of Algorithms TB
- Sorting Algorithms
- Introduction
- 61B Midterm Review2
- Sorting Algorithms
- Efficient Sorts

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