INFORMATION IN CROSS-MEDIA: FROM DESKTOP TO MOBILE

The case of marine traffic: Designing a website for mobile phones
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UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCT & SYSTEMS DESIGN ENGINEERING
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UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCT & SYSTEMS DESIGN ENGINEERING


Undergraduate thesis for the Department of Product & Systems Design Engineering B.Eng. degree:

INFORMATION IN CROSS-MEDIA: FROM DESKTOP TO MOBILE
The case of marine traffic: Designing a website for mobile phones
by
Papadopoulou Anastasia-Evangelia





Supervisor:
Jenny Darzentas

Examiners:
Jenny Darzentas
Dimitrios Lekkas
Evangelos Vlachogiannis




Syros
2010
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ABSTRACT
Current web trends such as social networking, blogging, micro-blogging, news trackers and
many others have led to the creation of the “Real Time Web”. “Real Time web is the concept
of searching for and finding information online as it is produced.” The marine traffic web-
service is considered to be a project of this kind, providing information about current
vesselsʼ position in real time visualized in a map.
Indisputably, rapid technological evolution in mobile phone industry, communication protocols,
wireless LANs and satellite services, has contributed to a new life style, where mobility is
apparent in every single moment. Both mobile devices and services are affordable
nowadays to the majority of the population in developed countries, making information
accessible anywhere and at any time. People do not have to find information anymore,
information finds them… but how much of it can they handle?
The need for mobile versions of existing web sites and services has arisen with the
increased penetration of mobile devices. However, findings show that many mobile sites offer
poor designs suffering in usability. This is mostly because, until recently, the mobile
industries have created those products with a “technology-first” approach. A more “user-
centered” approach is used in the current thesis in order to render the user able to collect,
process and disseminate needed information to produce understanding. Thus a better
user experience is achieved.
This thesis draws on the knowledge of established technologyʼs possibilities, constrains,
and design principles in order to conduct a user survey using gathering methods to provide
a thorough grounding in information design and information architecture for a mobile
website design of the marine traffic project. It is focused on understanding the problem
space and users in order to identify needs for the use of an existing service (marine traffic)
on a different medium (mobile phone) modelling the possible critical contexts of use.
The ultimate goal is to collect data from the survey, analyse them effectively and interpret
them in a way that can lead to establishing requirements, approaching an optimal solution
to the problem, laying the foundations for a future implementation and revealing new issues to
be explored.

KEYWORDS: Information Design, Interaction Design, Design, User-Experience, User-Centered Design,
Human-Computer Interaction, Mobile Phones, Mobile Web, Mobile Internet Applications, Cross-Media

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
COPYRIGHTS ______________________________________ 13!
STRUCTURE ______________________________________ 14!
INTRODUCTION ____________________________________ 15!
THESIS STATEMENT 16!
CASE STUDY: “MARINE TRAFFIC” OVERVIEW 17!
MOTIVATION & CHALLENGES 19!
OBJECTIVES 20!
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21!
DATA ACQUISITION | METHODS & TOOLS USED 22!
CASE STUDYʼS FRAMEWORK 23!
BASIC CONCEPTS 26!
USER EXPERIENCE 26!
INFORMATION DESIGN 28!
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE 30!
WAYFINDING ON WEBSITES: NAVIGATION 31!
SUMMARISING PART 1 32!
ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE _____ 33!
THE MOBILE ECOSYSTEM 34!
THE WEB, THE MOBILE WEB AND THE VISION OF “ONE WEB” 34!
WHAT IS A MOBILE DEVICE 35!
MOBILE PHONE TYPES 36!
OTHER MOBILE DEVICE TYPES 37!
TYPES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS 38!
THE NATURE OF MOBILE COMPUTING 40!
THE MOBILE CONTEXT 48!
MOBILE USERS IN THE WILD 55!
THOSE STRANGERS 55!
MOBILE USER CHARACTERISTICS 55!
WHAT REPORTS SAY ABOUT MOBILE USERS 57!
WEB INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION 62!
INFORMATION NEEDS ON-THE-GO 64!
TASKFLOW IN MOBILE DEVICES 69!
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ACROSS MULTIPLE DEVICES 70!
1!
2!
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TOWARDS A SOLUTION 71!
PROBLEMS DERIVING 71!
OVERCOMING LIMITATIONS 75!
DESIGN GUIDELINES | BEST PRACTICES 84!
SUMMARISING PART 2 88!
ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY __________________________ 89!
SIMILAR APPLICATIONS 90!
ON THE WEB 91!
ON THE MOBILE WEB 92!
ON THE WEB AND THE MOBILE WEB 96!
INTERFACE WALK-THROUGH 98!
REPRESENTATION 98!
STRUCTURE 101!
NAVIGATION 106!
CONTENT 110!
UNDERSTANDING THE USERS 119!
IDENTIFYING & ANALYSING STAKEHOLDERS – USER GROUPS 120!
WEB ANALYTICS 121!
SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS 122!
QUESTIONNAIRE 127!
SUMMARISING PART 3 141!
CONCLUDING & DISCUSSING FURTHER __________________ 142!
CONTEXTS OF USE 143!
MODELLING CRITICAL CONTEXTS 143!
RE-DESIGN ISSUES 147!
SUMMARISING MARINE TRAFFIC SITEʼS USAGE 147!
SUGGESTED STRUCTURE & NAVIGATION 151!
SUGGESTED CONTENT 152!
SUGGESTED REPRESENTATION 155!
FINDINGS 156!
THE FUTURE OF MOBILE COMPUTING 156!
FURTHER RESEARCH 157!
CURRENT THESIS OVERVIEW 158!

3!
4!
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ANNEXES
FAQ ABOUT MARINE TRAFFIC ________________________ 159!
AIS (AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM) 160!
LAW REGULATION, MARITIME SECURITY 163!
INTERVIEWS _____________________________________ 164!
RESPONSES 165!
QUESTIONNAIRE __________________________________ 177!
RAW DATA 178!
ANALYSING COLLECTED DATA ________________________ 206!
AFFINITY DIAGRAM 207
APPENDICES
TERMS _________________________________________ 208!
ABBREVIATIONS 209!
GLOSSARY 210!
RESOURCES _____________________________________ 212!
REFERENCES 213!
BIBLIOGRAPHY 221!
TOOLS 229!
HEATMAP ANALYSIS 229!
MOBILE-READY TESTING TOOLS 229!
MOBILE ECOSYSTEM 229!
ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRES 229!
SIMULATION TOOLS 229!
WEB ANALYTIC TOOLS 229!
WIREFRAMING 229!
A!
B!
C!
D!
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: How the MarineTraffic site collects its data 17!
Figure 2: Marine Traffic home page 18!
Figure 3: User Centered Design Process 21!
Figure 4: Garrettʼs 2002 elements of user experience 23!
Figure 5: Morvilleʼs 2004 user experience honeycomb 27!
Figure 6: Information design hierarchy of needs 29!
Figure 7: IA: Users, Content and Context 30!
Figure 8: Example of a native mobile application 38!
Figure 9: Example of a mobile web application 39!
Figure 10: Example of an sms mobile application 39!
Figure 11: Model of mobile informatics 49!
Figure 12: Context feature space 49!
Figure 13: The structure of context of mobile internet 50!
Figure 14: 3D context space 50!
Figure 15: The overlapping spheres of mobile interaction 51!
Figure 16: User Context 52!
Figure 17: Context Space 52!
Figure 18: Three kinds of mobile modalities 53!
Figure 19: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q1 57!
Figure 20: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q2 57!
Figure 21: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q3 58!
Figure 22: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q4 58!
Figure 23: The composition of the wireless population 59!
Figure 24: Travel activities initiated from mobile devices 59!
Figure 25: Mobile Web users distribution by age 60!
Figure 26: Mobile web users distribution by gender 60!
Figure 27: The three mobile data user segments 61!
Figure 28: Web information classification 62!
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Figure 29: Online behaviour in 2010 63!
Figure 30: Mobile web usage clustered around two contexts 64!
Figure 31: Relationship between topics and goals/intent. 66!
Figure 32: The effect of network types on mobile web usage 67!
Figure 33: Visualizing points of interest for mobile maps. 74!
Figure 34: Googleʼs Mobilizer 77!
Figure 35: Marine Traffic through Googleʼs mobilizer 77!
Figure 36: Opera mini content adaptation 78!
Figure 37: Marine Traffic viewed in fullscreen 79!
Figure 38: Desktop screen resolutions comparison 80!
Figure 39: Desktop vs. mobile screen resolutions 82!
Figure 40: Css media queries example 83!
Figure 41: Example of responsive web design 83!
Figure 42: Live train map for the London Underground 91!
Figure 43: Tube map (iPhone app). 92!
Figure 44: Augmented reality iPhone ship app. 93!
Figure 45: Ship Tracking app 94!
Figure 46: Real-Time Social Media with location 95!
Figure 47: Fightradar app 96!
Figure 48: Google maps with current location and POIs 97!
Figure 49: Mobile Google maps with current location 97!
Figure 50: Marine Trafficʼs Heat-Map 98!
Figure 51: Marine Trafficʼs mobile version overview 99!
Figure 52: Notation & Display options of Marine Traffic 100!
Figure 53: Marine Trafficʼs Wireframe 101!
Figure 54: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Home Page 102!
Figure 55: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Vesselsʼ Page 103!
Figure 56: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Ports Page 104!
Figure 57: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Galleryʼs Page 105!
Figure 58: Marine Trafficʼs navigation 106!
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Figure 59: Vesselʼs information in marine traffics map. 110!
Figure 60: Port and receiving station in marine trafficʼs map. 111!
Figure 61: Segmenting Marine Trafficʼs Users 120!
Figure 62: Marine Trafficʼs visit statistics 121!
Figure 63: Marine Trafficʼs Daily pageviews per user 121!
Figure 64: Questionnaire Flow Diagram 128!
Figure 65: Questionnaire Intro Page 129!
Figure 66: Questionnaireʼs required field notation 129!
Figure 67: Response summary, Step 1, Q1 130!
Figure 68: Response summary, Step 1, Q2 130!
Figure 69: Response summary, Step 1, Q3 130!
Figure 70: Response summary, Step 1, Q4 131!
Figure 71: Response summary, Step 1, Q5 131!
Figure 72: Response summary, Step 1, Q6 131!
Figure 73: Response summary, Step 2, Q1 132!
Figure 74: Response summary, Step 2, Q2 132!
Figure 75: Response summary, Step 2, Q3 133!
Figure 76: Response summary, Step 2, Q4 133!
Figure 77: Response summary, Step 2, Q5 134!
Figure 78: Response summary, Step 2 (alt), Q1 134!
Figure 79: Response summary, Step 2 (alt), Q2 134!
Figure 80: Response summary, Step 3, Q1 135!
Figure 81: Response summary, Step 3, Q2 135!
Figure 82: Response summary, Step 3, Q3 135!
Figure 83: Response summary, Step 3, Q4 136!
Figure 84: Response summary, Step 3, Q5 136!
Figure 85: Response summary, Step 3, Q6 136!
Figure 86: Response summary, Step 3 (alt), Q1 137!
Figure 87: Response summary, Step 3 (alt), Q2 137!
Figure 88: Response summary, Step 3 (alt), Q3 137!
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Figure 89: Response summary, Step 4, Q1 138!
Figure 90: Response summary, Step 4, Q2 138!
Figure 91: Response summary, Step 4, Q3 138!
Figure 92: Response summary, Step 4, Q4 139!
Figure 93: Response summary, Step 4, Q5 139!
Figure 94: Response summary, Step 4, Q6 139!
Figure 95: Response summary, Final Step, Q1 140!
Figure 96: Response summary, Final Step, Q2 140!
Figure 97: Modelling the context 143!
Figure 98: The context of the work-related user group 144!
Figure 99: The context of the contributors user group 145!
Figure 100: The context of the travellers user group 146!
Figure 101: Marine Trafficʼs features usage 147!
Figure 102: Marine Trafficʼs site live map usage 148!
Figure 103: Marine Trafficʼs site services usage 150!
Figure 104: Suggested Navigation 151!
Figure 105: Wireframes of proposed desktop | mobile views 155!
Figure 106: Creating an affinity diagram from collected data 207!
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Methods Used (Maguireʼs 2001 taxonomy) 22!
Table 2: Comparing mobile to desktop computing 41!
Table 3: Modalities and technologies 53!
Table 4: The dimensions and perspectives of mobility 54!
Table 5: Mobility tasks vs. mobile HCI tasks 54!
Table 6: Web goal-based time spend using a desktop 63!
Table 7: Associating goals/intent with location context 65!
Table 8: Reason for use of mobile phone 67!
Table 9: Location of mobile use 67!
Table 10: How mobile needs are addressed 68!
Table 11: Why postponing to address mobile needs 68!
Table 12: Why mobile needs are not addressed 68!
Table 13: Managing task disruptions 69!
Table 14: Better phones perform better 72!
Table 15: Marine Trafficʼs navigational and search options 107!
Table 16: Marine Trafficʼs content priorities 152!
Table 17: Group 1 – Travel Agencies Responses 165!
Table 18: Group 2 – Non-Frequent Travelers - Responses 168!
Table 19: Group 3 – Frequent Travelers - Responses 172!
Table 20: Raw data, Step 1, Q1 178!
Table 21: Raw data, Step 1, Q2 179!
Table 22: Raw data, Step 1, Q3 180!
Table 23: Raw data, Step 1, Q4 181!
Table 24: Raw data, Step 1, Q5 182!
Table 25: Raw data, Step 1, Q6 183!
Table 26: Raw data, Step 2, Q1 184!
Table 27: Raw data, Step 2, Q2 185!
Table 28: Raw data, Step 2, Q3 186!
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Table 29: Raw data, Step 2, Q4 187!
Table 30: Raw data, Step 2, Q5 188!
Table 31: Raw data, Step 2 (alt), Q1 189!
Table 32: Raw data, Step 2 (alt), Q2 190!
Table 33: Raw data, Step 3, Q1 191!
Table 34: Raw data, Step 3, Q2 192!
Table 35: Raw data, Step 3, Q3 193!
Table 36: Raw data, Step 3, Q4 194!
Table 37: Raw data, Step 3, Q5 194!
Table 38: Raw data, Step 3, Q6 194!
Table 39: Raw data, Step 3, Q1 195!
Table 40: Raw data, Step 3, Q2 196!
Table 41: Raw data, Step 3, Q3 197!
Table 42: Raw data, Step 4, Q1 198!
Table 43: Raw data, Step 4, Q2 199!
Table 44: Raw data, Step 4, Q3 200!
Table 45: Raw data, Step 4, Q4 201!
Table 46: Raw data, Step 4, Q5 202!
Table 47: Raw data, Step 4, Q6 203!
Table 48: Raw data, Final Step, Q1 204!
Table 49: Raw data, Final Step, Q2 205!
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COPYRIGHTS
The Department of Product and Systems Design Engineering
(University of the Aegean, Greece) currently hosts the project of
Marine Traffic.
The project can be found in:
http://www.marinetraffic.com/
(English version)
http://syros-observer.aegean.gr/ais/
(Greek version)
Contact e-mail:
marinetraffic@aegean.gr
Google Group public discussion:
http://groups.google.com/group/marine-traffic


Read about Terms of Use and Copyright:
http://www.marinetraffic.com/ais/terms.aspx
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STRUCTURE
The thesis is roughly divided into the following parts:

! Parts 1 & 2 introduce the topic and basic concepts at a very
general level and finish off with narrowing down the subject to the
specific area covered by this thesis. The problem area is defined
initially through literature review, overview of current state and
similar work done.

! In Part 3 emphasis is progressively given from the abstract world
of mobile web to the case study of the MarineTraffic site. Applying a
set of methods to understand the users and their needs, a survey is
conducted to explore the problem space further through a specific
case.

! Part 4 concludes the conducted study, elaborates on findings
and explores future research opportunities.

! Finally, many appendices with detailed information about the
areas covered are included so the process followed and described
in the previous parts can be more comprehended by the reader.
// Analyzing the problem space




//Analyzing the case study




// Concluding


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Part
INTRODUCTION
THESIS STATEMENT 16
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
BASIC CONCEPTS 25
SUMMARISING PART 1 32
1
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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THESIS STATEMENT
This thesis explores the field of the “mobile web”
1
as well as the recently emerged need to
access the “web” that was initially created for a world of desktop computers; from mobile
devices. This situation reveals a new context in which users can now access the web
while on the move, which leads to many questions that this thesis aims to address.
The main problem discussed here is how we deliver a certain page to users in different
context through different media types: those that access the page sitting in front of their
desktop computer and those that might be doing anything or anywhere while looking at the
page using their mobile device. Many issues need to be addressed, such as:
Does the page have to be redesigned to serve a user on the move?
In what extent the page has to be altered and in which direction?
How can we model those two contexts?
Do, indeed, different needs and requirements arise from them?
Is it possible to cover both contexts with the same content delivered or do we need
different versions of the same site?
Is context solely responsible for the potential necessity of many versions of the
same site, or are there other factors too, like diversity among devices?
What content can we deliver to mobile devices and by what representation?
Are users achieving their goals, that is, to retrieve the right information in an
effective way, considering the limitations mobile devices have?
How can we test if a page is suitable for a mobile device?
Those questions, and many more that appear in the way, can be handled in two ways: First
with a bibliographical research to understand and define the problem space, find relative
work done, and analyse and compare solutions found. Second, with the application of all of
the above on a real world case; the project of marine traffic. The fact that marine traffic is
a site that visualizes information about the positions of vessels on a map in real-time
makes it ideal for a case study of creating a “mobile” site out of an existing “desktop” one,
as informat!on it provides is typically useful to people on the move; travellers, to be exact.
Therefore, user needs for a mobile site will be analysed and will be compared to the needs
that the desktop site covers, revealing different contexts of use.
1
It would be prudent to note that there is –technically- only one web. However the term “mobile
web” or “mobile internet” is widely used by convention to specifically identify access to the Internet
using a mobile device.
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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CASE STUDY: “MARINE TRAFFIC” OVERVIEW
Marine traffic is an academic, open, community-based project. It is dedicated in
collecting and presenting data about ship routes and ports, which are presented to the
public in real-time through a web site, visualized with the help of Google Maps.
The incentive behind this site was the Automatic Identification System (AIS), a system
originally created to aid in ship navigation and collision avoidance, as well as assist port
authorities to better control sea traffic. However, as AIS transponders that most vessels are
required to carry, include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, which collects
position and movement details, AIS can serve other uses, too. As vessels and base
stations are able to receive data transmitted by any AIS transponder, marine traffic
eventually expanded over numerous AIS receivers offered by supporters of the project
around the world, and finally managed to be able to receive data from ships almost in
every spot of the sea.

Figure 1: How the MarineTraffic site collects its data
Vessels with an AIS transponder can send encoded messages that include:
Dynamic information: vessel position, speed, status, course and rate of turn.
Static information: vessel name, dimensions, IMO number, MMSI number.
Voyage-specific information: destination, estimated time of arrival (ETA) and
draught.
How data “travel” from a vessel to marine trafficʼs web page.
Thesis Statement
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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The data collected are stored inside data bases in real-time and after process are
displayed in the web site pictured below:
Figure 2: Marine Traffic home page
SITE OBJECTIVES
The main intention of marine traffic is to provide information to travellers, observers or
any other party interested. Internet users can only use data provided for informational
reasons but by no means to ensure safety of navigation.
Due to the real-time nature of the project, information provided may be incomplete,
obsolete or contain errors, and, thus, cannot substitute the on-board safety equipment and
of course, good seamanship. The system is exclusively based on information received by
vessels, as transmitted by their AIS transponders. Consequently, correct configuration of
AIS transponders by the crew is very important. Specifically, the officer who is responsible
for the operation of the AIS transponder can significantly help in the correct presentation of
the vessel's information, by updating and checking all info transmitted.
Therefore information published by marine traffic over the web cannot and should
not be used to enhance safety at sea [Marine Traffic 2008].
(See Appendix A for law regulations and technical information related to the marine traffic project.)
The front page of the Marine Traffic web site retrieved June 10, 2010 from:
http://www.marinetraffic.com
Thesis Statement
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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MOTIVATION & CHALLENGES
The study around human computer interaction or even user experience for mobile
devices is a relatively young research field in which devices able to offer users a positive
experience while browsing the web have only been available for less than a decade and
leading conferences have only a few years of history. Many things have already been
written in those few years but being such a “hot topic” constantly evolving and changing,
designing for the mobile web, for mobile devices and last but not least for the users on the
move, leaves a lot of ground for experimentation; still, it also leaves many issues to be
explored and defined.
Users got used to browsing in desktop computers and acquired a certain experience –a
good one as usability in desktop browsing improved impressively over the last years. Now
the mobile browsing experience is disappointing for them or at best, just difficult; their
standards are way too high, and who could blame them when, frequently, accessing sites
designed for desktop browsing from mobile devices is literally impossible, mainly due to
technology issues: low connection speeds combined with low-end devices may result in a
site never appearing on the screen. Users with high-end devices might have a slightly
better experience but are also struggling to use certain websites and in this case
technological deficiencies are not the first in the list to point out. The quality and quantity of
content or even the way information is distributed among pages might not be
appropriate for users on the move. The problems, as it seems, are, still, too many
[Nielsen 2009], [Nielsen et. al 2009].
Furthermore the nature of mobile browsing differs from desktop browsing in many ways.
Mobile is social by its nature, considering the original communication purpose of mobile
phone. Mobile phones are also identifiable and provide a much more personal relationship
with the device and customization but they also have many limitations related to small
screens, difficulties in typing, variety of different devices and browsers. Mobile browsing
might be used to fill otherwise empty moments -where the user may even have a better
chance to concentrate on the content -but it also might be used in moments with
unknown conditions and with many disturbances from the surroundings of the user-
where the user may be in need of retrieving specific info relative to his current task. This
is, perhaps, the most challenging thing in the mobile web experience: modelling the
context in which the user will be when browsing a website.
Context, moments in time, is the key for right decisions in information design when
building a mobile site.
Thesis Statement
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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OBJECTIVES
One of the main objectives is to produce understanding of the mobile web, its use and
its users. Concepts and lines are vague, the myths around mobile web are many, and the
first thing that needs to be done is to familiarize readers with the basic concepts used in
this thesis so that we can have a common background for reference. With a review on
literature, reports of current state and similar cases we can have an insight of who those
users might be; why they access the web from mobile devices, what are they usually
looking for, what they could possibly want in the near future to have and many more.
As far as the case of the marine traffic project is concerned there are many things that
need to be explored and understood. Marine traffic began as a very plain site built around a
very simple idea – the exploitation of the AIS- transmitted data for a different purpose; an
informational one. From the beginning of its existence until today many features were
added; functionality, interface and information representation were changed and improved
in many ways from the initial version. And despite the thousands of daily visits an
evaluation of the site or a thorough study on why it is so successful, what are its
weaknesses and its strengths, what users like about it –or what they donʼt- what they
think of it and what they expect from its use, etc., were never conducted. All those are
essential matters that we need to understand before we begin designing the mobile
version of the site. We need to understand what needs are covered at the moment to
examine afterwards if those needs are also crucial in a mobile context of use or in what
way they vary.
Understanding usersʼ behaviour and beliefs both in an “abstract” way (from reports and
literature) as well as in an “applied” one (from findings in the particular case of the marine
traffic) can lead to a set of functional specifications and content requirements capable
of revealing potential issues for redesign a current website and the first steps to handle
the design of the mobile website.
The final objective is to ensure that data collected can be “translated” into usable guidelines
that will in future work improve the current site and create a mobile version aligned to the
desktop one. In conclusion findings are presented and discussed about the revealed
context of use exploring possible cases generalization of the survey conducted may
apply.
Thesis Statement
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Interaction design is an iterative process that allows designs to be refined in response to
user feedback. As the current thesis is an exploratory study in the field of the mobile web,
starting from general concepts and focusing progressively on to specific issues that appear
in the way, an iterative and user-centered process would be ideal to have as a guide.




Figure 3: User Centered Design Process
Basic interaction design activities are:
Identifying needs & establishing requirements
Developing alternative designs that meet those requirements.
Building interactive versions of the designs so that they can be communicated.
Evaluating designs based on user feedback
Those four stages may often overlap or lead us backwards to redefine decisions made,
or take a closer look into issues. This way we ensure usersʼ feedback will be taken under
consideration in every step, creating a site covering their needs. Understanding the
differences between people can also help realizing that one size does not fit all; what
works for one user group may be totally inappropriate for another.
A central concern in this process is to develop interactive products that are usable. By this
is generally meant easy to learn, effective to use, and providing an enjoyable user
experience; creating the correct information model
2
. Therefore, designing usable
interactive products requires considering who is going to be using them, how they are
going to be user and where they are going to be used. Another concern is understanding
the kind of activities people are doing when interacting with the products. In other words,
defining the context is the key [Preece, Sharp, Rogers 2007].
For the purposes of this thesis there is no need to go throughout the whole cycle, therefore
only the analysis stage and part of the design stage will be covered.
Analyse Design Evaluate Prototype
1 2 3 4
A general user-centered design process usual consists of four stages:
Analysis | Design | Prototyping | Evaluation
2
Referring to [Carliner 2000] model of information design where the proposed levels (physical,
cognitive, affective) are helping users to find and understand information, attracting them to use
information.
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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DATA ACQUISITION | METHODS & TOOLS USED
An overwhelming emphasis on technology over purpose and a lack of user-based feedback
are often reasons to blame for poor designs and consequently poor experiences in mobile
web [Davies 2007], [Jones, Marsden 2006], [Nielsen 2009], [Nielsen et. al 2009]. So far,
little knowledge on a methodological level exists about mobile HCI. Methods used in
mobile HCI and in evaluation of mobile user experience are not new, they are known
methods used for years in HCI. However it seems that methodology matters very little in
mobile HCI research because mobility poses a complete new set of challenges, and
methodologies that were developed in the past and in different disciplines need to be
carefully adapted to this new field [Cherubini, Oliver 2009], [Kjeldskov, Graham 2003].
Maguire has proposed a very useful classification of methods to support each stage of
the design process, emphasizing in context of use. Moreover, he argued more concretely
that analysis of use contexts in the HCI field can help identify user requirements for a
product and can also provide contextual validity for evaluation findings [Maguire 2001].
Knowing when to use each method is crucial, as you benefit more by combining insights
from multiple research methods [Nielsen 2008]. Each method has its strengths and
weaknesses. Taking the best input from each method will give you a much richer
understanding than you could gain from any one method alone. Also, by supplementing
each method with a range of other approaches, you can triangulate the findings and
guard against misleading outcomes [Nielsen 2010].
Below is a table containing methods and tools used
3
in this thesis:
Table 1: Methods Used (Maguireʼs 2001 taxonomy)
Context of Use Requirements Design
Identity Stakeholders
Survey of existing users:
Studying Reports
Web Analytics,
Interviews,
Questionnaire
Context of Use Analysis
Stakeholder Analysis


Design guidelines | Best practices
Affinity Diagram



Some methods may seem generic-purposed, however, in this thesis they are used focusing
on information design issues.
Methods used in the marine traffic case, categorized by: “Context of Use”, “Requirements”,
“Design” & “Evaluation”, according to [Maguire, 2001] to support every step of the process.
3
Methods are descripted and analysed during the process in later chapters.
Research Methodology
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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23 23
CASE STUDYʼS FRAMEWORK
The “elements of user experience” [Garrett 2002] is a very useful framework
specialized in a particular kind of product, namely, web sites and was used in the marine
trafficʼs study in order to aid focus on users and information design during the design
process. The importance of this framework lies in the way it guides you through its
component elements to support conscious decisions with the intended impact on every
action the user is likely to make on a site. By breaking down into those components and
then fitting them all together, the problem is in the end better understood as a whole.
Creating an experience instead of an artifact requires a deliberate way of thinking about
design. Garret visualized the considerations that go into creating great user experiences
as a set of five planes along a continuum, from abstract to concrete [Garrett 2006].

Figure 4: Garrettʼs 2002 elements of user experience
Within each of these five planes, additional detailed considerations are taken into
account, all dealing with the duality in the nature of the Web. Some products are primarily
functional, existing to enable a user to perform a task or accomplish a goal; those
considerations appear on the left, treating the Web as software interface. Other products
are primarily informational, existing to communicate to a user; those elements appear on
the right, treating the Web as hypertext information spaces. But a diverse and ever-
larger group of web sites has both functional and informational aspects, such as –in our
case– the project of marine traffic. In order to cover the questions posed by this thesis,
understanding user needs is the main concern in order to observe the impact the upper
planes will have while using a desktop computer versus a mobile device, especially in
terms of information architecture, information design and navigation design.
The five planes –strategy, scope, structure, skeleton, and surface- consist the elements of user
experience that provide a conceptual framework for talking about user experience problems and the
tools used to solve them.
Research Methodology
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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24 24
STRATEGY
The same strategic concerns come into play for both software products and
information spaces. User needs are the goals for the site that come from outside the
stakeholderʼs circle; they come from people who will use the site.
Balanced against use needs are site objectives for the site from the stakeholders. These
can be business goals, or in this case, the thesis statement itself.
SCOPE
On the software side, the strategy is translated into scope through the creation of
functional specifications: a detailed description of the “features” of the product. On the
information space side, scope takes the form of content requirements: a description of
the various content elements that will be required.
STRUCTURE
The scope is given structure on the software side through interaction design, in which
how the system behaves in response to the user is defined. For information spaces, the
structure is the information architecture: the arrangement of content elements within the
information space.
SKELETON
The skeleton plane breaks down into three components. On both sides, information
design is addressed: the presentation of information in a way that facilitates
understanding. For software products, the skeleton also includes interface design, or
arranging interface elements to enable users to interact with the functionality of the system.
The interface for and information space is its navigations design: the set of screen
elements that allow the user to move through the information architecture.
SURFACE
Finally, the surface: for both software products and information spaces, the concern is the
same; the visual design. Here, content, functionality, and aesthetics come together to
produce a finished design that fulfils all the goals of the other four planes.
Creating the user experience is more than a large collection of small problems to be solved.
Understand what problem needs to be solved and what are the consequences of potential
solutions to the problem are the ultimate goals. [Garrett 2002]
Research Methodology
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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25 25
EXTENDING GARRETTʼS FRAMEWORK
Garrettʼs model is still useful when examining any kind of user experience, even the mobile
one, since the broad categories apply to the creation of devices or services as well as to
Web sites. Kuniavsky proposes an extension to this framework by adding two layers that
could be added when talking about the mobile user experience: services and shape.
SERVICE
Mobile devices are often networked with other devices with which they share data, and they
reflect the services to which they are attached. How they work is a product of how — and
with what people and devices — they exchange data. The design of networked products,
whether those products are stand-alone devices, software, or Web sites, should account for
services. But the service plane (which Kuniavsky puts between Garrettʼs scope and
structure plane) is especially critical for the mobile user experience. If an object is a special
purpose device, then it is inherently less flexible than software running in an open-ended
environment. This rigidity means that the design of the service it represents is that much
more important, because the options for changing the experience at the deviceʼs end are
so much smaller.
SHAPE
Because mobile devices are physical, their shape becomes very important. Software and
Web interaction design are constrained by the toolkits used to generate them and the
software design traditions of those particular fields. The consistency this creates has been
(mostly) a boon for software developers, many of whom can evolve a product based on
previous examples, focusing on what it does differently than other products in the same
operating system environment. That kind of consistency is largely alien to the mobile user
experience world. It took almost a decade for mobile phone designs to settle down to
several basic interaction types and they are just one of an ever-expanding class of new
devices (although a very important one). The physical aspects of the device are therefore
key to the device communicating a successful user experience [Kuniavksy 2010].
Research Methodology
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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BASIC CONCEPTS
USER EXPERIENCE
User experience (UX) is still an elusive notion with many different definitions, despite
some recent attempts to develop a unified view. Diverse ideas have been generated in
scientific activities that aim to develop a common understanding about the meaning and
scope of UX [Law et al. 2008].
Existing definitions of User Experience:
Definition by Alben: “All the aspects of how people use an interactive product: they way it
feels in their hands, how well they understand how it works, how they feel about it while
theyʼre using it, how well it serves their purposes, and how well it fits into the entire context
in which they are using it” [Alben 1996].
Definition by Makela and Fulton: “A result of motivated action in a certain context”
[Makela and Fulton 2001].
Definition by Garret: “How the product behaves and is used in the real world; User
experience is about how it works on the outside, where a person comes into contact with it
and has to work with it [Garret 2002].
Definition by Hassenzahl and Tractinsky: “A consequence of a userʼs internal state
(predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation, mood, etc.), the characteristics of the
designed system (e.g. complexity, purpose, usability, functionality, etc.) and the context (or
the environment) within which the interaction occurs (e.g. organizational/social setting,
meaningfulness of the activity, voluntariness of use, etc.)” [Hassenzahl and Tractinsky
2006].
Definition by Norman, Nielsen and Tognazzini: “User experience encompasses all
aspects of the end-user's interaction with the company, its services, and its products”.
Moreover: “The first requirement for an exemplary user experience is to meet the exact
needs of the customer, without fuss or bother. Next comes simplicity and elegance that
produce products that are a joy to own, a joy to use. True user experience goes far beyond
giving customers what they say they want, or providing checklist features. In order to
achieve high-quality user experience in a company's offerings there must be a seamless
merging of the services of multiple disciplines, including engineering, marketing, graphical
and industrial design, and interface design” [NNGroup 2007].
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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27 27
Definition by interaction-design.org: "User Experience is the quality of experience a
person has when interacting with a specific design” [Knemeyer and Svoboda 2007].
Wikipediaʼs Definition: “User experience is about how a person feels about using a
system, product or service. User experience highlights the experiential, affective,
meaningful and valuable aspects of human-computer interaction (HCI) and product
ownership, but it also covers a personʼs perceptions of the practical aspects such as utility,
ease of use and efficiency of the system. User experience is subjective in nature, because
it is about an individualʼs performance, feelings and thoughts about the system. User
experience is dynamic, because it changes over time as the circumstances change”
[User Experience 2010].
Peter [Morville 2004] takes Garretʼs framework [Garret 2002] one step further, focusing on
explaining user experience with facets referring to information:













Figure 5: Morvilleʼs 2004 user experience honeycomb
Analysing what information design is in the next subchapter, it is becoming clear how user
experience is related to information.
User Experience facets: Useful, Usable, Findable, Valuable, Credible, Desirable, Accessible
information.
useful
usable
!
!
valuable!
!
"!
findable!
!
!
credible!
!
"!
!
accessible
!
!
desirable!
!
Basic Concepts
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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28 28
INFORMATION DESIGN
Information design is an activity old as humanity but was new as an idea back in the 80ʼs
introduced in fields of illustration, printing, advertising and publishing, requiring
interdisciplinary skills, as today User Experience is for the digital world. Predictions then
were highlighting the forthcoming importance of information design: “The new information
age will require many information designers. They will have to be capable of taking into
account information users as part of their professional activity” [Sless 1997]. As
communication evolved and systems became digital, online, real-time or lately mobile,
many things have changed, new constraints were added from 1985 onward and, still, there
is no unified definition of information design. This is partly because it is a complicated
process (nowadays included within the general design process) dealing with turning
complex information to easier, an intermediary step between information and
understanding; and partly because there are no standard or safe solutions that could work
in every case.
Definitions through time contain successively new notions, not only about media and
technology but also about users:
“Information design is concerned with making all types of information accessible and
usable by people” [Sless 1992].
“Information design should enhance our societyʼs ability to:
collect
process
disseminate
and to produce understanding” [Jacobson 1999].
“Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that
adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it. Design is the identifying of a problem and
the intellectual creative effort of an originator, manifesting itself in drawings or plans which
include schemes and specifications. Accordingly, information design is the defining,
planning, and shaping of the contents of a message and the environments in which it is
presented, with the intention to satisfy the information needs of the intended recipients”
[IIID 2000].
“In order to satisfy the information needs of the indented receivers information design
comprises analysis, planning, presentation and understanding of a message –its content,
Information
Basic Concepts
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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29 29
language and form. Regardless of the selected medium, a well designed information set
will satisfy aesthetics, economics, ergonomic, as well as subject matter requirements”
[Pettersson 2002].
“Information design comes down to making decisions about how to present information
so that people can use it or understand it more easily” [Garrett 2002].
“Information design is the skill and practice of preparing information so people can use it
with efficiency and effectiveness. Where the data is complex or unstructured, a visual
representation can express its meaning more clearly to the viewer” [Information Design 2010].
A number of attempts have been made in the past in order to come up with a set of
attributes that would lead to high quality of information [Wang et. al 1996], [IIID 2000].
However this was before the existence of user experience. We could rearrange the proposed
facets of [Morville 2004] into a hierarchy of importance, having in mind userʼs needs:









Figure 6: Information design hierarchy of needs
In terms of web design, Information design, it is concerned with the clarity information and
with enhancing the understanding of your siteʼs navigation and content [Kalbach 2007].
Cooper et.al in their book take information design a step further introducing the term of
visual information design
4
, in order to emphasize in web design. “Visual information
designers are concerned with the visualization of data, content, and navigation rather
than interactive functions” [Cooper et.al 2007].
VALUABLE
DESIRABLE
USEFUL
CREDIBLE
USABLE
FINDABLE
ACCESSIBLE
4
Although these are not the original meanings, many use the term of information design referring
to visual layout whereas the term information architecture is used to address issues of content.
[Fling 2009], [Garret 2002]
Moving (bottom-up) from basic requirements information must have to be accessed to the point
where it becomes desirable and valuable. Based on design hierarchy of needs [Bradley 2010]
Basic functionality, information can be retrieved.
Users can find what they need by interacting with
the site, through navigation and locatable objects.
Ease of use remains vital. Usability is
necessary, but not sufficient.
Users trust and believe the
information a site gives them.
Users will use the
information.
Users want
the information.

Design is perceived to be of the
highest level.
Ultimate
goal
INFORMATION:
Design perceived to have little to no
value.
Basic Concepts
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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30 30
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
Information architecture is the process of developing the information structure of the site,
aiming at the creation of an effective system and a good user experience [Garrett 2002].
Mobile Information Architecture consists of four elements: Representation, Structure,
Navigation, and Content:
Representation refers to the visual presentation of information. It consists of several
aspects such as how efficiently information is shown on the LCD panel of mobile
devices, how easy it is to read the presented information, and how densely
information is presented to the users.
Structure means how well the Mobile Internet service is organized. It includes
subcomponents such as the relevance of menu categorization, the appropriateness
of menu labels, and the adequate order of menu sequence.
Navigation indicates how efficiently the procedures of the Mobile Internet service
are designed. The subcomponents of Navigation include how easy it is to learn the
procedure, how easy it is to move services other than those available at the time.
Content indicates how relevantly the information is provided under particular
contexts. Sub-components of Content include how effectively the information is
given, how reliable the information is, and how often the information is updated.
[Kim et. al 2002]
A more classic approach is that in order to define information architecture the three
following areas have to be defined [Morville & Rosenfeld 2006]:







Figure 7: IA: Users, Content and Context
Basic Concepts

Users

Content


Context
IA
Information Architecture areas of practice
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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31 31
WAYFINDING ON WEBSITES: NAVIGATION
One important function information design and navigation design work together to
perform is to support wayfinding. The idea of wayfinding may come from the design of
public spaces in physical worlds but it also makes sense on websites through navigation.
The navigation systems employed by a site not only have to provide access to the different
areas of the site; they also have to communicate those choices successfully. Good
wayfinding enables users to quickly get a mental picture of where they are, where they can
go, and which choices will get them closer to their objectives.
The information design component of wayfinding also involves page elements that donʼt
perform a navigational function. Icons, labelling systems, and typography are other
information design systems sometimes used to help reinforce a sense of “you are here” for
users [Garret 2002].
People won't use a web site if they can't find their way around it [Krug 2000]. They wonʼt
use features they canʼt find and will not explore the potential of a site fully if they canʼt
understand what actions are possible to be done from their current state; itʼs not only a
matter of location.
Basic Concepts
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
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32 32
SUMMARISING PART 1
Part 1 is an introduction to this thesis, presenting the case study of the marine traffic project
that will be analysed and the general fields it involves.
Part 1 is divided into 3 main chapters:
Thesis Statement
Research Methodology
Basic Concepts
Initially, an extensive thesis statement is provided, describing the case of the marine traffic
site, motivation and challenges current topic poses, finishing off with objectives of this
research.
Methodology stages of the design process are thoroughly explained as they play an
important role in the conducted survey. Methods and tools used later in the analyses of the
case study are presented along with the general framework used to organise research
done.
Eventually the reader is provided with definitions of basic concepts relative to current
thesis.
In the next part the general problem space is defined and analysed through literature
review narrowing down the subject to a specific area.


!
!
Part
ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE
THROUGH LITERATURE
THE MOBILE ECOSYSTEM 34
MOBILE USERS IN THE WILD 55
TOWARDS A SOLUTION 71
SUMMARISING PART 2 88
2
PART 2: ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE
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34 34
THE MOBILE ECOSYSTEM
THE WEB, THE MOBILE WEB AND THE VISION OF “ONE WEB”
We all are familiar with the Web, an information system of interlinked hypertext documents
accessed via the Internet, where we can see web pages that may contain text, images,
videos and other multimedia and we can navigate between them by using hyperlinks
through a web browser [World Wide Web 2010]. However, what has changed from 1990
untill today is the medium we use to access the web. From desktop computers and the
“fixed” web, we moved to laptops, netbooks, and a series of handheld devices we can have
anytime, anywhere with us, able to access the same infrastructure. Therefore the Mobile
Web refers to the use of Internet-connected applications, or browser-based access to the
Internet from a mobile device connected to a wireless network [Mobile Web 2010]. In 2008
mobile access to the Internet exceeded desktop computer-based access for the first time
[(ITU) International Telecommunications Union, 2009], pointing out the importance of
considering all those users accessing sites initially designed to be viewed from a desktop
computer. It is important to define what the Mobile Web means, what are the obstacles to
overcome are, how itʼs different from the Web we knew and what all those users want to
find, in order to be clear how we should be thinking of it. Being in the centre of attention due
to technological advances in networks and devices where almost everyone in the
developed world owns a mobile phone, many have misunderstood the term, thinking of it as
a “second web” [Dev. Opera 2009]. Having a “second web” just for mobile devices is
contrary to the W3Cʼs vision that has been promoting the idea of “one web”. One Web
means making, as far as is reasonable, the same information and services available to
users irrespective of the device they are using. However, it does not mean that exactly the
same information is available in exactly the same representation across all devices. The
context of mobile use, device capability variations, bandwidth issues and mobile network
capabilities all affect the representation. Furthermore, some services and information are
more suitable for and targeted at particular user contexts [W3C 2009(a)]. This definition leads
us back to information design, to the basic factors that may unavoidably alter representation:
Mobile devices their limitations and capabilities: The differences between the nature
of browsing the web through a desktop computer or a mobile device, the different
contexts and the mobility situations deriving
The users; how they use their mobile devices and what do they need to access
while on the move?
The problem area of a given case study
PART 2: ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE
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The Mobile Ecosystem
WHAT IS A MOBILE DEVICE
It is really difficult to categorize each mobile device under one specific type as many
questions arise in the way: Is it a “feature” phone? Is it a smartphone? Is it a handheld? Is it a
netbook? Is it a music player? Is it an e-book reader? Is it a tablet? And, finally, does the term
mobile device have the same meaning today compared with when the first ones appeared?
In 2002, Weiss wrote: “Handheld devices are extremely portable, self-contained
information management and communication devices. A candidate must pass three
tests to be considered a handheld device:
it must operate without cables, except temporarily (recharging, synchronizing with a
desktop)
it must be easily used while in oneʼs hands, not resting on a table
it must allow the addition of applications or support Internet connectivity [wireless
application protocol (WAP), i-mode, or email]
The tests eliminate laptop computers and non-computer portable consumer electronics
devices such as MP3 players” [Weiss, 2002].
In 2006 Jones & Marsden declare: “Mobile means more than ʻmobile phoneʼ:
handhelds, wearables, badges, RFID tags and even implants will play an important part in
the future” [Jones, Marsden 2006].
A much more recent approach to define what a mobile device is done by Firtman in 2010:
“a mobile device has the following features:
Itʼs portable
Itʼs personal
Itʼs with you almost all the time
Itʼs easy and fast to use
It has some kind of network connection” [Firtman 2010].
This kind of a definition eliminates several devices from being “mobile”. A netbook would
require from someone to sit down and open it in order to use it, therefore it wouldnʼt be so
easy and fast to use, plus, it isnʼt so portable. Somewhere in between would also be
tablets, like the iPad; itʼs not so portable either. For the purposes of this thesis, letʼs
consider only those devices you could carry in your pocket; the mobile phones.
PART 2: ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE
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The Mobile Ecosystem
MOBILE PHONE TYPES
Until the end of the 1990s, there were two types of handheld device that supported quite
different sets of user needs: there were the mobile phones, for communication, and PDAs
or handhelds, for information management [Weiss 2002]. However with the new,
sophisticated models of mobile devices, those two merged into one. Apart from making
calls, mobile phones have other features too. According to those features and mainly web
compatibility Firtman has proposed the most recent categorization in 2010:
MOBILE PHONES
There are still some old devices in the market that are just “mobile phones”, meaning they
support only calls and sms. They donʼt have web browsers or connectivity, and they donʼt
have any installation possibilities. These phones donʼt really interest us; we canʼt do
anything for them. In a couple of years, because of device recycling, such phones will
probably not be on the market anymore.
LOW-END MOBILE DEVICES
5

Low-end mobile devices have web support, it is typically only a very basic browser, but this
is the gross market. People who buy these kinds of devices donʼt tend to be heavy Internet
users, but this may change quickly with the advent of social networks and the mobile web.
They do not have touch support, have limited memory, and include only a very basic
camera and a basic music player.
MID-END MOBILE DEVICES
5

Mid-end devices typically offer a medium-sized screen, basic HTML-browser support,
sometimes 3G, a decent camera, a music player, games, and application support. One of
their characteristics is that they donʼt have a well-known OSs; they have proprietary one.
HIGH-END MOBILE DEVICES
Originally the same category as smartphones, high-end devices are non-multitouch but
have advanced features (like an accelerometer, a good camera, and bluetooth) and
relatively good web support. They are better than mid-end devices but not on a par with
smartphones.
SMARTPHONES
This is the most difficult category to define. Why arenʼt some mid-end and high-end devices
considered “smart” enough to be in this category? The definition of smart evolves every
5
Many consider low-end and mid-end mobile devices to form only one category: the feature phone.
These devices account for the vast majority of the market (at least 85% in some statistics). They offer
horrible usability, enabling only minimal interaction with websites. [Nielsen 2009]
PART 2: ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE
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The Mobile Ecosystem
year. Even the simplest mobile device on the market today would have been considered
very smart 10 years ago. A smartphone, as defined today, has: a multitasking operating
system, Touch support, a full desktop browser, a music player, Wireless LAN, 3G
connection, GPS or A-GPS, Digital compass, Video-capable camera, Bluetooth, 3D video
acceleration, Accelerometer.
OTHER MOBILE DEVICE TYPES
Other mobile device types apart from mobile phones:
NON-PHONE DEVICES
There are some mobile devices that have all the features weʼve mentioned, but without
voice support using the normal carrier services. For example, Appleʼs iPod Touch and iPad
are devices in this category. They arenʼt phones, but they can be personal, are portable,
small as mobile phones and easy to use, can be kept with you most of the time, and have
WLAN connections, so they fall into the category of limited connected devices. They both
also have a great mobile browser—the same one as the iPhone—so they will be in our list
of devices to be considered for development. We can also consider some of the new e-
book readers. Ebook readers arenʼt phones, but they conform to all our other guidelines for
mobile devices (with perhaps one difference: they are more likely to stay at home than to
travel everywhere with us as most of them are not so portable).
SMALL PERSONAL TECHNOLOGY (SPOTS)
This may sound like a futuristic category, but there are already some products out there.
The only difference between SPOTs and the other devices weʼve considered is their form:
a SPOT may be a watch, or even a pair of glasses. Are we really going to create a website
for a one-inch screen? Maybe not, but we can create small widgets to update information
presented to the users, and this falls under the category of mobile web work.
TABLETS, NETBOOKS, NOTEBOOKS
Tablet devices have at minimum a nine-inch display, like netbooks, but they donʼt have a
“main body” to open. Some have desktop operating systems and desktop browsers and
some have mobile software. Netbooks and notebooks are older concepts and they are
more like desktops than mobile devices. All three of them are not so portable or easy to use
(e.g. when walking). [Firtman 2010]
But what is different between mobile and desktop computing? The next sub-chapter is
going to explore this question.
PART 2: ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE
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The Mobile Ecosystem
TYPES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS
There are 3 types of mobile applications, each of them having its advantages and its
disadvantages:
Native apps (a different application for each of the existing mobile operating
systems must be designed, created and distributed)
Web apps (this is practically the mobile version of a site for the web. All devices can
access the same mobile web site, but information presentation might be different
depending of the size and type of the mobile device used)
Command line / SMS apps (this is a widely used by services that support “status
updates” where messages can be used either to update the status or to receive
notifications of others statusʼ updates, messages etc. as they happen. This kind of
application is not provided in every Country)
Some services have all of 3 alternatives of their “main” desktop site in order to cover the
needs of as many users as possible, such as Facebook.

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 8: Example of a native mobile application
Nowadays, there is a great debate whether the mobile alternative of a desktop site should
be a native mobile app or a mobile web site app. On the one hand, native applications
exploit all features of the software each particular operating system has, and consequently
the hardware possibilities of the latest devices, supporting multitouch gestures, thus
creating a better user experience. Some of them can even store data locally on the phone
or work offline.
Facebook as a native mobile app for an (1) iphone (2) android device.
(1) (2)
PART 2: ANALYSING THE PROBLEM SPACE THROUGH LITERATURE
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The Mobile Ecosystem
! ! !


Figure 9: Example of a mobile web application
On the other hand mobile apps need to be downloaded and installed, if supported by the
usersʼ mobile device. In other words, they can not be accessed by all, contrary to the
mobile web. Content is accessible on any mobile web browser and although supporting
multiple devices can be challenging, it is not impossible, but it usually means sacrificing the
optimal experience high-end devices can provide to support low-end ones [Fling 2009].
However the mobile web and installable applications are not enemies. In fact, when both
supported, they work together very well complementary [Firtman 2010].

Figure 10: Example of an sms mobile application
Facebook as a web app has 3 different versions, with different URLs:
(1) touch.facebook.com
(2) m.facebook.com and
(3) 0.facebook.com that is free of charge for most of the providers.
(1) (2) (3)
Facebook as an sms app on an iphone
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THE NATURE OF MOBILE COMPUTING
DEVICE LIMITATIONS
Entering this new era of innovation, we also need to consider what is different when
accessing the web with those small mobile devices that are small enough to fit in a pocket
and may be used while simultaneously walking around and interacting with the world.
There are some well-known constraints we must take into consideration when designing
for the mobile world -mostly surrounding a deviceʼs form factor and physical user interface.
In the next table all those constraints and new characteristics compared to what we knew
about the desktop computing are gathered in order to understand the difference between
those two media in terms of:
Addressable Users
Reasons of use
Form
Screen size
Screen Resolution
Internet Connection
Hardware
Input
Interaction
Available fonts and colours
Web Standards
Physical Constraints | Environment
Browsing

This table combines information from several resources; books written by: [Weiss 2002],
[Jones & Marsden 2006], [Ballard 2007], [Moll 2008], [Fling 2009], [Gail & Lal 2009],
[Firtman 2010], papers written by: [Chincholle et. al 2002], [Lee & Grice 2003], [Shrestha
2007], [Sohn et. al 2008], [Reichenbancher 2009], journals written by: [Jones 1999], [Aaron
& Chen 2002], [Chalmers et. al 2004], [Freitas & Levene 2005], [Chittaro 2006], [Heeae et.
al 2007], and numerous web pages, to mention just a few, written by: [Suda 2006], [Waele
2006], [Suda 2009] [Nielsen 2009], [Nielsen et. al 2009], [Nudelman 2010].
On the one hand some of the limitations mentioned in older resources are no longer valid
for mobile devices produced today but do apply in some cases as a large portion of users
possess old phones, or just feature phones
6
. On the other hand, some of these limitations
are not likely to disappear in the near future because mobile devices need to remain
compact in size and energy-efficient [DotMobi 2008].
6
However traffic share is reversely proportional to the number of those phones. Most traffic is
generated by smartphones, by 46% in May 2010 [AdMob 2010]
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The Mobile Ecosystem
Table 2: Comparing mobile to desktop computing
DESKTOP MOBILE
Addressable Users
3 billion mobile subscriptions
worldwide
1 billion total netbooks, desktops and
servers
Reasons for Use
Lengthy information processing
tasks
On-the-go lookup and entry of
information. Quick communication, such
as instant messaging and/or voice
Form Factor
Requires a table; best used while
seated. Sometimes portable.
Less than 10"×12". Can be used
standing up without a table, typically
fitting in a shirt pocket.
Screen Size
Large Screen (17”, 19”,21”, up to 30”)
Plenty of space for navigation
Desk-mounted monitor
Good quality screens (with many
dots per inch-dpi)
“Landscape” width/height ratio
Small Screen (1”-3” inches)
Limited Navigation Space
Screen jolting around
Usually low quality screens (with limited
pixels per inch-ppi), except for some
high-end phones.
Mostly “portrait” width/height ratio, with
latest devices having the ability to
present a “landscape” one by rotating the
device. Other phones have square
screen
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Screen Resolution
Nowadays desktop screensʼ
resolutions have been standardized:
o 600x800, 1024x768 or 1440x900
for small screens going up to
o 1680x1050, 1600x1200 or even
1920x1080 for HD resolutions of
bigger screens, to list but a few
Mobile screensʼ resolutions are not
standardized yet (different combinations
can be found beginning from 96x65
going up to 640x960 for latest high-end
models). But if we talk about devices
sold from 2007, we can separate most
of them into four basic groups:
o Low-end devices:
128×160 or 128×128
o Mid-end devices:
176×220 or 176×208
o Mid-end devices and some high-
end devices:
240×320
o Touch-enabled high-end devices
and smartphones:
240×480, 320×480, 360×480,
480×800, 480×854, or 640×960
Internet Connection
Unlimited use
Fast Internet:
o High Bandwidth
o Reliable Internet Connection with
no lag or connectivity issues
Cost per byte or per minute limits use
Slow Internet, but improving:
o Low Bandwidth
o Unreliable connectivity with possible
lag or/and disconnections


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Hardware
Hardware is not an issue anymore in
web browsing for desktop computers
Slow Processors
Short battery life
Limited storage
Little memory
o Limiting cache size
Input
Variety of input peripherals,
mentioning the most commonly
used:
o Most desktop computers will have
a full 104-key (or more)
o Mouse
Limited input peripherals, different from
what people use in desktop:
o 2-3 letters to a key (numeric keypad)
o alphanumeric keypad (QWERTY or
ABC)
o in case of mobile phones with
touchscreen a small QWERTY on-
screen virtual keyboard
o touch
o multitouch
o external keypad (wireless or not)
o no pointing device (except for fingers)
Different input techniques:
o Hand-writing recognition software
o Prediction of words
o Voice recognition

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Browsing
In many cases the user can have an
overview of the content inside a
page with a few scrolls
Existence of tabs; one of the
handiest features of desktop
browsers
Interaction in desktop browsing
seems to be “easy” compared to the
mobile experience at the moment,
but it hasnʼt always been this way.
Many of the mobile limitations of
today applied to the initial state of
desktop computing. Some of them
were solved by technological
advances, some by different design
approaches and to some people
simply got used to (such as
browsing with the use of a mouse)
Amount of content is limited due to the
small size of a screen, requiring a lot of
scrolling to have an overall idea of the
site. However some browsers offer a
feature of content transformation, giving
a zoomed-out version to the user, fitting
the whole page into the screen.
Tabs are missing on the majority of the
mobile phoneʼs browsers, making popup
links or external links without a prompt
very annoying
Small screens mean fewer visible
options at any given time, requiring
users to rely on their short-term memory
to build an understanding of an online
information space. This makes almost
all interactions harder. Menus, buttons,
hypertext links, and scrolling all take
longer time and are more error-
prone…Text entry is particularly slow
and littered with typos, even on devices
with dedicated mini-keyboards
Available fonts and colours
Wide range of fonts
Wide range of colours
Limited fonts supported
Limited colour-pallet (especially in older
or low-end phones):
o Potential contrast issues

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Web Standards
Full support of web standards





There are certain browsers and
operating systems for all of which
developers have over time learned
how to support the full range of
desired features
Not all phones have web browsers
compliant with web standards:
o Well known formats in desktop
browsers may have unpredictable
alterations in presentation for some
mobile browsers, such as tables or
frames.
o Not all of the programming languages
are supported for all mobile devices
There are so many different browsers
and operating systems supporting
different things

Interaction
Average session length: 10ʼ-15ʼ
There are many events triggered by
the mouse
People are used to the point-n-click
interaction of the desktop computer
with the use of a multi-button mouse
Average session length: 2ʼ-3ʼ minutes
There are no mouse-over events, such
as hover, or “right-button” click
Thumb-Interactions:
o When the device does not have
touchscreen selection is done by
moving through all items one-by-one
o The thumb or even the forefinger
becomes the “mouse” or else the
point-n-click medium.
Gesture-Interactions:
o Specific gestures for touchscreen
phones.
o “Fat-finger” problems
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Physical Constraints | Environment
Have time to browse
Quiet Environment



Have pen & paper to take note
Sitting down
Have separate phone
Focused on task
People are used to the keyboard and
mouse, having a better typing speed
and accuracy than using phones
Artificially-lit environment
Donʼt have time to browse
Noisy, interruptible and easily distracting
environment:
o even the device itself can interrupt the
user from a specific task, with
incoming calls or text messages
Hard to take notes
Standing or walking
Phone and web in same device
Multi-tasking
The lack of a standard keyboard and
mouse has a significant negative impact
on typing speed and accuracy
Various & usually unknown conditions
affecting visibility and contrast:
o May be in strong sunlight
o May be in dark

This table shows how biased those two worlds can be. However that might not be 100%
correct as the reverse in some cases is also true. For example people using desktop
computers might be in a hurry, while sometimes people using mobile phones are idly sitting
somewhere and have time to spare.
Despite the very long list of differences and limitations, mobile computing also has a
potential to satisfy needs which desktop computers couldnʼt. Those possibilities are
discussed in the next sub-chapter, as both possibilities and limitations have implications on
designing for the mobile web.
An extensive list of differentiating attributes between mobile and desktop computing
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Possibilities
Mobile phone use is still something not yet fully explored. Many of the so-called limitations
might also be the greater advantages of mobile computing at the same time. When
designing sites for mobile devices, it is possible to take advantage of some of these
features to enrich the experience over other devices [Dev. Opera 2009].
Mobile devices are:
Personal (they are usually unique to a single user)
Identifiable (because they are personal)
Handheld (The device is portable. It can be operated with a single hand, even if two
hands or a hand and a surface are more convenient. It can be used to access
information anytime, anywhere)
Wakable. (The device can be awakened quickly by either the user or the network.
This means it can either provide notifications with SMS and other means or be
standby and ready to be used anytime)
Mobile! (Mobile means freedom to move around!)
Mobiles devices can go with you wherever you go, which opens up a whole new world of
possibilities for location-aware applications, unknown until today for the desktop user,
applications that give you appropriate data depending on where you are.
Current location (Geo-location) can be captured or shared (Geo-tagging) by some
devices through means such as: GPS, Web services or Triangulation for older devices.
This is a great advantage of the mobile computing. Information can get relevant to where
the user is, a feature widely used in many mobile applications.
Other hardware features:
Camera (Many applications use the camera, especially some augmented reality ones)
Phone (Letʼs not forget that the primary purpose of a mobile phone is to call people!)
7

SMS (This feature can be still used for updates or notifications)
Voice & Sound
Accelerometer (Applications begin to use this to support gestural interaction in latest
phone devices)
7
This can be smoothly integrated into a website by using the little known tel: protocol. Just like you
use a mailto: to link to an email address, you use tel: to link to a phone number. When you click the
tel: link it causes the phone to dial.

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THE MOBILE CONTEXT
In an ideal world a context-aware application would be able, through the device sensors, to be
in a position to know everything about its userʼs condition, their surroundings and their current
task, in order to provide information relative to what the user needs or will need in the near
future. However, in spite of the vision of ubiquitous computing or otherwise called pervasive
computing and ambient intelligence, throughout the 1990s the complexity of the technology
overshadowed nearly all consideration of user experience and is currently hampered by the
lack of programming support and technological advances [Biegel, Cahill 2004], [Ballard 2007],
[Kuniavsky 2010].
The term “context-awareness”
8
in ubiquitous computing was firstly introduced in 1994
referring to context as “location, identities of nearby people and objects, and changes to those
objects” [Schilit, Theimer 1994(b)]. Dey and Abowd reject a few definitions in the meanwhile
(1994-1999) as they define context by example and are claimed as difficult to apply. Instead
they give their version in order to make it easier to enumerate the context for a given
application scenario: “context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation
of an entity. An entity is a person, place or object that is considered relevant to the interaction
between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves. If a piece of
information can be used to characterize the situation of a participant in an interaction, then that
information is context” [Dey, Abowd 1999]. Schmidt et. al had a more extended notion of
context and defined it as “interrelated condition in which something occurs” [Schmidt et. al
1999]. Many [Dourish 2001], [Greenberg 2001], [Svaneas 2001] have stated their doubts,
considering definitions of context too vague and general to be adapted to any specific design
processes, despite the attempts to create a standardized definition of context [ISO 13407,
1999]. As context is tightly intertwined with usersʼ internal and social continuously changing
interpretations, it seems difficult to be captured in any general sense that would support design,
rendering questionable whether the entire concept is of any use [Tamminen et. al 2004].
However the idea of making technology more context-aware wasnʼt abandoned. Hiding a great
deal of complexity Brown and Randell argued that “we should think more closely ourselves
about context, rather than expecting computers to be able to do this thinking for us”. They
suggest to use context sensitive computing defensively, to provide structures to which people
themselves can add context, and, finally to communicate context to users, allowing to make
sense of that contextual information themselves [Brown, Randell 2004]. Kim et. al through their
empirical study on mobile context observed that people do not use the Internet evenly in every
possible context. Instead, their usage is heavily clustered around a few critical contexts
[Kim et. al 2002]. Consequently research focused on modelling those mobile contexts and
determining what they comprise.
8
“Context-aware” is often found in literature also as “context-sensitive” – though the first one is
more common.

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TOWARDS A CONTEXT MODEL
The first, but so insightful and representative until today, attempt in modelling the mobile
computing was made in 1998, reflecting the ways in which mobile computing differ from
using information technology (IT) in stationary settings. Kristoffersen & Ljungberg with their
empirical studies of mobile work lay foundation for the concept of context of mobile use
raising issues about the suitability of adopting concepts from stationary computing in the
design of mobile computing. [Kristoffersen, Ljungberg 1998]








Figure 11: Model of mobile informatics
Schmidt et. al in order to structure the concept of context they propose:









Figure 12: Context feature space
Environment
Physical
Surrounding
Social
Surrounding
Modality
Wandering
Travelling
Visiting
Mobile IT Use
Application
Technology
Data
Program
The purpose of the model is to provide a framework of concepts to produce understanding on
how people use the information technology in mobile settings. Environment and modality are
used to explain the particularities of the mobile setting. Environment is the physical and social
surroundings; modality is the fundamental patterns of motion.
Six categories are defined to provide a general structure for context. Within each category relevant
features can be identified..
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A few characteristics of context:
A context describes a situation and the environment a device or user is in.
A context is identified by a unique name.
For each context a set of features is relevant.
For each relevant feature a range of values is determined (implicit or explicit) by the
context. [Schmidt 1999]
Kim et al. divided contextual information into two categories: Personal context and
environmental context. Their study aims to define critical contexts in which people use the
mobile web in terms of the eight elements of their proposed model (goal, emotion, hand,
leg, visual, auditory, co-location, and interaction) [Kim et. al 2002].
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 13: The structure of context of mobile internet
In an effort to combine previous literature, Sears et. all, separate contextual information into
three categories: human, environment, and application [Sears et. al 2003].





Figure 14: 3D context space
Context
Personal
Context
Environmental
Context
Internal
Context
External
Context
Physical
Context
Social
Context
Goal
Emotion
Hand
Leg
Visual Distraction
Auditory Distraction
Co-Location
Interaction
“Different contexts may cause different kinds of usability problems”
Environment Applications
Human
Social Environment
Activities
User
I/O Channels
Functions Location
Infrastructure

Physical Conditions
“Users can recognize certain aspects of the context and adapt”
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Savio and Braiterman visualize the mobile context with overlapping spheres of different
elements appearing in previous work [Savio, Braiterman 2007].













!
Figure 15: The overlapping spheres of mobile interaction
Goker and Myrhaug published several papers while working on modeling with a UML
approach. In general, they supported that we can speak of many different types of
contexts, depending on the entity of actor the context is intended for:
Contexts describing a user’s situation should be named user context;
Contexts describing a softwareʼs situation should be named software context;
Contexts describing a documentʼs situation should be named document context;
Contexts describing a networkʼs situation should be named network context;
“In order to design for successful mobile interactions, we must understand the overlapping
spheres of context in which they take place.”
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Focusing on the user they propose a userʼs context model:










Figure 16: User Context
Collecting instances of userʼs contexts a context space is formed, taking time into account,
revealing the association of context to personalization and profiling [Goker, Myrhaug 2009].











Figure 17: Context Space
User

User Context

1
0…*
Can be a part of
Social Context

Task Context

Personal Context
Mental Context
Physiological Context

Physio
Spatio-temporal
Context

Environmental
Context
This model was created to help developers organize retrieved contextual information
User

Context Space

Can have 0…*
Can have 0…*
Is a part of
Context history

Current Context

Future Contexts

Context

Can be
Is a
Can be within Can be within
Comprises 0…* 0…* Comprises
Context space with past, present and future contexts
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MOBILITY
One of the most crucial aspects of context in mobile computing is mobility itself, as it is a
major difference between desktop and mobile computing. It is variable, complex, highly
related to mobile computing, and maybe the most important contextual factor relevant to
the user [Barnard et. al 2007].
We can assume there are two basic kinds of modalities in mobility: mobile (when you
move) and stationary (when you donʼt move, e.g. when sitting in front of the computer).
However this would be partially true, as it would leave several cases that donʼt fall under
either of those two kinds out; in a scenario where someone is travelling inside a train, for
example, would we say he/she is mobile or stationary? We usually sit when travelling so
this modality could be characterized as stationary but the train itself during the trip is not
stationary at all.
For this reason, Kristoffersen & Ljungberg, distinguish three modalities in mobile computing:
Travelling: the process of going from one place to another in a vehicle
Visiting: such as when visiting someone elseʼs place, where a coherent but
temporal period of time may be spend stationary
Wandering: which involves extensive local mobility/walking around within a building
or small area [Kristoffersen, Ljungberg 1998]
!
Figure 18: Three kinds of mobile modalities
They also assign to these modalities the kind of the devices that could be used in each of them
Table 3: Modalities and technologies
Mobile Portable Desktop
1. Wandering !!
! !
2. Travelling !! !!
!
3. Visiting !! !! !!

Wandering Wandering
Travelling
Visiting Visiting
Mobile modalities: Travelling, Visiting, Wandering
Combining typical situation with typical technology.
[Kristoffersen, Ljungberg 2000].
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Noticing that our everyday lives have been mobilized, Kakihara and Sorensen suggest the
expansion of the mobility concept by looking at three interrelated dimensions of human
interaction: spatial, temporal and contextual [Kakihara, Sorensen 2002].
Table 4: The dimensions and perspectives of mobility
Dimensions of
mobility
Aspects of interaction Extended perspectives
1. Spatiality
Where
Geographical movement of not
just human but objects, symbols,
images, voice, etc.
2. Temporality
When
Clock time vs. Social time
Objective vs. Subjective
Monochronicity vs. Polychronicity
3. Contextuality
In what way
In what circumstance
Towards which actor(s)
Multi modality of interaction
o Unobtrusive vs. Obtrusive
o Ephemeral vs. Persistent
Weakly & strongly tied social
networks

Mobility is a factor often neglected, and designs are usually not evaluated in mobile conditions
[Kjeldskov 2004], [Nielsen et. al 2006], [Barnard et. al 2007], [Goker, Myrhaug 2008]. However
being in the “ultimate” mobile conditions - the wandering modality - affects interaction in a way
none of the rest context parameters do. From the perspective of interaction, being mobile is
cognitively costly [Oulasvrita et. al 2005]. When moving, people usually have a mental plan on
how to navigate from place A to place B, and what actions must be performed on the way in
order to fulfil the plan. While wandering, people keep their main target in mind while
simultaneously use their mobile device [Tamminen et. al 2004].
Table 5: Mobility tasks vs. mobile HCI tasks
Mobility Tasks Mobile HCI Tasks
A. Talking
B. Walking
C. Waiting
D. Way Finding
E. Sidestepping
F. Planning Routes
G. Avoiding Collisions
H. Estimating time-to-target
I. Controlling personal space
J. Typing Information
K. Deciding on a path
L. Waiting for loading
M. Searching from display
N. Executing a navigational action

Extending mobility with dimensions of human interaction
Example of cognitive demands in mobility vs. HCI mobile tasks [Oulasvrita et. al 2005].
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MOBILE USERS IN THE WILD
THOSE STRANGERS
Although mobile context and mobility have already been analysed, there is a fundamental
question still unexplored: who are those mobile users and what information are they
looking for through the mobile web?
First of all we now know that desktop users have already become a subset of mobile users.
Gail and Lal in 2009 mention that there are 3 billion mobile subscribers worldwide and 4.6
billion in 2010 but only 1 billion of notebooks, desktops and servers [Gail & Lal 2009],
[Ingram 2010]. We can therefore safely assume that the mobile user is not an expert
user [Ballard 2007]. On the same time mobile devices can do many things and users are
starting to expect similar levels of functionality and experiences as they get on the
desktop web [DotMobi 2008].
MOBILE USER CHARACTERISTICS
MOBILE
Mobile users are mobile. It is obvious. They are expected to have keys or wallets or bags in
their hands or be in a rush, stuck in traffic or even in a silent room using their mobile device
instead of their desktop computers…anything is possible. What it is not obvious is how they
collect and process information in situations like that, without having present a pencil to write
down notes, jumping from application to application on their phones, and how they use their
memory with information and content stored on desktop computers that may or may not be
remotely available [Ballard 2007], [Dearman &Pierce 2008], [Oulasvirta et. al 2005].
INTERRUPTIBLE AND EASILY DISTRACTED
In a breakthrough article Oulasvirta et. al defined mobile interaction as four-second interaction
bursts. The mobile user has fragmented attention as he has to perform many tasks, navigate
through the physical world, managing obstacles and picking routes while, similarly, navigating
through the virtual world, performing text entry, and reading text. Typically, a user attempting
both simultaneously will end up performing the tasks in sequence, or in an alternating fashion
(see Table 5). Shifting context and navigation conspire with other factors to make the mobile
user more interruptible and easily distracted than desktop users [Ballard 2007]. In experiments,
as expected, user attention turned towards the physical environment more often when users
where under time pressure, or in more crowded places or moving throughout obstacles and
busy streets [Oulasvirta et. al 2005]. Comprehension (reading time, response time, scrolling)
and search were also affected [Barnard et. al 2007].
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Mobile Users in the Wild

AVAILABLE
The converse side to interruptibility is that mobile phone users are, most of the times,
immediately available to remote friends, family, colleagues, and clients. This fact has led to
more stress and less quiet time, but it also enables people to feel more connected.
Availability allows applications to communicate with instant messaging-like technologies
with confidence that the user is present and will receive the information immediately
[Ballard 2007].
SOCIABLE
Sociability has two meanings for a mobile phone user as all mobile users are exposed to
one or more social micro-contexts. While mobile users are available to connect with people
using the phone, they are also sociable with the people around them, whether is acceptable
or not to do both on the same time differs from place to place, depending on culture (see
Figure 20) [Ballard 2007]. Especially nowadays social interactions are the number 1 activity
on the mobile web, with many services created only to support mobile use in order to
render users able to combine location and social information, such as sharing and updating
their status or pictures (see Figure 18) [Ingram 2010].
CONTEXTUAL
The mobile userʼs environment affects how the device is used, as described in the previous
chapter. For highly task-focused applications the userʼs context can be predictable but this
is viable only for a small percent of applications. Devices are not able to provide context-
awareness but there is a lot of information that can be used in this way [Ballard 2007].
There is also a push-or-pull controversy as some believe that users can construct their
mobile contexts. By taking action, or withholding it, a user can either renew or sustain the
present context [Oulasvirta et. al 2005].
IDENTIFIABLE
Because devices are personal, they are usually unique to a single user. This identification
includes both a unique messaging address (phone number or email address or similar) as
well as the device itself. In theory, subscriber identification provided by the device can be
used to identify a returning user to a web site without user input. In practice, some carriers
have hidden this information to all but business partners, and it is not recommended to use
device information without asking the user for permission [Ballard 2007], [W3C 2009(b)].
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WHAT REPORTS SAY ABOUT MOBILE USERS
GENERATION Y
Users between the ages of 18-27, also known as generation Y, are the most frequent and
active users (and maybe the expert ones) of the mobile web. Opera software released data
from usage in 2010 by generation Y of its mobile web browser, opera mini
9
[Dev.Opera 2010].
Some interesting results below:

Figure 19: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q1

!
Figure 20: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q2
Have you ever browsed on public transit (bus, train, etc.)?
Have you ever used your mobile phone to share photos?
9
Users of Opera Mini were shown a notification asking them to take the survey. In addition to
collecting demographic data and information regarding their use and opinions of Opera Mini, the
survey focused on questions regarding usersʼ mobile/Internet lifestyle.
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Mobile Users in the Wild


!
Figure 21: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q3


Figure 22: Generation Y chooses the mobile web Q4
Opera software highlights 2 major points of these results:
Members of Generation Y are not all the same, and cannot be described by simple
generalizations.
The diversity within Generation Y is especially evident when looking at members of
that generation across multiple countries.
It is also quite impressive that, except for Germany and Poland, they said they use Opera
Mini (on a phone) more often that a desktop or laptop computer to access the Internet.
Would you consider it acceptable for your friends to browse or send text messages on their
phones during a restaurant meal?
Which do you use more to access the internet?
10

10
Since all respondents of this survey are Opera Mini users, it is not surprising that many of them
use Opera Mini as the most common way they access the Internet.
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ADULTS IN GENERAL
Young adults are heavily invested in the mobile web, although 30-49 year olds are gaining
ground as shown on a survey for the American population
11
[PewInternet 2010].
Figure 23: The composition of the wireless population
Another survey in U.S., by Adobe, focuses on activities [Adobe 2010]:




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Figure 24: Travel activities initiated from mobile devices
Travel, however, is least engaging by time spent, as respondents are not interacting with
other travel-related activities in high numbers.
11
This report is based on the findings of a daily tracking survey on Americansʼ use of the Internet.
The results in this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton
Survey Research Associates International among a sample of 2,252 adults ages 18 and older.
Using maps/direction is the top mobile travel-related activity
Cell phone only
Laptop only
Cell phone and laptop
How adult Americans access the mobile web
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Figure 25: Mobile Web users distribution by age

Figure 26: Mobile web users distribution by gender
30-49 year olds interact with content in Finance, Travel and Shopping more frequently than
other age groups. This group, however, consumes content on a par with 18-29 year olds in
the Media & Entertainment category. People in older age groups, that is, those between 50
and 64 years old access news and other information on a daily basis at a rate on par with
30-49 year olds [Adobe 2010]
12
.
MOBILE USERS SEGMENTATIONS
According to Mace there are 3 groups of users:
Communication-centric
Information centric
Entertainment centric
Distribution of users spending 1 hour or more a week on mobile properties by age.
Distribution of users spending 1 hour or more a week on mobile properties by gender.
12
Survey results are based on online responses from 1,200 U.S. participants surveyed by
Keynote Services between August 25 and 30, 2010.
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User groups are formed based on what a certain person tends to do with his/her mobile
device.
Communication-centric users love to interact with other people and are willing to pay extra
for features, bandwidth, or quality in order to improve their interactions with others.
Information-centric users are often found in “information-heavy” jobs and will pay extra for
mobile data features that will help them capture, remember, and work with ideas, notes,
and files.
Entertainment-centric users are more likely than others to be young, and as they get bored
easily, they use their mobile phone as a lifestyle device that will help them to entertain
themselves by playing games, watching videos or listening to music [Mace 2007].








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Figure 27: The three mobile data user segments
However modern mobile devices can be used by any category and one user can belong to
all three of the groups at different times, depending on the task, as analysed in the next
sub-chapter.



Information
Users
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Communication
Users
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Entertainment
Users
Segments of different user types
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WEB INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION
The Web, mobile or stationary, has drastically changed how we acquire and circulate
information. However, as we still lack a solid understanding of the types of activities and
tasks in which users engage on the Web, a few researchers began an attempt in order to
classify the information people usually need on the stationary web followed later by a
relative work for the mobile web.
Kellar et. al in 2006, continuing work done by Sellen et.al in 2002, proposed a classification
of web information in which information tasks derive from information goals in which users
engage on the Web and deal with some aspect of information, from acquisition,
consumption, and distribution of information.










Figure 28: Web information classification
Information tasks classification is analysed below:
Fact Finding consists of tasks in which the goal is to find a specific piece of
information.
Information Gathering consists of tasks in which the goal is to collect information,
often from multiple sources, in order to write a report, make a decision, or become
more informed about a particular topic.
Browsing consists of tasks in which there is no specific information goal in mind
other than, perhaps, entertainment or to see what is new.
Web
Information
Classification
Information Seeking
Information Exchange
Information Maintenance
Information Goals
Fact Finding
Info Gathering
Browsing
Information Tasks
Transactions
Communications
Maintenance
Information Goals: Information Seeking, Information Exchange, Information Maintenance
Information Tasks: Fact Finding, Info Gathering, Browsing, Transactions, Communications,
Maintenance
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Transactions consist of tasks in which an online action takes place, such as banking
or a web purchase.
Communications consist of tasks that facilitate web-based communication, such as
email, online bulletin boards, or web-based publishing such as blog postings.
Maintenance tasks generally consist of visits to web pages with the goal of
maintaining web resources, such as to ensure that content appears as it should and,
that links are working properly, as well as to update to user profiles. Most tasks of this
nature occurred when users wanted to update or create new web pages.
How time is spent among those information tasks changes from time to time due to various
causes. In 2002 the eminent task was information gathering accounted for 53% of all web
usage, while in 2006 communication and transaction tasks have become the most frequent
task for stationary web users [Kellar et. al 2006], [Sellen et. al 2002].
Table 6: Web goal-based time spend using a desktop
Goal 2002 (Sellen) 2006 (Kellar)
1. (Fact) Finding 12% 18.3%
2. Info Gathering 53% 13.5%
3. Browsing 16% 19.9%
4. Communication & 5. Transactions 4% & 2% 46,7%
6. Other (Housekeeping or Maintenance) 13% 1.7%
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Things in 2010 have changed even more towards communications [TNS 2010]:
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Figure 29: Online behaviour in 2010
Web goal classification and time usage by people in 2002 versus 2006.
% Doing activity daily
Number of hours spent on activity per week
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INFORMATION NEEDS ON-THE-GO
As has already been mentioned, people do not use the mobile web in every possible
context. Kim et. al in 2002 and Lee et. al in 2005 conducted empirical studies in order to
associate key contexts with contextual information [Kim et. al 2002] [Lee et. al 2005].
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Figure 30: Mobile web usage clustered around two contexts
“The most frequently experienced context was when participants had a Hedonic goal,
their emotional state was Joyful, only One hand was used, their legs were not Moving,
visual and auditory distractions were low, few people were around them, and their
interaction was low. The second most frequently experienced context was the same as
the first one except that their Goal was Utilitarian rather than Hedonic.
Therefore, people used Mobile Internet most frequently when they felt joyful, when they
were in a calm and quiet environment, and when they used one hand. This often describes
the context of an office or a bedroom, which is counter to the widely held belief that Mobile
Internet would be used often while outdoors and on the move” [Kim et. al 2002].
Similarly, Lee et. al record: “The use of hedonic–passive services was found to vary
according to two contextual factors: movement and location. Participants used hedonic–
passive services, such as horoscopes, more frequently when they were stationary rather
than moving and more often indoors or on transport than outdoors. The use of hedonic–
People not use the mobile web only in specific contexts.
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active services was found to vary with pleasure, time on hand, distraction, and social
situation. Participants using hedonic–active services such as mobile games more often
reported highly pleasant feelings and used them more often when they were not pressed
for time, when they were not distracted by external stimuli, and when they were in a private
place.
The use of utilitarian–passive services was found to vary according to duty, time on hand,
distraction, and location. Participants used utilitarian–passive services, such as news
reports, more often when they were off duty, when they lacked time, when many external
stimuli distracted their attention, and when they were outdoors or on transport. Finally, the
use of utilitarian–active services was found to vary with pleasure and duty. Participants
using utilitarian–active services such as stock trading reported less pleasant feelings, and
used them more often when they were on duty” [Lee et. al 2005].
MOBILE WEB INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION
Many researchers, motivated by papers written about stationary web information-activities
taxonomies, continued the research towards a classification on mobile web information and
informational needs [Cui & Root 2008], [Sohn et. al 2008], [Verkasalo 2008], [Church &
Smyth 2009], [Nylander et. al 2009]. Sellen et al in 2002 predicted the future of the mobile
Web by examining stationary Web activity taxonomy and argued that Fact finding and
Browsing could fit into mobile context, but Information gathering would be “entirely
unsuitable” for mobile devices [Sellen et. al 2002]. However there are no relevant empirical
researches to prove the prediction so far.
Performing diary studies, Church and Smyth, compared goal-intent using a mobile device
versus a stationary computer. One important finding that emerged was the importance of
context and in particular the location and time of information needs, especially when the
user are on the go.
The results show that 75% of geographical diary entries are generated when the user is
mobile, compared to just 25% when the user is in a non-mobile location context.
Table 7: Associating goals/intent with location context
Goal Mobile Non Mobile
1. Informational 64% 36%
2. Geographical 75% 25%
3. Personal Information Management 65% 35%
! Non-mobile refers to entries generated while the user is at home, at work or in college while
mobile refers to entries generated in all other instances, e.g. commuting, traveling, etc
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“Intuitively, the majority of participants within our study sought after services and products,
etc. within close vicinity to where they live, work or interact. We also found that participants
who travelled away from their home town, be it for work or for a holiday, requested
information to help them navigate through and learn about the new area they were visiting.
We found that lots of users included explicit location/proximity cues in their information
needs. For example, nearest X, here, in this area, on this street, etc. Thus location is a key
factor in prompting information needs while mobile indicating that location-based services
and local search could prove to be fruitful on the mobile Internet. We also found a number
of diary entries expressing information needs with temporal dependencies. That is, some
participants requested items that included explicit temporal cues like tonight, tomorrow,
next week, etc.” [Church 2010].
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Figure 31: Relationship between topics and goals/intent.
Another survey in 2009 explores the reason why people use their mobile phones and
where. “Not surprisingly, a common situation for mobile Internet access was while on the
go. Participants used the Internet from their cell phones in buses, subways, trains,
tramways, taxis and cars (even while driving). The most common purposes for in transit
situations were reading news, checking email, and passing time. Both types of information
search were less common in transit than as a whole (8%) which is interesting. Participants
did not seem to search very much for information that had to do with their traveling or their
destination while in transit” [Nylander et. al 2009].
Some topics are associated with a single goal/intent. Other topics are associated with each of the
three types of goals/intent: Informational, Geographical and Personal Information Management.
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Table 8: Reason for use of mobile phone
Reason for mobile phone %
No available computer 49%
Convenience 24%
Laziness 11%
Other 5%
Internet not working 5%
Wanted to use phone 3%
Restrictions at work 2%
Computer occupied 1%
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Table 9: Location of mobile use
Location %
Home 31%
Outdoors 23%
In transit 23%
Indoors 16%
Work 8%
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Much to the researcherʼs surprise, the most frequent location for mobile Internet access
in two studies turned out to be at home even though all participants had a computer with
Internet connection in their home. This suggests that, for our participants, the mobile
phone has its own role as a device for Internet access. It is not only used in situations
where it is impossible to get computer access. The mobile world extends well into the home
[Verkasalo 2008], [Nylander et. al 2009].
This is also explained by Cui & Roto as a result of faster network speed [Cui & Roto 2008].

Figure 32: The effect of network types on mobile web usage
Reasons for choosing a mobile phone to access the Internet.
Locations for Internet access from cell phone.
Time Traffic
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Again, using the diaries method Sohn et. al conducted a similar survey, focusing on the
emerging mobile information needs and the intend behind them. Participants indicated that
72% of their information needs were prompted by some contextual factor; activity,
location, time, conversation [Sohn et. al 2008].
Table 10: How mobile needs are addressed
Addressing needs %
Web access 30%
Called source 23%
Called proxy 16%
Online Maps 10%
Print beforehand 7%
Asked someone 7%
Went to location 5%
Other 2%
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Accessing the web might be the first solution in the list to deal with a problem while on the go,
but it seems it is not the only one. People addressed their needs with other possible ways,
sometimes especially after a failure of finding what they wanted using their mobile phones.
Also it is remarkable that many of them addressed their needs later, or did not address
them at all.
Table 11: Why postponing to address mobile needs
Postponing to address needs %
No internet access 32%
Biking/Driving 28%
Busy with task 20%
Would find out later 15%
In a meeting 6%
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Not having Internet access while on the go is the main reason due to many factors; many
consider it is too expensive to have a data plan, or they might be in a place where Internet
access is not available or available at very low speeds.
Table 12: Why mobile needs are not addressed
Not addressing needs %
Not important 35%
No internet access 23%
Did not know how to address 23%
No time 8%
In a meeting 3%
Driving 3%
Forgot 2%
Breakdown of how needs were addressed at the time they arose across all diary entries
Reasons participants addressed their needs later.
Reasons why participants never addressed their needs.
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TASKFLOW IN MOBILE DEVICES
Interruptions in tasks and task switching are common even in desktop computing. Iqbal and
Horvitz characterized four phases associated with interruptions to workflow and
corresponding recovery and resumption; preparation, diversion, recovery, and
resumption. They found that a user might need up to 15 minutes in order to resume an
activity on the desktop computer after being interrupted [Iqbal & Horvitz 2007].
As it was not clear whether this model applies to disruption to mobile tasks or not, Karlson
et. al conducted a survey for a better understanding of smartphone Taskflow in context by
broadly sampling the moments during which flow, and possibly productivity, break down.
Table 13: Managing task disruptions
Follow-up Definition Count
Mean
Frustration
(SD)
Computer
Moving to a computer to complete the task. 225
2.7
(1.4)
Mobile
Persisting with the mobile device to
complete the task at a later time.
105
3.7
(1.3)
Abandon
Giving up on completing the task, usually
because a time-sensitive task became
irrelevant once a delay was encountered.
19
3.4
(1.4)

External
Using non-technical means for completing
the task (e.g. asking someone)
9
3.3
(1.2)


While it was expected from users to be frustrated when having to migrate to another device
to complete their task, their data showed that users were in fact more frustrated when
having to follow up on the smartphone later. These data reflect that users are more
concerned about completing the task, rather than on which device they complete it.
Perhaps usersʻ low expectations of what they can do on a smartphone blunt their
frustration in having to move to a PC to complete the task, especially if a PC is nearby and
they can work more efficiently on it. While users perform similar types of tasks on phones
and PCs, evidence show that users partition stages of the same task across phones and
PCs; and the fact that many of these switches are strategic suggests that they should be
supported, not eliminated [Karlson et. al 2010].
Follow-up categories with their associated count and mean user frustration levels with
(standard deviations - SD)
1=”Not frustrated at all, 5=”Very frustrated”
1=”No time pressure”, 5=”As soon as possible”
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INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ACROSS MULTIPLE DEVICES
Analysing mobile users, their emerging information needs and how they handle them is
only, most of the times, half of the story. Designers of mobile applications or websites often
neglect that nowadays people use a wide range of devices to support their personal and
business activities; desktop computers, laptops, mobile phones, media players, other
mobile devices. Employing multiple devices might make access to information easier but it
also requires effort in order to manage information and activities across all, each with
different limitations and affordances. That means that all devices are not created equal;
some are better for a particular activity than others, as different actions can be performed
on them. Users assign each device a role within work flows, allocating secondary tasks to a
non-primary device.
There are few that have researched information management across multiple devices
[Oulasvirta & Summary 2007], [Dearman & Pierce 2008].
In Dearmanʼs and Pierceʼs study, all participants, expressed concern and frustration over
the difficulty in managing information and activities across multiple devices. However users,
seeking for consistency, develop their own mechanisms to overcome problems, such
as emailing files or texts to themselves, sharing directories over a network, or by the use of
third party services to store data into the “cloud” where they can have access from all their
devices [Dearman & Pierce 2008].
Oulasvirta and Sumari on the other hand, studied information management across multiple
devices in information workers. They also found that in order to achieve this, the workers
employed several strategies. However their data showed that workers can agilely transfer
work across devices several times a day. By switching from one device to another, it is
possible to adapt to changing recourse deprivations, thus enhancing efficiency,
multitasking, security, privacy, and ergonomics. Their main conclusion is that applications
are not designed with migration in mind [Oulasvirta & Sumari 2007].

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PROBLEMS DERIVING
The many limitations of the mobile phones can create problems for users as the small
screen space, in particular, can display relatively little data at a given time, resulting in
difficulties in using the device for complex tasks [Acton et.al 2004]. Users of such
devices deal with accessibility, findability and usability problems having to scroll the
screen both vertically and horizontally to find the desired information, because most of the
Web pages are designed for desktop displays [Ahmadi, Kong 2008]. Many mobile websites
needlessly limit functionality, offering a bare bones experience that leaves the user wanting
more. One-page mobile websites really need to graduate to fuller, interactive and engaging
mobile experiences to keep users interested [Ballard 2007], [DotMobi 2008].
However recognizing and writing down all problems that may appear while using mobile
devices is a difficult task, mainly because not everyone would agree on what is a problem
and what is not. From an objective perspective, usability is measurable using quantifiable
data such as user performance, error rates, or time taken to complete tasks. This approach
comprises actual usability. On the other hand, and from an interpretive and subjective
perspective, usability is measurable either quantitatively or qualitatively, but based on user
perceptions, attitudes, and intentions towards aspects of the interface, including
perceptions of ease-of-use, usefulness, and intentions towards usage and acceptance of
the underlying system. This comprises perceived or ʻapparentʼ usability [Davis 1989].
Kim et. al believe that the different kinds of usability problems that may derived can be
classified into four groups based on mobile information architecture: representation,
structure, navigation, and content. According to their empirical study, usability problems
related to the content of Mobile Internet occurred most frequently (37.2%), followed by
those related to navigation (28.7%), representation (19.7%), and structure (14.6%).
Content problems indicate that the most serious problem of the current Mobile Internet
services is the lack of appropriate contents that take into account the mobile context.
Navigation problems might also occur relatively more often because the small display and
awkward input devices make browsing on Mobile Internet more difficult.
Moreover, people experienced different usability problems in different contexts. They
experienced more structure problems when they used Mobile Internet with one hand,
more representation problems when they were moving, and finally more content
problems when they were standing alone in a remote place [Kim et. al 2002].
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According to Nielsen, Norman and Tognazzini, there are 3 levels of mobile user
experience mainly affected by the form factor, “the bigger the screen, the better the user
experience when accessing website” [Nielsen et. al 2009].
Table 14: Better phones perform better
Average success rates %
Feature phones 38%
Smartphones 55%
Touch phones 75%
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“Users failed more often than they succeeded when using their mobiles to perform tasks on
websites” [Nielsen 2009]. Form factor and small screens is something that along with
slow download times is not going to change from the one moment to the other. However
in terms of mobile information architecture there are certain problems arising:
One of the main problems, applying to all of the four categories; content, navigation,
representation and structure is inconsistency. Inconsistencies between the
desktop version and the mobile one are in some degree justified; as it would be
impossible to be exactly the same on two different media. However as users
transfer their experiences from one medium to another, in case they are already
familiar with the desktop version, they fail to locate information in the mobile
version, when those two versions are completely different [Benbunan,
Benbunanfich 2007].
Content
Too much content:
o This usually happens when there is no mobile version of a desktop site
making users scroll too much in order to locate information [Nielsen 2009].
Not enough content:
o This usually happens when there is a mobile version but it doesnʼt offer all
the information the desktop site did. Ballard refers to this issue as
“miniaturising” [Ballard 2007].
Not relevant content:
o This usually happens when the context is not taking into account in order to
deliver the proper information a user will want [Ballard 2007].
“In user testing, website use on mobile devices got very low scores, especially when users
accessed "full" sites that weren't designed for mobile"
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Navigation
The navigation structure of a desktop site (the number of items per page and the
number of levels in that site) might be enough to cover the whole screen of the
mobile phone.
In case content is divided into smaller displayable chunks, navigation steps will be
more requiring from the user to move backward and forward [Parush & Nirit 2007].
Representation & Structure
Inconsistencies
Graphics and colours
Pagination issues
Another important thing that needs to be taken into account is the existence of two main
groups of users: expert and novice ones.
Benbunan and Benbunanfich tested theories of Norman [Norman, 1981] and Reason
[Reason, 1990] on human errors, where well designed artifacts reduce the need for
users to remember large amounts of information, while poorly designed artifacts
increase the demands on the users and therefore increase the likelihood of errors; but
this time in the mobile context in order to understand mobile userʼs errors.
In their research, two types of errors occur:
Mistakes due to a mismatch between the userʼs understanding of the artifact and
the actual design of such artifact
Slips due to a deviation between the userʼs intentions and the execution of the
correct action sequence.
Consequently, for well designed applications:
Expert Users
o Make mostly errors that tend to be “action slips”, while
Novice Users
o Make mostly errors that tend to be “mistakes”
[Benbunan, Benbunanfich 2007].
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PROBLEMS IN MAP-BASED APPLICATIONS
Maps are a different type of content that may not be accessible from all mobile devices as
older or low-end devices do not support them and for those that are able to render them, a
high-speed connection is needed to get them loaded.
Navigating a map is often an issue as interacting with a map is different from browsing a
site and findability might be a problem as search becomes more difficult. In the worst case
scenario the user will have to “scan” a large area of a map to locate what he needs. In the
best case scenario a search field, filters to display only certain type of information or/and
the ability to find his/her current location will be available.
In terms of presentation, maps in mobile devices may have more usability issues than
maps appearing on the large screen of a desktop computer. A common problem in maps is
that an icon might appear “almost” in the same spot with many others, creating overlays
and making them very difficult to select without zooming-in.
This problem is getting more serious in mobile maps due to the lack of space to display the
icons. Moreover when you zoon enough in order to be able to click one of them, probably
no other nearby icons will fit on the screen [Chittaro 2006], [Church & Smyth 2008],
[Church 2010].
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Figure 33: Visualizing points of interest for mobile maps.
Usual visualization issues in maps: (1) too many icons or (2) not enough icons.
(1) (2)
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OVERCOMING LIMITATIONS
While according to Nielsen [Nielsen 2009], “using a mobile makes you a disabled user”,
as most sites ignore accessibility and frustration levels rise when users cannot
complete the tasks they want making them to easily give up [Kim et. al 2002], [Karlson et.
all 2010], users can also effectively transfer knowledge from using one mobile application
to a completely new one [Benbunan, Benbunanfich 2007].
This means that despite the many limitations in mobile use that cause errors, especially for
novice users that have no prior experience with mobile devices and cannot perform tasks
automatically, people are able to overcome physical difficulties and adapt to smaller
screens and the new mobile environments. Therefore, as already mentioned in previous
chapter, users, seeking for consistency, develop their own mechanisms to overcome
problems with use over time [Dearman & Pierce 2008].
Of course well designed mobile sites will cause less problems to users, thus many ways to
overcome form limitations appeared:
Redirect users based on device/browser:
o Serving different templates was one of the firsts approached to the problem,
risking getting users disoriented or giving them a “miniaturised site” with not
enough content (server-side)
Content Adaptation:
o Automatically select and adapt content (server-side)
Browsersʼ Capabilities:
o Adding features to support better understanding (mobile software)
Responsive Web Design:
o Adapting representation to the mobile screen (client-side)
Finally, there are design guidelines and best practices that can be followed in order to
achieve a better mobile user experience, mentioned in the end of this chapter. When
designing for mobile, there's a tension between making content and navigation salient so
that people do not work too hard to get there, and designing for a small screen and for
slow downloading speeds. That's why almost every design decision must be made in the
context of the site being designed, and what works for one site may not work for another
[Nielsen et. al 2009].
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CONTENT ADAPTATION
A straightforward approach to fit content on small screens would be to redesign and
reconstruct Web pages. However, redesigning hundreds of web pages requires much
time, skills and effort. That was the primary reason many [Rist & Brandmeier 2002], [Lee &
Grice 2003], [Oquist & Goldstein 2003], [Chalmers et. al 2004], [Parush & Nirit 2004],
[Heeae et. al 2007], [Chua & Choi 2008] have focused their research on finding an
automatic way of adapting existing web pages from desktop presentation to mobile
presentation. The main concept was to detect closely related content, each of which forms
a topic within the Web page, and to reorganize those topics in a style suitable for mobile
browsing [Ahmadi & Kong 2008].
In general, the related content detection approaches can be classified into two categories:
(a) structure-based approaches that analyse the HTML elements and Web page structure
[Chen et. al 2001], [Gupta et. al 2003], [Baluja 2006] [Maekawa et. al 2006], and
(b) layout-based approaches that analyse the Web page layout
[Yang et. al 2000], [Gu et. al 2002], [Burget 2005], [Chen et. al 2005].
After different topics are discovered, logically or semantically, the original layout can be
adapted to a different presentation such as a long narrow layout or a set of small pages.
One of the most known tools in this category is the mobilizer, provided by Google.
Mobilizer is accessible by three ways:
by writing the url of the site that is needed to be mobilized after Googleʼs url for this
service: http://www.google.com/gwt/x?u=website address
by visiting mobilizerʼs page (see Figure 10.1)
by selecting the “mobile formatted” option in the list of results in a Google search
(see Figure 10.2)
However the results might not always be expected, depending on the pageʼs compliance
with web standards. “Weird layouts” or embedded “objects” that will delay a mobile
presentation are also factors that make mobilizer return a non representative and difficult to
use page. For example, marine traffic, is divided into 3 mobile web pages, or in an 1 with 3
parts when choosing the “zoom-out” option (see Figure 11.1); the whole page appears but
a grey box takes the place of the map (see Figure 11.2).
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Figure 34: Googleʼs Mobilizer

Figure 35: Marine Traffic through Googleʼs mobilizer
(1) (2)
(1) (2)
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BROWSERSʼ CAPABILITIES
A few researchers [Jones 2003], [Roto et. al 2006], [Ahmadi & Kong 2008], [Chua et. al
2008], [Zhou et. al 2009] have tried to extend content adaptation and make it run as a
feature of a mobile browser, designing and testing new browsers.
What have prevailed from suggested solutions can be found implemented in opera mini
and opera mobile, a mobile browser that can be installed almost in every mobile phone.
Opera has the following mobile-related options:
Load images: Hides or shows images in order to load web pages faster
Image quality: Reduce image quality for faster page load
Font Size: Increase font size for better reading
Mobile view: Linearizes pages, having a similar to Googleʼs Mobilizer result
Fullscreen: Zooms-out the whole page in order to have an overall impression


Figure 36: Opera mini content adaptation
(1) (2)
The “mobile view” option has the same effect with the Google Mobilizer: linearizes a page, returning
a “lighter” one.
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Also, recently, opera and other mobile web browsers supported “multitasking” through the
use of (a limited number of) tabs, as in desktop web browsing. Fullscreen overview is now
supported by many mobile browsers, e.g. Safari. Results may vary in different mobile
browsers, even if they are installed on the same device, and of course, from device to
device (see Figure 13.1 vs. Figure 11.2).
!!! !
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Figure 37: Marine Traffic viewed in fullscreen
A fullscreen view has advantages and disadvantages:
users can have immediately an overview of the web page, therefore there is no
confusion with different layouts to the desktop site (for a site the user is familiar
with), but
the web page may become impossible to read. By zooming out to get the full view,
fonts will become very small and the user will have to zoom in again to find what he
needs.
Therefore this method is very efficient if the user visits sites he/she already knows the
structure and the specific location of each information he/she might need.
(1) (2)
(1) Opera Mini fullscreen view
(2) Safari fullscreen view
on an iphone 3gs
(1)
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RESPONSIVE WEB DESIGN
A solution proposed by web/graphic designers was the so called “responsive web
design” [Marcotte 2010]. Despite the fact that the name was found very recently, designing
for different screen resolutions has been a problem web designers have been trying to
solve for many years in terms of representation, structure and content. Even before the
use of mobile devices with small screens, the differences on desktop screenʼs resolutions
were huge. The same web page could appear on a small screen of 600x800 resolution and
on a large display of 1600x1200 resolution. How can you fit the same content and
represent it effectively on a small screen and how you will fill a large one without too much
white space and on the same time comply with the concept of one web?[W3C 2009(a)]












Figure 38: Desktop screen resolutions comparison
According to responsive web design the answer is to keep the same content (html code),
with small differences if needed, and alter the representation or even structure through css
(cascading style sheets).
The initial approach was to use media types, as those are defined by W3C [W3C 2009(c)].
Media types is one of the most important feature css has; they specify how a document is
1600x1200
1440x900
1024x768
600x800
Designing for different resolutions has always been a challenge for web designers.
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to be presented on different media: on the screen, on paper, with a speech synthesizer,
with a braille device, etc. Different media are categorized by W3C as follows:
All: Suitable for all devices.
Braille: Intended for braille tactile feedback devices.
Embossed: Intended for paged braille printers.
Handheld: Intended for handheld devices (typically small screen, limited
bandwidth).
Print: Intended for paged material and for documents viewed on screen in print
preview mode. Please consult the section on paged media for information about
formatting issues that are specific to paged media.
Projection: Intended for projected presentations, for example projectors. Please
consult the section on paged media for information about formatting issues that are
specific to paged media.
Screen: Intended primarily for colour computer screens.
Speech: Intended for speech synthesizers. Note: CSS2 had a similar media type
called 'aural' for this purpose. See the appendix on aural style sheets for details.
Try: Intended for media using a fixed-pitch character grid (such as teletypes,
terminals, or portable devices with limited display capabilities). Authors should not
use pixel units with the "tty" media type.
Tv: Intended for television-type devices (low resolution, colour, limited-scrollability
screens, sound available).
However it turned out that media types could not solve the problem as in many cases were
not supported by specific devices. For example appleʼs devices ignore print and handheld
media declarations in css files, because they donʼt accept the definition of a handheld as a
“limited bandwidth” device; they believe those devices do not supply high-end web content
[Apple Developer Library 2010].
Therefore the solution lies on screen media resolution by itself using media queries. A
media query consists of expressions that check for the conditions of particular media
features [W3C 2010].

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Media features:
width

height

device-width

device-height

orientation

aspect-ratio

device-aspect-ratio

colour

colour-index

monochrome

resolution

scan

grid












Figure 39: Desktop vs. mobile screen resolutions
Using media queries, mostly those that will take deviceʼs width and orientation, a
responsively designed page will “adapt, respond, overcome” [Marcotte 2010]. Queries
are usually declared in a way that resolutions for different screens can be grouped
together, as for example in the following page
13
especially made to demonstrate responsive
design:
Designing for different resolutions: Desktop vs. Mobile.
1600x1200
1440x900
1024x768
600x800
320x480
240x320
120x160
13
example page can be found here:
http://www.alistapart.com/d/responsive-web-design/ex/ex-site-FINAL.html


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Figure 40: Css media queries example





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Figure 41: Example of responsive web design
(1)
(2) (3)
Example of a responsive web page viewed in the following resolutions:
(1) 1440x900 as a common widescreen desktop view
(2) 1024x768 as a smaller non-widescreen desktop/laptop view, or the screen of an ipad
(3) 320x460 as an iphone screen
@media screen and (max-device-width: 480px){
//alter representation
//select to hide or show content
}!!
@media screen and (max-device-width: 960px){
//alter representation
//select to hide or show content
}
@media screen and (max-device-width: 1920px){
//alter representation
//select to hide or show content
}
Mobile view
Small desktop, laptop,
tablet view
Large desktop view
Changing representation and content using media device-width queries

e
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DESIGN GUIDELINES | BEST PRACTICES
The mobile space is constantly changing and relatively complex Web applications targeting
mid- to high-end devices are most likely to benefit from Best Practices and Design
Guidelines as there are not much that can be done to improve the overall mobile user
experience in low-end or older devices [Rabin & McCathieNevile 2008].
In terms of Information design hierarchy of needs (see Figure 6) there are basic things
to follow:
ACCESSIBLE
Make sure it actually works.
There are so many mobile websites that simply donʼt work. Sites that do not have a
mobile version equivalent or render poorly, load slowly do not because they do not rely on
web standards or even crash on certain mobile devices, missing out on giving the best
user experience [DotMobi 2008]. Apart from the well-known html, css and markup
validators there are mobile checkers
14
also to indicate more mobile-related issues. Finally,
although there are several mobile simulation tools online, mobile web site have to be tested
on different mobile devices, with actual users too [Weiss 2002], [Jones & Marsden 2006],
[Ballard 2007], [Mehta 2008], [Moll 2008], [Gail & Lal 2009], [Fling 2009], [Firtman 2010] .
FINDABLE
Make sure visitors know there is a mobile site
Many times users ignore the existence of a mobile version. If there is no redirection or
different mobile styles and no link in the desktop site in order to visit the mobile one,
users can easily get confused. It is also possible that users will remember a site has a
mobile version equivalent but as there are no standards in mobile siteʼs urls the user has to
guess the address of the mobile version: m.example.com, mobi.example.com,
www.example.com/mobile/, www.example.com/m/ are few of the most common urls used
[DotMobi 2008].
USABLE
Solve a real problem.
Mobile forces you to focus on what's really important. The site has to be useful in a
mobile context otherwise there is no need for it (even killing time is a mobile need)
[DotMobi 2008].
14
mobile checkers:
!""#$%%&'()*+,-./0'&%1
!""#$%%2,3)-,"'*/45/'*6%&'()3+%1


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In terms of users on the go and mobile information architecture several people [Weiss
2002], [Hakkila 2006], [Jones & Marsden 2006], [Trewin 2006], [Ballard 2007], Gail & Lal
2009], [Nielsen et. al 2009] [Roden 2010], and W3C [Rabin & McCathieNevile 2008],
[Connors & Sullivan 2010] have proposed a list of best practices, what to avoid and what
to do in order to provide a better mobile user experience.
USERS IN MOBILE CONTEXT
Mobilize and not Miniaturize. Reconsider the entire purpose of the application. How
do your usersʼ needs change when they are no longer at their desks? Does your
application even have a place in the mobile environment? Or, is your application
one that doesnʼt make sense in the full-sized computer environment? The user must
be able to use the device in different context, often not fully focusing to its usage.
It is particularly important in the mobile context to help the user create a mental
image of the site. This can be assisted by adopting a consistent style and can be
considerably diminished by an uneven style.
Remember the userʼs details, their preferences and behaviour helps you speed up
their access to information. Pre-completed forms and “my favourites” settings are
even more critical to mobile than PC sites.
Enable Automatic Sign-in. If an application requires user identity it is usual to
prompt for user credentials (username and password) and provide the option to
sign-in automatically on next usage session. This is especially important on a
mobile device where data input is more difficult than on a desktop.
Allow the user to control application behaviour that might not otherwise be apparent,
such as access to the network and access to device data.
Use resources conservatively.
Do not cause pop ups or other windows to appear and do not change the current
window without informing the users.
Take into account the trade-off between having too many links on a page and
asking the user to follow too many links to read what they are looking for.
Do not create periodically auto-refreshing pages, unless you have informed the user
and provided a means of stopping it.
Keep the number of keystrokes to a minimum.
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Avoid free text entry where possible and keep the uris of sites entry points short.
Specify a default text entry mode, language and/or input format, if the target device
is known to support it.
A truly real-time experience exists anywhere the user is at a given moment. If the
user is interacting with the web browser, then thatʼs the place to contact him. If heʼs
got her instant messenger program open, heʼd better be able to interact with your
app from that window. When heʼs offline and your application has an important
message for him, send it via SMS. Of course, usersʼ permission is required, but your
application needs to offer them.
STRUCTURE
Divide pages into usable but limited size portions.
Start with a basic version for older mobile phone browsers, then add extra features
for the newer devices and then optimize the richer version according to your usersʼ
phones. If supported by the device, use awareness of current connectivity (e.g.
WiFi) to select an appropriate level of interaction. This helps you identify the core
features of the desktop web site that need to be ported to the mobile version. Use
the 80/20 rule (80 percent of the results comes from 20 percent of the features) to
identify the top 20 percent of features.
REPRESENTATION
Design for one web. Ensure that content provided by accessing a site yields a
thematically coherent experience when accessed from different devices.
Give choice to user between desktop and mobile representations, provide them
links to choose the best for their situation.
Limit scrolling to one direction.
Test the site for both portrait and landscape mode, and make necessary changes to
ensure the site displays nicely on both.
Ensure that information conveyed with colour is also available without colour.
Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element.
Do not rely on support of font related styling.
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NAVIGATION
Provide only minimal navigation at the top of the page with three levels maximum.
Provide consistent navigation mechanisms.
Clearly identify the target of each link.
Ensure that material that is central to the meaning of the page precedes material
that is not.
Assign access keys to links in navigational menus and frequently accessed
functionality.
Provide informative error messages and a means of navigating away from an error
message back to useful information.
Design for Multiple Interaction Methods: Focus Based: The browser focus "jumps"
from element to element; Pointer Based: Key-based navigation controls a pointer
that can cover any part of the screen; Touch Based: Events are related directly to a
finger or stylus touch position on the screen.
CONTENT
Ensure that content is suitable for use in mobile context.
Send content in a format that is known to be supported by the device.
Limit content to what the user has requested.
Use clear and simple language.
Provide a short but descriptive page title.
Position labels so they lay out properly in relation to the form controls they refer to.
Ensure that the overall size of page is appropriate to the limitations of the
device/network.
Create a logical order through links, form controls and objects.
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SUMMARISING PART 2
Part 2 is an extensive literature review covering 3 main issues:
The mobile ecosystem
Mobile Users
Solutions to the problem
Analysing the mobile ecosystem, the current state of web, the nature and the limitations of
mobile device usage sets the boundaries of the problem space focusing on the mobile
context.
Studying the users is always a priority when designing using user-centered approaches,
but in this case understanding what their information needs are and how being in front of a
stationary computer and being mobile differs in terms of information architecture, is even
more important.
The review finishes off iterating problems stem from browsing the web using a mobile
device, classifying them under information architectureʼs elements: structure, content,
navigation and representation. Established solutions that aim in overcoming limitations are
presented and, eventually, design guidelines and best practices are summarised having
information architecture in mind.
The next part analyses the case study.
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Part
ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
SIMILAR APPLICATIONS 90
INTERFACE WALK-THROUGH 98
UNDERSTANDING THE USERS 119
SUMMARISING PART 3 141


3
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SIMILAR APPLICATIONS
One of the first objectives is to learn about the case study and the users. A way to
understand the domain is to find similar applications, or even competitorsʼ applications in
order to learn from their mistakes, but also from the things they have done with greater
success, or just differently [Courage & Baxter 2005].
Marine Traffic could be characterized as a real-time, positioning, informational
application about current vesselsʼ positions visualized in a map, where “real-time web is
the concept of searching for and finding information online as it is produced” [Real-time
web 2010]. Geolocation is the identification of the real-world geographic location of an
object, such as a cell phone or an Internet-connected computer terminal. Geolocation may
refer to the practice of assessing the location, or to the actual assessed location and is
closely related to positioning but can be distinguished from it by a greater emphasis on
determining a meaningful location, or tagging one (geo-tagging) rather than just a set of
geographic coordinates [Geolocation 2010], [GeoTagging 2010].
Therefore similar applications may involve:
Real-Time
Geolocation and/or positioning information
Map visualizations
Such applications have appeared under the following categories:
Traffic tracking or different transit tracking (busses, metro, ships, airplanes/flights)
Travel Guides, Points of Interest around a certain location (or current location),
Booking Services
Social media
Those applications may exist on:
The web
The mobile web (as sites or applications for newer phones)
Both of the above
Pros and cons of the most successful and widely used similar to the marine traffic
applications are being analysed in this chapter.
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Similar applications

ON THE WEB
There are numerous web sites with real-time information on traffic or public transport
means: trains, busses, airplanes, ships etc. Most of them have a specific search field in
order to find information relative only to one thing without being able to have an overview.
However, recently, few of them combined data into a map allowing the user to get the
bigger picture of the situation, but also interact with it, finding more information for a point of
his/her interest.
One neat site in this category is a live train map for the London Underground, visualizing
stations (red) and moving trains (yellow) with from / to and expected arrival (minutes) on a
certain station by clicking on a train.

Figure 42: Live train map for the London Underground
PROS
Users can easily have a real-time overview of all trains in Londonʼs Underground.
CONS
Without a search field it might be difficult to track down a specific route, especially if
the user is not familiar with Londonʼs stations.
No mobile equivalent for this specific site.
Note that sites with no mobile version equivalent are getting fewer over time.
http://traintimes.org.uk/map/tube/

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ON THE MOBILE WEB
Transit applications became very popular on the mobile web, too. The necessity of being
able to make decisions about a route based on real-time information is so obvious that
many of those applications do not have a desktop-version equivalent.
Tube map is another application about Londonʼs underground with real-time information
about line statuses, a map with click-able stations (but no moving trains on it), estimation of
A to B journey and, finally, the ability to suggest a route between those two.
!! !


Figure 43: Tube map (iPhone app).
PROS
The static map is fast to load.
Planning and deciding is easy with “Find Station” and “Route” options.
Personalization settings.
CONS
It is difficult to have an overview of all traffic without a real-time map.
(1) (2)
(1) Map View with click-able stations
(2) Line status
http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/tube-map/id320969612
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A recent trend that came along with the mobile web and the constantly increasing number
of users owning smartphones was the appearance of augmented reality applications.
“Augmented reality is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world
environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input, such
as sound or graphics. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing oneʼs current
perception of reality. With the help of augmented reality technology (e.g. adding computer
vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user
becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment
and its objects can be overlaid on the real world” [Augmented Reality 2010].
Ships ahoy is an augmented reality application able to recognize vessels and display
information over them by pointing the camera of an iPhone at a ship, using AIS. By clicking
on a ship a new screen with data appear: name, MMSI (maritime mobile service identity),
IMO (IMO ship identification number), callsign, destination, ETA (estimated time of arrival),
last update, speed, course, origin and a static photo of the ship.

Figure 44: Augmented reality iPhone ship app.
PROS
Fast, direct and intuitive track of vessel.
CONS
Precision issues
Impossible to have an overview about all vessels or information about other ports.
http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/ships-ahoy/id351104359
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Ship tracking is an iPhone application that uses google maps to show location and
destination of all ships in the selected area through AIS. Apart from the real-time map it has
search options for ships by part of ship name, IMO or MMSI,

 and for ports by part of port
name.

 Also, an add to “favourites” option is available for ships.

 By clicking on a ship
detailed view is available with: name, type, draught, length, width, navigational status, rate
of turn, speed, longitude, latitude, degrees, destination, ETA, Country, recent tracks,
history, ship compass and statistics information.


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Figure 45: Ship Tracking app
PROS
Filters and “favourite ships” option in order to track down fast ships in frequent use.
Overall view in the real-time map
Search options
CONS
Real-time map might need a while to load.
Detailed information might be more than needed for certain user-groups.
(1) (2)
(1) Map View with real-time vesselʼs positions
(2) Detailed info of a vessel
http://itunes.apple.com/app/ship-tracking/id346794782
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Another massive mobile trend with real-time is social media. Certain aspects of them do
combine real-time with location and map visualizations.
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Figure 46: Real-Time Social Media with location
PROS
Fast overview of whatʼs nearby.
CONS
Mapʼs icons may become too cluttered making difficult to find something specific.
However this concept of “exploring” whatʼs nearby was adopted by many applications:
tourists guides with “what to see” places, booking sites with available hotels to stay,
informational sites about a certain city with points of interest (services, hospitals, cinemas,
etc.). Furthermore this kind of applications usually have geolocation abilities with history:
tagging a photo, or sharing a comment about a place. Finally, in some of them have a
feature of exploring the nearby points of interest of a selected “destination” in order to make
plans in advance.
(1) (2)
(1) Mobile twitterʼs nearby map
(2) Mobile foursquareʼs static map of a specific nearby location
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ON THE WEB AND THE MOBILE WEB
Similar to ship and train monitoring applications presented above there are applications for
air-traffic monitoring. Flightradar24 is one of them having a desktop and a mobile version of
the same service. By selecting a planeʼs icon details appear: callsign, flight number, reg.
number, hex. number, model, airline, latitude, longitude, altitude, ground speed, track,
radar, squawk, from and to information.
Figure 47: Fightradar app
PROS
Fast overview of air traffic.
Mobile version has the same information, provided in the same way.
Mobile version also provides augmented reality plane finding.
CONS
Map may become cluttered.
No personalization settings.
Information may be more than needed for plain users.
No nearby/arrivals/departures information of a certain airport.
Estimated time of arrival is missing.
(1) (2)
(1) Desktop view
(2) Mobile view
http://flightrader24.com
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Google, eventually, has integrated “current location” option, not only in google maps
(desktop and mobile version) but also in its api, allowing all sites that use it to have similar
functions. Pros and cons depend on the application that is based on a google map.
!
Figure 48: Google maps with current location and POIs
!! !
Figure 49: Mobile Google maps with current location
(1) (2)
(1) Mobile google maps asking to use current location
(2) Mobile google maps current location
Google maps asking for current location in order to display nearby points of interest.
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INTERFACE WALK-THROUGH
As defined by Garrett in terms of content and structure, interaction design and
information architecture share an emphasis on defining patterns and sequences in
which options will be presented to users. Interaction design concerns the options
involved in performing and completing tasks. Information architecture deals with the
options involved in conveying information [Garrett 2002].
Therefore, a first step of analysing the case study would be to analyse the interface and
use the site in order to fully explore its potential in terms of representation, structure,
content and navigation [Kim et. al 2002].
REPRESENTATION
A fast way to check how informationʼs structure affects representation when it comes to
findability and attention, is to create a heatmap. A heatmap is a graphical representation
of data where the values taken by a variable in a two-dimensional map are represented as
colours [Heatmap 2010]. There are two ways to provide data in order to create a heatmap
for a site: using eye-tracking while looking at the site or using algorithms to predict eye
tracking by visually analysing the elements [Eye Tracking 2010].
For the purposes of this thesis, generating a heatmap using algorithms in order to locate
the areas that visually attract attention would be enough.

Figure 50: Marine Trafficʼs Heat-Map
Heatmap generated using http://www.feng-gui.com
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As expected, the live map is the centre of a visitorʼs attention, as it covers the largest part
of the site, hosting the majority of the functionality of Marine Trafficʼs site.
The mobile version is significantly different from the desktop one:


Figure 51: Marine Trafficʼs mobile version overview
NOTES
The mobile version could be served as a basic version for low-end devices but there
are things that could get improved for display on a high-end device.
Users cannot choose between the mobile version and the desktop one, unless they
type a relatively large url.
Navigation and content could be more coherent between the two versions, they
might be confusing at some point.
Fast login and user preferences are not supported.
Live maps are quite demanding in many ways. They could be substituted by static
google maps of what the user specifically needs.
(1) (2)
(1) Home Page of the mobile marine traffic site
(2) Live ships Map page
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NOTATION
Marine Traffic uses a simple metaphor, representing vessels as ships icons on a live map.
Moving vessels are displayed as ship icons pointing to the specified direction. Ships that
are not moving (or their speed is less than 0.5 knots) anchored or moored are displayed as
small squares. Vessel icons and tracks are collared differently to represent a different type
of a vessel (cargo, tanker, passenger, etc.). The size of the ship icon is related to the size
that the actual ship has [Marine Traffic 2008].


Figure 52: Notation & Display options of Marine Traffic
Observations on notation:
Notation and Display optionʼs list could be divided in sub-categories as it mixes
completely different options in one list:
o Personalization options (my fleet)
o Vessel Types (passenger, cargo, tankers, high-speed, tug/pilot/etc., yachts
& Others, unspecified ships)
o Current state of a vessel (underway of anchored/moored)
o Non moving related points of interest (Ports, Stations)
Some options may not interest all potential user groups.
Notation and display options are not accessible on the mobile version.
Notation & Display options as explained in the page showing the live map.
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STRUCTURE
Marine traffic pages, containing almost the same elements, are relatively consistent:
Home page | Live map,
Vesselʼs page,
Portʼs page,
Gallery page.

Figure 53: Marine Trafficʼs Wireframe
!
Elements of each page are analysed in detail below.
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Logo
Menu: 2
nd
level
Menu: 1
st
level
Main content
Additional search/filter options
Google Ads

1
2
3
4
5
6
Wireframes reveal the main structure of the site
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Interface walk-through

HOME PAGE | LIVE MAP

Figure 54: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Home Page
Logo
Language Chooser
Initial map view
Supporters Links
Google Ads
Quick Links
Notation & Display Options
Personalized Layer
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5 6

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Area/Port/Vessel drop-down list
Note about accuracy of data
Menu area
Numbered area of ships
Copyright, creator, terms of use
Number of Vessels in range/map
Refresh Rates
Annotated walkthrough in home page of http://www.marinetraffic.com
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VESSELSʼ PAGE

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Figure 55: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Vesselsʼ Page
Logo
Menu
Overall vessel numbers
Tableʼs headers
Complete Vesselsʼ list
Language chooser
Google Ads
Search for a certain vessel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Annotated walkthrough in vesselsʼ page of:
http://www.marinetraffic.com
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PORTSʼ PAGE
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Figure 56: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Ports Page
Logo
Menu
Overall ports numbers
Tableʼs headers
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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Complete Portsʼ list
Language chooser
Google Ads
Search for a certain port
Annotated walkthrough in portsʼ page of:
http://www.marinetraffic.com
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GALLERYʼS PAGE

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Figure 57: Marine Trafficʼs Interface | Galleryʼs Page
Annotated walkthrough in galleryʼs page of:
http://www.marinetraffic.com
Logo
Menu
Language chooser
Google ads

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
All vesselsʼ photos
Photo rating
Top rated photos
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NAVIGATION
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Figure 58: Marine Trafficʼs navigation
Marine Traffic has 2 levels of navigation
Vessels
Ports
Home
Page
Gallery
Currently in Range

Search All
Itineraries
Arrivals-Departures
Position History
Current Condition
Expected Arrivals
Arrivals -Departures
Webcams
All Thumbnails
Ports
Photographers
Photo Upload
Search Photos
Level 0 Level 1 Level 2
Options Inside Content
Cover Your Area
FAQ

Services

World Map
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Apart from the two-levelled navigation, there are more options inside each page.
Table 15: Marine Trafficʼs navigational and search options
HOME PAGE

WORLD MAP
Go to Area (List)
Go to Port (List)
Notation & Display Options
Quick Links
Terms of Use
COVER YOUR AREA
Set of links - questions
FAQ
Set of links - questions
SERVICES
Google groups discussion
Data exchange
Receiving Stations
Google Earth
Grab a map
Marine Traffic Mobile
My Fleet alerts
VESSELʼS PAGE

CURRENTLY IN RANGE
Current Vessels in Range (table)
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Vesselʼs Name (Search field)
Vesselʼs Type (List)
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SEARCH ALL
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Vesselʼs Name (Search field)
MMSI or IMO number (Search field)
Vesselʼs Type (List)
ITINERARIES
Port (Search field)
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
MMSI (Search field)
ARRIVALS-DEPARTURES
Port (List)
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
POSITION HISTORY
MMSI (Search field)
Timestamp (List)
PORTʼS PAGE

CURRENT CONDITION
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Country (List)
EXPECTED ARRIVALS
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Port (List)
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
ARRIVALS-DEPARTURES
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Port (List)
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
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GALLERYʼS PAGE

ALL THUMBNAILS
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
Place of photo (Search Field)
MMSI or IMO number (Search field)
Copyright holder – Photographer (Search field)
Vesselʼs Type (List)
WEBCAMS
Area on Live Map (Link under each webcam)
SEARCH PHOTOS
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
PORTS
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
Place of photo (Search Field)
MMSI or IMO number (Search field)
Copyright holder – Photographer (Search field)
Vesselʼs Type (List)
PHOTOGRAPHERS
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Photographer (Search Field)
PHOTO UPLOAD
Photo Upload form with:
o Vesselʼs name text-field
o MMSI/ IMO number text-field
o Vesselʼs Type list
o Place of photo text-field
o Date taken text-field
o Copyright holder-Photographer text-field
o Photo legend/Comments text-field
o Select image file to upload button
o Latitude/Longitude text-field
There are many search options and links inside pages that the user cannot easily locate or even
suspect they exist from the home page.
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CONTENT
PIECES OF INFORMATION
All marine trafficʼs information revolve around a primary piece of information:
the vessel

Figure 59: Vesselʼs information in marine trafficʼs map.
Each vessel is defined by a few basic parameters:
What – attributes that uniquely characterise a vessel | Static information
Where – Location | Real time changing information
When – Past, current and future time | Real time changing information
How – Status | Real time changing information
Some of those details appear in home page, in a small pop-up window, by clicking on a
certain ship, inside the map. It is possible to view extended details in a new page, outside
the map by clicking the link “vesselʼs details” on the small pop-up window. However the
question that arises in that point is if this way of presentation is appropriate for the small
screen of a mobile device.
Vesselʼs basic info appear inside the map by clicking a certain ship.
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Based on vesselʼs basic parameters, two important related pieces of information are:
Ports
Receiving stations
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Figure 60: Port and receiving station in marine trafficʼs map.
In order to position and associate correctly and effectively each piece of information inside
marine trafficʼs content the follow need to be done:
Write down all information marine traffic currently contains,
Relate them to potential user groups,
Associate them to potential contexts of use.
Collected information should form an affinity diagram that would lead in prioritising
content, reorganizing structure and potentially propose redesign issues in navigation
and representation accordingly.
How it is possible to achieve information consistency and uniformity between the
desktop version and the mobile one will be explored through low-fi wireframe
prototypes.
(1) (2)
(1) Detail of a port selected on the map
(2) Range of a receiving station selected on the map
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LISTING INFORMATION
Vessel
Static:
o Name
o Ex-names History (if any)
o Ownership
o Year Built
o Flag/Country
o Ship Type:
" Passengerʼs Vessels
" Cargo Vessels
" Tankers
" High Speed Craft
" Tug, Pilot etc
" Yachts & Others
" Unspecified Ships
o Dimensions:
" Length
" Breadth
o IMO number
o MMSI number
o Other technical details
o Photos

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Dynamic:
o Status:
" Underway
" Anchored
o Position:
" Latitude
" Longitude
o Speed
o Course
o Rate of turn
o Callsign
" Receiving Station
" Last time info received
Voyage-specific:
o Draught:
" Departure Port
" Middle stops in other Ports
" Destination Port
o Estimated time of arrival (ETA)
o Last Known Port
o Next Port
o History of arrivals in ports
o Future Itineraries

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Port
Static:
o Name
o Alternative names
o Flag/Country
o Position:
" Latitude
" Longitude
o Photos
o Webcams (if any)
Dynamic:
o Vessels currently in
o Expected Arrivals
o Recent Arrivals & Departures
o Statistics
Receiving Station
Static:
o Name
o Position
" Latitude
" Longitude
o Elevation
o Reception distance (miles)
o Area covered
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Dynamic
o Status
" Online
" Offline
o Records received in 1 hour
o Statistics
Areas Categorization
Any
World (Maximum “zoom-out”)
Baltic Sea
o Bothnia Gulf
o Gulf of Finland
Biscay Bay
Black Sea
o Istanbul
Mediterranean
o Aegean North
o Aegean South
o Piraeus
o Adriatic
o Ionian
o Ligurean Sea
o Balearic Sea
o Gibraltar
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North Sea
o Antwerp
o Rotterdam
o English Channel
o Irish Sea
Persian Gulf
o Dubai
Red Sea
Australia
Atlantic North
o Mexico Gulf
Atlantic South
Pacific North
o Gulf of Alaska
o Bering Sea
o California
o Japan
o China Sea
Pacific South
o Tasman Sea
Indian Ocean
o Arabian Sea
o Bay of Bengal
o Gulf of Oman
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Languages currently supported
English
Bulgarian
Simplified Chinese
Czech
Danish
German
Greek
Spanish
Hebrew
French
Croatian
Italian
Traditional Chinese
Dutch
Norwegian
Polish
Portuguese
Russian
Finnish
Swedish
Turkish


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CONSIDERATIONS ON DESKTOP & MOBILE CONTENT
The mobile version of the marine traffic has access to the same content the desktop
version has. What changes is the representation, the navigation and the search
mechanisms. Searching in a such a large amount of information, has always been a difficult
and controversial issue in all information systems [Aula et. al 2010], [Morville 2010]. And if
something is difficult to find in a desktop context, it is getting even worse in the mobile
[Jones 2003], [Church & Smyth 2008], [Church et. al 2010], [Nudelman 2010].
Therefore there are two things that can be done:
elimination of free text typing in order to search for a term, and
careful categorization of information according to mobile usersʼ context,
as stated earlier in the design guidelinesʼ chapter by W3C [Rabin & McCathieNevile 2008],
[Connors & Sullivan 2010].
In order to achieve the above mentioned goals content has to be associated with users
and contexts (see Figure 7) in order to define the following questions that arise:
What type of users will need which information?
When users will search ?
What will they search for exactly?
Is their informational needs the same in the mobile and desktop context?
In the next chapters, a set of methods are combined in order to understand users of the
marine traffic project and their contexts.

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UNDERSTANDING THE USERS
One of the most common “slips” when designing a site, is designing for one idealised user;
someone exactly like us. This way there is a possibility of covering the needs of some user
groups, but without spending time researching user segmentation and user needs, it will
be out of luck. Dividing the audience into smaller groups (or segments) consisting of users
with certain key characteristics in common helps to break down into manageable chunks of
information.
Segmentation can be done base on demographic criteria:
age,
education level,
occupation,
where they live,
their attitudes towards technology,
web/computer skills etc.
or based on psychographic profiles that describe the attitudes and perceptions that users
have about a certain subject of a site in particular [Garrett 2002].
Typical methods adopted to address the dynamics of mobility are observation, in situ
logging, interviews, diary studies and experience sampling [Karlson 2010].
In order to understand marine trafficʼs users and usage the following steps have been
followed:
Stakeholder identification and analysis [Garret 2002], [Preece et. al 2007]
Web analytics [Courage & Baxter 2005]
Semi-Structured Interviews [Courage & Baxter 2005]
Questionnaire [Couper 2008]
A quantitative analysis is done in the beginning from collected data, with ultimate goal to
build the contexts in which users interact with the marine traffic site, revealing the most
common scenarios of use.

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IDENTIFYING & ANALYSING STAKEHOLDERS – USER GROUPS
An attempt to model user groups was early made in the study, before the distribution of
the questionnaire and the conduct of the semi-structured interviews. After those two
actions were finished, user groups were refined, as findings indicated more specific groups
leading to the following:















Figure 61: Segmenting Marine Trafficʼs Users
There is a small sub-group of people that deal with rescues and safety in the seas, but
marine traffic's terms are suggesting that the site should not be used for safety reasons,
therefore this user group is listed but not taken into account in the rest of the survey.
Another group identified was people interested in checking upon the marine traffic site
without any specific context of use, e.g. spending time watching vessels come and go, but
in this case the entertaining use of the service is prior to the informational one.
Site Creator/Coordinator
Contributors
AIS data senders
Uploading Photos
Travellers
Frequent
Non-Frequent
Work-Related/Observers
Travel Agencies
Seamen (travelling or supervising on ports)
Port Authorities
Private vessel (Fishing etc.) Owners
Safety/Rescue teams
*
From top: more technical and overall information needs
to bottom: less technical and more specific information needs
*
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WEB ANALYTICS
Studying logs and checking web analytics can give a first impression about a siteʼs users. It
is not a method to be trusted for final assumptions about the users, but it is a method to
make some first estimations [Courage & Baxter 2005].
Web analytics can give information related to:
Number of Visitors
Page Views
Time Spend on Site
Demographic Stats
According to Competeʼs
15
stats, unique visits of marine traffic site for the last year were
estimated to be the following:





Figure 62: Marine Trafficʼs visit statistics
According to Alexaʼs
15
estimations: 14% of the site's visitors are in Greece, where relative
to the overall population of internet users, the site's users browse mostly from work and
school. Visitors to the site spend roughly 5 minutes per visit to the site and 42 seconds
per pageview.





Figure 63: Marine Trafficʼs Daily pageviews per user
15
See 7##+8-)91::$1;+<'=*0+<1>1?''3<1>1@+(178,3.")0<1?''3<
Visits where increased during summer months
Daily pageviews per user: 2-8
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SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS
Interviews help determine why. Interviewing user of a larger target audience is necessary to
understand how they understand what they are doing and why. Peopleʼs descriptions of
what they do and how they do it are fallible (which is why surveys about preferences and
future behaviour often do not predict actual future behaviour), but personal narratives help
explain behaviour and use. Interviews can be structured and unstructured. In structured
interviews every interview consists of standardized lists of questions. Answers to these
questions can be directly compared between interviews. In unstructured interviews, the
interviewer asks whatever questions seem appropriate at the time, following discussion
threads and examining certain ideas in more detail than others. In practice, nearly every
interview combines prewritten and improvised questions (a semi-structured interview).
Interviews should also be non-directed, which means that the interviewer should try not to
influence the intervieweesʼ responses [Kuniavsky 2010].
According to the above mentioned directions, a set of questions was prepared in order to
conduct a series of semi-structured interviews, focusing on work-related groups and
travellers. Before the actual interviews the set of questions was piloted on 2 people and
modified according to their responses and comments. Afterwards 8 people participated in
the survey:
3 people owning a Travel Agency and/or working on a Travel Agency, !
4 Non-Frequent Travellers, !
5 Frequent Travellers.
There was also a small talk to Port authorities.
The set of questions was the same for all groups, with small differences. Interviews lasted
from 15 to 30 minutes and were conducted in a quiet place (home or office of the
interviewer).
All of the interviewers chosen were familiar with the Marine Traffic site and have used it at
least once before the interview but none of them was aware of the mobile version of the
Marine Traffic and, therefore, they werenʼt using it. The purpose of the interviews was to
provide an exploratory first step in order to build the questionnaire afterwards. Furthermore
different travellersʼ styles were explored and their relationship with travel agencies.
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QUESTIONS !
Interviewing Travel Agencies
Do you know Marine Traffic?
If yes, do you use it and how often?
Which features of the site do you usually need to check for your work and why?
Can you estimate the time a ship will arrive at a certain port, just by looking its
position at the map?
Which areas/vessels are you interested in observing while at work?
Do you also check upon marine traffic while not at work (for personal use or other
interest)?
What do customers usually want to know about?
Have you seen a difference in customerʼs questions since marine traffic came out or
since you “installed” a screen with marine traffic on your agency?
What actions need to be done when a ship is about to arrive/departure and what
info you need to know?
How communication with the ships was made before the existence of marine traffic?
Are there any cases that you do not have enough information to answer to
customerʼs questions and you have to contact someone else?
Do you check upon other sites/services in order to inform your customers e.g.
weather forecast sites/coast yard?
Is there something you would like to add or change to the site?
If marine traffic was also available on you mobile phone, do you think you will use
it?
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Interviewing Frequent & Non-Frequent Travellers
Do you know Marine Traffic?
If yes, do you use it, how often and in which cases?
Which features of the site have you used?
Can you estimate the time a ship will arrive at a certain port, just by looking its
position at the map?
How often do you travel with ships?
What are your usual destinations when you travel?
Can you describe your actions from the moment you decide to travel to the moment
you actually reach your destination?
Do you check upon other sites/services in order to plan your trip e.g. weather
forecast sites/coast yard/travel agencies?
In cases there was something wrong with your planned trip (e.g. bad weather, delay
of the departure, cancelation of the arrival) how did you learnt about it? Have your
travel agency contacted you, did you contacted someone else to learn more or did
you just realized it after your arrival to the port?
Were there any cases you have missed the departure of a ship or even the
disembarkation while on board and why?
How do you usually transport from your home to the port and backwards, from the
port to your final destination after the trip? Were there any times you had difficulties
to catch your next transport means and why?
While on board is there is something you would like to know about the status of the
ship/route (e.g. speed, time of arrival)?
Were there any cases you needed to get some info from marine traffic and you
didnʼt have a computer/internet near you?
Is there something you would like to add or change to the site?
If marine traffic was also available on you mobile phone, do you think you will use it
and what features will you need?
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RESULTS
For each of the user groups interviewed a few characteristics revealed:
Port authorities
This group not only have to supervise current condition at the port but also they
have a role of informing the travellers directly or through the travel agencies.
They are responsible for getting informed about the weather and decide when the
wind allows passenger ships to sail or not, receiving many calls about that matter
from travellers, too.
In case of a passenger vessel approaching their port they need to be there five
minutes before the arrival of each ship (and leave the port after its departure) writing
down the exact time it arrived and departed. They know timetables but they still
check upon marine traffic in order to be sure when to get to the port, but it is also
common to make a phone call to the ship itself to ask about its status. When they
didnʼt have marine traffic, or cell phones they used radio frequencies to
communicate with the ships, when the ship was close to the port. Of course cell
phones replaced that action.
In case of non passenger vessels things are pretty much different. They say they
receive a fax in case a merchandise vessel needs to arrive at the port and they
have to approve it or not.
Travel Agencies
Their main role is to provide their services to travellers (book tickets etc.) but they
also need to get to the port by the time a ship of a company they work for is arriving.
They have marine trafficʼs map open all they day usually zoomed on the local port.
The vast majority of the calls they receive from travellers is whether a ship will arrive or
not due to weather conditions and the time of arrival/departure regardless the weather.
The relation between the travel agencies group and the travellers might be
problematic. Travellers claim to almost never get informed by their travel agency in
case of cancelations/delays but travel agencies say it is their responsibility to inform
travellers that already have a ticket bought for possible alterations to the timetables.
However, as they note, they might not know about alterations, if the company of the
ship hasnʼt informed them.
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Frequent travellers
Frequent travellers usually travel so frequently because it is needed for their work.
However their main difference to the work-related user group is that they will
probably need specific information about a certain ship/port/route and not an overall
view of the situation.
Because of the frequency they travel they got used to many things. They know by
heart the timetables about their destinations most of the times and they donʼt get to
anxious preparing for a trip and they are compromised with the fact that weather
might alter their plans. However they start to get worried when they have to change
vessels in order to reach their final destination. In that case the ship has to be
punctual in order to catch the next ship otherwise they will be stuck on the island for
hours.
For frequent travellers the main informational need is a set of ship-port-route data,
that will probably remain the same every time they travel (because they need to visit
the same destinations, usually using with the same vessels).
Non-Frequent Travellers
They differ to frequent travellers in many things.
They are more likely to prepare a trip long time ago the actual trip, checking other
parameters as the weather in order to decide. They also have the “luxury” to slightly
change the dates of their departure just because the reason they travel for might not
be too urgent or specific compared to the frequent travellers that travel for work
issues.
Despite the fact that their deadlines might not be so strict, they are more likely to get
anxious about ticket availability or weather conditions and they asked for more
layers on the map (e.g. weather information).
They are more likely to ask for timetables or directions from and to ports or gates of
departure/arrival, as they donʼt have the same experience to frequent travellers.
Note that some of the marine traffic siteʼs uses were in case that someone was expecting
for a package to arrive or was monitoring a certain ship because he was asked by a person
who was currently on board and had no access to internet in order to check the expected
time of arrival by himself.
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QUESTIONNAIRE
PURPOSE & DESIGN
Questionnaire was designed in order to evaluate the MarineTraffic site, as far as information
is concerned, using Google forms
16
for the creation, storage and analysis of the questions.
Aiming on discovering what existing users think and usually need, it was promoted through
its facebook group page on http://www.facebook.com/MarineTraffic receiving, from
30/08/2010 to 30/10/2010, 53 responses: 49 returning users and 4 first time users.
It contains the following parts:
(each part was a web page with vertical scrolling ability when questions exceeded screenʼs height)
intro page | Giving the participants a description about the purposes of the
questionnaire and what he/she is about to encounter,
step: 1 from 4 | General questions about the MarineTraffic site. A few important
questions are here in order to have full attention of the participants,
step: 2 from 4 | Set of questions for frequent users (basically this is the main part of
the questionnaire, containing detailed lists about every feature of the MarineTraffic
site with ultimate goal to discover features and services that are not easy to be
located or used or they cause other difficulties to the users in information retrieval),
step: 2 from 4 (alternative path) | A few questions to capture the impressions of
users visiting the MarineTraffic site for the first time. This is an extra step in order
not to bother a user that is not very familiar with the MarineTraffic site with so many
details that he/she is not expected to know with only one visit,
step: 3 from 4 | Set of questions regarding access to the mobile version of the
MarineTraffic site. This stepʼs goal is to evaluate information retrieval of the mobile
version and learning more about the reasons that led a user visit it instead of the
desktop site, revealing what needs a mobile version of the site covers,
step: 3 from 4 (alternative path) | Set of questions for people who donʼt use the
mobile version of the MarineTraffic site. This alternative step has similar or even
greater significance than the non-alternative one. Knowing why users of the desktop
version do not visit or need the mobile site can lead to very important conclusions,
step: 4 from 4 | Set of questions about basic information of people who took the
questionnaire, such as age, computer skills or potentially profession related to
travelling or to the MarineTraffic itself,
final page with (non-required) questions of recommendations and future-feature
support.
16
Questionnaire is available at:
http://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?formkey=dFB3N24tV3VmQlV5TE5SenlvX1V5bnc6MQ
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FLOW

Figure 64: Questionnaire Flow Diagram
Start of Questionnaire
Step 1:
General Questions
and Impressions
First time visitor?
Step 2:
Alternative Set
Future possibility of
using Marine Traffic
Step 2:
Extensive list of
features. Main Part of
the Questionnaire
Yes No
User of the
mobile version?
Yes
No
Step 3:
Alternative Set
Find out why
Step 3:
Evaluate user experience
of the mobile version
Step 4:
Basic user-related
information
Final Page:
(non-required fields)
Future features and comments
Submit Button
Intro Page:
Purposes and approximate time
of completion
Diagram of questionnaireʼs step flow:
Intro, Step 1, Step 2 (2 set of questions), Step 3 (2 set of questions), Step 4, Final Page
and , finally, submission of the questionnaire
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GOOGLE FORMS OVERVIEW
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Figure 65: Questionnaire Intro Page

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Figure 66: Questionnaireʼs required field notation
Notation of Required Fields and notification message in case of pressing to continue without the
completion of one or more of the required questions.
Questionnaireʼs first page: Explaining purposes, where the collected data will be used and
approximate time of completion
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QUESTIONS & RESULTS
Step: 1 from 4 | Tell us a few things about the MarineTraffic site
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Figure 67: Response summary, Step 1, Q1
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 68: Response summary, Step 1, Q2
Figure 69: Response summary, Step 1, Q3
Did you find what you needed?!#!

()

100%
0%
0%

53
0
0

Yes
No
Other

People may select more than one checkbox, so percentages may add up to more than 100%.
What is the primary reason you came to the MarineTraffic site?!#!
(You can choose more than one answer, if applicable)
()

26%
49%
53%
9%
8%
4%
14
26
28
5
4
2
Because it is useful for my work
Because I'm a traveller and I
need related info
For personal interest, I like to
observe
Because I want to contribute to
the site
Because I already contribute to
the site and I want to check
status
Other
Was it easy to find information on the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

0%
2%
30%
55%
13%

0
1
16
29
7
Very Difficult
Difficult
Some were difficult, some were
easy
Easy
Very easy
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 131
131 131
Understanding the users

Figure 70: Response summary, Step 1, Q4
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 71: Response summary, Step 1, Q5
!
Figure 72: Response summary, Step 1, Q6
If you did not find any or all of what you needed, please tell us what you
were looking for.!!

()

“schedule for the boat”
“E.g. when searching for vessels, I would prefer searching directly in all,
and not only searching for those in range and I would like to choose me
"favourite" spots, so Iʼ do not have to zoom all the way to the area I
want to see”
“I'm a seaman and I'd like to know where the ship I'm interested Is this
time. If it isnʼt on ais range I'd like to know where it was the last time that
it was in AIS range. Now I canʼt and the ship isnʼt shown!”
“I canʼt find what time ships arrive in ports”
“1. ships' itineraries
2. Vessels out of range
3. Elements of vessel's latest port of calls”
Photos of the ships?
An e-mail about the ships I follow, when new photos have been uploaded
Many times I cannot find many ships that I am looking for when I use the
searching engine within the site.
8 responses:
What is your overall impression of the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

36%
60%
2%
2%
0%

19
32
1
1
0
Amazing!
Good
Indifferent
Bad
Disappointing :(
Is it the first time you have visited the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

92%
8%
49
4

No
Yes

PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 132
132 132
Understanding the users

STEP: 2 FROM 4 | SEEMS YOU ARE A FREQUENT USER!
Tell us more about the site!









Figure 73: Response summary, Step 2, Q1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 74: Response summary, Step 2, Q2
!
!
Which MarineTraffic siteʼs services do you prefer using and how frequently?!#!

()

49%
34%
51%
47%
36%
36%
11%
42%
32%
17
26
27
25
19
19
6
22
17

26%
34%
34%
34%
32%
30%
13%
40%
30%
14
18
18
18
17
16
7
21
16

6%
4%
6%
6%
19%
19%
19%
8%
15%
3
2
3
3
10
10
10
4
8

6%
4%
2%
2%
6%
2%
21%
2%
6%
3
2
1
1
3
1
11
1
3

6%
2%
0%
4%
0%
6%
28%
2%
9%
3
1
0
2
0
3
15
1
5

How often do you visit the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

Other answers: “When Iʼm looking for a ship”
“Every six months”
“Rarely”
“Whenever I need it or a friend of mine is travelling”
“Whenever Iʼm going to travel by ship”
When I travel or when Iʼm waiting for someone”
When I need it”

27%
10%
24%
24%
14%
13
5
12
12
7

Several times a day
Once a day
A few times a week
Once a month
Other

4 people were first time visitors and didnʼt answer this set of questions.

PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 133
133 133
Understanding the users

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 75: Response summary, Step 2, Q3
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 76: Response summary, Step 2, Q4
Which Notation & Display options do you prefer using and how frequently?!#!
(Notation & Display options are located to the left side of home page)
()

0%
8%
15%
38%
6%
6%
4%
6%
8%
6%
17%
13%
15%
15%

0
4
8
20
3
3
2
3
4
3
9
7
8
8

2%
2%
23%
38%
13%
26%
34%
17%
34%
32%
32%
34%
19%
21%
1
1
12
20
7
14
18
9
18
17
17
18
10
11

5
11
10
2
9
11
8
10
8
12
9
12
8
8

15
19
11
4
11
11
12
14
11
9
8
7
13
13

!
53%
26%
15%
4%
36%
17%
15%
25%
13%
15%
9%
9%
19%
17%
28
14
8
2
19
9
8
13
7
8
5
5
10
7

28%
36%
21%
8%
21%
21%
23%
26%
21%
17%
15%
13%
25%
25%
9%
21%
19%
4%
17%
21%
15%
19%
15%
23%
17%
23%
15%
15%
Which MarineTraffic siteʼs features do you prefer using and how frequently?!#!

()
0%
0%
2%
13%
9%
9%
9%
6%
13%
19%
25%
13%
32%

0
0
1
7
5
5
5
3
7
10
13
7
17

0%
4%
4%
11%
9%
19%
13%
15%
51%
42%
49%
21%
32%
0
2
2
6
5
10
7
8
27
22
26
11
17

1
6
10
10
15
14
13
5
4
8
7
15
12

13
18
18
17
11
13
14
18
5
7
3
9
2

66%
43%
34%
17%
25%
13%
19%
28%
11%
4%
0%
13%
2%
35
23
18
9
13
7
10
15
6
2
0
7
1

25%
34%
34%
32%
21%
25%
26%
34%
9%
13%
6%
17%
4%
2%
11%
19%
32%
28%
26%
25%
9%
8%
15%
13%
28%
23%
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 134
134 134
Understanding the users

!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 77: Response summary, Step 2, Q5
STEP: 2 FROM 4 (ALT) | SEEMS YOU ARE NEW HERE!
Tell us more!






Figure 78: Response summary, Step 2 (alt), Q1
!





Figure 79: Response summary, Step 2 (alt), Q2

Do you also use the mobile version of the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

74%
19%
17%
26%
23%
39
10
6
9
8

No
Yes

What is the likelihood that you will visit the MarineTraffic site again?!#!

()

2%
6%
0%
1
3
0

I will come back for sure!
Maybe
No way, Iʼm not interested

Have you visited the mobile version of the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

0%
8%
0
4

Yes
No

PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 135
135 135
Understanding the users

STEP: 3 FROM 4 | MOBILE WEB ACCESS TO THE MARINETRAFFIC SITE!
Tell us more about your visit to the mobile version of the marinetraffic site!
(www.marinetraffic.com/m/)










Figure 80: Response summary, Step 3, Q1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 81: Response summary, Step 3, Q2
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 82: Response summary, Step 3, Q3
Did you find what you needed?!#!

()

100%
0%
10
0

Yes
No

Was it easy to find information on the mobile version of the MarineTraffic site?!#!

()

0%
0%
50%
50%
0%

0
0
5
5
0
Very Difficult
Difficult
Some were difficult, some were
easy
Easy
Very easy
What is the primary reason you came to the mobile version of the
MarineTraffic site?!#!
(You can choose more than one answer, if applicable)
()

80%
0%
20%
30%
40%
50%
0%

8
0
2
3
4
5
0
Because I didnʼt have access to the desktop site
Because I received an sms update, but I wanted to find
more info while on the go.
Because I waited for some time for a certain ship to come
and it is still not in the port.
Because Iʼm on the way to the port, in terrible traffic, and I
want to check if I might make it on time for the next ship.
Because of bad weather I need to check on a certain ʻs
ship arrival/departure.
Because Iʼm on board and I need to know when the ship
will arrive
Other
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 136
136 136
Understanding the users

!
!
!
Figure 83: Response summary, Step 3, Q4


!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 84: Response summary, Step 3, Q5


!
Figure 85: Response summary, Step 3, Q6
Comparing www.marinetraffic.com to the mobile version
www.marinetraffic.com/m/ what are your overall impressions?!#!
Comparing www.marinetraffic.com to the mobile version www.marinetraffic.com/m/ what are your overall impressions?
!

()

0%
14%
3%
6%
0%
0%
0
6
2
2
0
0
I was satisfied, the mobile version had everything I needed
I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in
the way I wanted.
Indifferent.
I found some info I needed, but many others were missing.
I was lost, the mobile version was so different.
Other.
If you did not find any or all of what you needed, please tell us what you
were looking for.!!

()

“difficult to zoom on a google earth map using an android phone”
1 response:
Please add any comments you have for improving the mobile version of
the MarineTraffic site.!!

()

0 responses
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 137
137 137
Understanding the users

STEP: 3 FROM 4 (ALT) | MOBILE WEB ACCESS TO THE MARINETRAFFIC SITE!
Tell us more…why donʼt you use the mobile version of the marinetraffic site?
(www.marinetraffic.com/m/)







Figure 86: Response summary, Step 3 (alt), Q1







!
!
!
Figure 87: Response summary, Step 3 (alt), Q2
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 88: Response summary, Step 3 (alt), Q3
What information, in your opinion, you will need from the mobile version
of the MarineTraffic site and in what occasion?

“Real time ship locations and arrival time”
“Check immediately shipʼs position that I am interested in from the port I currently
am, without messing around with maps and many choices in the small screen of
my mobile”
“check vessel status/ position according to schedule”
“to know where the ship is and check the traffic, If it has delay..”
“A better version for Android handsets.”
“check arrival time of passenger vessels during my vacations”
“Passenger vessel information updated every 0.5 hour. No map needed.”
The position of a vessel at time
While I am on board the vesselʼs track
9 responses:
Why donʼt you use the mobile version of the MarineTraffic site?!#!
(You can choose more than one answer, if applicable)
()

49%
33%
0%
19%
12%
0%
2%

21
14
0
8
5
0
1
I didnʼt know there was a mobile version
I donʼt own a web-enabled mobile device
I visited the site but I couldnʼt find what I was looking for.
I own a web-enabled mobile device but I donʼt have a
mobile-web data plan or itʼs too expensive.
I donʼt need to check upon marine traffic while on the
move
I use the sms updates instead
Other
Other: doesnʼt work well on android

What is the likelihood that you will use the mobile version of the
MarineTraffic site in the future?!#!

()

26%
31%
20%
9
11
7

Yes! Iʼll might need to
check upon marine traffic
while on the move.
Maybe.
No need, I can always
check upon marine traffic
from a desktop computer.

!
!
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 138
138 138
Understanding the users

STEP: 4 FROM 4 | A FEW THINGS ABOUT YOU!
You are almost there!





Figure 89: Response summary, Step 4, Q1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 90: Response summary, Step 4, Q2





Figure 91: Response summary, Step 4, Q3
Select your age:!#!

()

2%
53%
26%
15%
4%

1
28
14
8
2
Under 18
18-29
30-44
45-60
Over 60
36 (Greece): 1
5
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
4
9
3
Andros
Athens
Chios
Greece
Heraklion
Kefalonia
Larissa
Myrina
Nafplio
Piraeus
Rhodes
Samos
Syros
Thessaloniki

!

17 (outside
Greece):
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
2
Australia
Bruxeles, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Gluckstadt, Germany
Gothenburg, Sweden
Haifa, Israel
Istanbul, Turkey
Mellieha, Malta
Poland
Scotland, UK
Venice, Italy
Washington, USA

Where in the world are you? (City, Country)

53 Responses!
What is your profession?!
Please answer this question if your profession is anyhow related to the MT site or to travelling
42 responses

Engineer
Marine Electronics Engineer
2
nd
officer
Deck Cadet
Loading Master
Database specialist
Sales
Agent
Geographer
Employee
Super Market Assistant
Bank Employee
Ex-captain
Officer of watch
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Researcher
Student
Doctor
IS/IT
Web Designer
Software Dev.
Seafarer, 3
rd
off.
2
15
2
2
1
2
1
42 Responses
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 139
139 139
Understanding the users





Figure 92: Response summary, Step 4, Q4






Figure 93: Response summary, Step 4, Q5
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 94: Response summary, Step 4, Q6
!
How would you rate your computer skills?!

()

0%
2%
15%
42%
42%

0
1
8
22
22
1 –Novice
2
3
4
5 –Expert
What web-enabled mobile device do you own? #!
You can choose more than one answer, if applicable)

23%
28%
43%
0%
2%
4%
0%
9%

12
15
23
0
1
2
0
5
I donʼt own a portable web-enabled device.
Old featured-phone (e.g Nokia N Series)
Smartphone (e.g. iPhone, Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile Devices)
Palm Pre
E-book Reader
iPod Touch
iPad
Other
Other responses: “laptop” | “nokia N97 mini” | “Nokia E52” |
“INQ1” | “Sony ericsson Walkman”
How often do you travel with ships? #

Other responses:
“Iʼm working on a ship!”
“loading master”
“as per my contract: generally 8 months/year”
“Depends on, cause I am a sailor

2%
34%
49%
6%
9%

1
18
26
3
5
Never
Once a year or more
Once a month or more
Once a week or more
Other
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
! 140
140 140
Understanding the users

THE END!
!
!!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 95: Response summary, Final Step, Q1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 96: Response summary, Final Step, Q2
Please add any comments you have for improving the MarineTraffic site.!!

()

“it needs to get lighter in option and function for most of the users. Maybe different layouts are
needed so the user can choose which information he needs, as many are interested but not
important for all and not in every case, especially if we are talking about mobile access!”
“Remove the 100 limit in number of shipʼs photos!”
“I would like to be able to more easily make up dates to the e-mail notification lists. For
example, suppose I travel to an island, I would like to be able to change all my
notification entries from "Piraeus" to "Corfu" with one check, and back to "Piraeus" once
I have returned to Athens. I would also like to be able to sort the e-mail notification list
(by name, company, vessel type, ship code, ship c all sign, etc.). I would like to be able
to have dynamic lists: for example, a list that informs me of the passenger OR
highspeed ships approaching (with a distance of radius W) port W , but only for the
ships that have approached port Y once or less in the last Z days. This specific
dynamic list would inform me of the arrivals of only the passenger/highspeed ships that
don't regularly call at Piraeus, and would probably make all the rest entries in my own
e-mail notification list redundant.”
“you guys are great”
“The data exchange services that has been promised for two years would be nice to
have.”
“I only use Marine Traffic site....I want as many travel-related features included as possible”
“nice job”
“my only complaint is that the tracking stops at the entrance to Grayʼs Harbour
(Washington, USA) so the ships always show as being there when in actuality they are
proceeding to Aberdeen. I don't think there is anything you can do about this, this may
be a signal issue. I love your site and I am glad I found it. Thank you.”
“vessels' itineraries inside the Caribbean Sea area. Keep up the good work!!!! The site is
very a very practical and useful tool!!!!”
“In which gate ships are anchored. Information from and to the gate or other destinations.
Information for companies with hyperlinks to their sites for ticket booking/buy appearing first
locally and then in the world. Future association with similar applications for airplanes, trains and
busses.
marine traffic is perfect web site and thanks for everything. I am sailor and when i am not on the
ship , I visit this site all times because I wonder where my ex ships are.. all the best..
in certain places near Myrina/Lemnos there is no sign of the vessels
Maybe you can provide sending message to the ship :) it would be great
I have e-mailed regarding AIS equipment on a few occasions without any reply…
14 responses:
What other features would you like to see on the MarineTraffic site?
You can choose more than one answer, if applicable)

78%
39%
61%
14%
51%
55%
10%

40
20
31
7
26
28
5
Weather Forecasts
Vesselʼs interior / Seats positions
Ticket availability
Send updates to a friend
Find the shortest way from port to port, choosing the right vessels,
Receive updates for vesselʼs itineraries delays/cancelations
Other
Other responses: “an updated list of shipʼs previous names”
“e-mail with photo updates and which photos they are”
50 responses
PART 3: ANALYSING THE CASE STUDY
!
141
SUMMARISING PART 3
Part 3 is the main part of this thesis analysing the case study, the marine traffic project,
thought the following chapters:
Similar Applications
Interface walk-through
Understanding the users
The analysis of the case study begins with the overview of similar applications on the web
and/or the mobile web in fields of real-time or social apps, Geolocation or positioning apps
or even apps utilising map visualisations noting their advantages and disadvantages.
The analysis continues with an extensive walk-through of the interface marine traffic
currently has using the information architecture planes for the analysis: representation,
structure, navigation, content.
In the final chapter a survey takes place in order to understand the users of marine traffic,
locating strengths-weaknesses of the site and exploring mobile versionʼs access potential.
The survey is conducted using a series of methods. Initially user groups and stakeholders
are identified and analysed, then web analytics are studied in order to end up with
questions appropriate for semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire.
The next and final part concludes current research done presenting critical contexts of use
models, suggests re-design issues and elaborates on the findings.

!

!
!
Part
CONCLUDING & DISCUSSING FURTHER
CONTEXTS OF USE 143
RE-DESIGN ISSUES 150
FINDINGS 155
CURRENT THESIS OVERVIEW 158

4
PART 4: CONCLUDING & DISCUSSING FURTER
!
! 143
143 143
CONTEXTS OF USE
MODELLING CRITICAL CONTEXTS
Each of the methods applied (web analytics overview, semi-structured interviews,
questionnaire) revealed different information about each user group. Marine Traffic siteʼs
users could be defined as information users (see part 2, mobile users in the wild, p. 61),
having primary informational goals (Information seeking) performing informational tasks
(information search / browsing) with secondary goals of information exchange (goal)
wanting to communicate or exchange data (tasks) when travelling [Sellen et. al 2002]
[Kellar et. al 2006], (see part 2, mobile users in the wild, p. 62).
As mentioned earlier in the literature review there are only a few critical contexts in which
people use sites, especially mobile ones [Kim et. al 2002]. Defining those contexts is not a
standard procedure. Based on the context analysis (see part 2, the mobile context, p. 48),
the below model is proposed:

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 97: Modelling the context

What
(content | goals)
- Informational needs

Where
(in terms of modality)
Using a desktop computer:
- Stationary
- Visiting
Using a mobile device:
- Travelling
- Wandering

Who
- User Group

- Home
- Work

- Transport means
- On the streets
walking
!
Modalities Location!
Selecting content according to user groups and their modality
PART 4: CONCLUDING & DISCUSSING FURTER
!
! 144
144 144
Context of Use

USER GROUPʼS CRITICAL CONTEXTS: WORK-RELATED













Figure 98: The context of the work-related user group
The main goal of this group is to observe general status. They mainly are travel agencies,
port authorities or even seamen travelling or working at ports (a few related jobs on the
questionnaire were: loading masters, deck cadets, engineers, officers, captains). However
the only mobile context use deriving from this user group is this by seamen on board. There
was even a related comment on the questionnaire by a seafarer:
“maybe you can provide sending message to the ship, it would be great.”
Therefore the mobile context of this user group would require information related to the
status of a current ship travelling, e.g. current position, estimated time of arrival, departure
port, middle stops and final destination port.
The rest of the stationary/visiting uses would require overall information on the map, as it is
currently served.

What
(goals)
- Check overall status

Where
they might be:
Using a desktop computer:
- Stationary
- Visiting
Using a mobile device:
- Travelling


work
related
- Home
- Work

- Transport means
!
Modalities Location!
Travel Agencies / Seamen / Port Authorities
PART 4: CONCLUDING & DISCUSSING FURTER
!
! 145
145 145
Context of Use

USER GROUPʼS CRITICAL CONTEXTS: CONTRIBUTORS














Figure 99: The context of the contributors user group
The vast majority of this user group will probably use a desktop computer in order to share
AIS data. However checking on the status of their station might be also done by a mobile
device.
On the other hand, people that want to upload photos of ships or ports it is more likely to be
using their mobile devices in order to tag a ship or a port when they will be there waiting,
just before the departure. Real-time photo uploading and tagging is common nowadays for
many mobile services, especially in the field of social media. Therefore there should be an
easy way to upload and tag photos through the mobile version of the site, meaning that
creating and using a personal account (in order to associate the photos with the
photographerʼs name) should be fast and easy. Also, there should be a way of adding or
correcting static information about ports or ships (e.g. ex-names of ships, or ports that are
not tagged yet in the map).

What
(goals)
- Upload data
- Check status or already uploaded data

Where
they might be:
Using a desktop computer:
- Stationary
- Visiting
Using a mobile device:
- Travelling
- Wandering


Contributors
- Home
- Work!
!
- Transport means
- Waiting at a port
!
Modalities Location!
AIS data senders / Uploading photos
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Context of Use

USER GROUPʼS CRITICAL CONTEXTS: TRAVELLERS















Figure 100: The context of the travellers user group
This groupʼs most common uses are equally divided between desktop and mobile use.
They have been reported cases where they used marine traffic just before they leave their
house in order to get to the port in time to check a vesselʼs position on the map using a
desktop computer. On the other hand the possible uses while on the go are the most
critical compared to all the other user groups. People might want to check arrival/departure
times while they are heading to the port, check arrival time while on board or even share
their status in order to inform other people that might be waiting for them to arrive.
Furthermore some of the possible future extensions of the current system could be an
association with similar systems of other transport means as many reported they need to
catch a train/bus/plain after they arrive in order to reach their final destination.


What
(goals)
- Plan a trip
- Check for the status of a specific ship/location/route and not the overall status
- Check for related factor that might affect their trip (weather, cancelations, delays)
- Share their status, informing others that they are travelling

Where
they might be:
Using a desktop computer:
- Stationary
- Visiting
Using a mobile device:
- Travelling
- Wandering

Travellers


- Home
- Work

- Transport means
- Waiting at a port
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Modalities Location!
Frequent or non-frequent travellers.
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RE-DESIGN ISSUES
SUMMARISING MARINE TRAFFIC SITEʼS USAGE
Based on response summaries (see Figure 74, p. 131 – Figure 76 p. 132), of the
questionnaire it is possible to have an overview on what features are currently people use
the most on the marine trafficʼs site and spot problematic issues in terms of structure,
content, navigation and/or representation.
FEATURES/ SEARCH
The most commonly used feature or the site is, as expected, the live map, as it a powerful
search tool. Vesselʼs details (on the map), vesselʼs track (on the map) and departures &
arrivals (2
nd
level menu option under vessels or ports page) are also features that people use.
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Figure 101: Marine Trafficʼs features usage
The live map is the most commonly used feature of the Marine Traffic Site
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Re-Design Issues

The least commonly used features are those related to rating of photos and photographers,
features that are also quite unknown, maybe because they were recently added to the site.
LIVE MAP
Specifically for the live map people use more the following notations & display options:
show ship names,
ports,
passenger vessels,
highspeed crafts
anchored/moored and ships underway

Figure 102: Marine Trafficʼs site live map usage
Ship names, ports and passenger vessels are the most commonly used options used on the live
map
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Re-Design Issues

Among the least used notation and display options are:
My fleet (that is also highly unknown)
Navigation aids
Unspecified ships
Tug, Pilot, etc.
Yachts and others
In conclusion the live map is a very useful tool for desktop use. However there are several
problems as far as the mobile use is concerned:
Slow loading/rendering times
Difficulty in moving around and in searching of certain ports or ships due to small
screens
Overview of the map will not result in retrieving any useful information due to icon
clattering, as notation and display options are not accessible when located under
the map.
Suggestions:
Provide the user with static map refreshing on demand depicting only a port or
vessel of interest.
Inform the user that the live map will probably be slow to display when not on a wifi
connection (or use tools to check his connection) in order to be able to select
between the live map or the static map.
Provide sufficient search options before displaying the map (static or live).
Ask for userʼs permission in order to get his current location and initiate the map at
that location.
Provide easy login mechanisms and save options for fast track down of their
favourite ships, ports and routes.
Locate basic notation and display options above the map.

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Re-Design Issues

SERVICES
The only service that gets quite used in checking marine trafficʼs live data on google earth.
All other services not only do not get used but also remain unknown. Possible reasons
might be current navigation, the location of those services and their ease of use.















Figure 103: Marine Trafficʼs site services usage
Suggestions:
Reconsider siteʼs information architecture:
o Structure and Navigation
o Content
o Representation
The most commonly used service is checking vesselʼs positions on google earth.
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Re-Design Issues

SUGGESTED STRUCTURE & NAVIGATION
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Figure 104: Suggested Navigation
Suggestions:
Form a basic 1 level navigation menu.
Associate menu labels with icons in order to save space for the mobile version
preview.
Also provide easy to track links to login and registration page.
Limit navigation to 1 level menu
Vessels
Ports

Now
Home
Page
About
Level 0 Level 1
Level 2 Options
Inside Content

Services

Gallery
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Re-Design Issues

SUGGESTED CONTENT
Prioritise contentʼs structure according to findings and the mobile context.
Table 16: Marine Trafficʼs content priorities
HOME PAGE

DESKTOP OR MOBILE VIEW (GIVE USER AN OPTION)
LIVE OR STATIC MAP (GIVE USER AN OPTION)
Marine Traffic by Area (list)
NOTATION OPTIONS
Show ship names
My Fleet:
o Vessels
o Ports
Vessels:
o Underway
o Anchored
Passenger Vessels:
o Normal Speed
o High Speed
Merchandise Vessels:
o Cargo vessels
o Tankers
Private Ships:
o Yachts
o Fishing boats
Tug, Pilot, etc.
Unspecified
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Re-Design Issues

Places:
Ports for Passenger Vessels
List other types of ports
Receiving Stations:
o Online
o Offline
Navigation Aids
LOGIN/REGISTER FIELDS
VESSELʼS PAGE

ALL VESSELS
Search for a certain vesselʼs details, itineraries or position history by:
o Select Country (List)
o Vesselʼs Name (Search field)
o Vesselʼs Type (List)
o MMSI (Search field)
o Timestamp (List)
PORTʼS PAGE

ALL PORTS
Find a certain port by:
o Selecting a Country (List)
o Name (Search field)
NOW

EXPECTED ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES
Find a certain portʼs or vessels arrivals and departures by:
o Selecting a Country (List)
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Re-Design Issues

o Name (Search field)
GALLERYʼS PAGE

ALL THUMBNAILS
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
Place of photo (Search Field)
MMSI or IMO number (Search field)
Copyright holder – Photographer (Search field)
Vesselʼs Type (List)
WEBCAMS
Area on Live Map (Link under each webcam)
SEARCH PHOTOS
Search terms A B C D E etc. (Links)
Vesselʼs Name (Search Field)
PHOTO UPLOAD
ABOUT

FAQ
SERVICES
USERʼS GUIDE
SITE MAP
SUPPORTERS OF MARINE TRAFFIC

An approach in order to provide mobile users the appropriate content would be to associate
information with their profiles. For example they could select to see only the home page,
the vesselʼs page and the gallery page or certain information (only the basic, or the
analytical technical info). Otherwise the registration could ask the user how he is going to
use the site (e.g. share ais data, observe, or search for travel info) in order to hide the
irrelevant information, especially when logged from a mobile device.
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Re-Design Issues

SUGGESTED REPRESENTATION
WIREFRAMES
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Figure 105: Wireframes of proposed desktop | mobile views
Low-fi prototypes
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FINDINGS
THE FUTURE OF MOBILE COMPUTING
Mobile devices (and more generically speaking any kind of device) need to be taken into
account right at the beginning, during the analysis phase. If constraints are added at the
beginning, the outcome flexibility added.
However the current problem is that existing web sites were designed in order to get
accessed by desktop computers. Desktop computers not only have a different context of
use, but also have different limitations and different possibilities. Users of desktop
computers have different needs compared to users of mobile devices. Now, when viewing
such a site from a mobile device, people will have to confront certain difficulties because
mobility wasnʼt taken into account in the beginning.
Many attempts are made towards automated content adaptation, but there are still
important issues to get solved in order to have effective results. Therefore, for the time
being, existing sites have to be re-designed having mobile context uses in mind. Moreover
when re-allying a site information needs have to be taken into account holistically. Users
will not be just “desktop” users, or “mobile” users. Users will be both desktop and mobile
and how information overload will be avoided and better information management across
media will be succeeded is of crucial importance and have to be carefully planned.
Many of the mobile limitations are likely to disappear or become less important, faster
processors, better batteries, faster rendering browsers appear. However, the most
important of all is not going to change, the form factor. Mobile phones are not going to get
much bigger, because they need to stay mobile. However more and more other mobile
devices will be introduced to the market.
In conclusion, the most crucial thing, is to design for adaptation, taking under consideration
the variable critical contexts that each application might have, always following existing
standards and refine design again and again asking the userʼs opinion, in order to provide
the user the best possible user experience no matter what media is using to access the
web.
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Findings

FURTHER RESEARCH
Being such a young research field, mobile user experience has so many aspects not fully
understood. Literature review presented here, covers issues affecting the mobile user
experience, and in particular the mobile information architecture. A new era of mobility is
explored and new information needs derive. Moreover information already existing and until
recently viewed by desktop computers now are accessible from mobile devices. How
people handle those situations, how this affect their tasks, how do they manage accounts
that access from different devices and different contexts? Many questions arise and should
be explored in order to overcome limitations and agree to certain design guidelines and
methodologies used. Theory and technology have more to give. From the one hand is
users and methods in order to gather information about the mobile uses and model their
contexts and from the other hand is mobile devices constantly evolving with new browsers
and new content and context adaptation capabilities.
As far as the current case of study is concerned, a preliminary survey is conducted
(analysis and design stages) with ultimate goal to build the critical contexts of use and
propose improvements in the mobile information architecture. Based on the data derived
improvements can be done in other directions too, in the interaction with the desktop
version of the site, refining the way people register to the site or add their preferences.
Moreover the site can be expanded in terms of social media allowing people to share their
status while travelling. Most important of all current study showed that existing users would
like to see the site interact with other similar sites too, e.g. weather forecastsʼ sites,
timetables, booking sites, other transport means sites etc. There are so many potential of
extension into a future mash-up about transportation.

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CURRENT THESIS OVERVIEW
This thesis is an explorative study in the field of mobile web and the real-time web. Initially,
in part 1, an introduction is made presenting the case study of marine traffic, research
questions were posed, methodological approach was analysed and eventually some basic
concepts related to the general field of user experience were explained.
In part 2 a thorough review of literature was made exploring the current state of the mobile
ecosystem, the mobile users with their “extraordinary” characteristics (according to what we
knew until today for “stationary” users of the desktop internet) and their information needs
while on the go ending up with possible solutions to the problems deriving from the
limitations and the different nature of mobile computing.
In part 3 the case study was analysed using a variety of methods. A survey took place in
order to understand the users and model possible mobile contexts. People responded that
they use marine traffic primarily for personal interests, in order to observe (53%), then in
order to get travel-related info (49%) and finally because it is related to their jobs (26%).
17

However only 19% of the people who answered the questionnaire were using mobile
marine trafficʼs mobile version. The percentage was expected to be low due to the fact that
70% of the people who took it where from Greece claiming that data plans are very
expensive to have or that they donʼt own a web enabled device at all. The surprising thing
was that 49% of the responders didnʼt even know there was a mobile version. Possible
reasons may be primarily the fact that representation when accessing the site from a mobile
device didnʼt change automatically and secondary that it wasnʼt very obvious on the
desktop site either. Nevertheless those that were using the mobile version responded that
they found what they needed but not fast enough or in the way they wanted it (6 out of 10)
and that information were missing compared to the desktop site (2 out of 10). 12%
responded that they do not need to check upon marine traffic while on the go, while 80%
said that they use it in case they donʼt have access to a desktop computer, 50% while on
board, 40% in case of bad weather, 30% on their way to the port stuck in traffic and 20% on
the port while waiting for the ship
17
. Based on the data collected user groups were
associated with certain critical contexts of use and therefore suggestions were made
towards structure, navigation, content, representation both on the desktop and the mobile
version of the site.


17
People could select more than 1 applicable answer, therefore percentages add up to more than
100%
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Annex
FAQ ABOUT MARINE TRAFFIC
AIS (AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM) 160
LAW REGULATION, MARINETIME SECURITY 163

A
ANNEX A: FAQ ABOUT MARINE TRAFFIC
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160 160
AIS (AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM)
AIS was created to help ships avoid collisions, as well as assisting port authorities to
better control sea traffic. AIS transponders on board vessels include:
a GPS receiver, which collects position and movement details,
a VHF transmitter, which transmits periodically this information on two VHF
channels (frequencies 161.975 MHz and 162.025 MHz – old VHF channels 87 &
88) and make this data available to the public domain.
Other vessels or base stations around are able to receive this information, process it using
special software and display vessels locations on a chart plotter or on a computer.
Normally, vessels with an AIS receiver connected to an external antenna placed on 15
meters above sea level, will receive AIS information within a range of 15-20 nautical
miles. Base stations at a higher elevation, may extend the range up to 40-60 nm, even
behind remote mountains, depending on elevation, antenna type, obstacles around
antenna and weather conditions. The most important factor for better reception is the
elevation of the base station antenna: the higher the better.
Data received by the AIS unit are encoded in NMEA sentences (64-bit plain text).
A sample is shown below:
!AIVDM,1,1,B,1INS<8@P001cnWFEdSmh00bT0000,0*38
Broadcast information
An AIS transceiver sends the following data every 2 to 10 seconds depending on a vessel's
speed while underway, and every 3 minutes while a vessel is at anchor:
The vessel's Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) – a unique nine digit
identification number.
Navigation status – "at anchor", "under way using engine(s)", "not under command",
etc.
Rate of turn – right or left, 0 to 720 degrees per minute
"Speed over ground" – 0.1-knot (0.19 km/h) resolution from 0 to 102 knots (189
km/h)
Position accuracy:
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Longitude – to 1/10000 minute
Latitude – to 1/10000 minute
"Course over ground" – relative to true north to 0.1 degree
True Heading – 0 to 359 degrees, for example from a gyro compass
Time stamp – UTC time accurate to the nearest second when these data were
generated
In addition, the following data are broadcast every 6 minutes:
IMO ship identification number – a seven digit number that remains unchanged
upon transfer of the ship's registration to another country
Radio call sign – international radio call sign, up to seven characters, assigned to
the vessel by its country of registry
Name – 20 characters to represent the name of the vessel
Type of ship/cargo
Dimensions of ship – to nearest meter
Location of positioning system's (e.g. GPS) antenna onboard the vessel - in meters
aft of bow and meters port of starboard
Type of positioning system – such as GPS, DGPS or LORAN-C.
Draught of ship – 0.1 meter to 25.5 meters
Destination – max 20 characters
ETA (estimated time of arrival) at destination – UTC month/date hour:minute
The central database receives and processes a large amount of data and stores the most
important part of it. It also includes port and area geographic information, vessel
photos and other information. Vessels current positions and/or tracks are displayed on a
map, using the Googleʼs map API. Position history, vesselʼs details, port conditions and
statistics are searchable through the site.
Data received are uploaded in the database in real time and therefore they are
immediately available on the map and on other pages. However, several positions shown
on map may be not continuously refreshed (e.g. when a ship goes out of range). Vessel
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positions shown on map may be up to 1 hour old. Please note also that map web page is
only periodically refreshed or whenever the ʻRefresh nowʼ link is pressed manually.
The map icons may refresh slowly when a large amount of ships are displayed. This is a
restriction of web technology, JavaScript and web browsers.
Partial or strange data may appear from time to time. The system may receive positions
for a vessel, which has not yet transmitted its static information (name, dimensions etc.).
This happens because static vesselʼs information is transmitted more rarely than
positions. In this case, the MMSI number of the vessel (e.g. 239923000) will appear instead
of its name. There is also a small possibility of wrong or garbled recorded data. This
happens due to the following reasons:
Malfunction of the AIS transponder of the vessel,
Errors of the Global Positioning System (GPS),
Neglect of the vessel's crew to configure correctly the information transmitted by the
AIS transponder. This refers to the static information, such as the vessel's name,
type and dimensions, as well as the destination and the estimating time of arrival
(ETA).
The vessel's crew can help in increasing the accuracy of the system by:
Correct updating and checking of the 'Static Informationʼ, which are recorded in the
AIS unit. These include: Vessel's Name, Vessel's Type, Vessel's Dimensions, IMO
and MMSI numbers, Relative position of AIS unit.
Correct updating of the 'Voyage Information', i.e. the Destination, ETA and Draught,
before each departure. When this information is correct, the vessel will appear in
the 'Expected Arrivals' for each port and an estimation of the time of arrival will
given, for all the interested parties. A single port must be entered each time and
any additional information (such as country or multiple ports) must be avoided.
Marine Trafficʼs base stations are equipped with an AIS receiver, a PC and an Internet
connection. The AIS unit receives data, which are processed by simple software on the
PC and then sent to a central database by means of a ʻweb serviceʼ. This software is free
for anyone interested, under a GNU license.
Marine traffic system can be expanded to cover any area worldwide. Anyone can install
a VHF antenna, an AIS receiver and start immediately sending and seeing data on the
map, through a PC and a simple Internet connection.
ANNEX A: FAQ ABOUT MARINE TRAFFIC
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LAW REGULATION, MARITIME SECURITY
In 2000, IMO (International Marine Organization) adopted a new requirement for all ships to
carry automatic identification systems (AIS) capable of providing information about the ship
to other ships and to coastal authorities automatically.
The regulation requires AIS to be fitted aboard all ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards-
engaged on international voyages, cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not
engaged on international voyages and all passenger ships irrespective of size. The
requirement became effective for all ships by 31 December 2004.
The regulation requires that AIS shall:
Provide information - including the ship's identity, type, position, course, speed,
navigational status and other safety-related information - automatically to
appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft,
Receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships; monitor and track
ships,
Exchange data with shore-based facilities.
The regulation applies to ships built on or after 1 July 2002 and to ships engaged on
international voyages constructed before 1 July 2002, according to the following timetable:
Passenger ships, not later than 1 July 2003;
Tankers, not later than the first survey for safety equipment on or after 1 July 2003;
Ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and
upwards, not later than 1 July 2004.
An amendment adopted by the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security in December
2002 states that, additionally, ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards but less than
50,000 gross tonnage, are required to fit AIS not later than the first safety equipment survey
after 1 July 2004 or by 31 December 2004, whichever occurs earlier.
The installation of an AIS transponder on small vessels is optional and a ʻCLASS Bʼ
transponder can be used. Class B transponders are cheaper than ʻClass Aʼ AIS
transponders and they are addressed to the non-SOLAS compliant vessels (e.g. small
leisure or fishing vessels, less than 300 GT).

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Annex
INTERVIEWS
RESPONSES 165
B
ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
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RESPONSES
Table 17: Group 1 – Travel Agencies Responses
Group 1 – Travel Agencies
AGENCY NO.1
“KALOGERAS”
They use marine traffic all the time. They have it open all day and
check it every time a ship is scheduled to arrive about 10' before the
known time of arrival, even if the weather is good.
They use mostly the map to check on passengers and high-speed
vessels. Sometimes they like to look at the vessels' photos. Mr.
Kalogeras couldn't calculate the ETA only by looking at the map when
he first started to use marine traffic, but now he can easily tell when a
ship is close enough to Syros.
While on work Mr. Kalogeras is only interested in observing the area
around Syros. When he is not on work he likes to explore the map, but
without having any particular vessel/area on focus. (He called marine
traffic “spy of the seas”)
They have a monitor in the entrance of their agency, displaying marine
traffic all the time. After this "installation" they noticed a great decrease
in the number of customers' questions and phone calls.
They use a couple of weather forecast web sites, but only when they
see the weather is not so good. In these cases they also call the coast
guard of Syros, in order to know if the departure is allowed or not.
They don't think a mobile version of the site will be directly useful to
them, but they think many of their customers will need to use it, so that
will be good for them also.
They would like to see real-time weather on the map and the timetable
of boats (at least links to other sites).



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Group 1 – Travel Agencies
AGENCY NO.2
“BOUNTOURIS”
Their employees use marine traffic on a daily basis (observing the
Mediterranean sea for Cruise Vessels they own and Passenger/High
Speed Vessels)
They refer to the system as "accurate" and "inexpensive"
They use the map and the "ETA" info of the ships to inform their
customers. (However Mr.Bountouris, as a former captain, can calculate
the estimated time of arrival only by looking at the map, because he
knows the speed each vessel has and the miles each course has.
They use a few other web sites to crosscheck weather forecasts' data
and they call Hellenic National Meteorological Service (EMY) to verify
that ships are not going to sail when they have clues the weather will
be bad enough. They think weather on the site would be helpful at
some times, but they can't stop advising EMY because its the only one
that can forbid or allow the departure of ships due to weather
conditions, unless -somehow- extra weather info on marine traffic site
was updated by them.
Before the use of marine traffic they needed to call all the time
someone on the vessel to ask for their ETA. That was costing them a
lot of money and sometimes communication wasn't feasible, due to
lack of mobile phone connection in the middle of the sea.
They think a mobile version of the site wouldn't be useful to them,
because they need to check on marine traffic while on work (where
they can see the "Desktop" version) and the port is so close they won't
need extra info "on the go". They won't use the mobile version if it
costs to them.
He wonders if they system they have for ticket booking can exchange
data with the marine traffic site.



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Group 1 – Travel Agencies
AGENCY NO.3
“VASILIKOS”
They keep marine traffic open all the day.
They use mostly the map to check on passengers and high-speed
vessels and the "expected arrivals" for the port of Syros. Sometimes
they search for photos of vessels, if they are waiting the arrival of a
ship they don't know. They even have uploaded photos of vessels they
were here. They can -more or less- calculate the ETA only by looking
at the map, but they want to crosscheck it with "expected arrivals" list
because sometimes they think the map is not always "accurate" about
ETA. However they know now how to check when was the last time the
ETA of a certain ship was updated.
While on work Mr. Vasilikos is interested in observing the area around
Syros. When he is at home he observes some cargo vessels/tankers
traveling around the world and will later come to the local shipyard. He
would also like to see smaller yachts, in order to know which ones are
coming to Syros.
They have a monitor in the entrance of their agency, displaying marine
traffic all the time. After this "installation" Mr. Vasilikos noticed that
some people -not only customers- were affected by that: tourists
agents, taxi-drivers or people who work in hotels interested in the
arrivals of passenger vessels could check on the ETA without asking
him, even in the middle of the night, when their travel agency is closed.
Before the use of marine traffic they were communicating with the
vessel directly or with the port the vessel was before according to the
program to ask if it has departed or not.
They also know some other sites that provide info of vessels' position
but they prefer marine traffic because it has better "graphics" and it's
easier for people to learn, understand and use it.
They don't think a mobile version of the site will be directly useful to
them, but they think it might be useful in a place larger than Syros
where the port is far away.
They would like to see a link to weather forecasts, or even a layer or
weather graphics in the map or a link to timetables, some connection
with an online booking system or even ticket-prices.
ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
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Table 18: Group 2 – Non-Frequent Travelers - Responses
Group 2 – Non-Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.1
“ΜIHALIS”
He initially started to familiarize himself with marine traffic in order to
“spy” what is happening around the world and Syros in the map. Now
he uses it mostly when someone else travels in order to provide him
info of when he will arrive. Or sometimes others use it when he is
travelling (e.g. his parents).
He travels 1-2 times a month, usually to the same destination.
He plans his trip 4-5 days before the desired date. He, above all,
checks the weather online and buys a ticket the day the weather will be
best to travel from some travel agency. He mentions he doesnʼt trust
the ticket-availability shown in sites.
He had some incidents of missing his ship because of traffic jam in
Athens.
During his trip itʼs not crucial to him to know something specific (exact
time of arrival) because he doesnʼt have to catch another means of
transport.
He would like to see on marine traffic differences on time and route
between days with bad weather and good weather and definitely
whether if ships will depart or not. He would also like to have sms
notifications on his mobile. He thinks Marine Traffic has become “too
heavy” to load and with too much info he cannot handle. He suggests
the site could track his position and load the map and ships only
around this area. He mentions the search and lists or ports/vessels are
not very usable and the alphabetical sort is not very convenient in
order to find something.
If marine it was on his mobile he thinks it would help him to calculate
when he has to leave his home and go to the port in case he is in
Athens, but it wouldnʼt be necessary in Syros. He ends saying it will be
a nice “toy” to have.

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! 169
169 169
Group 2 – Non-Frequent Travelers




























TRAVELER NO.2
“CHRIS”
He has used marine traffic sometimes in order to search for info
because someone else (without access to it) has asked him to or look
around the map for fun. However he doesnʼt use it when he travels,
because he thinks it doesnʼt have the necessary info to help him or
satisfy his “curiosity”.
He travels 6-8 times a year, always to the same destination.
He doesnʼt like to plan very much his trips, he checks the timetables
and then he buys a ticket directly from a travel agency, without even
checking on the weather unless he has heard something for bad
conditions (e.g. on TV).
He would like to see on marine traffic: passenger seats availability and
weather conditions (if a specific vessel will depart or no before he
reaches the port - and this would be of a great matter to him if he is on
Athens, and less important if he is in Syros).
During his trip itʼs not so important for him to know many things. He
mentions though it would be useful to know what the traffic on roads is,
bus stations and bus timetables in order to choose the best way to his
home. Other than that, he would like to see an interactive installation of
marine traffic on the ship to spend sometime there, or even learn
something (e.g. geography).
If marine was on his mobile he wouldnʼt use it if some special internet
connection plan was needed on his phone, but he would definitely use
a feature where he could “sign” to travel with a specific vessel and
send automated updates to others (e.g. his family) for the status of the
trip (where they are, what time they will arrive etc)




ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 170
170 170
Group 2 – Non-Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.3
“MAKIS”
He hasnʼt used marine traffic very much, only to check sometimes if
the ship is close before he leaves his home (looking at the map). He
prefers to use other sites that have timetables and passenger
availability though.
He travels 8-10 times a year, always to the same destination.
He plans his trips few days ago before the desired date. He checks
timetables from web or by phone directly to companies or to a travel
agent.
He says travel agencies never informed him for changes in timetables
and he would like to know about them before he leaves his home
(especially when he is returning to Syros because he leaves away from
Athens and if the ship doesnʼt depart he doesnʼt have a place to stay).
While on board he would like to know in which port the ship will arrive
and, if possible, bus timetables from Athens to other cities of Greece.
He thinks the site of Marine Traffic is difficult to use, and he couldnʼt
find what ships depart from a specific place and where they are going.
Thatʼs why he only uses it to see on the map the routes drawn in the
map. He would like an easier search for vessels and a better
“connection” between text and map (he mentioned automated
zoom/focus to the place he is or the place a certain ship is). He also
said he would like to check where his seat inside a certain ship will be.
If marine was on his mobile he would like to have a notification, the
earlier the better, for possible delays or cancelations of the ship he is
travelling with. He also says a reminder of when he travels would be
useful.

ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 171
171 171
Group 2 – Non-Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.4
“VASIA”
She is familiar with Marine Traffic (mostly the map) but she doesnʼt use
it for her trips so much.
She travels 3-5 times a year, always to the same destination.
She begins to plan her trip at least 2-3 weeks before the trip, checking
out timetables (but she never books online), because she needs to
book both a ticket for the ship and a ticket for an airplane afterwards
(or for a second ship).
Because of that she canʼt really check the weather, but she would like
to know what the weather will be like 1-2 days earlier to her trip in order
to be “prepared”.
There were some times her travel agency informed her for changes in
timetables but there were also times she had to wait in the port without
knowing the status/position of the vessel she was about to travel due to
weather conditions.
The most important things for her to know while travelling is the time of
arrival, the gate at which the ship will arrive and if there is traffic in the
roads, because she usually has a plane/or another ship to catch.
She would like to be able to check on the interior of a ship from the
Internet (if it is a ship she has not traveled before with).
If marine was on her mobile she would like to have a reminder the
previous day that she will travel the next one, in order not to forget
about it.

ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 172
172 172
Table 19: Group 3 – Frequent Travelers - Responses
Group 3 – Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.1
“GIANNIS”
He uses Marine Traffic in order to plan his trips but he also cross
checks results with other sites about itineraries and weather forecasts.
In the marine traffic site he uses mostly the map, selecting to see only
passengerʼs vessels. For itineraries he prefers to use other sites, but
he usually already knows the timetables because he travels so often.
He doesnʼt need to plan a lot for his trips
He travels about once a week, usually to the same destinations, and
usually he has to take more than 1 vessels in order to reach his
destination.
Because he needs to change ships at certain port in order to reach his
final destination he says a common use of marine traffic for him is to
call someone else that has internet access while he travels and check
for him the location of the ship he is currently in and the location of the
ship he wants to travel with next. This way he can find out if he will
make it on time to catch up the next ship or not.
He doesnʼt rely on getting informed by travel agencies for timetable
alterations or delays/cancelations of arrivals/departures due to weather
conditions. He says that in the way he combines information from the
different sites he visits about vesselʼs positions, itineraries and weather
forecasts he never gets in position of losing a ship, or staying in some
other island without being able to return e.g. due to bad weather
conditions.
Someone is usually waiting for him at the port, so he didnʼt have
trouble getting from home to a port and vice versa.
He believes that things have changed a lot compared to 5 years ago.
He says that ships now arrive at the time they were supposed to,
according to timetables. 5 years ago you couldnʼt be sure what time
they will arrive, even if you knew the timetable, he adds.
If marine was on his mobile he would like to know when ships arrive at
a certain port.
ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 173
173 173
Group 3 – Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.2
“ELIAS”
He uses Marine Traffic in order to check if a vessel has arrived at the
port, in order to leave his home and catch it. He, sometimes, when he
has free time, looks at vesselʼs photos or webcams.
In the marine traffic site he uses mostly the map, selecting to see only
passengerʼs vessels. For itineraries he might use other sites, but he
already knows the timetables because he travels so often.
He canʼt plan his trips for two reasons. The first one is that he might not
know when he will need to travel exactly because he makes trips due
to work obligations, therefore he buys his ticket the last minute. The
second one is, as he says, as a person he acts always the last minute.
And when it comes to traveling with ships his exact words were “if the
ship arrive on time, itʼs hard for me to catch it”.
He travels about once a week, to the same destinations, and usually
he has to take more than 1 vessels in order to reach his destination.
Because he needs to change ships at certain port in order to reach his
final destination he says that in order to find out which vessel he has to
take in order to reach his final destination he calls local friends for
timetables and doesnʼt rely on getting information by travel agencies, if
he is on an island with not so often connections to other islands.
He gets from his home to the port with his motorcycle.
It has happened to him to miss a ship due to many reasons, but he
says itʼs not so important, he just has to reschedule the trip. Losing a
ship it is usual in his work, and people understand.
He thinks that marine traffic has already too much information and he
wouldnʼt add more. He said that weather would be tough to display on
the map because the map shows vessels now. If an extra layer of
weather was there to show weather condition now, it wouldnʼt have any
value, as you usually need to know future weather conditions. Unless
you could see future versions of the map too.
If marine was on his mobile he would use it if he had a smartphone.
ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 174
174 174
Group 3 – Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.3
“DIMITRIS”
He only uses the map of the marine traffic site.
He travels 2-3 times a month to the same destinations due to work,
changing ships to get there.
His trips are planned according to work obligations, not much to worry
about himself.
He keeps on saying that the problem is not marine traffic, nor the
weather or travel agencies. He complains that the real problem is
vesselʼs itineraries themselves. There are islands that are not
connected effectively with the others, for example you could reach your
destination in a few hours but instead you have to spend the night in a
middle-stop and continue the trip the other day.
He noticed that sometimes certain ships have wrong positions on the
map or do not appear at all.
He sometimes, has trouble locating a certain ship on the map, using
the search mechanisms of the site. When he is zoomed to a certain
area the ships that are not in that area disappear from the dropdown
lists.
He may have trouble finding tickets during the summer, because he
have to book the last minute, but usually it is not the case because he
travels with not so “fast” vessels to not so “popular” destinations for his
work.
Displaying always accurate data is all that he asks from the marine
traffic site.
He doesnʼt think he would use a mobile version of marine traffic
because he doesnʼt own a smartphone and he thinks data plans are
too expensive.
ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 175
175 175
Group 3 – Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.4
“ANDREAS”
He uses Marine Trafficʼs map for passengerʼs vessels.
He travels once or twice a month for his work, having to change
vessels in order to reach his destination.
He also noticed that a certain ship had wrong positions on the map or
did not appear at all and it was the only thing that he would change in
Marine Traffic, the accuracy.
He says that he would like to be able to add to his profile a set of
related information: e.g. a trip from port A to port B with a certain
vessel and backwards instead of adding only a ship or a port to “my
fleet”.
He would like, somehow, the travel agency to be able to ”subscribe”
him to a vessel when he books his ticket in order to receive sms about
cancellations, delays, reminders of departures or even time of arrival
when on board. They usually ask for a telephone number when I pay
for my ticket, he adds.
In order to check if a vessel will depart or not when weather is critical
he prefers to make a phone call to port authorities and not to a travel
agency.
It happened to him many times to get to an inland without being able to
leave, due to bad weather conditions, but this is something you can
avoid. You might even know that the weather is not going to be so
good, but if it is for work, you got to go.
He would like to see some links to other known sites about vesselʼs
timetables or about weather forecasts.
He thinks it is too early for Greece to adopt mobile web data plans
because they are too expensive. Instead he would like to see Marine
Traffic displayed on big screens in ports, something like the screen that
is already installed in the port of Piraeus with arrivals & departures. He
might also use SMS notifications in the future.
ANNEX B: INTERVIEWS
! 176
176 176
Group 3 – Frequent Travelers
TRAVELER NO.5
“RENOS”
He uses Marine Trafficʼs map and sometimes goes through the arrivals
and departures page.
He travels about once a month for work, but he might also travel for
personal reasons. Moreover, sometimes, he goes sailing.
He also has to change vessels in order to reach his final destination.
Therefore he want to know whether the ship will arrive on time or not,
while on board.
It has happened to him to reschedule a trip due to bad weather
conditions because he usually checks weather reports before the
departure. In case of cancellations or delays due to other reasons his
travel agency usually calls him to inform him on time.
He would like marine traffic to be more accurate in order to be used for
safety reasons too.
He would also like to be able to choose two ports A, and B and get
automated suggestions on how to get from A to B.
He doesnʼt own a web-enabled device and he also thinks that data
plans are still to expensive to have.

!
Annex
QUESTIONNAIRE
RAW DATA 178
C
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 178
178 178
RAW DATA
Table 20: Raw data, Step 1, Q1
What Is The Primary Reason You Came To The Marinetraffic Site?
1 b, c, d
2 b
3 b
4 c
5 b, c, d
6 b, c
7 a, b, c
8 a, e
9 b
10 a,
11 c
12 e
13 c, d, e
14 a,
15 b
16 a, b
17 d
18 c
19 b
20 b, c
21 b
22 b, c
23 a, c
24 c, d
25 a, b, c
26 a, b, c
27 c
28 b
29 b
30 a,
31 b
32 b, c
33 c
34 b
35 c
36 b
37 c
38 b
39 b, c, e
40 a
41 a, c
42 f: Hobby Research
43 c
44 b
45 c
46 c
47 b
48 b
49 b, c
50 f: Keep track of my husband
51 a, c
52 a, c
53 a

a) Because it is useful for my work
b) Because I'm a traveller and I need related info
c) For personal interest, I like to observe
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 179
179 179
Table 21: Raw data, Step 1, Q2
Did you find what you needed?
1 Yes
2 Yes
3 Yes
4 Yes
5 Yes
6 Yes
7 Yes
8 Yes
9 Yes
10 Yes
11 Yes
12 Yes
13 Yes
14 Yes
15 Yes
16 Yes
17 Yes
18 Yes
19 Yes
20 Yes
21 Yes
22 Yes
23 Yes
24 Yes
25 Yes
26 Yes
27 Yes
28 Yes
29 Yes
30 Yes
31 Yes
32 Yes
33 Yes
34 Yes
35 Yes
36 Yes
37 Yes
38 Yes
39 Yes
40 Yes
41 Yes
42 Yes
43 Yes
44 Yes
45 Yes
46 Yes
47 Yes
48 Yes
49 Yes
50 Yes
51 Yes
52 Yes
53 Yes
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 180
180 180
Table 22: Raw data, Step 1, Q3
Did you find what you needed?
1 Some were difficult, some were easy
2 Some were difficult, some were easy
3 Some were difficult, some were easy
4 Easy
5 Easy
6 Easy
7 Some were difficult, some were easy
8 Some were difficult, some were easy
9 Easy
10 Some were difficult, some were easy
11 Easy
12 Easy
13 Easy
14 Some were difficult, some were easy
15 Some were difficult, some were easy
16 Some were difficult, some were easy
17 Easy
18 Easy
19 Very easy
20 Easy
21 Easy
22 Easy
23 Very easy
24 Some were difficult, some were easy
25 Some were difficult, some were easy
26 Easy
27 Some were difficult, some were easy
28 Some were difficult, some were easy
29 Easy
30 Difficult
31 Easy
32 Easy
33 Very easy
34 Easy
35 Some were difficult, some were easy
36 Easy
37 Easy
38 Very easy
39 Easy
40 Easy
41 Some were difficult, some were easy
42 Easy
43 Very easy
44 Easy
45 Very easy
46 Easy
47 Easy
48 Some were difficult, some were easy
49 Easy
50 Easy
51 Easy
52 Very easy
53 Easy
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 181
181 181
Table 23: Raw data, Step 1, Q4
If you did not find any or all of what you needed, please tell us what
information you were looking for
6 shedule for the boat
7 Eg - when searching for vessels, I would prefer searching directly in all, and not
only searching for those in range and I would like to choose me "favourite" spots,
so I do not have to zoom all the way to the area I want to see
10 I'm a seaman and I'd like to know where the ship i'm interested is this time. If it
isnʼt on ais range I'd like to know where it was the last time that it was in AIS
range. Now I cant and the ship isnʼt shown!
16 I canʼt find what time ships arrive at the ports
25 1. ships' itineraries
2. vessels out of range
3. elements of vessel's latest port of calls
41 Photos of the ships?
42 An Email About The Ships I Follow, When New Photos Have Been Uploaded
48 Many times I cannot find many ships that I am looking for when ı use the
searching engine within the site.

ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 182
182 182
Table 24: Raw data, Step 1, Q5
What is your overall impression of the MarineTraffic site?
1 Disappointing :(
2 Indifferent
3 Bad
4 Good
5 Amazing!
6 Amazing!
7 Amazing!
8 Good
9 Amazing!
10 Good
11 Good
12 Amazing!
13 Amazing!
14 Good
15 Good
16 Amazing!
17 Good
18 Good
19 Amazing!
20 Amazing!
21 Good
22 Amazing!
23 Good
24 Good
25 Amazing!
26 Good
27 Good
28 Good
29 Amazing!
30 Good
31 Good
32 Good
33 Amazing!
34 Good
35 Good
36 Good
37 Amazing!
38 Good
39 Amazing!
40 Amazing!
41 Good
42 Amazing!
43 Amazing!
44 Good
45 Good
46 Good
47 Good
48 Good
49 Good
50 Good
51 Good
52 Amazing!
53 Good
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 183
183 183
Table 25: Raw data, Step 1, Q6
Is it the first time you have visited the MarineTraffic site?
1 Yes
2 No
3 No
4 No
5 No
6 No
7 No
8 No
9 No
10 No
11 No
12 No
13 No
14 No
15 No
16 No
17 Yes
18 No
19 No
20 No
21 No
22 No
23 No
24 No
25 No
26 No
27 No
28 No
29 No
30 No
31 No
32 Yes
33 No
34 No
35 Yes
36 No
37 No
38 No
39 No
40 No
41 No
42 No
43 No
44 No
45 No
46 No
47 No
48 No
49 No
50 No
51 No
52 No
53 No
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 184
184 184
Table 26: Raw data, Step 2, Q1
How often do you visit the MarineTraffic site?
1 -First time visitor, no response in this Step-
2 A few times a week
3 A few times a week
4 Several times a day
5 Several times a day
6 Once a month
7 Once a day
8 Several times a day
9 A few times a week
10 Other: when i'm looking for a ship
11 Several times a day
12 Several times a day
13 Several times a day
14 Several times a day
15 Once a month
16 A few times a week
17 -First time visitor, no response in this Step-
18 A few times a week
19 Once a month
20 Other: every six months
21 Once a month
22 A few times a week
23 Several times a day
24 Once a day
25 Once a day
26 A few times a week
27 Once a month
28 Other: rarely
29 Once a month
30 Once a month
31 Once a month
32 -First time visitor, no response in this Step-
33 Once a day
34 Once a month
35 -First time visitor, no response in this Step-
36 A few times a week
37 Once a month
38 A few times a week
39 Once a day
40 Several times a day
41 A few times a week
42 A few times a week
43 Other: whenever I need it or a friend of mine is travelling
44 Other: Whenever Iʼm going to travel by ship
45 Several times a day
46 A few times a week
47 Other: When I travel or when Iʼm waiting for someone
48 Other: when I need it
49 Once a month
50 Several times a day
51 Several times a day
52 Once a month
53 Several times a day
!
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
!
185 185
Table 27: Raw data, Step 2, Q2
create and use a personal
profile
create and use your own
"fleet"
subscribe for sms alerts subscribe for e-mail alerts access the mobile version
of the site
embed a map on your site check vessels' position on
google earth
participate on google
discussion
check receiving stations
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 b b b b c b e a c
3 b b b b c b b b b
4 b b b b b e b b b
5 e c b e d c e c c
6 a a a a a e e a a
7 a a a a a b d b b
8 b b b b c c b c c
9 a a b b c b c b b
10 a a a a a a a a a
11 b b a b a a a a a
12 a b a a b b e b b
13 d d c c b d c b d
14 b b a a a c e a b
15 a a b b d a e b c
16 a a a a b a c a a
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
18 a b a a b a b b b
19 b b a b b b c b c
20 b b b b b c b a c
21 a a a a a a a a a
22 a a b b b b d b b
23 a a a a c a d a c
24 c d b b b b e b d
25 b a b b a a e c e
26 c b b b c c d d e
27 a a a a a a a a a
28 a a a a b c d a a
29 b b c c b b d a b
30 a a b b b b e b b
31 a a a a c c d a c
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
33 a a a a d b e a b
34 a a a a a a a a a
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
36 b b b b b b e b b
37 a a a a b a d a a
38 e b c c c e d c e
39 a b b b a a d a a
40 b b b b b b c b b
41 a a a a a a a a a
42 c e a e c a c b a
43 a a a a b a c b e
44 b b a a b b e b a
45 b b a a a c c b b
46 d c b b c c e e e
47 a a a a a c d a a
48 a a a a a a e a a
49 a a a a a b e a d
50 a b b a a a b b a
51 e a a a a a c a a
52 a a a a a a c b b
53 d a d d a b b b b
!
Which MarineTraffic site's services do you prefer using and how frequently?
Where:
a) I don't know about this service, b) I know about this service but I never use it, c) I sometimes use this service, d) I often use this service, e) I always use this service
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 186 186 186
Table 28: Raw data, Step 2, Q3
Live Ship Maps Vesselʼs Details
"
Show Vesselʼs
Track
Show Vesselʼs
Distance to…
Check
Departures &
Arricals
Go to Area Go to Port Go to Vessel Upload Photo Rate Photo Rate
Photographer
View Galleryʼs
Photos
View Galleryʼs
Webcams
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 d c d b d c d d b b b b b
3 e e b b d b b b b b b b b
4 e e e e c b d d e e b e c
5 e c c b d d e d c c a d a
6 e e e e e e e e b c b c c
7 d d d c b c c d d d c c a
8 e e d a b b b b c b b b b
9 e d c c e c c c b b b c b
10 e e e a a a a e e a a a a
11 e e d c b c c e b d d e a
12 e e d d b b d a e d a e b
13 e e e d d d d d c c c c c
14 e e e e e c c c b c c e b
15 d c c c e e e e b b b c b
16 d d e a a d e e b b b c c
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
18 e d e e c c c e b b b c b
19 e c c c c d d d b b b c c
20 c c c c c c c b b b b c c
21 e b b b e b d b b a a a a
22 e e e e e e e e b b b b b
23 d d d d d d a d a a a d a
24 e e e d b e b e e c c d c
25 e e e d e e e e b b b d c
26 e d d d c d d d c c c c b
27 e d d a a a a b a a a b a
28 d b c b c a c b a a a a a
29 d d d d c b b d b b b d b
30 e e e e c d c d b b b b b
31 e d c d d c d d a a a c a
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
33 e d e d c c c e b b b c b
34 e c c d d d d e b a a a a
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
36 e d d d d b d d b b b c c
37 d d d d d b b d d d b d a
38 e e d d d d d d b b b c c
39 e e d c c e c d b b b d a
40 e e e c c c e c e c c e c
41 e d c a a a a a a a a a a
42 d e d b e e e e b b b a a
43 e e e e e c c c b c c e e
44 e d e d e d e e b b b b b
45 e e d d e d d e e e d e d
46 d d d d d d d d d d d d d
47 d d a a c a a a a a a a a
48 e e e a a b b b d d b b b
49 e e e e e c e e b b b d c
50 d d d c c c c d b b b b b
51 e e c c c d d d b b b c a
52 d d d d c c c c a a a b a
53 e e e e e b b b d d a b b

Which MarineTraffic site's features do you prefer using and how frequently?
Where:
a) I don't know about this feature, b) I know about this feature but I never use it, c) I sometimes use this feature, d) I often use this feature, e) I always use this feature
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 187 187 187
Table 29: Raw data, Step 2, Q4
Show Ship
Names
Ports Stations My Fleet Passenger
Vessels
Cargo Vessels Tankers High Speed
Craft
Tug, Pilot, etc Yachts &
Others
Navigation Aids Unspecified
Ships
Ships
Underway
Anchored /
Moored
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 e d c a e b b d b c b c c c
3 e e b b e b b e b b b b e e
4 e e c b e d d e d c c c e e
5 d d d d e d d e d d b d e e
6 e e e a c c b c c c b b c c
7 d d d b c c c c c c c c c c
8 c c b b c c d c c c c c c c
9 b d b b e c c d c c c c a a
10 e a a a a a e a a a a a a a
11 e d e b e c c e c c c b e e
12 e d b b e e e e e e c e e e
13 e e e e c c c c c c c c c c
14 e c b b c c c c c e b c d d
15 e d d a b b b d b b d b b b
16 c c a a e e b e a b a a a a
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-













18 d d c b e d d d d e d b d d
19 e c c b e a a d b b b b d b
20 d d d d b b b b b b b b b b
21 e e e a a a a a a a a a a a
22 e c b b e b b c b b b b d d
23 d d d a c d d d d d d d d d
24 e c c d c e c c e c c e e c
25 d e d a e d d e c d b c e d
26 e e e c d d d d d e e d d d
27 e d a a d c b c b b b a a a
28 d d a a d b b c b b a a a a
29 c c b b d b b d b d b b c b
30 e e e a d d d d d d d d d d
31 c c b a c b b b b b a c c b
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-













33 d c c a d d d b b c b b b b
34 d a a a d d d d d d d d d d
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-













36 e e b b e c b e b c c b b d
37 e e b a e e e e e e e e e e
38 e d d b d c c d d d d c d c
39 e d c b d d d d d c a c d d
40 e b b b b b b b b b b b b b
41 e a a a e e e e e e a a a a
42 d d d e d e e d e d d d d d
43 e e e a a b b e b b e c c e
44 d d c b e b b b b b b b b b
45 e e d b e e e e e e e e e e
46 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d
47 d c a a b b b c b b a a a a
48 e e e a e e e e e e e e e e
49 e e d a e b b b b b b b b c
50 d d b b b b b b d b b b d d
51 c c c b b b b b b b b b b b
52 d d c c c c c b b b b b b b
53 e a a a b e e a a a a b b b
!
Where:
a) I don't know about this option, b) I know about this option but I never use it, c) I sometimes use this, d) I often use this, e) I always use this
Which Notations & Display options do you prefer using and how frequently?
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 188
188 188
Table 30: Raw data, Step 2, Q5
Do you also use the mobile version of the MarineTraffic site?
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 No
3 Yes
4 No
5 Yes
6 No
7 Yes
8 Yes
9 Yes
10 No
11 No
12 No
13 No
14 No
15 Yes
16 No
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
18 No
19 No
20 No
21 No
22 No
23 No
24 No
25 No
26 Yes
27 No
28 No
29 No
30 No
31 No
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
33 Yes
34 No
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
36 No
37 No
38 No
39 No
40 No
41 No
42 Yes
43 No
44 No
45 No
46 Yes
47 No
48 No
49 No
50 No
51 No
52 No
53 No
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 189
189 189
Table 31: Raw data, Step 2 (alt), Q1
What is the likelihood that you will visit the MarineTraffic site again?
1 I will come back for sure!
2 -frequent user, no response in this step-
3 -frequent user, no response in this step-
4 -frequent user, no response in this step-
5 -frequent user, no response in this step-
6 -frequent user, no response in this step-
7 -frequent user, no response in this step-
8 -frequent user, no response in this step-
9 -frequent user, no response in this step-
10 -frequent user, no response in this step-
11 -frequent user, no response in this step-
12 -frequent user, no response in this step-
13 -frequent user, no response in this step-
14 -frequent user, no response in this step-
15 -frequent user, no response in this step-
16 -frequent user, no response in this step-
17 Maybe.
18 -frequent user, no response in this step-
19 -frequent user, no response in this step-
20 -frequent user, no response in this step-
21 -frequent user, no response in this step-
22 -frequent user, no response in this step-
23 -frequent user, no response in this step-
24 -frequent user, no response in this step-
25 -frequent user, no response in this step-
26 -frequent user, no response in this step-
27 -frequent user, no response in this step-
28 -frequent user, no response in this step-
29 -frequent user, no response in this step-
30 -frequent user, no response in this step-
31 -frequent user, no response in this step-
32 Maybe.
33 -frequent user, no response in this step-
34 -frequent user, no response in this step-
35 Maybe.
36 -frequent user, no response in this step-
37 -frequent user, no response in this step-
38 -frequent user, no response in this step-
39 -frequent user, no response in this step-
40 -frequent user, no response in this step-
41 -frequent user, no response in this step-
42 -frequent user, no response in this step-
43 -frequent user, no response in this step-
44 -frequent user, no response in this step-
45 -frequent user, no response in this step-
46 -frequent user, no response in this step-
47 -frequent user, no response in this step-
48 -frequent user, no response in this step-
49 -frequent user, no response in this step-
50 -frequent user, no response in this step-
51 -frequent user, no response in this step-
52 -frequent user, no response in this step-
53 -frequent user, no response in this step-
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 190
190 190
Table 32: Raw data, Step 2 (alt), Q2
Have you visited the mobile version of the MarineTraffic site?
1 No
2 -frequent user, no response in this step-
3 -frequent user, no response in this step-
4 -frequent user, no response in this step-
5 -frequent user, no response in this step-
6 -frequent user, no response in this step-
7 -frequent user, no response in this step-
8 -frequent user, no response in this step-
9 -frequent user, no response in this step-
10 -frequent user, no response in this step-
11 -frequent user, no response in this step-
12 -frequent user, no response in this step-
13 -frequent user, no response in this step-
14 -frequent user, no response in this step-
15 -frequent user, no response in this step-
16 -frequent user, no response in this step-
17 No
18 -frequent user, no response in this step-
19 -frequent user, no response in this step-
20 -frequent user, no response in this step-
21 -frequent user, no response in this step-
22 -frequent user, no response in this step-
23 -frequent user, no response in this step-
24 -frequent user, no response in this step-
25 -frequent user, no response in this step-
26 -frequent user, no response in this step-
27 -frequent user, no response in this step-
28 -frequent user, no response in this step-
29 -frequent user, no response in this step-
30 -frequent user, no response in this step-
31 -frequent user, no response in this step-
32 No
33 -frequent user, no response in this step-
34 -frequent user, no response in this step-
35 No
36 -frequent user, no response in this step-
37 -frequent user, no response in this step-
38 -frequent user, no response in this step-
39 -frequent user, no response in this step-
40 -frequent user, no response in this step-
41 -frequent user, no response in this step-
42 -frequent user, no response in this step-
43 -frequent user, no response in this step-
44 -frequent user, no response in this step-
45 -frequent user, no response in this step-
46 -frequent user, no response in this step-
47 -frequent user, no response in this step-
48 -frequent user, no response in this step-
49 -frequent user, no response in this step-
50 -frequent user, no response in this step-
51 -frequent user, no response in this step-
52 -frequent user, no response in this step-
53 -frequent user, no response in this step-
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 191
191 191
Table 33: Raw data, Step 3, Q1
What is the primary reason you came to the mobile version of the MT site?
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
3 c, e, f
4 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
5 a, d, f
6 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
7 a
8 a, d
9 a
10 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
11 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
12 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
13 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
14 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
15 c, e, f
16 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
18 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
19 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
20 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
21 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
22 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
23 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
24 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
25 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
26 a, e, f
27 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
28 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
29 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
30 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
31 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
33 a
34 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
36 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
37 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
38 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
39 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
40 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
41 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
42 a
43 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
44 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
45 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
46 a, d, e, f
47 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
48 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
49 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
50 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
51 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
52 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
53 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
a) Because I didn't have access to the desktop site,
b) Because I received an sms update, but I wanted to find more info while on the go,
c) Because I waited for some time for a certain ship to come and it is still not in the port,
d) Because I'm on the way to the port, in terrible traffic, and I want to check if I might
make it on time for the next ship.
e) Because of bad weather I need to check on a certain's ship arrival/departure.
f ) Because I'm on board and I need to know when the ship will arrive.


ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 192
192 192
Table 34: Raw data, Step 3, Q2
Did you find what you needed
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
3 Yes
4 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
5 Yes
6 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
7 Yes
8 Yes
9 Yes
10 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
11 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
12 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
13 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
14 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
15 Yes
16 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
18 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
19 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
20 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
21 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
22 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
23 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
24 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
25 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
26 Yes
27 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
28 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
29 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
30 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
31 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
33 Yes
34 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
36 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
37 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
38 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
39 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
40 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
41 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
42 Yes
43 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
44 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
45 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
46 Yes
47 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
48 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
49 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
50 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
51 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
52 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
53 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 193
193 193
Table 35: Raw data, Step 3, Q3
Was it easy to find information on the mobile version of the MT site?
1 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
2 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
3 Some were difficult, some were easy
4 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
5 Easy
6 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
7 Some were difficult, some were easy
8 Some were difficult, some were easy
9 Easy
10 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
11 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
12 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
13 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
14 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
15 Some were difficult, some were easy
16 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
17 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
18 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
19 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
20 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
21 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
22 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
23 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
24 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
25 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
26 Easy
27 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
28 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
29 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
30 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
31 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
32 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
33 Easy
34 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
35 -first time visitor, no response in this step-
36 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
37 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
38 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
39 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
40 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
41 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
42 Easy
43 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
44 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
45 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
46 Some were difficult, some were easy
47 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
48 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
49 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
50 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
51 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
52 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
53 -non user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 194
194 194
Table 36: Raw data, Step 3, Q4
If you did not find any or all of what you needed, please tell us what you
were looking for.
7
difficult to zoom on a google earth map using an android phone

Table 37: Raw data, Step 3, Q5
Comparing www.marinetraffic.com to the mobile version
www.marinetraffic.com/m/ what are your overall impressions?
3 I found some info I needed, but many others were missing
5 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.
7 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.
8 I found some info I needed, but many others were missing
9 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.
15 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.
26 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.
33 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.
42 I found most of the info I needed, but not fast enough, or in the way I wanted.


Table 38: Raw data, Step 3, Q6
Please add any comments you have for improving the mobile version of the
MarineTraffic site.
0
Responses

ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 195
195 195
Table 39: Raw data, Step 3, Q1
Why donʼt you use the mobile version of the MT site?
1 a
2 d
3 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
4 a
5 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
6 a, b
7 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
8 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
9 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
10 e
11 b
12 b
13 Other: doesnʼt work well on Android
14 b
15 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
16 d, e
17 a
18 d
19 d
20 b
21 a
22 b
23 a
24 b
25 a
26 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
27 b
28 a, b
29 a
30 b
31 b
32 b, e
33 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
34 a
35 b
36 e
37 a, e
38 d
39 a
40 d
41 a
42 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
43 d
44 b
45 a
46 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
47 a, b
48 a
49 a
50 d
51 a
52 a
53 a
a) I didnʼt know there was a mobile version,
b) I donʼt own a web-enabled mobile device,
c) I visited the site but I couldnʼt find what I was looking for,
d) I own a web-enabled mobile device but I donʼt have a mobile-web data plan or itʼs too
expensive,
e) I donʼt need to check upon marine traffic when Iʼm on the move.
f ) I use the sms updates instead.
g) Other: their own answer

ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 196
196 196
Table 40: Raw data, Step 3, Q2
What is the likelihood that you will use the mobile version of the MT site in
the future?
1 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
2 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
3 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
4 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
5 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
6 Maybe.
7 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
8 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
9 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
10 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
11 Maybe.
12 Maybe.
13 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
14 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
15 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
16 Maybe.
17 Maybe.
18 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
19 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
20 Maybe.
21 Maybe.
22 Maybe.
23 Maybe.
24 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
25 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
26 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
27 Maybe.
28 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
29 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
30 Maybe.
31 Maybe.
32 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
33 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
34 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
35 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
36 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
37 Maybe.
38 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
39 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
40 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
41 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
42 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
43 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
44 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
45 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
46 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
47 Maybe.
48 Maybe.
49 Maybe.
50 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
51 Maybe.
52 No need, I can always check upon marine traffic from a desktop computer
53 Yes! Iʼll might need to check upon marine traffic while on the move.
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 197
197 197
Table 41: Raw data, Step 3, Q3
What information, in your opinion, you will need from mobile version of the
MarineTraffic site and in what occasion?
1 Realtime ship locations and arrival times..
2 Check immediately shipʼs position that I am interested in from the port I currently
am, without messing around with maps and many choices in the small screen of
my mobile
3 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
4 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
5 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
6 check vessel status/ position according to schedule
7 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
8 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
9 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
10 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
11 to know where the ship is and check the traffic,.if it haw delay..
12 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
13 A better version for Android handsets.
14 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
15 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
16 check arrival time of passenger vessels during my vacations
17 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
18 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
19 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
20 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
21 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
22 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
23 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
24 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
25 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
26 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
27 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
28 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
29 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
30 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
31 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
32 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
33 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
34 Passenger vessel information updated every 0.5 hour. No map needed.
35 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
36 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
37 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
38 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
39 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
40 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
41 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
42 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
43 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
44 The position of a vessel at time
45 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
46 -user of the mobile version, no response in this step-
47 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
48 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
49 While i am on board the vessels track
50 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
51 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
52 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
53 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 198
198 198
Table 42: Raw data, Step 4, Q1
Select your age
1 30 - 44
2 18 - 29
3 18 - 29
4 18 - 29
5 45 - 60
6 18 - 29
7 30 - 44
8 30 - 44
9 18 - 29
10 30 - 44
11 30 - 44
12 45 - 60
13 30 - 44
14 18 - 29
15 18 - 29
16 18 - 29
17 18 - 29
18 30 - 44
19 18 - 29
20 18 - 29
21 18 - 29
22 18 - 29
23 45 - 60
24 Over 60
25 18 - 29
26 18 - 29
27 45 - 60
28 18 - 29
29 30 - 44
30 45 - 60
31 18 - 29
32 18 - 29
33 18 - 29
34 30 - 44
35 30 - 44
36 30 - 44
37 18 - 29
38 45 - 60
39 30 - 44
40 18 - 29
41 45 - 60
42 18 - 29
43 18 - 29
44 18 - 29
45 Under 18
46 Over 60
47 18 - 29
48 18 - 29
49 18 - 29
50 45 - 60
51 30 - 44
52 30 - 44
53 18 - 29
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 199
199 199
Table 43: Raw data, Step 4, Q2
Where in the world are you?
1 Rhodes, Greece
2 Hermoupolis, Syros, Greece
3 Syros, Greece
4 Piraeus, Greece
5 Athens, Greece
6 Bruxeles
7 Copenhagen, Denmark
8 Gothenburg, Sweden
9 Samos, Greece
10 athens ,greece
11 perama/paireus
12 Argostoli Kefalonia Greece
13 Glasgow, UK
14 kefalonia, greece
15 greece
16 athens, greece
17 karlovassi,greece
18 Chios, Greece
19 samos
20 Greece
21 syros,greece
22 syros,greece
23 THESSALONIKI, GREECE
24 Aberdeen, Washington, USA
25 Piraeus, Greece
26 hermoupolis greece
27 Athens, Greece
28 greece,syros
29 Thessaloniki, Greece
30 Andros
31 samos,greece
32 Heraklion, Crete
33 Venice, Italy
34 Now, Syros, Greece
35 larissa,greece
36 Haifa, Israel
37 Mellieha, Malta
38 Thessaloniki, Greece
39 Glückstadt, Germany
40 istanbul,turkey
41 Copenhagen, Denmark
42 Greenock, Scotland, UK
43 Nafplio, Greece
44 Myrina, Greece
45 Poland
46 hermoupolis greece
47 Chios
48 Istabul, Turkey
49 SYROS
50 Washington State USA
51 Australia
52 Athens,Greece
53 İstanbul, Turkey
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 200
200 200
Table 44: Raw data, Step 4, Q3
What is your profession?
1 Researcher
2 Student
3 Student
4 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
5 IS/IT
6 Doctor
7 Engineer
8 Marine Electronics Engineer
9 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
10 2nd officer
11 super market assistant
12 Bank employmed
13 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
14 Agent
15 student
16 student
17 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
18 Drs
19 student
20 student
21 student
22 student
23 LOADING MASTER
24 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
25 Graduate Student
26 student
27 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
28 stydent of DPSDE
29 Geographer
30 Researcher
31 student
32 Web Designer
33 Deck Cadet
34 Engineer
35 emploee
36 Product & Systems Design Engineer
37 Software Programmer
38 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
39 Software-Developer
40 2 nd off
41 database specialist
42 Student
43 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
44 IT
45 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
46 ex captain.
47 Student
48 seafarer, 3.officer
49 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
50 -Non Required question-no answer provided-
51 Sales
52 Librarian,PhD student
53 officer of watch
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 201
201 201
Table 45: Raw data, Step 4, Q4
How would you rate your computer skills?
1 5
2 4
3 5
4 5
5 4
6 4
7 5
8 5
9 4
10 5
11 3
12 3
13 5
14 4
15 4
16 4
17 4
18 4
19 4
20 4
21 3
22 5
23 3
24 4
25 4
26 5
27 4
28 3
29 4
30 5
31 2
32 5
33 5
34 4
35 3
36 4
37 5
38 5
39 5
40 4
41 5
42 4
43 4
44 5
45 5
46 3
47 4
48 5
49 5
50 4
51 3
52 5
53 5
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 202
202 202
Table 46: Raw data, Step 4, Q5
How often do you travel with ships?
1 Once a month or more
2 Once a month or more
3 Once a month or more
4 Once a month or more
5 Once a year or more
6 Once a month or more
7 Once a week or more
8 Once a month or more
9 Once a month or more
10 Other: i'm working on a ship!!!!!!!
11 Once a month or more
12 Once a year or more
13 Once a year or more
14 Once a month or more
15 Once a month or more
16 Once a month or more
17 Once a year or more
18 Once a month or more
19 Once a month or more
20 Once a year or more
21 Once a month or more
22 Once a month or more
23 Other: LOADING MASTER
24 Never
25 Once a month or more
26 Once a month or more
27 Once a year or more
28 Once a month or more
29 Once a month or more
30 Once a month or more
31 Once a month or more
32 Once a year or more
33 Other: as per my contract: generally 8 months/year
34 Once a week or more
35 Once a year or more
36 Once a month or more
37 Once a week or more
38 Once a year or more
39 Once a year or more
40 Other: depends on because i am sailor
41 Once a year or more
42 Once a year or more
43 Once a year or more
44 Once a month or more
45 Once a year or more
46 Other: very often
47 Once a month or more
48 Once a year or more
49 Once a month or more
50 Once a year or more
51 Once a year or more
52 Once a year or more
53 Once a month or more
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 203
203 203
Table 47: Raw data, Step 4, Q6
What web-enabled mobile device do you own?
1 SmartPhone
2 SmartPhone
3 Old featured-phone
4 iPod Touch
5 SmartPhone
6 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
7 SmartPhone
8 SmartPhone
9 SmartPhone
10 Old featured-phone
11 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
12 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
13 SmartPhone
14 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
15 SmartPhone
16 SmartPhone
17 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
18 SmartPhone
19 SmartPhone
20 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
21 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
22 Other: laptop
23 Old featured-phone
24 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
25 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
26 SmartPhone
27 Old featured-phone
28 Old featured-phone
29 Old featured-phone, SmartPhone
30 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
31 SmartPhone
32 SmartPhone
33 SmartPhone, Other: (Nokia N97 mini
34 Old featured-phone
35 Old featured-phone
36 Old featured-phone, iPod Touch
37 SmartPhone
38 SmartPhone
39 SmartPhone
40 Old featured-phone
41 Other: Nokia E52
42 Other: INQ1
43 Other: Sony ericsson walkman
44 Old featured-phone
45 Old featured-phone
46 SmartPhone, E-Book Reader
47 I don't own a portable web-enabled device, Old featured-phone
48 I don't own a portable web-enabled device.
49 SmartPhone
50 SmartPhone
51 SmartPhone
52 Old featured-phone
53 Old featured-phone
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 204
204 204
Table 48: Raw data, Final Step, Q1
What web-enabled mobile device do you own?
1 a, b, c, e, f
2 a, c, e
3 a, c, f
4 b, c, e, f
5 a, b, c, d, e, f, other: an updated list of ships' previous names
6 a, b, c, e, f
7 a, f
8 -non required question-no answer provided-
9 a, c
10 a
11 a,c, e,f
12 c
13 a, b
14 a, f
15 a, e
16 a, b, f
17 a, c, f
18 a, c, f
19 a, b, c
20 a, c
21 c, e
22 a, c, f
23 a, b, f
24 -non required question-no answer provided-
25 a, b, e, f
26 a, b, c, d, e, f
27 a, c
28 a, c
29 a, b, c, e
30 a, b, c, e, f
31 a,c
32 c, e, f
33 a, f
34 a, b, c, e,f
35 c
36 a, c, d, e
37 a, f
38 a,b,c, e,f
39 b, c
40 a, e
41 d, e,f
42 b, d, e, other: email with photo updates and which photos they are
43 a, c, e, f
44 c, e
45 a, b, c, d, e, f
46 a
47 a, b, c, d, e, f
48 a, b, e
49 a, b, c, e, f
50 f
51 a
52 a, c, e, f
53 f
g) Weather Forecasts
h) Vesselʼs interior / Seats positions
i) Ticket availability
j) Send updates to a friend
k) Find the shortest way from port to port, choosing the right vessels,
l) Receive updates for vesselʼs itineraries delays/cancelations
m) Other: Their own answer
n)
ANNEX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
!
! 205
205 205
Table 49: Raw data, Final Step, Q2
Please add any comments you have for improving the MarineTraffic site.
2 “it needs to get lighter in option and function for most of the users. Maybe different
layouts are needed so the user can choose which information he needs, as many
are interested but not important for all and not in every case, especially if we are
talking about mobile access!”
4 Remove the 100 limit in number of shipʼs photos!”
5 I would like to be able to more easily make updates to the e-mail notification lists.
For example, suppose I travel to an island, I would like to be able to change all my
notification entries from "Piraeus" to "Corfu" with one check, and back to "Piraeus"
once I have returned to Athens. I would also like to be able to sort the e-mail
notification list (by name, company, vessel type, ship code, ship callsign, etc.). I
would like to be able to have dynamic lists: for example, a list that informs me of
the passenger OR highspeed ships approaching (with a distance of radius W) port
W, but only for the ships that have approached port Y once or less in the last Z
days. This specific dynamic list would inform me of the arrivals of only the
passenger/highspeed ships that don't regularly call at Piraeus, and would
probably make all the rest entries in my own e-mail notification list redundant.
6 you guys are great
8 The data exchange services that has been promised for two years would be nice
to have.
11 I only use Marine Traffic site....
16 nice job
24 my only complaint is that the tracking stops at the entrance to Grays Harbor
(Washington, USA) so the ships always show as being there when in actuality
they are proceeding to Aberdeen. I don't think there is anything you can do about
this, this may be a signal issue. i love your site and I am glad I found it. Thank
you.
25 vessels' itineraries inside the Caribbean Sea area.
Keep up the good work!!!! The site is very a very practical and useful tool!!!!
34 In which gate ships are anchored. Information from and to the gate or other
destinations. Information for companies with hyperlinks to their sites for ticket
booking/buy appearing first locally and then in the world. Future association with
similar applications for airplanes, trains and busses
40 marine traffic is perfect web site and thanks for everything. i am sailor and when i
am not on the ship , i visit this site all times because ı wonder where my ex ships
are..
all the best..
44 In certain places near Myrina / Lemnos there is no sign of the vessels.
48 maybe you can provide sending massage to the ship :) it would be great.
51 I have emailed regarding AIS equipment on a few occasions without any reply...

!
!
206 206
Annex
ANALYSING COLLECTED DATA
AFFINITY DIAGRAM 207
D
ANNEX D: ANALYSING COLLECTED DATA
!
! 207
207 207
AFFINITY DIAGRAM






















Figure 106: Creating an affinity diagram from collected data
Arranging information using a content (bottom) – users (middle) – context (top) scheme.


!
208
Appendix
TERMS
ABBREVIATIONS 209
GLOSSARY 210

I
APPENDIX I: TERMS
! 209
209 209
ABBREVIATIONS
AIS Automatic Identification System
AR Augmented Reality
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPS Global Positioning System
HCI Human Computer Interaction
IA Information Architecture
ID Information Design
IT Information Technology
IXD Interaction Design
IMO International Maritime Organization
LAN Local Area Network
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MSC Maritime Safety Committee
SMS Short Messaging Service
UCD User-Centered Design
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
UX User Experience
VHF Very High Frequency
WIFI Wireless Fidelity
APPENDIX I: TERMS
! 210
210 210
GLOSSARY
AUGMENTED
REALITY (AR)
Augmented reality is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a
physical, real-world environment whose elements are
augmented by computer-generated sensory input, such as
sound or graphics. As a result, the technology functions by
enhancing oneʼs current perception of reality. With the help of
augmented reality technology (e.g. adding computer vision and
object recognition) the information about the surrounding real
world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable.
Artificial information about the environment and its objects can
be overlaid on the real world
AUTOMATIC
IDENTIFICATION
SYSTEM
(AIS)
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a short range
coastal tracking system used on ships and by Vessel Traffic
Services for identifying and locating vessels by electronically
exchanging data with other nearby ships and VTS stations.
CALLSIGN
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also
known as a call name or call letters, or abbreviated as a call) is
a unique designation for a transmitting station.
GEOLOCATION
Geolocation is the identification of the real-world geographic
location of an object, such as a cell phone or an Internet-
connected computer terminal. Geolocation may refer to the
practice of assessing the location, or to the actual assessed
location.
GEOTAGGING
Geotagging is the process of adding geographical identification
metadata to various media such as photographs, video,
websites, SMS messages, or RSS feeds and is a form of
geospatial metadata. These data usually consist of latitude and
longitude coordinates, though they can also include altitude,
bearing, distance, accuracy data, and place names. It is
commonly used for photographs, giving geotagged photographs.
Geotagging can help users find a wide variety of location-
specific information
GLOBAL
POSITIONING
SYSTEM
(GPS)
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a global navigation
satellite system (GNSS) developed by the United States. It is the
only fully functional GNSS in the world. GPS can be used almost
anywhere near the earth, and is often used by civilians for
navigation purposes. GPS uses a constellation of between 24
and 32 medium Earth orbit satellites that transmit precise radio
wave signals, which allow GPS receivers to determine their
current location, the time, and their velocity.
IMO NUMBER
The IMO ship identification number is made of the three letters
"IMO" followed by the seven-digit number assigned to all ships
by IHS Fairplay when constructed. This is a unique seven digit
APPENDIX I: TERMS
! 211
211 211
number that is assigned to propelled, sea-going merchant ships
of 100 GT and above upon keel laying with the exception of the
following:
Vessels solely engaged in fishing
Ships without mechanical means of propulsion
Pleasure yachts
Ships engaged on special service (e.g. lightships, SAR vessels)
Hopper barges
Hydrofoils, air cushion vehicles
Floating docks and structures classified in a similar manner
Ships of war and troopships
Wooden ships
MOBILE WEB
The term “mobile web” or “mobile internet” is widely used by
convention to specifically identify access to the Internet using a
mobile device.
MMSI NUMBER
A Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) is a series of nine
digits which are sent in digital form over a radio frequency
channel in order to uniquely identify ship stations, ship earth
stations, coast stations, coast earth stations, and group calls.
These identities are formed in such a way that the identity or
part thereof can be used by telephone and telex subscribers
connected to the general telecommunications network to call
ships automatically.
There are four kinds of maritime mobile service identities:
Ship station identities,
Group ship station identities,
Coast station identities,
Group coast station identities.
ONE WEB
One Web means making, as far as is reasonable, the same
information and services available to users irrespective of the
device they are using. However, it does not mean that exactly
the same information is available in exactly the same
representation across all devices.
REAL TIME WEB
Real Time web is the concept of searching for and finding
information online as it is produced.
VERY HIGH
FREQUENCY
(VHF)
VHF is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHZ,
used among other purposes, for AIS signals reception.

!
212
Appendix
RESOURCES
REFERENCES 213
BIBLIOGRAPHY
18
221
TOOLS 229
II
18
Bibliography is available at:
http://www.mendeley.com/groups/495821/mobile-user-experience/papers/
APPENDIX II: RESOURCES
! 213
213 213
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APPENDIX II: RESOURCES
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TOOLS
HEATMAP ANALYSIS
lena-Cul, aLLenLlon and aLLracLlon ln vlsuals hLLp://www.fena-aul.com/
MOBILE-READY TESTING TOOLS
uoLMobl. !"#$%&'(). hLLp://moblreadv.com/
W3C. *+,-!"#$.&/0-,1&23&45-67-)"84-*&#-7$9&-!"#$.&:;4$&<(.)=> hLLp://valldaLor.w3.ora/moblle/
MOBILE ECOSYSTEM
DotMobi. Device Atlas. http://deviceatlas.com/devices
ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRES
Google Forms. Create and distribute questionnaires online. http://www.google.com/google-d-s/forms/
SIMULATION TOOLS
Opera. Opera Mini Simulator. http://www.opera.com/mobile/demo/
WEB ANALYTIC TOOLS
Alexa. ?8#.$2-@&#-'<'.)9$27-";-91&-A'4$<&-B4';;$2-C$9&> hLLp://www.alexa.com/slLelnfo/hLLp°3A//www.marlneLrafflc.com/
CompleLe. ?8#.$2-79'9$79$27-";-91&-A'4$<&-B4';;$2-C$9&. hLLp://slLeanalvLlcs.compeLe.com/marlneLrafflc.com/
(servlce requlres realsLraLlon)
CuanLcasL. ?8#.$2-'8($&<2&-'<'.)9$27-";-91&-A'4$<&-B4';;$2-C$9&> hLLp://www.quanLcasL.com/marlneLrafflc.com
WIREFRAMING
Mocklna 8lrd. *$4&;4'!&7-"<-91&-;.)>-hLLp://aomocklnablrd.com/
!

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INFORMATION DESIGN IN CROSS-MEDIA: FROM DESKTOP TO MOBILE
The case of marine traffic: Designing a website for mobile phones
!
PAPADOPOULOU ANASTASIA-EVANGELIA
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