Using MLA Format
(Compiled for you by the PVCC English Division, Learning Support Center and Library) The examples in this handout were taken from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, seventh edition. For complete coverage of MLA Style, consult the MLA Handbook or visit the MLA website at www.mla.org. (Numbers in parentheses refer to chapter and section numbers in the MLA Handbook.)
Citing Sources in Your Text
1. In-text citation - general format (6.1, 6.2, and 6.3) For in-text citation, usually the author’s last name and a page reference are enough to identify the source. Tannen has argued this point (178-85). This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85). 2. Citing an entire work (6.2, 6.4.1) When citing an entire work, include in the text, rather than in a parenthetical reference, the name of the author. You may omit page numbers when citing complete works. Fukuyama’s Our Posthuman Future includes many examples of this trend. 3. Citing an article listed by title (6.4.4) When an article has no author, the full title (if brief) or a shortened version of the title in quotation marks precedes the page reference, unless the title appears in your text. In fresco painting, “the pigments are completely fused with a damp plaster ground to become an integral part of the wall surface” (“Fresco Painting”). 4. Citing a work by a corporate author (6.4.5) When citing a work by a corporate author, you may use the author’s name followed by a page reference. However, it is better to include a long name in the text so that the reading is not interrupted with an extended parenthetical reference. According to a study sponsored by the National Research Council, the population of China around 1990 was increasing by more than fifteen million annually (15). By 1992 it was apparent that the American health care system, though impressive in many ways, needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation 4). 5. Citing indirect sources (6.4.7) When citing indirect sources, put the abbreviation qtd. in (“quoted in”) before the indirect source you cite in your parenthetical reference. The commentary of the sixteenth-century literary scholars Bernardo Segni and Lionardo Salviati show them to be less-than-faithful followers of Aristotle (qtd. in Weinberg 1: 405, 616-17).
7. indenting one inch from the left margin. Barbara W. ignoring sanitation or visible carriers” (10102).7. Poetry (3. stressed air as the communicator of disease.Quotations
6. enclose the quotation within double quotation marks and incorporate it into the text.3) If you quote part or all of a single line of verse that doesn’t require special emphasis. At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies. If you need to quote two or more paragraphs. Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. “Of all the things that happened there / That’s all that I remember” (11-12). place it in quotation marks within your text. .” writes Joseph Conrad of the company manager in Heart of Darkness.7. place the sentence period after the reference. you must use ellipsis points (spaced periods) to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original. and infected by that emotion.7.1. Cullen concludes.2) For a direct quotation that runs no more than four lines and does not require special emphasis. “yet he inspired neither love nor fear. Reflecting on the “incident” in Baltimore. 3. 7. Ellipsis (3. or more from a quoted passage. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island. A colon usually introduces a quotation displayed in this way. shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. indent the first line of each paragraph an additional quarter inch.7. set it off from your text by beginning a new line. “He was obeyed. 3. “Medical thinking .7. 3.
.7. Separate two or three lines using a slash with a space on each side to separate them.1.2) If a quotation runs to more than four lines. Tuchman writes. If a quotation ending a sentence requires a parenthetical reference. nor even respect” (87). great.1. a sentence. .5) Whenever you want to omit a word. (186) 8. and type it double-spaced without adding quotation marks. Short quotations (3. You must also make sure that the resulting passage is grammatically complete and correct. In surveying various responses to plagues in the Middle Ages. For Charles Dickens the eighteenth century was both “the best of times” and “the worst of times” (35). He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island. the other little boys began to shake and sob too. a phrase. 9. Long quotations (3.
and Joseph M. Work in an anthology or a collection (5. 83-88. If the author’s name is unknown. “Japan.20) New York State. 2nd ed.g.. Print. Government publication (5. alphabetize by the title.5. Wayne C. The World Is Flat. 11th ed. Medium of publication (Print). Print. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Print. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America.” The Encyclopedia Americana. The Craft of Research. followed by et al.1) General Form: Author’s Last name. 1990. Print. Commission on the Adirondacks in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Plume. give the inclusive page numbers following the publication date. give their names in the same order as on the title page—not necessarily in alphabetical order. Straus & Giroux. 15. Print. 4b. Ed. “Noon. 1989. 2nd ed. year. 12. Allende.
10. Reverse only the name of the first author.” Trans. number or letter). Williams. 2005. 13.. The works cited list must be double-spaced.4) By two or three authors. Example: Friedman. New York: Farrar. City of Publication: Publisher.6.7) “Azimuthal Equidistant Projection. The Adirondack Park in the Twenty-First Century. “Toad’s Mouth. Albany: State of New York. 2003. Colomb. If you are citing a specific entry. add Entry or Def.5.
.6) If only a piece of the book is used.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.Your Works Cited List
Your works cited list should appear at the end of your paper on a separate page under the label Works Cited. An Article in a Reference Book (5.5.5. Print. 2004 ed. and the appropriate designation (e. Print. Thomas Colchie. Isabel. If more than three authors. Gregory G. Entries should have a hanging indent and should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. Book by a single author (5. The Oxford English Dictionary. give the first author’s name only. First name. 1992. Title of Book (italicized).” Def. Thomas. It provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve any source you cite in the body of your paper. Book by two or more authors (5. Margaret Sayers Peden. (“and others”) Booth. 14. 2003.
. Personal: Pei. Interview (5. Television. Public Radio. 20. Article in a newspaper (5.4. WABC.5) Harris. Joanne Siberner. Radio.” Business Week 6 May 2002: 94-96. Interview by Ted Koppel. Editorial (5. 18. Jane. 10 Dec.: A18.7. Arlene. 2002. Call letters and city of station (if any). Medium of reception. I.6) Weintraub. Article in a magazine (5. 1998. Examples: “Death and Society. Sixty Minutes. “Acrostics in Paradise Lost. 17. Milwaukee. M. WCBS. Weekend Edition Sunday. 25 Jan. Personal interview. Article in a scholarly journal (5. Print.2) Partner.4.” Narr. Print.4.7) Recorded: Wiesel. Print.4. MUWM. “Airports in the Throes of Change. New York Times 20 April 1994. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.16.” Essays in Criticism 57. Nicole. CBS.1) General form: Title of episode or segment (in quotation marks). late ed.: B1+. Natl.” Narr.2 (2007): 129-146. and Laura Cohen. New York. 22 July 1993. 2006. “The Phantom of Corleone. Title of program or series (italicized). Television. Nightline. 21.10) “Death of a Writer.” Editorial.7.” Wall Street Journal. Broadcast date. (editor if appropriate) 27 Mar. Steve Kroft. Name of network. 2002. late ed. 19. Elie. New York. Television or Radio Broadcast (5. 18 Apr. Print.
Arizona Republic. Boston. 1866.” CNN.com. Examples: Green. 2009. Date of publication (day. if given. Date of access (day. first name. 15 May 2008. audio and video streams. month.com.
. add Title of database or Web site (italicized). Michael Henry.” Azcentral. Guidelines for the Translation of Social Science Texts. 15 May 2008. Cable News Network. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 23.ELECTRONIC SOURCES
22. Web. “D-Backs break away from Pirates. and Adrezej W. 2009. Publisher or sponsor of site.6. General form: Author’s last name. 2001. Date of access (day. 2009.2c) General form: Follow rules for print publications. if unavailable. Web.P. Joshua.6. Child.mexico/index. Web. Web.com/2009/POLITICS/08/10/ obama. “The Rove Presidency. year). 15 May 2008. 24. Canadian leaders. month. Maria.d. <http://www. use n. Title of Web site (italicized). 25 June 2002. 21 Aug. year). Willem. “de Kooning. Piecoro. L.cnn. Nick. quote marks if part of larger work).2b) This form now covers articles originally in print and those produced for the Web only. <URL optional>. 2007. Sept.2b) Ackroyd. The Freedmen’s Book. and various document types. 2006. Tymowski. Web. Web. Web. Interview by John Smith. American Council of Learned Societies.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. use N. Atlantic Monthly Group. Title of work (italicized if independent. Interview (5. if not available.” TheAtlantic. New York: ACLS.6. 10 Aug. Nov. 2009. Heim. “Obama to meet with Mexican. 6 Aug. but for medium of publication. Google Book Search.com. ed. Medium of publication (Web). Book from web site (5. Document from a web site (5. Peter. 2008.html>. month. Bold Type. including news and magazine articles. 21 Aug. 8 May 2008. year). Medium of publication (Web).
Author first name. 2007. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Internet Use.26 (2009): 621-644. 2009. “Relationships Among Internet Attitudes. 2005.4) General form: Author last name.
. Marcia. Joseph. Web.
Gibaldi. Database Name.” Issues & Controversies 27 Dec. Procrastination and Blocking: A Novel. Romantic Beliefs. Westport. William P. “Title of article. CQ Researcher Clemitt. Web. 1996. "Energy and Climate. Ebrary Boice.3 (2005): 521531. Practical Approach.pag) Examples: Academic Search Premier Anderson. Web. Traci L. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. ebrary.25.” CyberPsychology & Behavior 8. Work from a library database (5. (If pagination is not available. Opposing Viewpoints Hoar. 2006." CQ Researcher 19. Academic Search Premier. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association. Date of access. 19 Dec. use n. “Benign Discrimination?” New American 19. The CQ Researcher Online. Volume. 18 Aug.6.” Journal Title. 11 Nov. 1 June 2006. 9 Jan. Web. 2009. and Perceptions of Online Romantic Relationships. CT: Praeger. Web. 2006: Issues & Controversies. Issues and Controversies “Update: Immigration. Robert. Web.9 (2003): 42-44. Issue (date): page numbers.
3. 2 charts
Anderson. 8. 11p. Dec 2005. Academic Search Premier. and
Perceptions of Online Romantic Relationships. p521-531. “Relationships Among Internet Attitudes. Romantic Beliefs. Traci L. and Perceptions of Online Romantic Relationships. Internet Use. Romantic Beliefs. etc. 1 June 2006. (2005): 521-531. 8. Source: CyberPsychology & Behavior.
Authors: Anderson. Web. Internet Use.)
Date of Access
in MLA Style for articles from a subscription database/service
JOURNAL ARTICLE ENTRY IN A LIBRARY DATABASE
Title: Relationships among Internet Attitudes. Vol. Traci L. print.3.” CyberPsychology & Behavior.
(web. Web. Academic Search Premier. 2006. Right. 3p
Fairbanks. 18 Aug.
Authors: Fairbanks. p21-23. etc. “Mr. Right. Eve. 7/3/2006.)
Date of Access
. 3 July 2006: 21-23.CITATION EXAMPLES
in MLA Style for articles from a subscription database/service
MAGAZINE ARTICLE ENTRY IN A LIBRARY DATABASE
Title: Mr. print. Eve Source: New Republic. television. 235 Issue 1. Vol.” New Republic.