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Chapter – 4
• • • • • • • • • • Importance of metal cutting Advantages & disadvantages of machining Mechanism of machining Operating conditions Thermal Aspects in machining Cutting fluids Types of chips Cutting tools (Types, Geometry, Materials ) Tool life Machinability
• By melting material and pouring it into a cavity of desired shape.
• By moving material from one region to another (0).
• By putting materials together (+).
• By removing unnecessary material (-).
– (Metal cutting)
What is Metal Cutting
• It is a process of removing unnecessary material from a workpiece in the form of chips using a relative motion between the workpiece and hard edge of a cutting tool held against the workpiece. • If workpiece is metal, then we call metal cutting or else we use machining only.
• Cutting tool: The device or body used to remove (cut) the unwanted material from the workpiece.Glossary • Workpiece/Stock: The raw material from which the unwanted material is removed. 5 . • Machine tool: The machine which provide the relative motion between the workpiece and the cutting tool for machining to take place. • Chip: Removed unwanted material from the workpiece.
Applications of Machining • • • • • • Automobile Aerospace Home appliances Railway Ship building Consumer electronics etc. 6 .
S. • Machining in manufacturing industry constitutes about 35% of all manufacturing processes.Importance of Metal Cutting • In U. the cost associated with the metal cutting is approximately 10-15% of GDP. 7 . • A majority (above 80 %) of machine tools used in the manufacturing industry have undergone machining.A.
especially if the number of parts to be produced is small.Advantages of Machining Dimensional accuracy surface finish External and internal geometric features Special surface texture Economical. 8 .
In machining an average workpiece about one half of the material is removed from the workpiece Large amount of energy is expended and much of this energy ends up as undesirable heat If not carried out properly. machining can have adverse affects on surface quality and properties of the product Takes more time 9 .Disadvantages of Machining Material wastage.
Functions of Machine tool • Relative motion between the workpiece and the cutting tool • Hold the workpiece • Hold the tool • Supply energy 10 .
Specifications of Machine tool • • • • Shape of surface to be produced Size of workpiece Surface accuracy and smoothness Quantity 11 .
Machine tool Classification • According to Degree of specialization – General purpose machine tools – Special purpose machine tools • According to Type of surface produced – Cylindrical surface producing machine tools – Flat surface producing machine tools – Irregular surface producing machine tools • According to Type of motion – Reciprocatory type of machine tools – Rotary type of machine tools 12 .
Machine tool Classification (contd.) • According to Degree of automation – Manual machine tools – Semi-automatic machine tools – Automatic machine tools • According to Duty cycle – Light duty machine tools – Medium duty machine tools – Heavy duty machine tools • According to Type of energy used – Conventional – Non conventional 13 .
Mechanism of metal cutting 14 .
15 .Operating Conditions • Cutting speed • Feed • Depth of cut • It influences material removal rate.
16 .Cutting Speed • Distance travelled by the work surface in a unit time with reference to the cutting edge of the tool • It is usually expressed in m/min. • Cutting speed to be used depends upon workpiece material. surface finish required and tool life. machining process. cutting tool material. cutting fluid. machine tool used.
• It is usually expressed in mm/rev. tool & workpiece material.Feed • Distance advanced by the tool (assuming job remains stationary) for each revolution of the workpiece. tool geometry. cutting fluid. • Low feed produces fine surface finish. • Feed to be used depends upon size of workpiece. cutting speed and depth of cut 17 .
Depth of Cut • Perpendicular distance between the machined surface and the unmachined surface or the previously machined surface. • It is usually expressed in mm. 18 .
19 .Material Removal Rate • Amount of material removed in one minute. • It is usually expressed in mm3/min. • It influences the machining time Machining Time: • Time required to machine the material.
making it difficult to control dimensional accuracy 20 .Thermal Aspects in Machining • Temperature rises with the increase in speed and thus tool strength decreases • Excessive temperature adversely affects the strength. hardness and wear resistance of the cutting tool • Increased heat causes dimensional changes in the part being machined.
poor dimensional control of the workpiece. • The machine tool itself may be subjected to elevated and uneven temperatures.Thermal Aspects in Machining contd. • Machining at high speed is desirable for higher productivity 21 . causing distortion of the machine tool and therefore.
Heat Generated/distribution • Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 – where Q = Heat generated Q1 = Heat taken away by the chips Q2 = Heat conducted into the tool Q3 = Heat conducted into the workpiece Q4 = Heat dissipated to the surroundings 22 .
Heat Generated/distribution Work 10% Tool 10% % Heat Chips 80% Cutting Speed v 23 .
Cutting Fluids • Functions of cutting fluids – Provides lubrication – Reduces heat generation – Carries away the heat generated and hence provide cooling effect – Washes away chips 24 .
Types of chips • Continuous chips • Continuous chips with BUE • Discontinuous chips Chip Tool Discontinuous chip Built-up edge Chip Workpiece Continuous chip 26 .
27 .Continuous chips • Ductile material • High cutting speed • Large rake angle • Chip breakers are used to break them.
Discontinuous chips • • • • Brittle workpiece material Low cutting speed. Small rake angle Low stiffness of the machine tool 28 .
• Poor surface finish 29 .Continuous chips with BUE • Stronger adhesion between chips and tool face.
Cutting tools • Cutting tool materials • Cutting tool types • Cutting tool geometry 30 .
Cutting Tool Types • Single point cutting tools • Multipoint cutting tools 31 .
Cutting Tool Types • Right Hand Cutting Tool • Left Hand Cutting Tool • ? Side cutting Edge Side cutting Edge 32 .
Orthogonal Cutting Relative velocity of workpiece and cutting tool is perpendicular to the cutting edge 33 .
Oblique Cutting Relative velocity of workpiece and cutting tool is perpendicular to the cutting edge (inclined with by an angle called inclination angle) 34 .
– side relief. – side cutting edge angle. – end cutting edge angle. 35 . – nose radius. – Clearance or end relief.Cutting Tool Geometry • Defined by 6 angles and nose radius – back rake. – side rake.
Right Hand Cutting Tool 36 .
Side rake angle 37 .
end relief. side relief. nose radius) • 8 – 14 – 6 – 8 – 6 – 15 – 1/8 38 . side rake. side cutting edge angle.Tool Signature • (back rake. end cutting edge angle.
Tool Life • time for which a tool can cut effectively or it is the time between two successive resharpenings of a cutting tool • Calculated by using Taylor’s equation VTn = C Where. n = slope of log T – log V curve. V = cutting speed. C = constant depends on tool and work material 39 . T = tool life.
Tool Life Intercept (log C) 1 Slope (n) log v 2 0 log T n tan log v1 log v2 log T1 log T2 40 .
1-0.Tool Life Work material Tool material HSS Steel Carbide HSS 0.18-0.2 0.2-0.16 C 160-190 Cast Iron Carbide 0.28 250-325 41 .1 220-290 100-180 n 0.08-0.
Tool Life vT f d v log v log f log d f d n n1 n2 C 1 2 3 log T 42 .
feed. depth of cut Tool material Tool geometry Workpiece material – hardness & microstructure • Cutting fluid 43 .Factors Affecting Tool Life • • • • Process variables – speed.
• Defined in terms of various factors – Surface finish of the part – Tool life obtained – Force and power requirements 44 .Machinability • Defined as the ease or difficulty of machining a material under a set of conditions.
Machinability Index Vs = specific cutting speed to produce a tool life T for standard material Vt = specific cutting speed to produce a tool life T for test material Machinability = (Vt / Vs ) X 100 % Machinabil ity Index Cutting speed of the material for 20 minute tool life Cutting speed of SAE 1112 steel for 20 minute tool life 100 % 45 .
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