A REPORT ON

CHANGE IN PERFORMANCE BEFORE AND AFTER KNOWLEDGE MANAGMENT

By

A report submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirements of MBA program of IBS HYDERABAD

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AUTHORIZATION

This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of MBA program of ICFAI Business School, Hyderabad.

DEVENDER S. PATHANIA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere appreciation and thank all those who have contributed greatly to my learning experience during my management research project. I am deeply indebted to my faculty guide, Prof. Nasina jigeesh, who gave me valuable guidelines and suggestions. I would also like to express my gratitude to ICFAI Business School for including the management research project the course curriculum, which enriched me in terms of experience and knowledge. Lastly, I thank all those people who directly or indirectly supported me in my endeavor.

DEVENDER S. PATHANIA

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2KEYS FOR REFLECTION 5 6 12 13 19 30 31 4. MAIN TEXT 3.INDEX PAGE NO. REFERNCES 4|P a ge .1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGENT BEFORE AND AFTER 3. 1. CONCLUSION 5. INTRODUCTION 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2.

more accurately. share valuable knowledge with suppliers through organized networks can gain reliable competitive advantages. share. All of these provide a solid technology foundation and management motivation for the exchange and sharing of knowledge among enterprises. should be taken to the later for the first. Supply chain is a very important and effective external knowledge and technological innovation source. or even the first application of new knowledge.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The development of modern economy and changes of environment have promoted new requirements to supply chain management. the knowledge of member enterprises has great correlation. that is. spread and apply knowledge has become a key factor of determining its competence. some companies deliberately keep away from their supplier in fear of their access to intelligence. Besides. enterprises do not know where to acquire the needed knowledge. its members share substantive information and they have an integrated information-sharing platform. In addition. enterprises in the supply chain cannot share knowledge smoothly. the knowledge sharing in supply chain is not that easy as imagined. The accumulation of enterprise knowledge resources and improvement of knowledge innovation are achieved mainly through two ways: the first one is independent knowledge innovation and the other is external knowledge acquisition. But from the current situation. In other words. and apply KM within the enterprise to gain a competitive advantage. and far from being the knowledge creation (innovation) enterprises . the ability of an enterprise to obtain. KM within enterprise has gained wide cognition and identity. and put forward higher requirements to KM. because of the characteristics of the supply chain itself. These enterprises generate extremely limited knowledge. This paper discusses the knowledge flow and knowledge map of supply chain. these enterprises gradually realized the limitations of knowledge assets and KM within enterprise. This situation resulted from a variety of reasons. to acquire knowledge from outside of the enterprise. Supply chain is a natural alliance. Knowledge is increasingly constraining the overall efficiency of supply chain management. 5|P a ge . enterprises can and should adopt both at the same time. they are recipients and demanders of knowledge rather than knowledge creators and providers. Since most businesses is far from the principle part of knowledge innovation. the most important one is the hardness of accessing to knowledge. As there is no simple way to obtain knowledge. many enterprises recognized the knowledge capital as important assets. but for the majority of enterprises. Either of these two approaches has its advantages and disadvantages and complements each other. At present. create. and they are closely related to their interest and business. the dissemination and sharing of knowledge within a greater scope. With the development of market economy.

acknowledge risk. does not just waste money: It denies the poor critical support to improve their lives. outputs. The knowledge generated from these is not a luxury. But what development results do they deliver? Not knowing whether or not a development intervention actually made a difference. In development agencies. and other key design features. In The Fifth Discipline. the organizations with the best chance to succeed and thrive are learning organizations that generate. strategy. A knowledge advantage is a sustainable advantage that provides increasing returns as it is used. designers. development agencies spend billions of dollars every year on thousands of interventions that aim to reduce poverty through innovation and societal change. and implementation originates from many sources. In the knowledge-based economies that emerged in the mid. outcome.INTRODUCTION Organizations defined as social arrangements by means of which two or more persons pursue collective goals are among the most significant structures through which society acts out its economic and social life. development interventions include monitoring and evaluation of inputs and outputs along the results chain.to late 1990s. communicate. benefits can be large and widespread. and providing evidence of accountability. and reward adaptive learning create more space and structure for learning focus with more intent on different levels of learning Success hangs on knowing what works: When we seize opportunities to learn. information. This report examines the setting of knowledge managment and underscores the role that they can play to y y y y better position evaluation as a resource linked to policy. implementation. The reflective conversation element in evaluation. and operational efforts share accountability. The knowledge base needed for good policymaking. and knowledge are needed by policy makers to decide what resources to assign to what development interventions. costs. design. building a knowledge position is a long-term enterprise that requires foresight and planning. Typically. and implementers. financing. is a foundation block of organizational learning and concern for the effectiveness of the evaluation function and its feedback mechanisms is pertinent: It is essential to transfer increased amounts of relevant and high-quality knowledge into the hands of policy makers. However. and leverage their intellectual assets. in particular. Peter 6|P a ge . and by agents faced day after day with the challenges of implementing the interventions. Among these. much data. by personnel tasked with making decisions on impact. or not acting on the lessons of that experience. building knowledge about processes and institutions.

organizational performance is high." He catalogues their attributes as personal mastery. and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.Senge labels them " organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Command of these lets them add generative learning to adaptive learning: They seldom make the same mistake twice. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. Figure 2 provides a matter-of-fact. Organizational learning promotes organizational health: As a result. multidisciplinary argument for why one might want to create a learning organization. Referring further to Peter Senge. shared vision. 7|P a ge . where collective aspiration is set free. Figure 1 displays the core learning capabilities of organizations as a three-legged stool a stool that would not stand if any of its three legs were missing. team learning. and systems thinking. mental models.

people may lack the knowledge management tools with which to make sense of the circumstances they face. sometimes overlapping levels: y y y y y individual learning. There may be psychological and social barriers to learning and change. Box 1 suggests an alternative way of looking at learning organizations. Every person has the capacity to learn. An important feature to bear in mind is that for associated benefits to arise a learning organization must be organized at five. but the organizational structures and systems in which each functions are not automatically conducive to reflection and engagement. easy-to-apply definition.Other authors see learning organizations in different ways and the search for a single. namely by considering what key characteristics might be. allencompassing definition of the learning organization is attractive but frustrating. the 8|P a ge . the most useful description is likely to be that which each organization develops for itself: That should be a well-grounded. In this sense. team learning cross-functional learning operational learning strategic learning Organizational Learning In the final analysis. Or. only those with the requisite attributes will excel. In a time of great change. other definitions of learning organizations share more with Peter Senge's than they disagree with but it should not be assumed that any type of organization can be a learning organization. In the final analysis.

learning organization is an ideal towards which organizations must evolve by creating the motive." develop professional skills. and informal nature makes them resistant to supervision and interference. influence organizational culture. reduce rework and prevent "reinvention of the wheel. experiences. means. it may emerge over time as the organization faces challenges and obstacles. Its study is a major constituent of organizational development that is the process through which an organization develops the internal capacity to be the most effective it can be in its work and to sustain itself over the long term. that control the way individuals and groups in the organization interact with one another and with parties outside it. But just as none of the ten components in the figure shapes organizational culture on its own. spawn new ideas for products and services. Even with the help of community-oriented technologies. leaders should y y y identify potential communities that will enhance the organization's core competencies provide supportive infrastructure use nontraditional methods to measure their value. however. The discourse on organizational culture can be esoteric: Figure delineates ten components that. transfer good practice and decrease the learning curve of new employees. and fragmented cultures. More recently. minimize organizational knowledge loss (both tacit and explicit). respond more rapidly to specific client needs requested or anticipated for certain information. none can individually support desired improvements. Standard typologies include communal. but their organic. networked. or it may be created deliberately by management. solve problems quickly. and opportunities. It comprises the attitudes. mercenary. acquired through social learning. Communities of practice benefit from cultivation. 9|P a ge . there is an intimate connection between knowledge and activity. and knowledge workers have a strong need to feel that their work contributes to the whole. spontaneous. and values of the organization. Identifying discernible elements of culture allows organizations to determine features that can be managed to help implement and sustain constructive organizational change. together. beliefs. To get communities of practice going. Organizational culture may have been forged by the founder. communities of practice have been associated with knowledge management as organizations recognize their potential contributions to human and social capital as well as to organizational performance. These are determined by sundry factors that find expression in organizational structure. harnessing them in support of organizational development is not easy. Communities of practice can drive strategy. Organizational Culture The principal competitive advantage of successful organizations is their culture. and help engage and retain talented individuals. making structure itself an important culture-bearing mechanism. Importantly.

Conversely. the inability to change organizational behavior is repeatedly cited as the biggest hindrance to knowledge management. even if the need to take a hard look at an organization's culture extends the time required to prepare knowledge management initiatives. Organizations that are more successful in 10 | P a g e . and control is exercised with administrative orders. group. the benefits from doing so are likely to tell. Observers recognize a correlation between the orientation of organizational culture and organizational learning.Organizational culture varies more than any other corporate asset. if an organization is to succeed and thrive knowledge culture it must develop to help it deal with its external environment. oftignored need to root learning in human resource policies and strategies. to be facilitated by psychologically attentive leaders who do not underestimate the value of selection. Defensive routines pollute the system. including large and tangible information and communications technology infrastructure. more often than not unwittingly. and undermine it. The dynamics of culture change must be considered an evolutionary process at individual. and interorganizational levels. it is said to be weak where there is little alignment. But organizational culture is hard to change in the best circumstances: Employees need time to get used to new ways of organizing. Indeed. It is said to be strong where employees respond to stimuli because of their alignment with it. organizational. socialization. For this reason. People cannot share knowledge if they do not speak a common language: And so there is a serious. Regardless. and leadership.

and act. and uses the learning of its members. But many cultural factors inhibit knowledge transfer. rewards. a learning culture is an organizational environment that enables. when sharing knowledge. both individually and collectively. the method must always suit the culture as that affects how people think. 11 | P a g e .implementing knowledge management initiatives embody both operations-oriented attributes and people-oriented attributes. Most importantly. feel. Typically. encourages. The box below lists the most common frictions and suggests ways to overcome them. values.

Management techniques. Knowledge solutions lie in the areas of strategy development. deployment of competence carriers. and with their customers. or function successfully. one must learn before. It is also a specific range of knowledge. Consequently. Finally. desiring customised products and services that are made to their precise needs. and within time-compressed environments. clients. to enable organisations to respond to this dynamic environment. cultivate. and how supply chain partners can use Information Technologies (IT) to improve organizational performance and gain strategic advantage in market-driven supply chains. skills. Customers and organisations have become more demanding. sustainable competitive advantage derives from strenuous efforts to identify. new management paradigms such as Knowledge Management (KM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) have developed. Organisations have accepted and recognised that in the dynamic modern day business environment. knowledge is the prime resource for providing an organisation with a sustainable competitive advantage. Core competencies are integrated and harmonized abilities that provide potential access to markets. Collaboration mechanisms. They depend on relentless design of strategic architecture.MAIN TEXT In the age of competence. This text presents both theoretical and empirical research into the value of KM in SCM. They are the product of collective learning. and exploit an organization s core competencies. knowledge sharing and learning. and commitment to collaborate across silos. at comparatively lower costs. or behaviors utilized to improve performance. action. during. The Age of Competence Competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified to deliver a specific task. the tangible fruits of which are composite packages of products and services that anticipate and meet demand. create and deliver value to audiences. Advances in Information Technologies have transformed the way organisations interact with each other. database technologies and GPS technologies has led to the emergence of web-based multimedia SCM systems. and after the event. and knowledge capture and storage. 12 | P a g e . and partners there. Today. and are difficult for competitors to imitate. It discusses the impact of information technology on SCM and in particular offers insights' on how the synergistic interaction between advances in the internet. this text concludes with a summary of how advances in IT are likely to have an impact on SCM in the future.

during. the best way to manage knowledge is to cater at all times to the environment in which it can be identified. and After Knowledge is what you learn from experience before. 13 | P a g e . Knowledge Solutions But what are the tools. and learning that engender knowledge-enriched solutions are central to that. created. The aim of ours is to build competencies in the areas of strategy development. methods. Because documentation can be cumbersome. Since it is both a thing and a flow. collaboration mechanisms. all of them essential to knowledge management and learning. stored.Learning Before. Leadership. these Knowledge Solutions offer cheat sheets that simplify access and reference to the series. technology. During. management techniques. and knowledge capture and storage. and approaches for learning. shared. and used. organization. and after the event. knowledge sharing and learning.

TABLE: KNOWLEDGE SOLUTIONS BEFORE. DURING AND AFTER 14 | P a g e .

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properly used by the right people at the right time.  Networks are organized around business needs and are framed by a governance document. Asking for help is considered to be a weakness rather than strength. Level 4 Level 5 19 | P a g e . Silos (hierarchical categories) are hard to break down. There are little cross-cutting collaboration. Level 2  Ad hoc personal networking to achieve objectives is used by individual staff members who know one another. The right collaboration mechanisms. This is increasingly recognized as vital to the organization Level 3  Staff uses networks and working groups to achieve results.  Networks have clearly defined roles and responsibilities and tangible deliverables.  Relevant management tools for collaboration are in place and well used. can strengthen relationships and put shared thinking to good use. External parties are included in some networks.  Peer help peers across organizational boundaries. efforts sometimes turn out to be less than the sum of the parts.  Collaboration is a defining principle across ADB. and conduct annual meetings.  Formal collaboration mechanisms are created and recognized. The Five Competencies Framework lists collaboration mechanisms as key to knowledge management and describes the conditions of an organization as it acquires and masters this competency. not enough attention is paid to facilitating effective collaborative practices.KEYS FOR REFLECTION 1. COLLABRATION MECHANISMS When working with others. These conditions include: Level 1     Knowledge hoarders seem to be rewarded. Too often.

describes how to actualize the thinking potential of teams. not just the agreement. as a way of expanding service to individuals and the organization. and what collaboration mechanisms can decentralize the span of their knowledge coordination. y y y y Building Trust in the Workplace Distributing Leadership Exercising Servant Leadership Leading in the Workplace 20 | P a g e . y y y Collaborating with Wikis Drawing Mind Maps Wearing Six Thinking Hats Communities of Practice and Learning Alliances Gives insights on how to build a community of like-minded. and arrange concepts. interacting people to ensure more effective creation and sharing of knowledge. how to help them report better.Collaborative Tools Explains how to harness the power of collaborative minds to innovate. then lead. y y y y Building Trust in the Workplace Distributing Leadership Exercising Servant Leadership Leading in the Workplace Leadership Defines the new concept of leadership in the public sector. promotes supporting people who choose to serve first. and cut costs. cocreate. explains how to build trust in the workplace and distribute leadership. and how social neuroscience fosters more comprehensive theories on human behavior. themes or tasks under a central topic. discusses why strategic alliances should manage the partnership.

intensity mutual influence in organizations. enable small groups to work on complicated problems. and manage a group whose members are in different locations. develop successful teams. y y Appreciative Inquiry Sparking Social Innovations Teamwork Discusses how to bridge organizational silos. or work for different organizations. time zones. explains how corporate values can guide behavior and decision-making. y y y y y y Action Learning Bridging Organizational Silos Informal Authority in the Workplace Managing Virtual Teams A Primer on Corporate Values Working in Teams 21 | P a g e .Social Innovations Discerns how one can facilitate positive change in organizations and generate good ideas that meet pressing needs and improve people's lives.

STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT A strategy is a long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal.  Knowledge management is embedded in the organization's business plans. and the capacity to apply them is strengthened actively.  A broad range of knowledge management tools are used across the organization.  The organization's knowledge products and services are clearly identified.2. These conditions include: Level 1  Isolated staff with a passion for knowledge management begin to talk about how important and difficult it is. As a competency critical to promoting knowledge management and learning. The Five Competencies Framework lists strategy development as its first component and describes the conditions of an organization as it acquires and masters this competency.  A knowledge management strategy exists.  There are ongoing discussions about developing a knowledge management strategy.  Discussions of the organization's knowledge products and services are frequent. strategy development relates to how an organization looks at its stocks and flows of knowledge in a strategic manner. but is not embedded in the organization's business plans. Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 22 | P a g e . sharing.  A few staff use knowledge management tools to learn and share.  A set of knowledge management tools is available and well communication.  A few job descriptions include knowledge capture. and distillation.  Many staff say that sharing knowledge is important to the organization's.  A set of knowledge management tools is available and understood by most staff.

y y y Design Thinking From Strategy to Practice Reading the Future Institutional Capacity and Participation Explains how a strategy can promote participation at requisite levels. presents tips on how to shift from changes in state to changes in behaviors. and if 23 | P a g e . and helps discern whether an organization's strategy is emergent and the outcome of human-centered. manages. beliefs. prioritizes. sequences. and shows how to anchor behavior and change on an understanding of livelihoods and appreciation of factors that constrain or enhance them. prototype-driven process for exploration of new ideas.Behavior and Change Discusses how a strategy can focus on group relationships with appreciation of their distinctive ideas. y Building Institutional Capacity for Development Knowledge Assets Describes how knowledge audits can enrich an organization's knowledge management strategy. evaluates. y y y y Culture Theory The Most Significant Change Technique Outcome Mapping The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach Emergence and Scenario Thinking Presents pointers on balancing between strategizing and learning modes of thinking. checks if the organization reviews. and knowledge. redirects. explains how an organization can utilize stories of significant change to monitor and evaluate performance. values.

people. y y y Auditing Knowledge Enhancing Knowledge Management Strategies Linking Research to Practice Marketing Discusses how marketing techniques can transform communications with stakeholders. y y y y Building a Learning Organization Learning Lessons with Knowledge Audits Overcoming Roadblocks to Learning Seeking Feedback on Learning for Change Partnerships and Networks of Practice Asks if an organization's strategy leverages partnerships and recognizes their drivers of success and failure. strategy. improve performance. proposes integration of evaluation results to support policy. knowledge. and change the behaviors of individuals or groups. y y The Future of Social Marketing Marketing in the Public Sector Organizational Learning Pinpoints how a strategy can support and energize organization. and technology for learning. assesses social networks and the actors and relationships between them. and reviews approaches to dissemination of knowledge assets. and gives tip on how to distinguish roadblocks to make them part of the solution instead of the problem.necessary even cancel strategic initiatives. and operational changes. y y Creating and Running Partnerships Social Network Analysis 24 | P a g e .

 Learning before. and after is the way things are done in the organization. and guidelines support effective knowledge management. KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND LEARNING Building knowledge requires two-way communications that take place simply and effectively.  A common language.  Sharing is for the benefit of specific working groups. inside and outside the organization.  Prompts for learning are built into the organization's business processes.  Beneficiaries and partners participate in review sessions.3.  They sometimes capture what they learn for the purpose of sharing but few colleagues access it in practice. and talk to them. Examples of knowledge sharing and knowledge use are highlighted and recognized.  Staff can easily find out what ADB knows. and drawing upon the lessons from past experiences to improve future initiatives.  Staff routinely finds out who knows what.  External knowledge plays a role in shaping program or project processing and administration. during. These conditions include: Level 1  Staff are conscious of the need to learn from what they do but are rarely given time.  Individual staff members learn before doing and program review sessions. Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 25 | P a g e . templates. The Five Competencies Framework lists knowledge sharing and learning as key to knowledge management and describes the conditions of an organization as it acquires and masters this competency.  Peers help peers across ADB's organizational boundaries.

and storytelling. how organizations can demonstrate commitment to learning. how stimulants and obstacles to creativity can drive or impede enterprise. and how the public sector can put social media to work. y y y y y Building Networks of Practice Dimensions of the Learning Organization Drawing Learning Charters Harnessing Creativity and Innovation in the Workplace Social Media and the Public Sector Learning and Development Discusses the five functions of managers towards learning and development. retrospect s. peer assists. and Learning Explains the forms and functions of networks of practice. evaluation. from asking effective questions to conducting after-action reviews.Creativity. how models for learning and change can be leveraged to reflect on the overall system of an organization. retreats. explores ways of dealing with failures and sharing successes or good practices. ways to improve e-learning interventions in the workplace. y y y E-Learning and the Workplace Coaching and Mentoring Learning and Development for Management Learning Lessons Covers a ranges of tools and approaches to facilitate learning. y y y y y y y y Asking Effective Questions Conducting After-Action Reviews and Retrospects Conducting Successful Retreats Conducting Peer Assists Embracing Failure Identifying and Sharing Good Practices Learning from Evaluation Storytelling 26 | P a g e . and how coaching and mentoring can empower employees. Innovation.

y y y y y Conducting Effective Presentations Disseminating Knowledge Products Enriching Policy with Research Posting Research Online Using Plain English 27 | P a g e . and disseminate research findings. make writing easier and easily understandable. enrich policy research.Dissemination Gives tips on how to turn an ordinary presentation into a lively and engaging event. promotes the view that dissemination is the interactive process of communicating knowledge to target audiences.

 Searching knowledge products and services before embarking on a program or project is encouraged.  Knowledge is easy to access and retrieve.  Networks act as guardians of knowledge products and services. Many do. These conditions include: Level 1  Individual staff members take the time to capture lessons but do so in a confusing variety of formats. summarizing.  Exit interviews and handovers become common currency. and few search them. 28 | P a g e Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 .  Key knowledge is kept current and easily accessible.  Networks take responsibility for knowledge management and store it in one location in a common format.  No exit interviews and few handovers take place. Some knowledge is summarized for easy access by others.  A few working groups capture lessons learned after a program or project and look for knowledge before starting a program or project. but it is not well summarized.4. The Five Competencies Framework lists knowledge capture and storage as key to knowledge management and describes the conditions of an organization as it acquires and masters this competency.  Exit interviews and handovers are used systematically. KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE AND STORAGE Knowledge leaks in various ways at various times. Taking advantage of the wide array of techniques available from traditional information management such as shared drives to modern techniques such as weblogs will ensure that essential knowledge is kept within the organization.  There is potential access to much knowledge.  High priority knowledge products and services have multiple managers who are responsible for updating. as is sharing lessons afterwards.  Most staff do not contribute to knowledge products and services.  Selected knowledge products and services are sent to potential users in a systematic and coherent manner.  An individual staff member acts as the guardian of each knowledge asset. and encourages people to contribute. and synthesizing them.

presents feedback mechanisms that promote learning before. y y y y y y y Conducting Exit Interviews Glossary of Knowledge Management The Critical Incident Technique Harvesting Knowledge Showcasing Knowledge Staff Profile Pages Taxonomies for Development Reporting Describes how feedback presents and disseminates information to improve performance. and study critical incidents to solve practical problems. y Writing Weblogs 29 | P a g e .Knowledge Harvesting Explains the common concepts of knowledge management. y Assessing the Effectiveness of Assistance in Capacity Development Monthly Progress Notes Technology Platforms Explains how groups can discuss electronically areas of interest and review different opinions and information surrounding a topic. gives insights on how to harvest and showcase knowledge. build useful staff directories. during. conduct exit interviews. and after.

One of the challenges involves effective globalization of the knowledge based supply chains. wide applicability and knowledge sharing (rather than information) etc. The development of knowledge based supply chain depends on the nature of knowledge flow in the entire chain. In our view the evolution of KM guided SCM systems involve focusing on proactive knowledge management strategies. A knowledge based view of the supply chain is necessary to understand the requirement of the organizations in the value chain partnership and vis-à-vis the firm capability.CONCLUSION Knowledge Management (KM) is an effective approach being adopted by world-class organizations. Knowledge management can offer improved global integration. knowledge implications. Timely sharing of decision knowledge amongst the chain partners can be very useful. We suggest efforts to improve effective KM based supply chain thinking that aims to promote collaborative knowledge sharing for performance improvements in modern enterprise systems. Thus there is a need to develop demo models that can encourage chain managers towards collaborative knowledge sharing in the supply chains. 30 | P a g e . Global supply chains are more complex and involve multiple autonomous players globally located with varying background and SCM exposures. However this requires change in managerial mindsets. the fast changing nature of the customer demands warrants consideration for the formation of knowledge integration between partners. In the global competition. There is growing need for developing KM based supply chains and their demo models to promote the benefits of knowledge sharing and knowledge advancements.

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