A

,of II.FamIc:: J'url"prud~e. Member of tlh. Board of Se'nlor IiiIII.ma ,.-Member' of the Per,man.1I1: CommlH,ee for Fatwa ,!I!!!dResearch P~M»'

D~Sali'h AIIIiiF'awzan ...... -

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A.1..IMaimam hbl'lshllq

Hou&e

Satldi Arabia, RO.Box9l020,. Riyadh 11813

Concise Com-moent"fY on the Book oj TawWa by Professor ,a~Jilh A1-!F.a,w:~n

'ftan.s]iilited. by AI-Ambia fot infor.mullIril

'Tecl1nol.ogy; Ca]m,

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Copyrigbi~ ,(;I 200:5 by A1.-MaiIDlIll PublimiFl.g. HOUJse,. AU t.ighl'Sw.;cnoo, No patt ,(Iii this publkatjQ!) may be [~duoed! OF distrib1[[lEd ill any form or by an.)' meaos, arstored lin a. d3ilabase or rerrfeval sysrem, withQut tke prili)f wriititelilli permiis:s:io[l of th.e [pUlbHsherr;
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CONTE,NTS

Page
English Islamic Uhl'ary

vii. ]X
xi

Edito.rial. StlIIff Admowiledgemelliit
T11lllslator'sPre:faa

Book. PRfac.e About 'l1u:: .Audtor

THE .ROOK Of T14.WHID
Chapter II Chapter 2

1

Merit O'f .Mono'tthe1sm
Feat of Polytheism, Calling
to

"" "

,

"

~..

19

Perfect Mmlot.hels.]11,Gl!I;ar,antees,P~radise' .. ,,... ., , ,..,' "., ~ ', .
"..

31
39

Chaptel'3

Chapter 4 ChapterS Chaptel'6
Cllo,,_· r ·7 _,.,~ •. • e

Testifkation of Faith

41
57

Meatll!ingof Monol:he.ismand Faith Testifi.catiQI:I .... Acts of Polytheism: Wearing Rjn,gs and Strings for R.emoving ()irAverting all AffIkti.o.n

.

Incantations

and Amulets.a.,

,.,

,',

ChapterS
C~9

Se-ekLl1g:Blessings of Trees" Stones

,..""
91

Offerin,g Sacrificial. Ani.m_ils for Deities other than AUah , , , ",,, ,," " ," Sla.ughteril1g S~crif.i(;i,a]Allimais a:t P~acesand Altars Dedicated to False Dekies . Acts ofPQ]ythe:is:m: VOws fot Deities other itlhan AJIa"h ••.••, ; ; ,.•, " ," ...

Ch01!pter 10 Chapter II

105

i ....

Conise

Commentary'

(11[1

the Book of Iitwhld

Clila.pterl2 Cbapter.U

Acts of Polytheism: Seeltin,g Refuge wlith Il~ings adler than Allah , , ",.,.. . Ads of lPdytheiism: Seeldng Retitge w~tb Anyone kSLde$ Allah and Invo.king AnYOl:le besides.
Hhn,." ,•......, , _ " " ".,.........

111

115

Chap'tell' 14 Chapter 15 Chapter l.6 Chap~e.r.7
Chapter 18

Helpless Pa:rtF1~l:'s,Ascribed to

Alliin....
, '....

125 135
141

The Angels Duly Fear and Obey Allah., "...
Intercession, , ",

Anah Guides Whom He Wills

,

,......

149

.Excessive Reverence of the Righteous ....."...... .155 Worshijpping AU<lb.a.tthe Memorial of i3i rugb.teous P-e:rsOr.l ,,.,.""., .,,..., ,, , ".,....

Chapter 19

165
175
181 187

Excessive Reverence for the Gr·a.vesof the mghteollS is Tantamount to Mol:a:try .., "..
Ohapter21

The Prophet and Blocking All Avenues Impairing: M~norhetsm" , , "........ Some Musl.inl-sWorshipping Idols.

Chapter 1:2
Ch3pter23 Chapk'lir :2,4·

Soroery;

,,

,,

,
"" "..

.".•. .. ;
..

] 97
20,3 211

Forms of Sorcery

Oh,apter25 Chap,t" 26 Chapter 2' Ch.apter28 Cupt~I':1:9 Chapter 30,
ehaplei'3l Chapter 3.1

RuU:ngs ofSoothsayeFS .."'" An·Nushrah,.,
Bdid

,.•. .~............. "

, ,..:.,....................................... 219
,.... 223

in Evi] Omens

.Ast!:'olo.gy

, " "" ; ~
, "

" , ,................
of the Stars............ " ,..." , ", ,, , "... ". ;..

2J5
24W. 249 259 269
275

Seeki.ng Rainfi1i.UbyVjrtue Love for Allah Fear of AlIah .., Reliance
QllI1;

AiJah

Oh.wpter 33 Chapter 34

Feeling Secure from tthe Plan of A[lah"..........

Faitb and Patience with the Decree ofAll1ah ...

279

Otapm-lS

Showing o.ft.,

,

"

,

~., , ,..............

287

CONTENTS
ChapteT.l6

Acts ofiPolytheism: Righ.teol.lSDeeds Intended for Woddly Gain .....,,,,,,,,...,,,....,"...,,,,........................293 ,.

Cfuipter .17
·Chapter38
Chapter 39 Chapter 40

.A.lalll.."..""

Taking Scholars or Rulers as Partners besides

"..""

m

,,,

"

297
30.3 315 3:2.3
329

Seeking Judgment from DghQ.L.... Repudiaticn of Allah's Names and At,triburtes....... Denyin.g the Pavor oJ A]lah ...,..........................
Atlributj:ng Eqaals to

Ch;JJpter41 Chapter 42 Cha.pte.r 43 Chapte.rM:

AlLah.........
" •• ' ,· " ···············....

D:issatisfaction with OaJtlls Taken til the Name of Mlah
m •.•.• •••• .. H

337 341

Sayin.s 'By the Will of AJ:lah and youtS:" ...." Ililvcighing againIBt the Vicissitudes of Time

Wrongs AUah..........................................

347

Names &t!!ch the Jilitdg:e of ludges and the as Like " " , ,............................................... 15.1
Reverence to Allah'$. Beautiful Names and Changing One's. Name Aocordi:ngly ........, .. Ch,*pter47 Chapter 48

355 359 365
3?1

Mock:ing AlIah's Revelarions or Messengers .
Rendering Thanks to AUab. . The 'Prohibition of GiVing 3. Name Signifying that One is a Serw.nl of O~lhen Besides. Allah ... Invokin,g Allah by His Beeutiful Names ....... The PWnibiitior.lof Saying. "Peace be on .Allaib:'>O ••••• The Prohibition of sayiil1g,. "'a AUa:h! .F'oIgive Me· If You Wish:: " .. ·II-. P ronhlm.on 0 f- S'~1.1l(g. "MY S-l 1l.'ii..,'· • . 'ue '.~ .. ". av;e,Qr.M-Iy
Slave Girl"'. "'_,, , ..

Chapter 49 ChapUr50
Chapter 51 Chapter 52 Cbapte.r53

375379

381
385

Chaptcr54 Cltapter55

Asking In the Name of Al]ah Is not to B~R.epulsed , .. Nothiing is to Be Asked Allah, but .Pa:radise
fOil;

389
393

by the Face of
. 395

.Dissatisfaction whh the .Divine Decree ..."....

Cha,pter S7

The: Pro.nilIYjtiotn ofInvdgh:i:ng against the
'V!/I.nd.,.,.",.,.",.", •.,,,,,,,,,,..,,,.,.,,,, ..,,,,.,,,,., Hypocrites Mistmst A]~ah.." , " ,,,, .•'.."". ,.., 41}3 407

Chaptet58 Chapter 59
OhaptertJO

Deniers ofthe Di.vin~ Decree and Predesti-

Cbapt:er61
Chwpter62

Oft-repested Swearjng .., , " "

,

"......

431

CQvenal'lits ofAl[a!!ma:~dH:i&PropheL,-",,,,,, Adjuring AUah.""..""...""..".""......""..""..,,,."..""..."..." .
S~~king AHa}1's]m!t~rceS$i(lnwi~h One 'Qf His
Cteafur.~!.~~!'~~~o!o!-!'~"! ....
!-!';;;...- ...... !o'";;;~.""'~~., o ...

439 445
449

Chapter 63 C.h~64

'"~~.,,.o;~..~'",.~......","~~",,,,,,~;;.o;;;,,.,,,,;;;;~,,.,,;;,

The Prophel

and ,Blocking AI] Av:e..nl1!l!:sead., l
~r!::!!iN ..as...;',.r~;;=~~ .... ; ..iT

]ng 'to Polp.hei!Sm.;;,...... '"

"=~......... r==~=,;;H ....,;;;,;;

45,3
,459

Polytheists nave not ,Apprai,sed AlLahw,i.th Tr'ne Appraisal." ,,,.,, .."."". ".,n .... ,"".... """"",,,",, ,,,,.,,,,,

Glossary Name Index Quranic Verse Index

467
475 4:8,1

Hadith Inde~
D-ansJiter,atlon. System.

4&5
4.95

ENGLISH ISlAMIC UBRARY
A series in English covering central and various issues in Creed, Jurisprudence. and Islamic Sciences by authors who have expert knowledge in their fields. It targets both the Muslims and the nen- Muslans in the west as. well as ~.hose who :Study Islamic Sciences in English in. Arab countries, It also targets those who are engaged in propa,g:ati!t1g Islam in the West

E

nglish Islamic Library:

IN THIS SERIES:' 1. CO."nse Comme,ntary

li~.uhAl~F~wzAn

OH

the Book oJTtfWob:.id: Sheikh professor

2. A ,Summary aJ Islamic' JurisprudeHCe (Volume one); Sheikh pr(lfes.sorSMih A],~Fawzan
3. A Summary of lSlumic Jumpruiknce (VolutDe twQ): Sheikh professor lialin, Al ~.Fam;a.n

4. Guide to $'ound Crud; Sheikh professor SiHh AJ..-,Fa,wzim
5..A Brief &::count of the PrQphet ,Biog.rlJ,.hy~ Sheikh Muhammad
Ibn 'Abdul- Wahb~b
6. AllaIt'slnsightjUlSigns:

Dr;Tawfiq . UlWM

7. The Way ()f'the Tm-velen~ An Explana:to,i'y Book on .hlamic JlIlrisprude'nee: Sheikh "Ahdur- RahmAn As-Sa' dl

8., Exonerating the Great lmdms from Blame: Imam Ibn Taym]yan

9. Unfversal:ity of Islam: Imam Ibn 'faYlrliyah
IO.llm Taymiyah~ Colledirm ofFalwas (Volum~s21 &22 &23)

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EDITORIAL STAFF
MA~N.iIEmTORS
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'NAT~YEIIDIIQR
• UtI1IFIi. A!MiLllI.ali

D.r:AUia Es·Sayye<! Attt~ ..
Mni1!l1mm!l:d &dd. MetwaUy

• Sameh Muslaro A_sal
Iii

,. Dr, .P..had M" AI.·M:alik, KFSC, S;lUlrlii. Arnbu"

REVISERS
iii

CONTRIB1UIWG_TRA.NSlA:l'ORS. • Mu~m!lt!ad Abdllll.M(lI!IeiimAli

H~I1~ M:il!hmond .Abdn~-fllllih

DES~GNIAND '[EC1JiNOtoGY • Gnphiic
I

SHAR'], AND ARABIC CONSlTlTANTS • Siheilkh H~I~m .Am.tn Ali • Ham a da. Ebeid Ahi\I1ed!
I!

Does;igDt'l~

Ml!lha m:mad S nlih

l.ayo,uh MoW]~a,r 'Uwa!:lY

Muhammad NI1~i!r Mo,gahed

About the Author
Sheikh li~~ill Al-,fawzan (bQ:rn in 1935) has obtained a PhD in Islamic Jurisprudence and has a longhtstory in teaccJling jl!1r.i$pruden(::.e.
H~ is a member of m:3!HYacademic institutions ind.iJ!lding the Board of Senior. Ulema, the Permanent Committee for Parwa.and Research, the Islamic Academy of MuslimWodd League, the Committee of Slilpervlshig Du' ah, and!

many other schQ]asHc Ibodies.
more than sixty published works co'ver]ug Muslim Creed, Islamic Iurlsprudence mtd Muslim's Conduct H~ haswritten

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ACKN"OWL.EDGEMENT
Our tru~'y and profound thanks and gratefulness are due to Allah the Almighty Who has endowed US with all the means t,o make this work a reality; Thanks go to Him for all His endless blessings and favors, In thecourse of translating this invaluable book, innumerable people have helped directly and ~nd~rectly~ without their help, this book would have never come to the light. At 'the outset, we deeply 1lil'.prec:ia1e and thank sheikh professor Sfilih. al- Fawzan :for giving us exclusive permission to, trnnslat'e and publish his books iBIS as his fo,]]ow-up with the different stages of publishing the 'books. May Allah give

wen

him success in this WorldIy Life and Hereafter.
FIrst of all, our eternal gratitude and sincerest appreciation are due to Dn Muhammad M3hmud Gha1i, professor of Linguistics and the ex -dean of F:aculty of Languages and Translation, Al-Azhar Unirvenity; for his valuable

suggestions and penetrating advice he rendered us when we started the ,process

of translation.
We would like also to express, our heartfelt thanks to Dr..Muhammad

Muh.ammad Abo' La-yla"professor

of Islamic Studies in EngUsh and Head of

English Department, Faculty of Langua.ges and Translation, for his ,end~ess continuous help, suggestions and moral support We are enormously indebted also to Dr. Ah.mad Zaki Hamm.ld, professor of Islamic Studies in English, Paculty of Languages and Translation for providing us with invahiable suggestions and important insights on translation,

Again. thanks are due to Dr. . Attia Es-Sayyedl .• Attia,. lecturer in. El:T and Applied Linguwstics, Faculty of Education, Al- Azhar Universit]{ for havlng
professionally edited this work and others, His pertinent comments and valuable touches at the flnal stage of writing the book added much to the flnal version of the book. Finally yet importantly, we thank Um.m Abdullah, the nadve edaor, who exerted great effbns in editing the book. and with whose fina] touches she made it meaningful and more appealing: to the target audience.

PElblisher

Sulaiman A. Almaimao

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Translator's Preface
This book is an English translatlon of sheikh professor sam. Al -.Fawzan's ~ ~"" .. ;;',J.UQmcike C~.rnmentary on the .Book of Tawhid: Dar Al ~. A~imah> 2001 B.C. USBN i 2002/22). Our main a~m in provi.dJng the EngUsb traTlslaiUQnis propagatrung the true Da'wah thalt derives from Allah's Book and His M~seJlg:er"sSunnah, 'This isa duity that eve~ Muslim shouldcherish, Amah says: "And ,let there be Iar.isJ~gJ from you a nation inviting to lmlthat isJ good" fJnjoiningwhat i$ right Q"d J(Jrbiddi"gwnat i, 'W'ro'ng.aHd those will be tn'e succ",sful.~ (AI 'Imran: 1(4), Widl this in mind, this translated 'Work is; then, a humble response to 01l1r realization of a grea,t r~$pQnsibi.Hty to' giv(l the .E:ngHsih speaJdngread~r eccess to .ridb Islamic CI':e~d.l.iteratu:r,e that presencs Islern pure and simple, as close as possible to the waytiitlder$.toQd and practiced by th~ Early Righmous Salrif. 1m doirng so, we have .~eftno stone untamed ~omake SUire that the finalcopy of a translated book meets a specific high qll.aJity standa£d tthOlltw01)l!]d convey the same meaning intendedby the author and expressed in tth.eoriginal source text, In effect, we have trled! to ,&et a, balaace between the origina[H.y of thought and the nature ,of the sJt1le oHarnguage.
~~I.~I\A

To attainthis aim, our work (in this book and others) exhibits certain. distinctive features, namely, the precess of translation, the sty].e, the attention pa~d.to the sociolinguistic aspects (I.e., translaeeatlon, glossary and endnotes). We toaeh upo.n these feansres in the foUoMng section, It.•PROCESS Befole reaching the: pub]isher~ our work goes through a developmental proGe'..ssto guarantee that the fiual version of the translated book. is as perfect as can be.

In effect,~bi:s p.oocess commences with the first-hand translatien, which
is done by some very carefiJJly chosen translators who are narive-speekers of Arabic and have a native··Uke commmdiofthe target [an:gua:g~,The main principle that. gov:ems the tral1lshnion processJsrbst the translator is after inoogrity. With il1it~grity as the main target, the translators wOUJ]d not be tempted to impose their own ideas on ~l1.e text nor would they gloss over the' difficult paragraph.s instead of taiking the tFoubie tn flnd out what ls really meant l'r.ansla.UJrs would do their best to con~ both tlli1,e coneent and spirit

of ~heoriginal

xiv

undertaken bra reviser who has a high pm:file in tralils[:a:ting reUgious texts and is aware of tthe traps that one might fall into. In addw.tion. he has a thorough rdEgio!Js bacJil;;grol.!lll:dlknowJedge that enables him te detect any unintended error 111 conveyIng the meaning;
]S

The next step of the process

The revised version ls then, slll~bmiU~d a p.icty editor who is well-versed to in thettarg,et language and has substantial knowledge of Is]am](: Sden(es. f.runally. tbe edlsed version is handed over to a native-speaker of English who is knowledgeeble in Islamic Sciences to make sure that: the ttrail1:sm<linon. is readable and m.ea:n~Dgful to the targ~t audience,

2. STYLE
A r!altural outgrowth of the processes adopted in translation ~8 tJhe·style the finaJ version has come out in. The intended mean~ng of the au~hor has been. to.ri!veyed in. a sty]e thi'i~ isauthentic and. as clcse to ~he enginalas possibJe. It reaUy sounds a!1JJ.th.e.n'ttk:So natural that the work does not read like a trsnslation, but i1!fi ind~g~nous piliec~of writing. Thetransletion version is fflaJfked by r.em~tkab[e variety and richness as wellas ~r·em.en.dous skill at writing wiltthin fQ'rmalreHgious genre. Moreov:e'r; aUe:m.pts have been made to have it s~mp:~e. lear and appealing to the tsrget audience, c

3~A:TTENTION TO SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS
Asa way to flll up the gap ca!illsedby sociolinguistic differences between the two languages (source language and ttarget:langua~}" our work meludes someadditional features (i.e·,. trail1slit"€ratioJ1!glossary and endnotes) that w01!l!]d ,SJuarant·e:e bener understandmg of the concepts and ldeasthet might confuse the EngUs.b speaking reader due to the lack of schemata in this field, A- TRANSLITERATION S¥S'f.EM Inthe proce'ss of translatien.we made-a serious attempt to Hmit the use of tI1msH!tenlil~edArabic: terms (see table run .p. X) ildo,tibe fo]low.~ng two situations:
~)There 1S no Eng)]sh expressice that can..reUed the sam.emeanin,g

as the or~ginal term, ]]) The Arabic term is of such importance ttha,tt it is essential to [amiHadze thereader with it

D"GLOSSARY
At the end. ·ofthe book, WII'!: ba\'le included! a.g:].ossary det1ning (ommon Ambic terms that fu]fi]] the above crjteria, Included in the glossary also a·re termsthat need Mltbe.r e:x.p]anatio:iJ.

C-ENDNOTES In, th.e~ 'endnotes. we have given dear and concise explanations 'of the terms that are not dear or understandable to the target reader due to tthe eociolinguistic difi'e,re:n,ces in addition to the commentaries written by the author himself. Punhermore, each h_adith mentioned in the t;ext of the book is ascribed in the endnotes to the book it is quoted from.

I)-IND,ICES
To facilitate the process of going through the book and save the reader's time, we have included a name index. So. if the reader is looking ,rot .a given nam,e,slhe wournd go dlrectly to the index to find the page number.

,4. QUR'_AN TRANSLATION
The Qur~ln is Allah's exact words. These words can. never ever he exactly
translated into other ~an,g)!lages, ecause of" among other thjngs, possible b

mislnterpretatlons

and limited human understanding. What is followed Ln the book ]$ to translate the meanings as understood by Muslim. scholars, We solely depended on the •TraHslatron of.the Meaning 0/ the Qur~",~,translated by Saheeh International - Riyadh and ~:mb]ished by Alnilqasim PubHsh]ng House. Wh,e-n:a versels cited. the English interpretatfcn is given between quotation marks ",.,:' in indented, bold.and italicized format The location of the Q1I1('ank verse .•the name of the sora is g~vefi below to the verse as it rns illus.trated:in the example 'below!
fjtnd We sent not befure you any messenger' except thIlt We re'Vmled to him th.,t .thett. is fW deity except Me, so won"'ip Me,"»

(Al-AnJbya": 25)

5~,HAD1TH' TRANSLATION
Similarly, when we dte a ,l1adith; we mendon the book of /i.ndltlJ lt ]s quoted from in addltlon to its number in the book. Further, the translation of Prophetic l1pd1th is represented in an indented. format. ]!taiidzed and. between quota.tion marks ":" as it Is mustrated In the-example below: "Do not drink in gold or silver v'€Sst'.lsnaT ea: in. sim.ila:r bQwls (i.e. bowls made.ojgo,ld or si!ver),forthey belongte them (the disbelievers)

in .this world a.nd to US in the Hereafter.'"

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nOOK PREFACE
AU praise is due to Allah, and may the peace and blessings of Allah be

upon the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, The present study is a brief commentary on the "Book of Tawhid {i.e., Monothdsm)"" of Shaykhullshbn .Mub"ammad Jbn' Abdill-Wahhiib (may AUah have: .mercy on him). In. arranging this brief commentary; ~: presented it in the style of the modern school carrienla so that it may be ea,sHy intelligible to beginners. ill ask Allah to make H beneftcialte the Muslims and to be: of significant contributlonIn diss,eminatkng religinus knowledge and properlycorrectlng people's underseanding of the MusHm Creed. Finally,' I ask Allah '~O confer His peace and blessings upon His Messenger Muhammad (PBUH)~ his household, and his Companions,

"'['J. !IJ:D . :gWZlll!! ,_, SIUn II. ..F'," - Ibn "A' ~.iI-~lih AI-F2Iwzln 1!lI"'U_. " . '. '
_A ...

]s Muhammad Ibn 'Abdu]- Wahhil!b Ibn Sulayman.lhn ' Ali. He belonged to the family o:fM~hi3!rr.af~all! QiffsI1QQ.f ofthe W{'l]l~kn:OWJ1 tribe of Banii. Tamim, He-was the pm'liMlgatm of the Saiafi (the eady Muslim scholars) .Da 'wah ]u Najid and ill other flt'ighbQ:r:ing regions.

His

fun name

H;~ Earlv Life'.' E.d.ur~,ti\O-!Il1 and Prefesslonal J.I:I. . . """" . .' ,",l,iI.~:L... .
_. A AiLI. .

·R.t>C,Aw\~ "'~' ......!JL '

Shaykh Muh.ammad lbn." Abdul- Wabhab was born in Al- '.Uyaynah near R~yadhin lllS A.H., He memorisedthe Noble Qur)~n <lilt an eadyage ..He, then, smdled Islarnlc sciences under his father, who used to be the judge of Al-' Uya.ymil1. He: also studiedunder rnam.y other renowned scholars in N~jd" M~d!]Da, A]- All,sa and Bas!t"a. Hence,. he became ascholar of p.ro[ific J!rnowledg~>weU ,equi.pped to shoulder his blessed can at a time when bid'ahs (matters innovated in re-li_g]Qn)and superStiHQIlSSUC:h a!S hallowing shrlnes, sandifYing treesand stOJ1!e-8, dispersed. He, OIJnseqlJlent]y. caned for correenng fuel.ulderstanding of MusUm Creed and devoting: worship to Allah Alone. He compiled a great number of books snchas his best renowned one, Kitab.ut~ Tawhid (The Book oj'Mono'lh'e.ism).. This book was met: by' great acceptance amo.ng scholars and learners, who concerned themselves with S!tudyil1g and explaining it This ls because it is an origmal compilation. which has greatly benefited a great number of people, ShaJykh Muhammad spent all his life as an instructor ca]l~ng people for the way of AI,m~gltliyA] leh, e!lj;o,inil:!\g the rigihrtand foroidding th« wrong, He g:md.l.Itutedagreat number of sch.o]arsH:ndp:mmin.e,nt cellers for Islam. He; died in Ad-D,a:r'iyyarJh near RIyadh ]]1 1206 A" H. We askAllah to reward him and make Paradise his eternal abode.

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THE BOOK OF TAWHiD
A]]ah, Exalted be He, says:: f:1&:tld 1did not create the}inn.

and »ul,.iind except to' 'W!'(}"f;ShipMe.~
(Quran: Adh-Dh.~riy~.t: .56)

The book of Tawb_:td e~ahQra,te8 on the concept of Islamic monotheism as being enjoined by AHah on His servants, whom He has created for f!i~f:!llh1!g this ultimate objective ..Meanwhile, the book clarifies the concept of major po].ythe~sm,! wih.i.ch ca:rego(rIc,dly contradicts menotheism. It fl,l!rtl'N~T clarifies: theeencepts of mrnnor polytheism and bid' ahs. which impair pel:f~ct Qr desirable belief

Keywordsud Phrases
."Tawltfd:: The devotion of one's acts of worshlrp to Allah A~one.
III

'lluld:a.h (Worship): Uteli3lUy, It .signifies surrender er submission, Tecbnk,aLLy, ~tis alii. 11lm~·re]]a.~erm~ which refers [0 all <1ICtS f devotion o including sayings,. app arent and hidden deeds, which bring :a!bQlllt Al1ah:s Pleasure.

According to this Qur:a:nic verse, Allah created the jinn and men to wor8MpHim. The Qut'!lnk verse, thus. specifies the wisdom behind creat:h.llg them .. UnUkewoddly masters, Ab.n.ighty Allah does no.t sustain His servanta in. return for benefits., for He intends all good fot them.

Relevance .of the Qrmr'anic Verse to the Chapter
The QUF'arnic verse illuminates ~he oM.igatio:n of taWBJd i,e, dJevGHng all acts o:fworship solely to ALLah81Hce He has created thejinn and mankind for fuUi[[]ng this obj,ectiJVe.

THE BOOK Of ''[AWHID

2:

Lessons Drawn from the Qmr~anicVerse' .:+ The jiinn and mankind are obliged to devote l.d~,acts .of worship sQlely
to Allah,
(+

The QI!Jr'~:!1k: verse expounds the wisdom behind the creation of the
jinn aad mankind .
0 f;)

•:. .It ]sonly Allah, the Crest

false deities inoompetent
idolaters' i3!rg1lmeit1!~s.

Who deserves wonhip rather than other t.o create, This !poi[]j~ a refutatien of the is

·t· Almighty

A]]ah is the SeJ:f~Sl]ffi.den~ and thus He is in no need of His creatures, whereas tthey i3!:ren dire need of Him. T.bis is) definitely; i b~(:ausl!;!Allah is the Creator and they are His creatures.

~, the Qur'ank verse, further, proves that Anal] is AM-Wjse in His actiens,

H---'-,." • -,0 -.,

_,

_'

__

'_

I

.3

Cencise Commentary

011

the BQQ,kof

Mwh.M

..Alli1th" E:n]!tedand Glorified. be He, says: "And We certuJniy sent into eve.ry natiem
'~Wof'$hip,Allah ,and avoid

taghat•.}

H

,Mies:sengel; ISfwi"rJ~ (Quean: An,·N aJd:36)
II

Keywo:rds and Phrases
• Messenger: The prophet to whom a Divine l.aw has been. revealed and
whom. Allah commanded to impart it to people. • 'Worship Allah: To devote arn~ acts of worship soldy to Him .

• l~hut

(Fake Deities): This term refers to. false obje(:ts of worship,

including anyperson accepting to he adored besides Allah.

General Meaning of the Qur':culic:Verse
According to this Qur'anic verse, Almighty AUah sent Messengers f'Or every nation. and generation inviting them to solely worship Him and. av;oid deifying false' deities. For this 'very ultimate goal did Allah dispatch Messengers, since polytheisrn first originated attbe time ofNiih (Noah~ peace be upon. him) until the finality of Prophethood through the advent
of.Muhammad (PBUH) ..

Relevance' of the Q'w'anic Verse to tmu~~ hapter C
The verse expounds that the mission ef all prophetsand

them!' followers is

~o call people to believe in one God and prohibit them from committing any act of polytheism.

lessons Drawnfrom the Our'anlc Verse'
.. The divine wisdom behind dispatchlng Messengers. is to wnvi1i:epeop1e to monotheism and prohibit them from. the peepetratlnn of acts

entailing polytheism ..
-:. Though they are of various legislations, all Messengers call for one common rellglon, which is consisted in devo,ting allacts of worship solely to AIIlah and assectating no. partner witn. Him.

THE BIOOK 0-)

or

TAWH/D

Divine Message has pervaded in. all nations and Allah's proof w-as estahmished. on all so that no one may be excused on. the Day of Resurrection . which is held mcumbent upon

.. The significance ofmonothelsm, all nations,

0::' The Qur'anlc verse implied the same meaning expressed in the Two Testifications of Faith (Testifying that there ~sno deity but Allah, and thatMuhammadistheMessenger ofAllah), Enaddition to negating the validity of wo.rshipping any false OO]ty, it proved AUah as the sole God. Therefore. perfect monotheism should combine both dis<1I"!pproval of all false de]Ues and abselute approval of A[[ah's Divinity.

,5,

Concise Commentary on (be Hook of Taluhid

Alrnighty AUah says: "And YOU:rWM has dea'eed that you. IUIt worship except Ri'm,) and to parents~ good treatment ...•"1 (Qurl1l1: A]-L'na; 23)

Keywords and Phrases
• Your Lard: ~;trefers to Allah, \Vnois ofsoverdgn dominion everall wo:ddls. • And to parents" goed treatment: As Almighty Allah decreed to be solely worshipped withoutassocietingany partner with Him, He also eommanded man to be kind! and du.hful to his parents,

General Meanlng of the Qur'allk Verse
Acc,Qrdiing to. the Qur'ank verse, Almighty AUab commands people. by means of His Messengers,.'lo devote:aUactsofwo:rs!bipsQlelyto.ffim. In addition, He further enjoins children to be kind ana dlmiful to. their parents by word and deed and moreover, warns them against mistreating them, since parents have. com!passionately reared and cared for them until reaching r.natlU.rit.y,

Relevance of the Qur'anic Verse to the Chapter
.Mot1.otheism is the most assured right of Allah and the most binding duty on. mao. as Allah prefaced the verse with it~and priority is given to what is of more importance.

Lessoas DraWA frOID the Qur'anic Verse
(+

Monotheism is the first decree enjolned by Allah on man. It ]S,thU8~ the foremost binding right of Allah incumbent upon His servants.

.) The verse conveys the same meaning expressed in the 'Iestification ofFaith~ Le. declaring that all false deities are not \Yorthy of being worshipped while AUah is, ,.:. The QU!r'imk verse affirms the Significant: merit of fulfilling parents' due rights of respect and kind treatment since these rights ate direcit1y preceded by~he f'njolnment of menotheism,

THE!. BOOK OF TAWJ:!.lD

6

.) The' obllgation of showing all kinds of benevolence, righ~OO'USDesS and tenderness when dealing wlith parents, The Qurank: verse doe'S nott. howeverj s.ped.fy a limit Q:l' d~5ignatea way of such a good ~r,eatment .) The prohibinon of being undutfful or ungrateful ~oone's parents.

*"
...~-:,," , -.
-,

'_

7

Allah. E~alted be He. says: ""Warship AUdit dnd dSl!!ociateHot/ting with Him •••"' (Qufi1n.: An-N~sa': 36)

Keywo.rdsaad Phrases
• Associatenot:ldng; Beware ofpoDythe:i:sm.. which means associating p~rtn.ers with Allah by means of asc.r~b~ngto them. what exduslvely pertains to AUah.

General Meanmg of the Qur'ank Verse
~l1L Qu:r'al1icv~:rse this
a11acts ef worshipsolely

Almighty AU",h commands His servants to devote

to Him, A]lan does not spedficaJIy enjoin a ce;rt~~n act of worship such as supplication or prayer;. this ];8 to generally include a~] devotionalacts, Likewise. A~m~ghry'Allah gelll.ern]].y warns us against all fQrms

and acts QfpoJytheLsrn. Therefcre, He does not spedfic~Uy prohibit certain actsordeeds of polytheism.

Relevance ofthe Qur"anic Verse to the Chapter
The verse ]8 prefaced by a dJv:ine: decree) which e.njoins monotheism. and forbids any form or act of polytheism" Thus, the 'verse defines monotheism as devoting all acts ofworship solely to. Allahand associatmg nothing with Him.

Lessons Drawn from the Qnr'anic Verse
.:. The oMigar.lon of devoting all acts of wO!rshi.pe~dusJ.\'iI:'Jyto A]]~h Alone, since such a command ]8 given top priority accordlng to the
Qur3nk verse. Therefore, wo.r.sh.ipping one God (i.e" Allab) lstae
tn

most assured obHgaltory ordinance.

"> The pflohibltic!Iifi of ascribing partners,
m.os~ahominabje sin.

A[[ah. as it is the gravest and

.. AV(llidance ofall forms and! acts of polytheism is a prerequisite fair the validity of man's devotion to ATh~allil, Allah espoused enjIO~D:1Lm:~Ll1tof So, d.evotion and the proh1:bit:i.on of polyt'h.eism.

THE BOOK

or TAWRJD

8

.•. An types :

of polytheism) according to the Arabic context ofthe Qur'a_nj.c verse.are categorically proh]b~lted whether minor or major .

..;..The imper.missilbHity of associating any partner w~th Allah, whether an angel, a prophet, a righteous person or an idoL

A~mighty Allah says: ~rSa".. 'Co m e. 1will redte what yO'ur Lord has p roh.iblt.ed that you not associate anything with Him,~ and to .pare'l1ts, good trl!:tJ:tmeHt~ tlnd do no·t kill your childre:H o;ld' (JJp,f}'Vert}'~ We will pr-ovid,e for you a:nd them. .A"nd d.o n(ltap'prcu~:c,h immondities- what is u:ppurellt ~fth em and wlilat is concealed ..And i/o n(l t kill thesoul,~ which A nah has jorbidden (to be killed) ,except by (tega.l)rig.ht" This .has.He itut1'ucteayQu that you may use reason. A,nd ao not approad, the orphan"spt.op!erty exct.p:t i.n a wayth.at :is best (i:«, int'e,n,ding impro'Vement) until he reaches m:u:turity~ And ifi'Ve' full measure una' weight injustice, We do not .charge any soul except (with that withi'J) its capac#y:. A.nd when YDU speak (i.. .. e
t(ll )lQn. (H~ €(lmUiand's)
j

testify)~ be just~ eve'H.i/ (it co n cerns) a :n,ear rdn:ti.'I;1e. A.nd the c;pve:na:nt oj AUah fulfill. 'This has .He instructed you th4t y~~ may rememll'fl'f':. APl!.d (m:oF'"eover)". dds-is my pat.h which is $trlJ:igh,t~ $ofotlow it; aud do not JolloJII (ofh.er) wa"5~for you will be sepQ.ra te-it from His way .. This h4sHe instructed you th4tyOU m4y &e'~vmeri:g.htf#.ms/ ~~~
j

{QI.l~i5Jn: A~.~An'am: 151: 153)

Keywords and Phrases
ill'

Prohibited: .A forbidden act is any
pUl:1ilsbmentand.

ad whose perpetration entails whose avoidance entaUs reward,

GeneralMeanlng of the Quranic Verses
Since the po]yth~ists f(iUQw~d. heir whims and satanic insinuations, they t devoted their wonhip to deities other than Allah" prohi!bited what Allah p.[1Qvidedlfur them as lawful, and killed their children so :1$. to drawnearer to their false deillHes.Almighty Amah commanded His Messenger to inform them of what their Creator a[l"dOwner made absolutely PfOhib~~,edac.r;old]ng
to His reve]ation. not out oft-heir speculaticn ..These prohilbited items are listed

under the ten commandments s~t~d in the Qwr'a!Hk verses a;sfbnows:

THE BOOK Of TAWBJlJ

10

1. Allah commands His servants not tcassociate any oblect or false deity with Him. The prohibition here is so exclusive and. general fhat i.t includes the furibiddance of wershtppiog any false deity or object and. the avoidance of any ritual offered to them as well
2 He commands sons and daughters to do we]~and be dutiful 'to parents, to be modest with them, and to protectand obey them unless they enjoin a violation or a sin" 3. He commands Muslim.s not to bury daughters alive, or kill children for fear of poverty since' man does not provide sustenance for them or

even for' himself
4. He commands Muslims not to approach immoralities apparent of them and what is concealedas well. - what is

5, He' commands His servants not to ]dll any of the believersor dhi'mmts; except with a legal right, such as killing someone fer retaliation, stonieg to death both marned and pr·eviously married perso:ns in case they cemmit adultery, er kimng an apostate. 6. Allah. Exalted be He, commands Mus1:I.ms not to approach the orphan's pmperty unless with the intention toprotect and invest It The orphans property should he paid backwhen he/she reaches maturity.
7. Almighty Allah further commands UcS· to ; •. gil':e full me~'$U'n and weight in jJl$U.:e, We do not .duJ'rge any soul ex'Cept (with that 'Within) its ca'tI£it)l; ...• (QurAn:' A]-An 'am: 152) Therefore, we are enjoined to ~ establish justice asmuch ~s we can in case of taking or gi.vi:n;g.

8.

e•••

And when

you

speak (i.e.,

testify)1

be just~ even

if (it concerns) a

Df!arrelatil!e •••~(Qur·iil1:AI-Au'am: 1. 52}Almighl:yAUah ~mmed]at:e~y preceded tbe command to establish justice in tes·timony witih the

command of doing justice in transactions,
9. Allah ordains the fulfiUmell.t o.f covenants as He says, .~ And the' ..• ''O~na"t· of.Al1ahfulftll ... ~(Q1U~an:A]-An' am: ]52) The coveDl!~nt of Allah is to obey Him by ac:tJ:rtgupon His commands and avoldmg His prohiblnons and. moreover. behavlng in. accordance with the Ql,llrln andthe Smmah of the Prophet (PBUH}.
10. :."And~ (mor;eov;er:).

this is My .path~ whi:ch is sf.rlt[ligh:t. $,0 follow it; and do not fo.llow ((J.ther) w,Qys~for ynn: will b., $epamJea'jrom His way.. :' (Qur"in: AI-An' Am: 153) Allah, Exalted and Glorified be He, stresses that foUQow'ingthe stra~ght. path is to adhere to all

u
commandments d!,]t;idated in the !!l!toreme:ntionootlvo,
QUI'anic

verses ..Such commandmems, which comprise both the abandonment of prohibited acts"particu1ar~y polytheism, and the fulflUment of what Allah has enjoined~particularly monotheism, co.ns~]rulte the :s,ttl1',aight path, The~h~~ievers re commanded to '~ follow it (the straiptpnth); a •. and 00 nat follow (othar) ;ways •••• (Qur'5n: .A1~An 'lIn; lli53) which invoke bid' ahs (matters inn.o¥atted in religio,n) and. doubtful matters 00, that: .• you will 1MseptJmted.fmmIIJs way.. ('luran; A1~An'am:153). Le, deviating from the straight and rlgh~eou.:S patllil.
~J

Relevance ofth,e Vetses to the Chapter
In the' alor,ementioned Qu:ra:nk verses, ALm~ghty Amah SIa!R:.eS ;acolleetion .of prohibiil;{ldacts, starting with the prohibition of polytheissn, Thepr-obibU~on of polytheism necessarilyrequires the enjoinrnent o:facting upon monodu::]sm. 'Ib.e!idQ:r,e. monotheism is the greatest obligation whereas polytheism. is the gravest sin ..

Lessons Drawn from the Qur":aaic Verses

-+ While: po~.ytheism.
obUgaJtorya,ct.

is the gr<l,V'est in, monnthelsmis s

the mQS~srugnificallt

(. The gtiilV.~ltyof PiIJrent.!il' rights . .,. The prohibition. of commlttingbomlclde
reason. Murder of one'srelatives

wlthuut a legal and justified

is, however, a. gmve!r sin.

~ The prohibitio.n of devounngthe ,o.rphan's property. However, it is permissiblete invest the orphan's property (i,e., by means 'of trade) • .) One isenjo~nro to pres~rve justice ttl! word and deed. even iftibeperson mvelved is a relative,
(to

The incumbency ,af fi.dfi1lingoovenants"
and deserting any other religion.

.:. Th.eobligatio:n of embracmglslam

,. lIit is exclus:ively Allah's dght to prohiJoi! or make something lawful.

Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah. be pleased with him) sa.ys~

""Whoeverwant5 to k.rww the will ofProp.het Mul1ammad (PBUH) sealed wUh his se,a~let him r-edtt! the$tl Qurhnic verse5. ~•• Say~ ~Com>e:, 1will :reci.te whn:t your Lord has prohibited to you ••.~ endtng with ~nd, (morel}VefJ~this is My pldh~. whiCh is strfligit. so follow if ••:·.,4 ~(Qur'@Jl:: Al-An '.dm: 151~153) -

Ibn Mas'ud
The fun name of Um Mas' ud is .,Abdullah Ibn Mas'lld lbn Ghlfil Ibn .Hab~b AI- Hudhali, He was a venerable Companion .of the earltest to accept Islam.and one of the prominent scholars, He acc:ompi;ln1.t;:d thePrQphett (PBUH) and d~ed
]n32 A.H.

General Meaning of Ibn Mas 'ltd"s Tradftlon
Ibn ·.Mas'lid (may Allah be pleased with. him)smt·es tbaJt had the Prophet (PBUH) made his wiU, he wouLd lJiElve instructedthe !3!torement]Qued Quranic verses, This islnferred from. the concluding phrase of each Q:u:r"anrnc: vt;:rsc;: whkh reads: ~ this .has He instrnde.d you ••.~(Quran: .A]- An' im: 151) ..•
Ibn Mas' ll.d said that this tradition being motivated iby Ibn 'Abb~ Allah be pleased with them) who was reported to. have said:

(may

"The real a:damity is that the Prcrphet (PBUH) passed away without

leaving his wUl."
Therefore, ID.bJ'l Mas'id
Pmphet\;

(may Allah be pleased with him) reminded. the

Compaeiens of the adequate commandments included. in the Nobl.C1: Qui'an, Had! the Prophet bequeathed 3!. commandment, he woU![d.have derived it :from the Qur'arrk commandments.

Relevance of the Tradlitjj,oD to the Chapter
This tradition illustrates tbat the ccmmandmems mentioned in these ve.rs€'s represent the w:in of the Prophet (PBQH), FOIC the Prophet {PBUH) enunclateswhat is instructed ]]1 nn~Neble Ql1r'ft:n_.

13

Lessons Drawn from the' Tradition
., The tradition affirms tbebnport~n.ce of lhe ten commandments elucidated in the aforementioned Qlllfanrnc'verses . •:. The commandments of ~he Prophet (PBUH)are exactly those of A]mighty A~~ah he tnstructs what Almig[}ty A]]aJn commands. for

+' The Companions were possessed of deep knowledge and pie!fdng
ilmders~and~ng of the Qu:r"an.

THE BOOK OF TAWR1D

M.u'idh Thn Ja!b~d(may Allah be p.i,e'asedJ with him) naJrrated: «:1 W~$ a c.ompanianridn- of the .Pr:opheton a donkey. The Prophet t!$ked.'OMu: 'ridh! Do you know A.llahs right on His servan:ts and the right of His servants on Him." J tepNed,. :Allah and .His Messenger know best.' He said, J1llah~ right Q'n Hi"5 servan.ts is that they must worship Him (only) and must not worship any besides Him .. And the servants right on Allah is that .He must nat punish wh,oeverw,orships none besides Him.' 1said. '0 Allah's Messenger! Should I not inform the people of this good ne-wsr He 5aid~ 'Do no:t i~fonn. t.hem: qf it~lest they shDuld depend on it (ab:solutely): .. (Related by Al~:Bukhirland MusUmt

Mu~ idhlbn Jabal (the Narr.ator)
Thefid~ name ofMu'idh is.Mu'ddb. IlbnJail:m.l Ibn "Amr IbnAws Ibn Ka'b Ibn' Amr Al- Kha:lrai~A]~Ap~;\d+He was one ef the venerable renowned figures

of the ho:r:w.rnble Companions H.e was well-versed ~n Islamic sctences.Iaw ~nd ~Dl:erp.retation ofthe Noble Ql1rln. MU';ildh (may Allah be pleased with htm) witnessed the B,atlleof Badr and the rest: of the Prophets bettles, On the Day of the Conquest of Mecca. the Prophet (PEUH) appointed him. as hisvicefiQY ~n Mecca. to teach people the basics of reng~.OU8 ordinances, Afrerwards,; the Prophet (PBUH) dispatched him to Yemen as a judge and instructor. He died wn 18 A. H. at the age of thh:ty-elght

Keywords and Phrases
" Allab's .right on. His servants: mat Allah deserves from His, servants

and makes incu:mloent upo:n them .
• The !tight of Se!tvants an. All3ih: It refers ~o A]lah's pro'mise to rewar.d His obedient servants out of His bounty andbenevolence • • Absol1'lte.Depe.ndence~ Excessive-trust in AUa.h's me.rcy. which may

rnf:'adpeopte~Qabandon competing in dolng good and righteous deeds,

15

,G eneralMeaning oftbe'lladith
i

incnmbency of monotheism and" moreover, clarifies its virtues by raising a, questien, so that he may grasp the attention of his sudienee, Arter theProphet (PBUH) had. infor.med him of the virtue of monotheism! .Mu'Mh asked the Prophet's p~rmi..s$i:OIJ! to, inform people Qfth:a!t gLad,id]ng. However, the Prophet (PBUH) t forhade hirn to convey such neW'Sto people lest theyshould s1:ad<,en. inoffmng good deeds.

According to the b.adUh. the Prophet (PBUH) emphasieesthe

Relevance ofthe Ha.dith to th,e Chapter
The aforementloned ,l!adJth defines monotheism as the devotion of all acts of wo:rshj,p to Alleh A]o]le"" without associaringany partner with Him,

~, Uu]ike the behavior of arrogant people, the' Prophet (fBUH) showed medesty when mounrsng the donkey and ilIecompanying Mu' oldih
behiad him.

~ The p¢rmissibmty (If aeeempasiylng another peno.n on a. beast: unless it is overburdened. • RaJis:ing questrnons to blvoke answers is an e.ffed~v:emethod .of teaching, "" VVhoev'er iSqjmestkmed about what he does. not know should! say,'Allah knows best:
A ~

Stress ....,~ the rl IJ'h, of A-I'-la--h-o- "H"" ",.,-...""."",,. '-'[1' t "" i n amelv .a,
.' fL.Ii!lp-r..'hLiI.!l"'~
-,!lip _ ~.~''''' ._ "_" ' __ . '. ,u, ,:1.0

iIJI'W.&

YaU,Ij,;:t",

'f,..... 'Ji'r'U !~u

worshin i5.l]

rH '

lm , "

Alone and associatenothing

with Him"

-:.If the M.llls~hncnmmits any act of polytbeism, bis worship is held invaHd, even though he ,app'are.ntiy perforrasatlaets of worsh.ip .
•:- The virtue-of monotheism and thesewho adhere to. it.

.. . lvWnOitheism is defined as worsh.~pping A]]ah Alane and. avaiding all : aets and forms of polytheism . •:. The destrabilttyofconveyieg glad! tidings to a .M'wlim. secret fur the sake.of securing

*:-

The permiss[b[[].ty of keepiugknewledge
a greater interest .

.:- The exhortatlon of showing reverence E(l:eutors, t

THE BOOK OF TAWiiJD

ERdnntes
I. AbO. B<1'lkrah(May AH:ah be pleased! w.itl1 him) .oorrated that the Prophet (PBUH) 5<1!idthrke;

"Should J inform you about the most gr.i:evous crf the gr:eaf sins?" They s-aid,. "Ye~ Messenger of Allah: He s.a,id~'Tojoin others in worship w#h Allah. t4! be undutiful to one~parents .. .' The Prophet then sat up after he had been redining and said •. 1lnd I warn you against giving a:false witness/ and he kept on saying that warning until we wished he wou:ld stop saying it (they ·wished SQ' o·ut of their great tove for fhe ProphetX ~
(Rebted by AI~BlJkhirl {2J554) and M!,1:s~irn (87).. :2 'Ubadah[lbnlJrSamit narrilitoo thill.t the M~ng~r of A[lall (iPBUH) said!:

'~Who pJe4ges ta comply with: th,ecornman:aments included in tnes.ft Qurtmic verses." Then he (PBUH) red tea the following Qu:rant.c verses,. ~a~ "L'o,rnt; I will recife what your Lord h'll:spmhihittd toyuu .. ,;' " (Qur'an: 6: 150) Till .the end of the third 'verse. (then :the Prnphet (PBUH) added.) 'So whoever fulfills such commandments: will be gradously rewn:r:ded by Allah.Howe'Ve~ whoever/ails to fulfill ~nYQf $uch romrrum,dmentsmui receives the lega: punishment in this lift" then. he is deemed free from that sin. But if his punishment is rep.rieved' .till the .Hereafter;. then it is up to Allah if He wishes He will punish himer iJBe wishes. He w.iU forgive him:.~
11[IS

badin :1:;.te:lat@dibyA[-.Hl1kim.Ur.'I.AI-.MusMdrak (The .R.wiewed Col{ecti01ioJ Haattht) (2/318). Commenting on. this flp,d:fh. Al-.Hikim i!i:ilii.d.. 'lts chain ojtranm'litters i$ good. and yet neither Al-Bukhar.i n:or MU$limre~ted it: A1-Bukiharl ,and MlIJsiJm related h4drhs. comeyirtlgthe meantng th:is l£(Jtilh w:i:~hmlJt Emving th.e three Qur':mic verses

or

It is !!',eJial.ooI:ly Al·Bukh~ri l!m.der No. (S},orn.d M!!!Is1i:rnunder No. (1709). 3 Dhimmls; NQ!i~MIl$l:im$ H'lirng l:Ei<iJndiLl:nd!erthtl protecUom. oran W;i[tl:lt starte. 4 See At- Tir.midht (3080)" Al.':l'a~arlrli in AI·.M:u :i~ml\l/~Aw.\lat {'Ihe Middle Leximn} (l208).and Abu, 'lsi. saki, 'It {sb,asan (good) gtmr.ib (unfamiliar) hadJth.' included,

.5 . .AMIlUi'llmlbn. Mas' ad ib;asl:'lai['ra!~ed:

"The Proph.et {PBUH) drew a line .•(hen he drew lines to i:ts l"jgbt aJlld to its lfftand. s:l]d•.''[h:is is the path of Allah, and these are the paths: an each of themthaee :is a devH inviting people til it.• (,_A[Jm, Ex:allea be He, s~,) ~d~ {moreover]" this is My path, which is 5trnigl;tt~ $DJolltlw it; aHd do n0tJ'i?lIow [other] ways;,Jo.ryou

wi'll be .septJ,rtdm from; .His way ••,"(Quran: 6~153)"
CrJller,tion. (Jf!:1.ell:Ji:th~){11453 <Ind46.5),10:[1,Hiib<b~ in his£ql1lh. (A!fth~~tic.BaokofHaaid!} (UUiS) Nos. ,(6 and 7), andA.I~.·HAkbn (2/31$) <lindsaid, 'The chain of:transmission of tars .lladithis au:thentic~but uetther .AlBukhdr1Mvr Muslim related ie.A1EHaytB~utl:isaidin. his book Majmla 'Az,·Zti.maa Ah;f!lad in Al·Mtu!lIad (The Ascrib£d

One

CclJf(~iQn

of AdditiDnal RadUns) (7/21), 'This b.adith i$

reklte.a by Ahmad

17

Ceaclse Commentary on th~ Book of Tawhtd

and Al-Bazzi.1:r" and among its chain of;transmitter-s is 'A~im Ibn Bahdalan.,

who is a 'r:eli:able;1'1'(~rratorthQugh sO'mewna:t w,eak: .
6 AII·,Bukharl (2856)
i:U1Cl M,uslim:

(30) A[I;pt:her

Harm,tiC,D,

(j,f '~h.iisb.adtlh

iiit.. :es: M

It is related by' AI·i3ukhari (12,8} and MllIs]im (3,2). It is stated ]11 Falhul, Majid (Bestow'aW of the GIOfiol)l:!l)(pp.18) that AI-,Wuir' Abul-M.uJaffar said, ~\tlu 'tidh: abstarn:ed

~,. Then Mu 'ddh narrated the abO've'-me-ntionc'd b,adi:th just before hl's death~ being afraid of committing sin {by not telling the knowledge),'"

from speaking out' this ll~diJh lest a henighted ,one would, out abandon offering acts oJ.obedience:

~f is ~gno:rtmce, h

1

r··

.:-:

~:

.... ~.: ,'::

..

<,

Merit of Monotheism

A~mighty AliIah, says: bdiq with i~j~titftthos, will ha,,~ seauityJ ~ml they are the [rightly 1 guiikd~ f'They whe believe 4nd dp not '"~th.rir (Qur'An: AI-An,'~m: .82)1

Reile¥aDce of Chapter to the Bookof Ta;wh.fd
This chapter aims at e:mphas:izing the merit o:f monothelsm and its good impactandlb,]ess:ings which indnde tbe' exp~atimlof sins. and exhO-fuiog people to adopt monotheism. ;M1dact according to i!trs rmdples. p

Keywords andPhrases
.. Those who believe: The believers are those who retain a firm belief pronmti1lce the declaration of faith and! Jna~nta]nappai!'e!l1t righteO'l.l;5 deeds. All ~ibes,ec:onvic~ion:s and acts are crowned by true and. sound beUenn One God.

• Inju~tict: Acco.rding to the aferementicaed Qllu1anK;- verse. the term Js
defined as polytbelsm, IiI1jusNce fl,tiginaJlyn:iei3!El:5 it vio]a!tion ofdgbms or of what lS :right Pnlythe:ism is, thus, a form of InjwsUce because it is a viola,t]on of AUah'sabsolute righ,t of bernn:gwell'sMpped solely. • The Right1y'"gu:idedl: Those who are steadfastly guided to adhete to the straight pa~h.

General Meaning of the Qmr'anic Verse
Relief of fe;ru.fS <1I.[[dardships on the D <ly of Resi!i.ttectitm Is secured h fur those who are since:rd.y devoted to Allah Alone without des ecratmg monorheism by amya.ct of polytheism.. Such P eople are ~hose whoare guided to steadfastly adhere to. the stralghr path in thisrnIfe.

lIe~evan.ceof the Our'antc Verse to the Chapter
The afcHiemenJtionedi QIllt'anic verse e:mfdl~sipe'S the merit of mo:notheism an.drefers 10 it'S expi<litkm of sins.

.Lessons Drawn from the Qur'anic Verse
.. The merit of monotheism Hereafter and its frujrs in. both th~sworld and the

':. .Majorpo:lytheism is a form of iojustice, wh]chl'IDld1ifl~'S sound belie~f,.
while minor poEytbeism only degrades true belief.

'::0 Associating

partners

with A~]ah (po·lythdsm) ~s~n W1!fQrgiv,able sin.

+ Polytbe]sm

causes fear in both ~!bisworld and the Hereafter"

Ohap,ter 1: Mmt of Menorhelsm

21

'Ubftdla.h Ib[}u~-£a.mi1 (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated Prophet (lPBUH) said;
Allah .Alone Who has .no .partner9, and that .Mullammad

that the

"'Whoe"va testifies that' Hone has th« r.rght to be 'worshipped but
is His

Servant and His Messenger; and that Jesus is Alla.h~ S~~tvtl!nta:nd Hi'sMessenger. His Word which He 'bestowed' on Mar}' and a spirit (cre'ated at a command)from Him. and that Paradise is true.and Hell is true. Allah will admit him into' Paradis,f' with the deeds w.hich:he had done (even if those deeds are Jew ).',2

·Uib4dah IbnOl-Samit (die Narrator)
The fun name .of'Ub.adah is'Ub~dah Ibnu,~~,SimH Ibn Qays Ai~An!ad A~~Kha.z,rajLHe- was one of the prominent chieftaina who witnessed Al"Aqabah Pledge. He is reckoned am.ong the people of Badr and. died ]n 34

A. H.at the age of 7'2.

Keywords and Phrases
.. To t;e,stify dla,t neue has the right to be worshlpped but
Allab: This is the Testiflcation of Faith, which a .MusHm must verbally proclaim, funy comprehend and further act accordlng to ius requirements .

• Anah~sServan.1t

and Messenger:

It is unlike the Christians' belief

which proclaims that JesU!sis God or the Son. of God or. one of the three hypostases.
• His Word: Jesus, (PBUH) was ereeted by a divine decree expressed ~n a.divine word .

., That' He bestewed on Maryr. Allah sent Gabriel with His Word to
breathe his Spirit into M.allry, Jesus was, therefore. created by A]]3ih':s
divmewill.

• S,P'irit: Jesus: 15 caned the Sp]ri.t {)f Al1ah {PBUH) as he is one 'of the souls crested by AUah.

22 ., From Him: It means that Jesus (PBUH) was created by Allah, His ereation ~sHIkethe creation of the heavens and the earth as exp!r~~sed ~n Al~ah's saying. ~~Hd He has mbjec.teil to you wht4e1!1U is in the
iSQ(rJ:

.heavensRud whatever

ear,th, - tI:lIfrom Him." {Qu['~:A]- Jathyiah: ill 3)

• Paradise is true'), and Hell is true: The Testlflcatlon ofF.aith should
indnde 1!11.e MusJims'tuJrelentillg belleftbatParadlse and the Hellfire exist according to ~he instructions ofthe :Ever·Glm:ious QU[~ilOi•

.. AMahwiUadmit hfm m,to Paradise wlththe

deeds which he bad don-e (evem if those deeds 'Wele foew)~; phrase may be Tbis d.ifferen.t~y ~nterpreted:: admit each monotheist into Paradiseregard[ess,oi sins: he eommits, fur menothelsts will in.ev~tably' enter Par.ad!lse.
2. Allah will admit him into a grade of Paradise propertionate
I. AUallil w]]l

the
to the

good and r~.ghteous deeds he offered .
..Related by AI- Bukhi.daBd.MliIm.m: Itmeansthatrheatorementloned b.adtth was compUed by Al"Bukb~r~ aad Muslim in their books, which are regarded as tb~ most i1!utherntk oon)!p~]i:I!dom, fHadtth .. o

General Meaning of the Badith
WhH~ 'ex.pounding the v]rtue of monotheism. and .~tsimportance, the Prophet (fBUH) shed light on the peerequisites a Muslim should. fulfm in order to be admitted into Paradise. A MusHm. must, therefore, proclaim the Testificstion of Faith~ comprehend its meaning and actaccording to its apparent and inward. reqeiremems. He must, furthenaveidexeesslve or Inadeqaate belief in the nature of the two venerable prophets, W~s.us and Muibammad (Blesslngsand Peace of Allah be upon. them both), They must,

thus, be assumed

as: Me$s.enge:rs and! human servants

of AHa:h. Similarly.

a Mus]im must believe that Paradise and the Hellflre uncll.OlJllbted~.y exist,

The one who falfllls all such reqntrements, aceordtng to the lIadUh~ wH~. e b admitted to Paradise whatever sins he: might have co.mmiMed.

Relevance of tile l;!adith to the Chapter
This ,bfldlth mustratesthe merit of monotheism that ultim.ateIDy leads the believer to enter Paradise and expiates his S]f!..S"

Oh.apter 1: Merit of Monerhelsm

23

Lesso:msDraw. :from the Hadtthl
., 'fhe merit of monotheism, which is a cause of exp~aUng:'One's sins

+

'It: pfi)\i\es tibe infinite Grace and Beneficence of Allah, Exalted be He. must not ex:cessively Oil" madequately venerate Allah's prophetsand nghteous people, A Muslim must not be ungrateful to them. Slmilarlj, he-must nat be excessively devoted to them. by associating them, wUh Allah as some ignoran.t and dev~an.t eople do . p

+. A Muslim

•:. Isl.:aJl].krnol1Qth~ism is contrary tn aU, polyt}H;~i.~tic octrines 'Of the d Je'INS, Ch!r]stians, Idolaters. and atheists, ·:'Wmn,gdoers among the monotheists will not abide in the Hellfire for eternity,
Z~£,-..JS.,

.'~'V

'-, :

24

Concise Comm.elu;1:ry

Oill.

the Book. of Taw/tld

, Itlbam ..llin. Malik (mar Allah be pleased wit~. nim) narrated that the :Plophet (PBUH) said: ~... Allah has for.bidile.11. the Hellfire (to touch) those who s.qy 'There is no de#y hu.t AUah ..' onl, ftJr the sake ,ofAllah .... ~ (A part of a h.adith related by AJ·Buk:han and MusHm.)

•IthAn. (the N arrator)
Thefull UM1e of the narrator is' Itbiiln Ibn MMik Ibn 'Amr Ibnul-' .AjiHiml Al- An§_a:r]. He was fromthe tribe of Bana. SilHm.Ebn 'Aw.f,and ·81. well known

Companion.
w~th him).

He died du:d:ng:th.e (;3!]iph;ate·ofM:u' 3Jw~Yi3Jh Allah be p]eased (may

Keywords and Phrases
• AUab has Itorbidd.en th.eHe11fire: Forbiddance meansthat A~~ah win s~fegu.am. the believers aga]n;s! the torture of the Hellfire . .. Only for the sake 0.£ Allah: It means that the TesUfi.caUon of Faith
must. be proclaimed with sincerity. or otherwise, it may be regarded as

hypocrisy.

-:_1 _. G. en.e,,:cu M-- ~<lo1i111·
o;"OI,i!i

TIro !I~~

0'

·oftb"e Hadtth
__ -____--

_

The Prophet {PBUH) affirms thalt whoever utters the TesUfi.caUon of Palth will be kept away from Hellftre ~fhe is siacere in his bellid, devotes an .adl; ·of

wo:[&h~p to Allah AiJo.ne,.3".vo~dspolytheism) and fulfills all the appa:rel'J!t and inward n~qlll]rem.e_]1.ts f faith. o

Relevance of the nadUh to tile Chapter
This ~adrth i:s a dear indicarlen of the me:dt of monotheism, which guarontees admissionto Paradiseand expiation of sins only for tbose whoO
retain true belief

25

Lessons D:rawn from tlh,e,HadJth
.:. The merit of monotheism, whichsecures and expiates ttiheir sins. its holders from the Hellfire

(~ It .i:!;not suffk:ie:n.trto UUl;!T the. 'Testi:ficatk.m of Ea1th withoat retainmg firm belief of the heart, as the case of hypocrites when .they pmcl.dm Islam but inlwudly do not have aflrm belief

me

(*

SimUarly. ~.ttDB not suffident to retalnflrm bellefofthe heart witholJ.t verbally prenouncing the Tesilti:fk:atk>.nof Faith". such ::IS, H~u'!:' of case tbeInfldels,

.. The HeIlfi:~ ~sproh:ibH'ed ~QappfiO'.achthQse of perfe<:,tbeli~f mnAlla!h• .;. Good deeds will be aGcep:tted onlr' if they aee sincerely devoted to Allah Moneand offered in conformity 'With the SUHnah oftfueiProphd (PBUU) . .:. The mere utterance of ~he 'Iestlflcatlon of Faitb by those who. adore other false deities 01 objects besides Allah such as devotees of shrines is of no avail thougb they verballyproclaim the 'Iestification of fa~th. they invoke the dead and draw nearer to, them. .. 'fMs liruifth proves. ~ha.tAlmighty Allah has: a Face that suits His Majesty and the Grandeur of His MIght.

Abu Sa' id AI.-Kihudrt (maJY A]]~h be pleased with him) narrated Prophet: (PBUH) sa~d:

that:

the

''Moses sai:d~ '0 My .Lord! Teach H:le' an £tl~ocation with which 1 should r-emember and inwoKe You' Almighty .A.llah said. 'Say 'There is no deity hut Allah,' Moses said" ~O.My Lord'! .AllYou:r s,e:r-vanrssay this invocat.io,.H.' A.Imighty Allah replied" '0 Moses! lfthe se)l'en heavem, thf;ir{:r'~habita nt'S,. other than .Me, and the scvefiearths w,~r:eto bel", a sc,aie, and the statement <There is n" de.itJ' but A U,a./f' were to be in the other s.ci1l'e"the la.tt:e.rwould

definrte,ly outweigh them.' ,,~
(au~h~rnHc)!1f;jdfth )

{Related by Ibn ,Hibbfm and A[-HMdm~ who g:radedJ. .it

1lI.

~abJh

Abt'i Sa'id AJ..,.Kbl1dri (the Narrater)

-

The fuJI U3Jrne ef the narrator is Abu. Sa'ld Ibn. Sa' d Ibn M~nk mbl'lJ. Sililan AI-Kbaz;ra;ji Al~An:l~rlAJ~KhudrJ.from. BarnO.Khudrah, Be was a venera!b1e Compwion and a son of a Conlpaniolil. He narrated many neJai:ths and (Hed.in 74 A.H.; may Allah be pleased with htm,

Keywo,rds and Phrases
...Moses; He is Musa Ibn "Imdm. the Messenger (If Amah dispatched to the ChLLdr,e,Jl,of Jsrael, and the one who di:rec:tly spoke to Allah, • Toremem 'bel' Anah: ToO remember Allah means to g~orUy Him repeatedly and render words of homage to Hlrn,

General Meaning of the Hadi:th
Pr-Qph.et .Moses (P:SUH) asked. ALI'1I!l[,g'~ity .AJ~ah to teadb him 011. formwa,. o:f invocation with. whim. he would praise Wld.lrJiVob! Him. 'Thus. he was recommended to repeat~he statement 'There iis n.odeity but .iillah." Moses {fBUH) realtzed ·!that this stateml.u1!tis often reittlnilled by most people, 'lfhe!)',e:fore. he asked for a peculiar invecatien so ~li1athe might ib,edistinguished. Allah explatned to hhn the virtues of thisst~t(:'ment~wnk:h is, unmalt<:hed by other statements.

27

Lessons Drawn from the Hadlth
.:" This l!,adith pOlin1s out the grestvirtues of prodaiming tthat there is no, deity burt Allah, This formela impHes both monotheism and sincerity o:fbeUe.f..

+ The merit of Moses (PBUH} and his keenness to draw nearer

to

Allah

.:. Acts of worship are restricted to what Allah ordams, and no one is permitted to ~ntrodu,e something innovative in religious ordinances, for Moses (PBUH) asked Allah to teach him how to glorify !NIdpraise Him. .. Whatt is more direly needed should be more available tnand lbearalb~e by most people, As the statement: 'There is no deity but AUiili' is indispensable for the whole world!" it is the most available and easiest torememoer, ~ A~mi,ghty Allah. is above' heavens, as He 8ar8~~: aHd thei'r inh:abi:tants, _.

other than Me ...".
•:. Th.e statementThere is no deity but Allah" ~8 indivisiJble. so. it must be pronounced in fuM.

•> This b_adi:th proves the n~aUtyof the Balance

wm. be' set (in the

of Weig~ting Deeds. which

Hereafter),

(. 'The prophets need to be directed. to the mertts of ~i1e'Iesttflcatien ofF!BJmh.
00)0.

There are seven earths exactly as there are seven heavens.

'*

23

Concise CUlnrnelTil;lry

011

the Book of Tawkid

Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: "~l eard theMessen~r h of Allah (PBUH) saying that Almighty Altah

said. 'Q son of Adam! J/you meet Me inth:e: state that your sins fiU .the earth~ but nO'.t~Qd,aJiHg anything with Me. I will meet 1014 with the' same (vtlstnes,s:)ofJ,,,,xtii'eness ((m~My behalf): ,,~
(Related by At~ Tirmldht 'WhQgraded i~a. l:!asan iuui:fth)

Anas Ibn MaUk. (the Narrator)
The full name of the narrator is Anas Ibn Malik Ibn An- Na!l.r A]~AnI3rt Al- Khazrajt, H~'was the Prophets servant for ten yea:rs. The Prophet (PBUH) invoked Allah for Anas saying,. '~Allah., gmnt him plenty of nu:mey and .Children .and admit him into .P£l'rad.ise" " He died in 92 or 9'3A.H. and at the age of more than it hundred years; may Allah be pleased with him.

Keywords and Phrases
iii

But not associa,ting'anytkiilg with Me: It implies that a believers
sins nury be forgiven 0'11 the Day of Resurrection provided that he dies witb.out perpetratlng any ad of polyt:helism.

GerneralMeaning ofthe Hadith
The Prophet (PBUH) says that A~.mightyAljah informs His servants about His in:fi.nhe Grace and Mercy. and assures them that He forgaves an sins. no matter how plenty they are, as long as no act of polytheism is commtttedr Moreover, this b_adith is similar to the Qur'anic verse,
which reads:

·'tlndeetl.. AIlIih dDe5' not forgive (tssocimicm with Him,. but He lorgiveswhat is Jess til,,". tha.t fur whom He wills ......
(QUiiiin: An-·Nidt: 48)

Rel evan ce ofthe Hadith to the Chapter
This IlJ~dUhprovides a proof of the great reward of monotheism, which e'K"p;jaJ~e;s mans sins, however countless they may be ..

29

Lessons Drawn from the .Hadifh
" 'f!he merits of monothelsm and. the great reward it entails.

+- The l:!(Jaith provides
are Infinite.

that A[[ab's Grace" .Bounty~Mercy and Forgiveness

'0 This Iladtth is a counter a:rgI,]Ih.en.! gainst the Kharijftes'r, (Se,eed.e['s") a allegation. which invollves tha!t once ill Mus1im commits any or sin" he becomes a disbeUever.

rna,

.) It also provides a proof that speech is one of Allah's Attributes, and that His Speech bdlu8 His Majesty and Might ·l· The Testiflcation of Faith is not a mere utterance. It rather necessitates the avoidance of both minor and major polytheism . •) The lladith also proves the occurrence of resurrection, reward in the Hereafter. reckoning and

Endnotes
1 'Abdullth Ibn MlIs;t1d (may Allahbepleased with I:dro) narrated: "When tht':Ve.rS'e:"'They who IJelie.vt. rmd·dGJ JJiol mix the.irbeliej'w'ith inj,ustice" (Q,~r~n; Al,·A:rl' am.: 83) wasr!'!vealed:, ·MIe· said, '0 .Al{a:h"s Messenger! who is there amongst U$ who has not ,doneJvro~g to hirmelft' He replied, 'It is not as you say. jor 'i'nj'U5ti'~'.in I. 1,. ,J 1'..' "th'" ." :tn~·verse ..••• an:~ d 0 not ."m:1X t[i>C'~r l.~r ,f W,!'·,, I:pUJushce••.: meat:!;!!: 'l:";_' ',' !';i.,.!tf!,1' .inU',J\. n, e. JO~I'!U!g
J)' (. ., ,. •

others ,inw.orsnip wd'h Allah). Have )'ou ;lOi heam LuqmnJ!$ saying to' his son• .,.,0 my ' do Hdlf ,as.roriate f"nytliingJwith AUtI'h. I:n:detd;. association {willi him} is great inju$lice;' ,; • " [Rila[ed by Al··Bukhtrl (3360) Muiim (124)]. 2 Al.Bukhari (3435). MlisHm (28). At· Tkm.~dhi (2640) and Ahmad in his book Al~
8M.

MUSl1iad {5/,3 1 4). 3 AI··.BukhiM (425). Muslim (33), an,djAhmad :in his ~ompl!Latlon .A{:..Mnsnad (51449). 4 Ibn HJ.bbiin (2324), Al..H,~klrn (11528) i.nA.l-Mustaa'mk (The RevIewed Colle.cti,r;m

of

liO,Q,rtlu) w.h.ich AI,-Hikimreg..;;nis .as :meetin:g the conditions that ,either At=Bukhth:t Of Muslim S(f.~ to add l:!(!diths.~o their compj]arlijJ,]l;§:of :iUlthentk hariJths, and yet are not mentioned ill either ofthem. ... n-Nad~i in 'Arnal A,!~Yawm Wal-Laymh (SuPpUc.a.t:io'l1s A of the Day tind MC}u) {SJ4 ~!ld lI.U}, and both Ibn Hiblbdn a.tni~ AlJ:[olJkim graded lt aSi!Lutlumtk, arid Adh ..Dhahabt was of the same opinion as that of AHftkim. M-Hayiliami . said in his book Maj.ma· Az-ZawA.;.id ('Inc CoJ'lec,t,{o.ft (If AdditiQnai

Had:ith;$) {lOI82), "This b.ad.i.th :is nQJTaJed hy.Aba Ya'la and its tr:ansmitter'$ are dffl'en'u!;~Jreliable though somewhat weak,."

30 5 Al·Tirmjdh1 (3534), Ad-Dilrruni:(2791 ),.and Ahmad (51172), and 1\t-Tlrmldht graded it a l1.ttsun, .11adith. 6 The Kharijites (Ar-.Khawdr~ .•Le, the Secoedm): An 1:s1am.i.c r.ffiicOIll sect who broke iliwaif from the migfl of' All! Ibn Abu mJib.. the Muslim Caliph then, aad murdered! him. Their fo]lowers 'believe that the Mus]in1. who CQmnlirts Q.. major sin lisa disbeliever, They a]SI) curse and revile the Prophet's, C~m!?Q:li1i,ons deem the blood. olfMusJims vjolab:ie. and

Perfect Monotheism GuaranteesParadise
'

-

-

.

.

-

-

-

Almighty Amlah says:

"Indeed", A~riilham was Q (oompreh~n81iv.e) leader; devoutly obedieut ttl! All~h~ jHcUni:ng' toward truthJ Q.:nd he was not offliNe who i'l6$Qdate: others with AlI'41t;~ (Qur'an.: An- Nabl; 120) He, Exalted be He, ;01.180 says: ~Hd they who do not ass.oc,iate ,anything wl:ththeir .Lord.~ (Quran~ ,A}-.Mu·miniln: 59.)

Relevance of the Chapter to the Book of Tawhid
Inthe prevlous chapter. the author (may Allah have mercy on him) mentloned the virtues of monotheism. Now. he is going to, elucidate how to, attain .the degree of perfect monotheism.

32

Condsc Cmnrnenwy on the BDok of 'Mw/;Id

Keywords and Phrases
• Attainment of perfect mooothe:ls.m: Perfect monotheism may be realized if it becomes free from any actor form of polytheism, b.id •ahs (matters innovated in religion) or \\rrongdoings . • Acomlprehensive leader: Ibnihim (Abraham) used to be a nermenve model, s~nce he mstructed a]] that is good, • Indiiliingtoward tru:th: He is ardently Inclined to obey Allah and atways disinclined to worship any false dcl'ity.

'General Meaning of the Our'anic Verses
Almighty Allah characterizes .IbrLhim (Abraham), His intimate friend, by
[our qUl3!liti~s;

1. He was 11 good example of'all rlghteons traits as he reached the highest degree in. showing patience and c;:ertainty;, the two attributes are held necessary [o.raUainin,g comprehenslve leadership, 2. He was devout~ obedient ;i1IIna peniste.nt
Exalted be He. in. worshlpplng

Allah.

3. In additionto
toward Allah.

turning a'Way from polytheism. Ibrihim. inclined

4. He kept .away from the polytheists.

Relevance of the Two Qur'anic Verses to the Chap'ter
In the first Qur'''al'll]cverse, Almighily A]larh mentJom the characteristics of :llirah:tm (.PBUH), who represents the highest degree of perfect monotheism .. He. moreover). enjoins us to foUow his example, Therefore. He sa/ndt: "There. has already bun
and those with .him ..• :!'.1
jf!r1f)U ~.~ exce1icnJpattern

:inA,&raham (Qur'~n: Al-MIDfit~hmah: 4)

In the second Ouranic verse Almighty Allah depicts our righteous ancestors' traits; the greatest of which ~stheir abandonment of aILacts and forms of polytheism whether. apparent er covert, Hence, whoever succeeds in fiulfiHing these prereqalsites 'will reech the highest degree ,ol perfea and pure monotheism, and consequently be admitted into Paradise w.i:thout ibeingcalled to account for his deeds ..

Lessons Drawn from theTwo Qur'anic

Ve:rses
of
OU,f

-> The

two Our'anic verseaafflrm the virtues
(P BUM},

forefather

Ibrahim

.:• One is enjoined to follow the footsteps of Ibrahim (PBUH) and adopt his great attributes.
+)

The two Qur'anic verses expound the prerequisites of perfect and plllre
monotheism .

.:+ One

to' avoid. po,lytiheis.m,. and disown :polytheists by denoancing the~r b,~·]j.efs practices. and
to the aforementioned Qur'arrie verses, true believers are

is. enjoined

+ According
portrayedas

accomplishing the requirements of pure monotheism.
Am.·,.£ V'.V

HUlayn. Ibn ·Abd.ur ..~hman reported:
"1waS'sitting with Sa;'td Ibn fuba:yr when he said,. {l'Vhaamo~g you saw the shooting star thatfelll.ast tiight?~ I said, 1(saw it)" and Iadded, ~(At that time~)I was not p erforming prayer but 1was stung;' He ,asked me, ~What did_yO'udo thent I said. 'I recited an in.c.antati.on: He asked, ':Vlhy did you de so t I said; ~1 so because 1 heard a llad.tth: which .Ash-Sha ·bf; did related to us; He asked,. "What d·idhe :relateto you.?'· [said, 'He related on the a.uthority of Buraydah Ibnul-Hu~ayb who said~ 'No incanta;ti(m (is permissible) except that made because of an evil eye ·ora sti ng;~SOJ Sa' id Ibn l«bayr said, "It is goo.d that one acts" acconiJn.g to what one learns: Then he edded that Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah b'epleas,ed with him) narrated that the Messenger of A.llah (PEUH) said, ~Nations were displayed before me; a prophet would pass by accompanied
1

noluJdy. Then a big ,crowd of p'€oplepassed in front ,of me and I asked, 'Who are they? Are :they my!o.Jlowers?j It was sai'd No. It is Mo,se:sand his followers:' Then l.saw a big crow.d' af peop.le who .passed in front of me and it was said to me, 'This is your nation. out of whom seventy thousands shall enter Paradise without recJum:ing or chastisement: Then Prophet Mullammad (PBUH) entered his house without telling his Compani.ons who they ,(the sev:enty thousand perJ012s) were. So the people started talking ab'H~tthe issue and some sa,ia, 'Those may be the Companions who have believed in Allah (md accompanied His Messenger'; another group said. <Those are our children 'Who are ,born in the fold of .lsl4m and associate .no partner with .All.ah'j and' others expressed different opinions. YVhenthe Prophet (P:B'UH) came ou:tt they informed him of their argument, and he said~ 'Those peopJ:edo not ask others to treat them with incantation. nor do they get themselves cauterized (for treatment), nor do they b.eUeve in bad omen,. and upon their Lord they rely~'On that~ ·:Ukkdshnh IbN Mi&Cln. s.aid, ~O .Messenger of Allah,! .Invoke
J

by a few followers; a p:rophet would pass byaccompanied by one er tw'O followers and a prophet would pass ~y w.ith
1

35

,Allah to make me one of them,' The Prophet (PBUH) said" You are one of them: So, lmatherpers.on got up and saJd,'O Messenger of Allah! Invoke Allah ,to' make ,me one of .them: The Prophet (PBUH) saitL ~'UWshahhaspree:eaed yml-: .. II
• III$1Yn. Ibn •Abdur~lIahD1b~ Thefu.11 nsme of 8~a:yn ls H,ulayn Ibn ,Abdur-Ra,hm.ln As-Swamt AI-HB:rithL He was one of the Tdbi' an:;!, and. died in 136 A. H ..•at the a~ of93; may A~bh be pleased witil1, him .

•' Sa,'ld Ib.n Ju:bayn He

an eminent imam and faqth from ~mong the most venerable disdples of Ibn 'Abbb. He w.as murdered by the command ofAl~Hajj~j in 95 AH..,; before reaching me fliftLeilioftus a,ge.
is

• Asb-Sna"'bi: Hisfull name is Ash~Sha'bIThnShurahbnAl-Bampnt. He wasborn during the Caliphate of' Umar Ilbnul-Kha!1tab. and was one of the trustworthy T&:bi'Ctn, H~ died in 103 A.B,,; may Allah be

pleased with him.
'II

:Buraydaht His fun name is Buraydah Ibnul-HUiay!b lb:n~,.d~Hirith
Al-Aslemt, He was a well-known Companion~ and died :in 63 A.H.; may A]]ah he pte:ilJsed with him,

• lb.n '.Abbas:

'AJbdlll11lh Ibn 'AbbM Ibn' AJbdul-MnnaIib wasthe paternal cousin of the Prophet (P.BUH);and.one of thevenerable Cempanlons for whom the Prophet (PBUH) invoked Allah. saying "0

Allah. grant h:im (Ibn 'Abbas) deep unde:rstandfng oj the mattersq! religion. and teach him the essence of interpre.ting (the .Noble Qu~an).';
Allah responded to this invocation, Ibn 'Abba5d1ied~n 68 A.H.; may A~]a'hbe pleased w~th.him . • 'Ukkashah: His fun name is 'Ukkbbah fun MilD.a:n Ibn BurtthirlJ AI ~Asadi.He was one of the earliest Compentons to accept Islam. He immigrated to Medinaand'Witnes:sed the Battle ot Badz, Refought theapostates under the leiildeT'SMp of KhaHd. illb[]jiLll~Wa~id was and killed therein in. 12 A.,H.; may Allah. be pleased. 'w.~th. um. r

Keywords and Phrases
• IDcantati.on: Speclflc Qur'ani.cverses and prnyen recitr.edfor an ~njlured or skl.person.

36
• ,J::iVU
·~_..!1

. eye:.E'iJ)ViOU$ eye,

• One acts according to wbat. one learns:. Acc:ord1ng to this phrase..a
MUiSlim should no,t beignorant of rltaal ordinances and ofhow to perform

them, Similarly, a Muslim has to act according to what he learns,

• Nations welre displayed. before Jne~ Some scholars malneained that
such nations were disp]ay:ed 'before thef'rophet (PBUH)aJtthe Nigh~ of Ascenslon when he was shown what would happen to them on the Day of Resurreetlon, • Are they my followers,!: The Prophets question tndlcated that he (:PBUH) thought they w:en: his followers because they were great
m number. and that he was, so far thai! he (PBUH) could not clearly

recognize them. • Without rockcming' or chastisement: They would not be called to
account for ~be.irdeeds .0[[' even receive chastisement, That is because they fulfilled the prerequisites of perfect and pure monotheism.

• So the' people started talking about the issue: All the auendlants
debated and produced di~ferent conjectures aboum the good deed,

which qrua~ifi.ed. .sUdl people to deserve such an elevatedgrade, • •Ukkbbah has preceded you: 'Ukkashah
preceded
In fulfUUng

these characteristics or in rnis]1lg the question,

General Meaning of,tbeH.adith
Hl,l~ Ibn 'Abdur:-Rahm!n (may Allah be pleased wItb him) garve an account of a talk: that took p]ace a,tSa' id [btl Ju1bayr's sesslcn when. be discussed the issue of the .shooUng star that fell dow.n the previous n]g[lt Husayn said that he witnessed its farring,. as he was not sleeping then, Lest the attendants would think thst he spent the whole ni:gntprayjng. HUiaynexplained why he was awake, This. was the common practice efour righteous Muslim Salaf who were so-keen 1:0· observe sincerity in all their dealings, Hence" he revealed that being stung was the realreason for ibeing ;;!i.wak,euring the whole .night. Thereupon. the stream of d their talk turned to discuss what H1JJ~ayn with his ~njiUIy.He informed them did that he treated himself by reciting lega] jncanta.tion.When, HUiayn was asked about the kgal, p1loof of bis actton, he mentioned the IT.(;Idtth. wni<;h provlded the pel'missibility ,ocf'edting legal incantation Enhis case. Thereopon, Sa' kil praised l him. :fOir pplyLng the h.adhh, and further guided him. how to attain the highest a grades of perfect monotheism by ebandoning detestable matters) when needed,

aFid exdU!siv:dy relying: on and trusting in. AUab (instead of being over confident in 'liIfaysoftreatment offeredby,other.s). It is. mcreever; the qUl3iHty oftbe seventy thousand persons who would be-admitted into Pa:mdise wUhout being caned to account for their deeds or even chastised, The: !Prophet {]?BUH} depict-ed them as exdusi.vely relying C.ltIJand! trusting in ALLah ~lllstead. of no,lding fastt tolegal Incantations, cauterieatlon er other types of treatment sought ITo'mothers.

Relevance nfther Hadith to tli.e Chapter
This b,adttheluddates the way ofa:tlahdngpedect monothelsmand the

rewards itentails Enthe Hereafter; .
.LeSSOdS

Drawn

frOoID. the

Hadith
contem-

.:. Knowing the merit afoul righteous Muslim. Salafwhoalways

plate the heavenly signs .of Allah,

+)

Ou!!"lTighiteQU~ Muslim $alalwere ket;:n to observe $iftoe:rity in 0.1[[ their affairs. They. moreover, detested sb.ow.ing off thesr righteous deeds, investigate the proof of its permiss.ilbility. Such was the case of our dghteoU8 M,Us]Im.SalaJ, is des:i:rabl,eto seek the proef of permissi.bm.ty beficne carrying Qutany action, and U is highly commendeble to put what islearnt into practice. iilnd tenderness ..
into any <let (me should

+ Before proceeding
+rnt

~ ..Knowrnedge should becorweyed with eourtecusness
$
+)

The per.miss:ibiUityof treatment by recitiog legal incantation, Upoo. wUn~ssing a Mu:sli:rn aJdhering to aJ.[permissib[e act. i.t is desirable to guk!e him to offer what ~spreferable and. more desirable in tilt' Sight of Allsh,
Oi3itiOiJl.S

+ KnowiJJ;g the
.z..

merit of Prophei~ Muhammad (PBUH) befo.re whom were disp1aryed.
to another .

am]

<-- The numbers of the prophets' followers differ :from one

This.l1ad'ith prevides a refutetien of those who allege that the tmth~]efl in the pnu::E]Oes. of the dominant majority of poop le, is enjo~nedto follow the truth. no matter how few its {oMDrwers m:ay~H~;.

'+ One

<t l'helladith affirms the virtues Qf Moses (PBUH) and hls followers .
. ) The bpdtth affirms thev~nue of the Prophet Mubammad's nation as it represents the major multitude among fhe other ptoph¢tl fQnQiw~rs,

.. Knowing the m.eriit {If attaining p~d'~t monotheism. greatly rewarded on. the Day of Resurrection ..

wh~ch will be

.. Itis 3nowalb]etohoMdi&CU5S~QlilJS Q[!['e!iglous issues to derive beneficial iPQ:h~tsa:nd make the tifll!,the:vident

+ The Saia! usedto

bep a deep understanding of r.~Jigj.Qn, They. thus, realized ttha,ttthe s;ev.enty thousand persons aUained. such a highly elevated rank thr(lugb earnest W()fk.
offering good deeds.

.:. The Sala! we[\e: seriously keen to do righteous acts and compete in

+ Atl:aining

fUin trust in AUah by abandoning .incantation and cauterlzation is an hl.dkation of pure and perfect ibeUe.fin Allah,

., It is permissible for the Muslim to ask pious people to invuke Allah fQrhhn. ~. Knowing the virtue ef' UM::ash~h Ibn MihS:11n(may .A~]<3Jh pleased he

w~thhrnm). .
.. The Prophet (PBUH) prophesied that ·UW.shah was one of the seventy thousand people who wouldenter Paradis~ without reckoning OF cltastrnseme:lllit. A:£te[w.'li'l~S! 'UWsbah was martyred during the militarycempaigns larm.checl.agairut the apoo.talte!>..May.A][ah be pleased wid] Mm.! This iiilddf;n!t provides one of the signs of Muham_mad's Prophetbood.
t)

Tb~: Prophet's use of euphemism shows his noble character. He d~d not offens.ively tell the main that he would not be mcluded :amoDg thQSt::Sieverruty thousands. It is desirable for ascholer to tennina.te the di8CU!ss;io:non specific topics, so that unqualified p'erS,OJ1S :may not delve iI1!~osoph]8MCilted

(1)

legal issues.

Endnotes
] A1-B~itr:[ (3410). M/J.s~tm (220), At~Tirm:idM {Z44a).Ad-:O~rjmi. (281.0). <md Abmad 0./270.. 2lhern~i '~n (S!;Ii;:c~n cf'the Compalli{1ns): Phn:a[ of Tab';' i; a person who witnessed <II CQI:!l;p<lIliiQ!,! of the P.ro:pfu:~l {PBUEi), i,e,.Qn.e of dwsewiho belengedt« ~ililefi.rit Muslim gen.e'ration after the P,:ophe1t (PBUH).,

CHAPTER

.... -."

Fear of Polytheism
Almighty Allah says:

€,(lndeed~AIkIh does not forgive lJMDciatf.on: with Him" but He forgives whdt is Jess than. thatforw1Wm He wills~••» (Qur'an: An-Ni~a': 48=11.6) Moreover Allah!, Exalted be' He, reJat'e,5.in ~he Noble Qur':!n, thm Ibd,him • His in~]mate frlend (may Allah be pleased w~th him}, invoked Him saying:
<"My Lord, m:ake this tity fi.e.~ Aletta} secure and krtep me and "",.$..on$,awnyfrom worshipping idols." (Quu:'>in: Ibclhim: 35)

Relevance of the Chapter to the BOQ,kof Tawhid
Having clarified how to meet the prerequlsees ofmonotheism and.pointed eut its merits, the author, Inthis chapter, elaborates em the mi5givjngsabo'U.t polytheism, so that ,3. true believer may be warned against them.

---_

...

- ..

40

Keywordsaad. Phrases
• Allab does, not Co:rgive associaUon. with HililU Allah never grants
forglveness,~o the one who dies while dedicating acts (If devotion to any false deity besides Him. Nonetheless, Allah forgives all other sins with the exeepttoncf polytheism . •' for whom. He wills: A]];;Ibg;ra[ll'~ pardon to whom. He wills out of His bounty and wisdom,

General Meaning of the First Verse
With the aim. of warning His bondmen against approaehmg iilny act of polythelsm, Allah, to' Whom belong all perfection and majesty. stresses that He will never grant pardon to those who assign partners to Him and remain so tin death. On the contrary. out of His endless bounty and grace He fo:rgiws the sins of those whom He '1Nills t~h the exceptien of polytheism w

General Meaning of the Second Qur"anic Verse
Ibr~hn (PDUH) invoked Allah to keep him and his sons away from idolatry, wh~ch is deemed as a. gravie sOnittlce: of mjschief

Relevance of the Queanic Verses to the Chapter
The firs.t verse sign tile-s thas Blss;i:gro:ing partners to AU~h ]$ deemed as the gravest sin in the Sight of Allah. Moreover. the one who commits ~bat g:rave sin will never be forgiven if be fails to offerrepentance before death. Thus, one must be warned against approaching sucha heinous sin. The second Our'anic verse signifies that Ihm:,ihim {PBUH" was afraid of being deluded by acts of polytheism so he invoked AUah to safeguard himagainst all acts and forms of polytheism, We are thus supposed to express our fear of polytheism. Thus, the 1\\'0 Qurmic verses emphllS.i:ze~!he significa:J:tc,e of eKpn!ssing :fear of perpetratlng any act or form of polytheism. .

Lessons Drawn from the Qur'a:nic Verses
..,. Polytheism is the gravest sin, as it turns ~oAU8ih ~nrepentance,

W.m never

he forgiven unless one
dies before

*It If anyone commjes any sin other than polythelsmand

repentance, his affair win be absolutely referred to Allah; Who .may grant him forgiv-e:ness 01 chastise him in the Hereafter,

41
• The Muslim must express his fear QfpQlythe'4sm, fur ,[brah1m (PBUH). who was disil:~nguished by demdishing idols at his time; was afraid of falling into such a grn:ve sin.
+)

The pe:rmi:ss~b~]ity of invQkin_g A]];OlJhor I'e.mov~:ng tr~ buJ,:aUons. He is f the One to be ibesought for heIDpand support

... It is permissible to lnvnke Allah for oneself and. on behalf of one's ) offspr~l'lg, as weillt

+ Tine verses

refute the aUegatmon ef some ignorant people that the MilJsJ!im natlenis not susceptible to faU into acts or forms of polytheism. Those people kfutsafe from ~t thus ignorantly feUmto its darkness, and

42 The Prophet (PlBUH) has said;

polytheism. He was" th.en" questiofj,ed abo:ti.t it TheY'i~:upon.,he said, <Itis (ofjerfngyour good deeds) in ostentat,iDn: ..
I

«'The :mos'i dreadful sin I am af'raJd you ma, c'Ommi':t is minor

(Related by A.b;madJ)

General Meaning of'the Radith
Out of his pity and!,mercy fm his. natlon, the Prophet (PBUH) was so keen to guide people to the pil1!th rigl1J!ooouS<L1e.ssand. warn, them against all tha~ of is evil, He (PBUH)wamoo Mlls]ims not to perform devotional acts :in order to show off Qr to ge~ people's admirarlen, He deemed showing off as an ad of minor polythe]s,m, which would render all acts of worship, performed ~n such a way> :nu]J and vo~d.,Since people jnt~i~il'iTely long for acqutrmg prominence and. being praised by others, ostentatson ma,y easily permeate righteeus Muslims.. Therefore> the Pm'plIlet (PBUH) expressed his anxiety about the righteous, Musmms who. offer good d1eeclsand wlunedag:=;!iostt pretentious display, While rmnor pelythesm mayeasUyp,ermeate the hearts of the dght:eous,,~c;:t$of ma;jor polytheismare hardly perpetrated by them,

Relevance of the Haaith te the Cllapter
Th~sl!~th warns the believersagainst perpetration of minor polythdsm, whereas the former tW'O Qur'a:nk verses warn them :aga:il1St approach~ng acts of major polytheism. Thus, the presentcha,ptter elaborates on the fWO main cail!egodes of polytheism.
leSSORS

me

Drawnfromthe Hadith

$ A true believer should be anxious about falling into minor polytheism, sincethe Pr>ophet (PBUH)ej{pressed hls an)[j,etyin the aforementioned l1adith <3!nd,m.or'eover,.w.arned rlgll.Eoou.sMli,ls]ims ;:!J~i:n.st it.
t)

+ P,olytbe~sm

The Prophet (PBUH) was compassionate and ben to guide his nattion to the straigl1~ and rlghteous path, is categorized into maj or and minor polytheism. The

former 18 defined as sleeting rivals to A]mig;h:ty Allah whereas the latter is confined to acts des:igliltlilledas polytbeisnc O'Iccotd]ng m, the QiJ!.lrlan
or the $ufiJl:an w]Jtbout reaching the degree of major polytlliu::ism. They may,ful"theT. be compared as follows:

(ot

The former renders, man's entire deeds void. whereas the latter only renders acts contaminated with Impure intentions null and void. perpetratcrs

+- While

retainers of major polythejsm, wiIlabide in the Hellfire foreoomity; of minor polytheism. will not.

(,. A perpetrator of majior po]ytheistU is regarded as a repudiator ons[am while the holder of any act or form of minor polytheism is regarded as aMuslim.

Ibn Mas"ild (may Allah be pleased with !him) narrated i£hatt!he Messenger of Allah (:PBUH) said:

<"~VV"hoever w.hUes.t/Ji invoking llHytlli:ag other than AUah as dies equal wiU enter the HelJfire:'~
(Related by A~~:lilukhaJJ~)

af'l:

General Meaning of the ,Hadith
The Prophet (PBUH) states that if the per,son, sets a prophet 'Or aJny false deity or obj eet as a rival to Allah either by invokIng orim!ploring such afalse deity for a~iistance~ and remains so until he dies, he be dammed. to the

wm

Hellfire. Setting a. rival to Allah has two forms:
a) To, assoclate a

partner wirth Allsh wHb.reS,ard to the d·evQti.Qnal acts. This is regarded as an act ofmajer polytheism, which entails ewmal chastisement :in the HeU.flre.

b) Anyact of minor polytheism such as making .A]]ah equal to human beings Enwords ]ilbe;"',\;Vhen Allah wills and you will" {J,r"Itt is Olll~Y made fOit: Allah's sake and },(l,urs:' Of:ferjng good deeds :for the sake of preeentious di.sp1ay is also regarded as an ad of minor polytheism" which does not necessarily lead IIts perpetraeoe '[0 abide eternally in the Hellfire ..

Relevance of the Hadith to the Chapter
Muslims, a.ccordingto this b.adith are waened against any ad or form of m.ajior or minor polytheism by means of expounding ]Jtsgrave consequences.

lessons Drawn from tbeHadith
.;.) This ll"dith warns Muslims against all acts and forms of .polytheism and advises them to, turn to ,A]]aJhin repentance.
<t}.

Invoking a prophet or a friend ofAlah whether alive or dead; and seeking' the blessings of ~ stone or a.tree are regarded as acts of polytheism.
is only expiated by repentance,

,+ Polytheism

Oh:apt.er 3:

Ffil:31

of Polytheism

45

J.itbDr bn .Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the I Prophet (PBUH) said: ''''He who meets Allah without. associating anythi~g with. Him will enter Pamdfse.. and he whO' meets Him associating (a.nything) with Him will enter the Hel1flr:e:~3 (Related by Muslim and AhmmU

Jihir Ibn ·Abdullah (the Narrator)
Ills full name is Jiiliir.l.'bn • Abdu1M:bIbn. 'AmI Ibn Hidm. Ai ~~.hi As-Sulamt, He is one of the venerable Companious of the Prophet, His fathe.r was also a

Companion. He narrated many ha:dJths from the Prophet (P.BUH). He died II h b &, -0' A'H lth . atter 7 ... . at th age '0£9···.. ie i.. <..t; :may A' . _~~a~.!. p.'lease d witr hinn, se

Keyw:ordsand Phrases
• Meet.AIlah:: It means to
po3i:5lS .

away. .

• Anything: It isa general word to include the pro,Mb:ltiOUof ads entailing both miner and major polytheism.

General Meaning of the Hadi.th
The Prophet (PBUH) declares that whoever dies while adopting monotheism will defi:nJl':ely be admitted into Paradise. If he' persist,endy commits a maior sin. and dies without offering repentance, he win be referred to .Allah's D~vine Will. He may be' forgiven and thus: pemuned to enter Paradise OI" be' admltted lnto the Hellfire for a limited period ,of tanebefore entering Paradise. Ifa man, on the other hand, dies while retaining any act or convietion of major polytheism. hewlll never be admitted into Paradise. Allah wtll, moreover, have no mercy' on him and he will be cast into the Heilflre and abide therein for e<tern~ty.But if he dies while perpetrating an act of minor polytheism. he win enter the Hellfire fora limitedpeeled of time,

Relevance of the

Had;"', to the Chapter

The uadith warns Muslims against all kinds ofpoJythe~sm,. and urges them to keep a'Way from such grave srnns.

46

Lessons Drawn {ro·m th.e Hadi.th

.+ Onemust

be overly afraid of commiUin:,g any .a(:1Qf]Jolythelsm,. since

salvation :from the HeUfiJ1e is contingent on the abandonment
a grave sin ..

of such

~. One's good deeds are not accepted except when being free of any Form or act of polytheism, . •:. ClarifyIng the concept ofthe Testlfkaaion of Faith, which ~mp.Hesutter r·e-fliundii'IJUon of[polythe]sm and pure WQrs]l(p {)if One God.
$

Both Paradiseand The!JadUhaffirm.s

Hellflreare so dose to man, so every human being the virtues ofthose who are safeguarded against

win. :fully realize his destination. upon the-end of'hts ]lie.
+)

polytheism.

Endnotes
1.A,b,M:aicl!inAl-MusJ'lad {:5j428 and (29). i'llldAl.-Iabaranl!
Guar,Lexiro:n) (41253 No. 430l).

inAl~Mu

'jam AJ-K.nb.fr

Cine'

2 AI~ BukhiiF[ (41497).. 'Albd:i!lna:h Ibn Ma'S'(]d, the na!t'ratCl[ off~hel!adllh, adds, Jtnd

J

said, <Whoever di,es witho:u.t invoking any.thi~gasa r.iwru to .Allah will enter
.Paradise.» The fiadtth:is :ilitso relatoo 'by Mtts.lirn (92) with 11 warding tbat reads, "He wfi:o die:>a~$ociating anything with Allah would enter the Pire (of Hell):" , AbdulM.h ]:b!mMas' tids~id~ "1sal that he w.ho dJes witno:ut associating anything
.3 Mtlsi:im. (9.5) and A:!lma.d tnAJ-M:usI'Ulri {3}:345}.

with Allah would enter Paradise.-"

CHAPTER

i

it.·""

~.

Calling to 'Iestification

of'F" lth ,1M'"
Almighty AUah says::
USay~ "This is my' w'(-lY'JI itJvite t~ AUahwith i'tJ,sight~ I and those who JuUo w me. And Exalte.d is ~UlahJ 4nd J 4mnot oj

those wh.o as,s,o'€iatt otht'r:s with hJm;"~ (Qurao; Yinsuf; 108)

Relevance of the Chapter to the Book of Tawi,td
In this chapter, we are g(l:lngto elaborate on the necessity of invit~I1Lgothers It,', straieht ':' th Q., .1i-' nd be UII,Il. I[oethe :!hrai!T,L, pOl, ef " . tgu t' V. A']~,'Lr.:"t1'h L.S~gu,~., ISd.om a.. ,..01.. utifu l ' J.au W.l "ni1b.t' .wi .. :,', [preacbin,g as the Messengers of Allahandtheir :ro~~owe.rs id. d
Atm. ',.'"

48

Keywords and Phrases
• l'nvitioS' peo,~e 110 Accept the Testilcation of Faith: The Call to
A~~ah is designated as inviting people to worship One God. believe in Himand H~8Messenger, This is the essence of the' 'Iestiflcatlon

ofFa~,th.

• Say~ person. addressed The.

W]JttlJ

the eommand is~be',PtOphe~ (PBUH).

• Insight; It includes an means ofknowledge, which ,maybe empl,oyOO to
distinguish good from evil and truth from falsehood.
• ,Exalted, is, Allah: This phrase has been mentionedas cribed to Him. a command. to

glve [praise to Allah and disprove any defidency or wn:ade~uit(;yas-

General Meaning of the Qur'ani,c Verse
Almighty Allah commands His Messenger to inform people that he"
as well as, his followers, invites people to Allah with knowledge. certainty

and dear evidence, Theessence of such acall is that Allah ~sfar above having a rival or Bi. partner in Hts absolute dornlnion over the heavens and the earth. Be is,also too exalted to have an associate worshipped oradored
besides Him.

Relevance of the QUI'~amcVerse to the Chapter
According to the aferementioned QUI'anic verse, Allah expounded the

exemplary method of the Messenger (P.RUH) and his followers in .~nviting people to admit, wi.th lnaight, wisdornmd beautiful preaching, the Testification of .Fai~b. herefore. the Qur'a~]c verse emphasizes the obUgM_~oill. inviting T of others to accept Islam. which is the subject matter of the present chapter,

Lessons Drawn from the Quranic Verse
+b,),1v:l.~ingpeople

to bear witnes-s that th-ere is no deity but Allah, is the exemplary practice of me Prophet (PEUH) and his followers, «.- A prepagator of'Islam should be wellversed and possessed of comprehensive know]edlge about what he enioins or forbids. .. A caller ~,oAllah should sincerely' offer bis call without ,any personal
<I,

yearning or desire .. He shculd never be pareial to a party~ doctrine,

ili.

sect

0.1l

<. Having
+

insight is a religious obligation. for .following the Prophet (PBUH) is obligatoeyand ]S achievedonly through insight refresented Kn.ow~ngthe vir~ue of monotheism •.which is based on the convlction

In [kF,lowledge and flrm belief. that Allah is far above auy imperfectlon, .. AbomiMtion of polytheism since
jJt

ls ameans of abo.ml.n;l,ble pmmnation ..

•> Not

only mould a Muslim be free from a.liy act of polytheism, but he must also disown. the p~lytheists and their practices,

50

mbo '.AJlJbas (may Allah be pleased wlthhlm)

narratedt

invite th:em t~ testify that there is n.o deily but Alldh/ On another na.rration,. it i:$ri~rt4ted that the Pmp.het (PRUB) :taia, ~ to cou.fo:t~ ... the Oneness a/Allah .. .') and that M·ull.ammad is the Me5$engu .of AllaH. If they ,obey y.v:u in. that, tell them tl1at .Allah has e.nJo.ined on them five pmyeff, efA:rih d~1' a:nd night if fhe)' obey you i11 fhat, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them to pay the ZaJ.cM ". wIdell will

""When the Pmphet (P'BUH) sent Mu 'adh to Yemen~ he .said to him., 'Y"auwiUgo to the People of the Scripture. So} when you reach there,

be ta.kenfrom the rich among them ,a;ruigiven to the poor am:OI'ng them. 1/ they obey you in that. the:navoid taking the best qf the.ir poss,ession5, ,~nd be afraid of the lHVOClttio.n afan oppressed person because them is no scree.n between itf4Jui .AUan:," ..
(Related by AI~Bukhd(l and Muslim)

KefW'ordsand Phrases
..The Proph.et StUlt Mu'adb to y;~·eH: The PrQpht.1t{fBUH) sept Mu':a,dh to Yemen as a. p.ropaga:tor of::lisLam. a ruler and a judge in HI A.M, " The Peuple ef'the Sc-ripture: The Iewsand the Christimts who were the dominant majodty of the papulation of Yemen, at that time.
iii·

If they obey you in that: IfrtheyplocJ!abn the TesUfication of :f~]ltth.
denounce all th.f;!,faliie deities worshipped ]besides Allab, then. proceed in instructing them. to accept

comply with what you can tQand further teaJch~ngsof Islam,

., Be afraid of the invocation of an oppressed person: The Prophet
(PBUH) warns MlLu' :adh against oppresstonand
enjoin justice,

commands

him to

... here is no screen between it and Allah; mt eans that thefrwocation T m of 0'10 oppressed person wi]] be answeredsooner OF la!Der ..

(j·eneral M,eaning of the Hadith.
Wh.e.nthe Prophet (PlliJ.UH)Intended to dispatch. Mu' .adh to, Yemen as a caller and! an lnstructor for teaching its people the principles of Islam, he,. fl.1!rther"drew fm him the .major outlines of inviting the Yeme,ni people to

Chapter 4: Calling r.oTesd6ca;tJoii: of &it.l!t

51

the religion of Islam, The Prophet (PB UH), thus. informed Mu' adh that he would encounter the Jews and the' Chrlstsans who were wen versed in reHg~,onand :fQ:ndof engagement ]IiJ. debate-s. The Prophet (PBUH) urged Mu' a.dh to bewell prepared to argue with them and remove their suspicions. According ~o the Prophet's pieces of advice" Mu' adh was admonished to start his mission with, important ]ssu.es. He was first commanded to correct their understanding of the prmciples of belief Once they adopted correct belief. he would command them to establish prayer, whlch tonk precedence right after adopting monotheism. If they should abtde by performing the five regular prayers, he would command the rich among them topay the Zaka.h as an a,c~of consolation to the PCH;J!1 and gratefulness to AUah, Exalted be He. Then Mu' adh was warned of taking the best of thelrpcssesslons, They were, instead, enjoined to pa,}'",Z'aktih from. among their average possessions. F~nalliy, he was urged to treat them j1llS~ty and to avoid oppression so as to stay clear of the invocatton of any oppressed person, which wUl cerrainly be answere,d!,.

Relevance of the HadJth, to the Chapter
This h,adtth stresses that the caller to Allah should flint Invite people to testify that there is no deity but: Allah, It also urges Muslims to send propagators to' achieve such a purpose.

Lessons Drawn from the Hadith
-t' The permissibillty of sending preachers who are capable of inviting
people to lslam,

• :inviting people' to bear w~tnes;sthat there is no deity rn:,ut llah and that A MlUhammad is tbe Messenger of Allah takes [precedence over an other
religious duties,
+) The' 'Iestificatien

of :Faith is darned as dedicating AJlah and deifying nothing besides Him .

all devotions to

•) A man becomes a Muslim after

verbally proclaiming the Testiflcadon

of Faith.

+ A ma:n.may be'wd~ mearn~d but remains

unaware o.fthe correct meaning and consequences of the Testification of Faith. However. some people

are aware of its meaning. but do not put it into practice. Such is the ease of the People of the Scripture,

52
$'

There are various levels of discourse, w!llic.h must be taken into account whe''!]' inviUn:g d~fferel1!~ people to Islam, l'bJs is infe.rred from the Prophet's words. which read" ''',.• You wUl go to the People of
the Scrfptu.,re.,.,." .

... :*

According to' till!!';! hfldtth"a, propagator of ldam should be well versed lTI theprinciples of the ,MtI:!l~]m faith. 51:) that he mayrefute all mlscenceptions. l'his malYbe achieved by seektngknowledge,

,<+ Prayer cernes second only to the TesmlicaHon ofFaJlth.

+ Paying obligatory Zaktlh fb']]QWSestablisbiog prayers in lmportance . •z. According to the uadtth, the poor are enlditled. to receise Zakiih. It m.ay
also be paid to them Qn~y,
+)

It isimpeFm~s,si,ltde to take Zdk.afl: fromthe best o:fpooples possessions, unless they do it w]]]i:ng[y.

•:. Wamin,g against oppression" as the invoca.!EOIil.s of the oppressed person will oer~ai:nlybe answered, even ifhe might be a wrongdoer.

SaM Ibn Sa' d (may A[~ahbe pleased.wHh him) narrated; "On the .da:Jl of the Battle .of Khaylmr the Proph:et (PBUH) said 'Tomorrow. I wiii gio/? t.he ftag to a person who 10'VeSAUrlh aM His Messe~ger and is loved b, .A.Uah. and His Mess,enler. and at whose .hands .Alltth. will grantvictory.~ So•.people· (the Comp{j:rrium) w(m:.aeud aU that h.igftt, 'Wishing eagerly tosee to whom the jLlg w.m be giYen, In the morni.~g} every 0116 of the Companions wi~sh£d to be given: the:flag; Howewr. the Prophet (PBUH) asked, "Wh~e

is 'A.U Ibn AbU IaUb?' It wa_;; said that '.Ali was sulforingfromeyetmubie. S~ he ordeud them to br~l'1g 'AU .i:nfmnt of.him.. Then the Prophet (PBUH) spat in his eyes and invoked AUr;in Jor Jdm. ,and his eytt$ 'Were cured immediately as if he .had nev,er had (iny eyetro~ubJe..Then the Prophet (PBUH) Etn'lfj' him the J10g and 5aid~'Go to them patientt,a.nd .calmly until youe.nter :their .land and face them. Then. invite them to Islmti: .~i1dinform them ,o[wha.t Allah has enjoined upon them, JM &y Allah, if It single penon embr,m:es Islam ,~ y:Qur hands 0.t?. through you). that will be .better.for you than the red camels (the Arabl mostpreciou$ posseS3ions) .. ,,~ ' (Related by Al-Bukiulrt and Muslim)

Sahl Ibn Sid (the Narrator)
Sahl Ibn Sa'd's fullname is Sahl Ibn Sa'd Ibn Mink Ibn KhalUd Al·.AO!!r1 Al·Kha:zraji As-Si' idt, :ae is a prominent Comp~:!1iQ.n who. died in 88 A.H .• when he was over hundred y;eli!iIS old: .may Allah be pleased with him .

.~Ali Ibn Abu. nUb
'Ali Ibn Abu. I~U]Jb was the Prophets pate,lma.]. cousln.the husband of his daughter FilU:]mah.and the fourth of the Righd.y·guidled Calipbs.He was one of the earLiesupeuons~o accept lslem and eneor dl:e len. Com.pan:~.onswh.o
were given the gLadtid~n.~ ofbein.gadmittecl in 40 A.B.; :may Allah be pleased. with him, into IParadi.se. He
W<l!S

murdered

Keywords and Phrases
.. Tile Day of Khi1iybar~ It refers ~Q the Battle of Kha.yba:r.Wihich. was launched ag:a~nstthe :~e'W'S 1 A.H. in.

, Flag: It is the emblem iJihheiilrmy, wMd]. is ilisu,allLy iven to the commander. g • Islam: Submitting to Allah by adopting monotheism, showing absolute obedience to Allah. and dlsscciaring oneself from polytheism
and polytheists,

General Meaning of the Hadith
The Prophet (PBUH) gave me Companions glad tidings that in the, full<rwin:g dilly they would. be granted victory over the Jews at the hands of a virtuous man. 'Who was loyal to Allah and His Messenger (PBUH). Consequently; each Compaaion aspired to. be that virtueus man. When they gathe-red in. the morning, the Prophet (PBUH) asked albout 'All (may AUah be pleased with him) who was. suffering an eye-trQubLe and could not join them. •Ali came and the Prophet (PBUH) spat in his eyes, which healed at Once. Thereafter, the Prophet (PEUH) charged him with thecommandment of the M~U!sHm troops and instructed h~m to move ahead calmly until he drew near to the enemies> fortress. The Prophet further commanded. 'AU to invite. theenemies, when he reached ~heir fortress, to acceptIslam ..If tibey would respond to his cd], he should, then, inform them of'the duties imposed on every Musllm, Ftnally, the' Prophet (]llBUH) high]igh1Yed the virtues of' jnvjtlng people to Allah affirming thi1!Jt a caller succeeded in gUiding. one person to the straight path, it would if be better for him than being possessed ef the most precious world].y prins. Tberefore, how great his rewards would be ifhe became the source of guid~nce for more than. one person!

Relevance of the Hadfth to the Chapter
This hadith empllmstzes the importance of inviting people to accept IsWam. Irrvitati(m to Islam implies calling people to pmdaim the Testification o,fPaith by declaring that there is no deity but Allah and that Muh.ammad is His servant and .Me!;sen,ge-1'; UadUh further emphssises the virtue of propa,gat~ng Tbe the religion. ·of ID:srnam.

Lessons Drawn. from. the Hadith
(to

Knowing the virtues of' All Ibn Abu. :nmibi his loy,alty to AUah and His Messenger. and his possession of certain and firm belief 'These virtues were attested by the Prophet (PBUH" hlmself,

.:. This l!adtth proves that A]mighty A]]ah loves In a way that is, appropriate fo,rHis M~j esty.

5S
.. The Companions were keen to compete in o:ffe:ril'!,g all good deeds . .~ Muslims are ordaj:noo te show good manners even a!t times of war, They are also 'Cl)Q1:mandedi to avoid hasty dedsiol1s and lIIode$~red sounds during war:, (. The Imam should command his Vk:e'IOYS to tr'e;;IJthe~r :suibjlect!i, wIth t tenderness without showing weakness er lad(ofv.~go[l", .. Before e.ngagjng ]]1 combat "With ~liidte:rnem]es.,the invite them to Islam . .. War ]:5 to be 'W1iI!gedagainst whoever stands of Ish am,
M!1!lSl~m8

must

against thepropagati,o;n

~When lnviU:ng DQ:rt-MllsHms to Islam, Muslims mould mtrodace the teachings of Islam. to them by degrees, l'h~t is, ill. disbeliever may be first invited to proclaim the 'Iestlflcatlon of Faith and. then invIted. to perform the other pillars, of Islam. «0 The 'virtue ofil1llViting non-Muslims to accept Islam. ]ies in. the generous reward they will be granted in case they embrace Islam,

+ Thjs h.adUh

.imp~]eshVO

proofs of the Propbethood of Muhammad.

Hegase gLadddlng:s ofvictory~e€Qrdla[}d andcured the sore ey.es by apply~n:g his honerable 5aJHva to . Alrs ey,es.
the D.~vil!l!e ecree. Thls is D shO'W'tl bythe :fuet that th(}ugh each Companion. was !keen ltr:oilJegnullted the flag; it ~s o.nlygiv,en to the one foreordained by Allah .

~ It ~s obliga,tory foil' .Muslims to believeln

., It ~snot enough to,r the peOion te-becalleda Muslim, H'e must. further. be' acquainted!. wirth the ]ega~.duties incumbent upon him and put them
ill1lto practice ..

EndnO'IH
1 Zakah: A

fixed! proportiQ,h of one'rs property paid, an:r:lIludly by every M.us]i:m whese properly has reached 81. speciJied :am.OUflitcaned. 'the f;li~b (Le. me mjni:mum :amoUJ!Illton 'Which Zakah Js dll.l!e).Pay]rlg Eakih js (lIU!' of the fiv·epillars oflsiam" lJi<l!mely the third. • 1here are eight. :recip.i.e1lt:s .ofZakAh acco.rd1ng to tlli'n.e: Sharr ,,11Usl:amlc Law) as M:a,ted
.in the
QIJ!~atl

{At- Tawbah::. 60) ...
MU$[il!Tl

2 A1-B'lJ!khb1 (2942) and

{2406}..

f

. .'..

.

..
'-:- ;-.~":.::

.

;

=r~

Meaning of Monotheism and Faith Testification

.AJmDghty AUah .says: "Those 'whom they invoke seek m~ns of m:cess to their Lom,.

for ffis mercy und lea:r His punis.hment. lndee.d" the pun.ishment
"Iyouf' Lord is. ,ever feared."

1 $trivi~g as to} whidl of them Mi6uld be ne.arest. and they hope
(Qlllian: Al-Isd.:: 57)

Relevance of the Chapter to the Book. o:f Tawllid
In the present dlapter~the' author clarlfles the concept of monotheism. There is a need fur da:r~:fying the concept of monotheism since some people wrongly believe ithajtmonotheism involves a mere belief in the Oneness .of

:58

Allah, The author asserts that monotheism aecessitates devoting <'in acts and forms of worship to Allah Alone, and keeping a:wayfmm any .3JC~ of polythejsm.

Ke:ywords and Phrases

• Testificatiou. of Faith: It is the declarstloa thartheee
AUah andthat Muh.i3!mm;jl!dsthe servantand ~

is no deity but Messenger of Allah,

• Inv1(tb: 'TI1J:eQn,tteXitual meaning OIf the word 'invoi!c.e'.~sto worship. The ( disbeHev,ers. however, wn,v{ih oradore the angels, the p.roOphets OF the rlghteous.

• Seek mesas of aGC¢sS totheit Lord: Despilte being invoked and
adored. besides Allah, the angels, the prophets and rlghteeus people offer all good deeds to draw nearer to their Lord.

General M.eaning .of the Qur'anic Verse
AlmigJIfy Allah a!mr.ms that the aflge~s;.the prophets and the rjgh~eous. whom the d!isbeHevers invoke besides A~~ah,~ ar-de:ndy seek to draw nearer to Anah,. hoping for Hill mer'Cy and fead~g His punlshment. A$1~he aJng¢l~. pro'phets and righteous men. offergood deeds seeking the pleasure of Allah, how can they~eado,redor w,onldpped besides HEm.?'!

Relevance efthe Qur~anilcVerseto th.€: Chapter
The verse in questiQ,nslgil1]fL-es that bodl. monotbetsm and the 'Iestlficatlon of faith ~:e~~s:5ita~e avoiding an acts and practices ofpo~ythdsm such as i[J{.vok~ngthe righteous at seekiegtheir insercesslenfcr rem.o,vi~g .adVersities or afflictions:.

~ The verseprovides a counter ii!:rglllm~n~ o:l!giiIJinst those who .false~y believe that AUah's friends and righteouspersons imroked besLdles Allah are competent ~oQ bring benefitorevert harm. .. It shows how 'the Prophets.wd the righreousfear AIJlah and seek Bismet:ey.

H·*·".···~
...

---

,

-

59'

Almighty Allah

S3.yS:

!'"And (men#o:n~ 0 Muh.ammad») whiw .1~U W(JT$hip- e;c~J(tr

when Abraba:m .said to his (mdlndf!:ed,. (Qur~:an; Az-Zukhruf 26~27)
ffl,fl;

fatner' and ,his peepJe,~tl"deed~ .1 am dis'Qssociated from toot
H~ WhQ! cTeQtea He l'.\ill guide
itJ'e.: ~

'General MeanJn_g of the Qurr'anlc Verse
Almighty Allah narrates the story of HIs servant, Messengenand mtimste friend Ibrahim who dissociated himself from the false di.dHes, which were worsJdppedJ by IDS father and his people. He devoted h~msel:f eo the worship of ,Allah.

Relevance ofth,e Ve,rseto '~beChapter
this verse signifies thatadopting mcnetheism and, ~esUfy.ingthat there Is no deH:y but Allah necessitate dE$Sodating oneself from all acts ofpQlyth.eism. ~nd dedicatlng aU,ones devotional acts to AUah A~one.

Lessons Drawnfmm

the Qur"an:ic Verse

.. 'J,he meau]ng: of the Testificatlon of Faith ~sto believe rnnthe Oneneaa of Allah, devote all acts of worship to. Him Alone, and dissociate

cneself from sll false deities .
•) A believer should :avowedly declare hisrepudiation they are from among the nearest kEn. ofthe po]ytheists,

.) A Mus~im. shOUi~ddissociate himself from the enemtes ofAllah even if

60
AUah, Exalted be Be. sa7S:

Com::iS'CCOlmmm!tary

on the Book of Mwbi'd

were not commanded except to w(t.rship one God; the.re.is .,.,0 deity ex:apt Him ..Exalted is .He above whaiev:er they assodare with Hj;m.~' (Qur~an; t-Tawbah: 31) A

UThey have taken thei,' scho.lars tUla mo:,llcsas'Ellds besides Allah, and (also)' the MB5\Siah.~ the son of Mary ..And they

Keywords andPhrases
.. T.hey have take:n.the:iJr scholars and .mo:nksas gods~ The Jew.s and the Christians regard their scholars and monks as the legislators who assign what is lawful and whalt is prohibited. Allah, Glorifled be He. is the albs.Qlute Li3.lwgirver.andtherefcre, if i1!nyone submits hirnselfto the ·~eghs~i3I.d.on.a human, he is r-eg:arded as; tiling a false of deitybes~des Allah•

• And!. {also) the Mess:iJab, the sou of Mary: The Christians have taken
Jesus as a.god besides Allah.

GeaeralMeaning

of the Qur'anic Verse

The ews and the Chrlsdans soughtthe advice of their scholars and monks and obeyed them in ]egaH:dng wb~ltt Allah made unlawful and p.rohiMting what He made lawful, 'fhey,.therefore. set their scholars and monksas geds besides Allah. The Chrlstians.mereoven worshipped ~estis andalleged that he wasthe SOo.11of GOld ...Consequently, they d~s~ega[d.edtthe Divine Scripture through whlchthey were commanded tosubmlt ~o Allah Alone, Thas, AUall disapproves of their practteessnd declares H~mself far
above them,

r

Relevance of the Qur'ani.c Verseto the Chapter
The verse clarifies the meaning of both monotheism and the Testifleatlen of Faith. MO]lotilleism and the 1'I.'lstifi.c~tionQf.fai!th Dt'lcessi!tate th3lt Allah ~s to be ofbeyed by tQUowing what He has made Ja.wful <'ifidiil.VO,fd~ngwh<'llt He has prohibited. Whoever obeys a person or submits himself to a law, which v~.o]al:esA]]:ah's prohib.itions~is regsrded as a.polytheist.

61

Lessons Drawn from the Qur'anic Verse
,~ Submission, to ~'he Will of Allah with regard to His Qb1igations and prohibitions, is one of 01(;: implicatlons of monotheism and sincere

Testifkation of Paith,
(io

Obeying anyone in ,m,ak~n,glawful wb~t Allah made prohibited, or p mbilbifthlg what AUah made la,wful,. ~sa form of polytbelsm,

.:. The QUf"an]c verse refutes the Christian belief that Jesus is a god. and affirms that he is the servant of Allah,

'+ Allah

is far

above having an. assoc:j;a~,eor a partner,

Ana]", tile Alm]ght:y;s,ays~
(!-\nd' [yel)!, amC)fJ:gthepeople are th&~' who fake o,ther than. AlJ,dJ,

as equals (.to Him). They lOW! them as they (fflUS·Olove All~&. But :those who, believ,e' are stnmge1' ,in ,loVie/0," Allah . .And if only tbe~w:ho hfJve WfQ1Jged:, wauld amsider ,(that) when they $et'! the punishme.Nt~ (they w.i'llbe ,cert~in;) that all paw:e.f' belon,s to .Allah and that Allah is $weTt! iH 'JIltishnumt.~ (Qur'fu1.: Al-Baqarah: 16\5)

Keyword_s and Phrases
.. They love them as they- (mucSt:)love Allah: It meansthat those who,
worship fa[Sedeities besides Alliili re1Wn love andreverence for such deities.

General Meaning of the Qur'anic Verse
Allah, Gt.o,rifi~d end Exalted be He, depicts the po~yttIheis~s' ffairs in this a llfeand the recompense they will receive in the Hereafter. They set rivals to Allah by renderlng love and reverence to' them, On the contrary" the true believers' love' for Allah exceeds the polytheist!s' love' for their false deities or tbe polytheis.ts"lorve for .AI[ab, Th.e reason is ~haltthe be~ievers' ]ove Is dedicated to Allah Alone, whereas the po]ytheislts' love is shared by' other false deities, Had. the polytthe'is~sbeen certain of the grav~ chastisement they would receive on the DaT ef'Resurrecticn for the grave sins they perpetrated, th.ey WQuld have abandoned all thelr aberrant practices. However; they did neither perceive nor believe' in their inevitab]e desU:I1_Y;,

Relevance- of the Qur'anic Verse tothe Chapter
The Qur'mk verse is one of the texts that clarifies the meaning of moaotheism and the signUilc~n:c,e- of a .Muslil'!l1·S Testlflcatton of Faith. The verse implies that whoever ascribes rivals to AUah and love-s them as.he loves Allah, is deemed a polytheist .Monoth,eism is. therefere, an ru:::~ of rendertng ~ov-e and reverence to Allah A~ODe.Such love, and reverence drive man to sincerely WQf,shtp, submit and surremill.er to' Allah Alone,

Chapta 5: Mcai:l1n,gof Monolheillm and Faith l'~d:fical:i.on

63

<. Monotheism
(t

designates the li'e~aJ.inment of love and eeverence, which correlate submlsslon and surrender, to Allah Alone,

Though they render great love to Allah, the polytheists ere not considered Mus,]ims. since they associate false deities with Allah. Polytheism is a. form of injlusti,oe. verse warns the polytheists against the severe punishment prepared for them on the Day of Resurrection.

t)

+- The

Conclse Commeufl;;lry on dlc Book

or

Tit:whitl

The Prop;f}_A!t (PBUH) is reported to. have said;

"He' whQ testifies that there is no deity but Allah and ren,ounces wha,tever is \Worshipp:ed besid,es AUah, his property a.nd ,b,lood become inviQ:lable.and his account wiU be with Allah:;'~
(Related by Mushm and Ahmad)

Keywords

and Phrases
and blood become: inviolabl.e~ It means that

• His property

whoever declares his acceptance of Islam, his property and blood win be S~CUI'~d~

• And his account wUl be' with AllaIn U anyone declares his
acceptance of Islam, his reckoning 'wLU only with Allah, 'IN'ho wil] be recompense him according to his. intention.

General Meaning of the Hadith
AccordIng to theforegoing h€ld.rth" the property and blood ofa man will be secured u.pon the fu]fiU:ment of two majior requieements:
LPronounclng

the 'Iestlflcatien of Faith by declarmg that there is no deity but Allah and that Mub_al11wad is the servant and Messenger of Allah.

2.Reno1llncing all other false deitieswhEch are worshipped! besides AUab. Once a pe,[so.n fUllfiUs these two requisites he win be secured with regard to his lire and property, As far as his inner belief is concerned, it will be absolutely left.to Allah Alone ..Therefore, ruf he is proven to be of firm and sincere bellef, Allah will admit hi.m into the gardens ,ofP'aj',adise. Oeherwise, if he ~sa hypocrite, he win be driven to a severe punishment in the Hellfire . However; people are judged ~nthis llfe according to their apparent deeds,

Relevance of tbeHadi.th 'to the' Chapter
This l!.tJdfth provides a elear deflnirion of'the "Vestifkath:lfi,o,fFa~th. which necessitates the renuncietion of all false deities wo.fs.hipped besides Allah,

65

Lessons Drawn from the .Hadtth

+

Dedaration of belief in one God implies the renunciation of an other false deities worshipped besides ALLah.such as idols and tombs. its meaning and acts accordingly, his blood and property wm not be secured unless he declares his reaunciatlon of all false deities worshipped besides Alleh . ofbelief ill one- God (i,e, Allah) and showing apparent adherence to. reUgioilis,Q,roinance.s secure man's property and blood until proven otherwise ..

(~.f a.n.y-OH,e merely testifies that there ls no deity but Allah, understands I

. A mere verbal dedaration $

(. A MusJim is enjoined tQ wlthhold his hands from the disbelievers enee they accept Islam .•even if they do so while being in a state of waI~uil.ltH the contrary is proven, ., A man m.ay verbally tesUfy t.ha,t there is, no deity but AUab withcut expressing his renuncistion of other false deities. ,.. People. are judged accordlng to their apparent deeds; In the Hereafter; they will be judged according to their hiddenplans, (. A Mu.. slim's bloodand property are iuviolable except for a justifiable reason such as executing a penalty;

Endnotes
1.

1he M~ger of AJJ9Ih(PBUB) has jn~eted this verse wnen' Ad:iyy]bll!H3tim (mary AUan be pleased wid] him) ,ri,,"I:ited! him ,anti!heard hlili[J. reclitin:g it. UpODl 1l:1Iii'3Tlng the verse. 'Ad~ said, MO .Messeng~r of Allall! They did "(It w.orship .them!" He (the Prop/tei) saJd, 'Yes. they did, fhe), (rabbis aria monb)forb.ade rhem what i$ Imv;fol a'1:d t:I1;1i1ae l'awful'for thi!m whar.· isJorbiddtrt. ,arid the.ir pMples followed them:, ~This;is their worship of.rhe:m:"'Thi$ i!:ridith i!l rd,atedby.At.Tinniclhi (3094) who graded it ab.as(JPi
(good) h.a-4ith. [tis also, related. bY'Ibn AM'!Shllybah :ill his MU6,f1nnaf( Th~ C!l'J'l1pfWr.iol1). (t'/!67 No. 34i.925).

:2 Muslim. (23) and Abmad

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Acts of Polytheism: Wearing Rings for Removing Aft1ictio,n and, the Like
. .

-

.. .·"ruc..:· .A1Jah _xaJ"~ _ ~ He·• S"'., ~. .~, E td !i.,!e
. . ",ay,. f~"N 1'llU'0's,' ,,_,N ......... ".J~_._.:r .~ 11._4' .,au .; ..... 1.'" ,:t...."td·c"'." i'W;IWU II'#' J."",,, •• _.,.,,, 'INt.' ....,. .:nWltlUW ••• n .:N·":'""~,,,·p....., ..... A U_L:I- 'J .AlMh inknckd me hMm.> are they removers of His. hcmn; or if He. intended me men:» are they withholders ajHis mer,,.~~ Say. 'Sulfic-leHt fin' nu is Allah.; upon.Him [alMe} rely the [wi~J reliers.;" n ,(Qur"in: Az-Zumar: 38} OW<,'
-

.

..

Relevance of this Chapter to the Book of Tawllid
The [present chapter refers to an act. which is reg,ard,ed as one of the forms of polytheism. It is trying to remove or avert afflictionsand tribulations by doing acts of polytheism.

Keywords and Phrases
..vntatyOtll invoke; It refers to all false deities whtch may be in\r,~ke,d,
for the sake of den,ring benefit ora,veding harm,

• Hamu It ~,sa; comprehensive
afflictlens

w>ord~which includes sneh as, diseases"pov:erty and distr.ess .

all types of

• Mer(y: lit Is alse a comprehensfve term, which ~ndlildes good h~lill1ltb. ,c:omfo'rtable ltfe, etc,

Genera~ Meaning of the Qurarnic Verse
Allahcommands H~s Prophet (PBUH) to ask the po,~Ytheists if their idols can benefi~ or harm, to force them to acknowledge the disahility of their false deities, By a&kiug ttt.em such a question, the Prophet (PBUH] caused their argument to &111 pieces. into

Relevance of the Verse to the Chapter
The verse is a proof of the invaHdi,1y of po,lydlliei:sm and all acts reveallng po].ytheism such as wearing rings or strings.

lessons Drawn from the: Qur'amlc: Verse
.*, the

for wba.tever. is worshipped besides Allah is absolutely inca:paMe ofdo~:i1:g benefit or co'lil!Jsing harm ..

invalidity of polytthdsm.

•) Wearing riog$, strings or their like: {XlI the sake of de!lirvjng benefit or ~:verti:rngharm. is strongly denounced. Such acts of polytthdsmari:
simUar to Idolatry

->

litis permissibletofJ:looiLm.ter ~hepo]yl:he[8t1Sinpole.micalcon:frontaiti(l,n:s for r",JUitingtheir false doctrines. .

.... The ,obHgpitLOfi of relying en~~relyupon Allahand trlJ5ting Him, :

69
,ImriE Ibn H.U!ayn (mary Allah. be pleased 'With him) narrated ''''The Mes.se,nger of .A11ah (PEUR) saw a man wearing a bracelet (JJbmss it:! his hand. Thereupon, the Prophet (PBUH) said to him. 'Whati.s this bracelet jorf' The :man replied. (It is beca.us'e of Al- Wahinah (a v:em that causes pain in the shcmlder and the hand): Thereupon} tJu Prophet (PBUH) said" <Tuke it aft/or it will only increa$,e your pair!> and if YiJ:udie while 'weariNg U~you will' never ",i .$1+cae d • (.:Re·illa~,od. Ahmad with an acceptable by chain .of transmlsskm)

'Imrh Ibn Hu£ay.n
Thefull name of the narrator is 'Imrin.lbn
] A]l- 1. 'b pease. d V\Il U mrn, ian ne .• .. . 't'!kiL~'.'-

HUlayn Ibn 'Ubayd Ebn Khalaf

l!.J~IG1U:za,.t He and! his father were Companions Qf the Prophet, He e;mbra'c~dl
Islam in the year' of the Bartle of Kibaybar and died in 52 A.H" in Basra; may

General Meatdng .of the Hadith
'Imran fun H~yn (mary Allah be pleased with him) narrates one of the inclde:nlt8 of the Prophet who used to f.tght ag;linstpoJyth:e.ism.' Imran mentlenedthat the Prophet (PBUH) saw aman wearing a bracdet of brass in his hand. 'fhereupon. the Prophet (PBUH) asked why he wore it The man replied that he did SQ to remove the pain in his hands ..Thereupon> the Prophet (P.BUH) commanded hlm to take it off immediateID.y. and he {PEDH) justine.d his order by explaining ~othe 11la11 that s[]cihab:rac~]d would not remove the pain, bu~ lit would mcrease it. The Prophet (PBUH) further added that in case man died while wearing such a bracele·t. he WQu~d :never presper In the Hereafter.

Relevance of the .Hadith to the Chapter
h:ill[)'I.d.ion. Su:.ch.an.act Is a fonn. o:fpo[ythe]sm> which contradjctstrue :

Th.eum:lfth proves the prohibiHcWl of weariI"l:g dn_g:s for tjhe .sake 'of remo1Vi!ng a belief

Lessons Drawn from. the ,Hadith
.. Wearing braeelets and theltke for the sake ofbetng safeguarded against diseases is r,~ard,ed as an act of poLytheism.

.:. lt is forbidden to use <liny ploh:Lbited! materia! as a treatment .... It is o!b[~gatoryfor the .MlllsLh1l1to deny the evll and teach the ig~o'r.mt . .~ Polythdsm has !badCl)n$eque-nces both in
d.~]S~U,eand

ln the Hereafte:r ..

+ .A

perceive the issue in detail hefoee deliveringhis

mufti (Muslim scholar qualified in issuing legal rulings) must verdict, He should also ~ake major o!bjecrives of the &harrah. (lsJamk law) ill!~1I,) account before ,@1jvinghis legal luling. polytheism ou'~of ign,Qrance is by no means excused.

(- M~norpolytheism is ~t the top of the major sins.

+ FalHng into
(01

People must strictly oppose the one who commits any ad o.fpolythe~sm 80 as to make: people abbot such a.peactice,

N
.' ,'--'
',"-,_'

·
,

71 "Uqbah Ibn •Amir (may Allah be pleased wIth him) narrat-ed that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

"'Ifa person uses an amulet. mny Allah nof fulfill hispu:rpose, and if he uses a seashell (as a remedy, or toprotr:ct himfrom the evi:leye). may Allah Mot grtlllt him .calmne5S,"~
A.ocord~n:gto another version. the Prophet (PEUH) said: "'ioVhoev!!!l'uses an amulet commits an ,actoJpo,lytheism.YJ

•Uqlbah IDibn• Amir (th.eN arrater)
'Uqbab Ibn' A.:mh: Al-Iubanl is a, well-known Cempanien, During tbe Caliphate QfMu' alv~yah> 'Uqbah w:asappointed as a governQr of EgY1P~ fQ:r th_r@ears and died at the ag~ ofaJbout. 6(1 years; may Alah be pleased with him, ~

Keywords and Phrases
Ii'

WbO(fver· uses an amulet: An amulet may be attached wlththe beHef that ~tcan guar-da penon or an anlma~.agaiil1st: harm or evil

.. Amulet: Attad:rme.nt (lof a~nl!J!]e1swasa pre-.Thslamk eustom, 'The Arnhs used to attach beads to their children (,orguarding them ag~in:$1 ,ev:i] eyes.

• May ADah not mlml, hjspurpQiSet Et ],5, an irrvccatianexpsessed
theProphet
(PBUH)

by

against whoever attaches an. amulet,

Geo.eralMeaning oftbe Two Had:iths
'I'.he Prophet (!PBUH) mvokes A]]~h no let these who attach amulets with tthe·purpose of removing harm or evil [lJottto [uUjU theirobjective. Sim]iady" the Prophet (PBUH) asks Allah notto ler. those who attach seashells live in peace and traDl:qJuUity, The Pr1J<phers ]nV(lcati(:U1J.!i aI~ ~ake:r!L as, indication for hjsa.dmOJ:1jjtt~onagp~n,S;t: such gra.ve practices. In the secend lladtth, theProphet (F'i[!UH) affirms that such. practices areacts ofpolythetsm,

The tw,!') l1~dUhs prove theprobiMtkm of attaching amuleta and seashells, They prove sueh practlcesas forms of polytheism! since tthosewho <lilttadil. such o:bjecl"Sbecomeabaelntely depeud.ent on them ..

Concise ComtneliittUi)' on the !Book of lizwlJld

Lessons Drawn from the Hadfths
," Attachi.ng amulets isan act of polytheism . ..} Whoever relies on others besides AUa!bwill never atrein hls aim, .. One m.ay invoke Allah not to fulfiU the purpose of those alttaching such amulets.

ibn Abu Hatim related that Hudhayfah (may Allah be pleased wilth him) saw a man wearing a,thread around his erm to protect him from fever. thereupon. Hudhay.fah cut ]IL and. recited the Qur~anic verse than: reads:

"And m·w:t fI/ t!hem believe Hut in Allah .except While ~. f!.$$ociate others with, Him," (Qur"an: Y€l,su:f~ 1(6) {Related. by Ibn. AMi,Hatlm)

Budbayfall Ibnul ..Yamin (the Narrator)
The full name of the narraeor is Hudhary{;th.lliniUl- Ymnill AI- .Abs.i. He' is one of the earliest Companions to accept Islam. He died In 36 A.H;,; may Allah. be pleased with him.

Geuera1lMeaning of the Tradition
Hudh,ay.fuh Ibnul-Yarnan {may Allah be pleased with him) saw a man tying a thread around his arm for the sake OIf pr'ot:ecting himself from fever, Thereupon, Hudhayfah cut the thread as an. mdlcation of his disapproval Hudhaytahrecited a verse from the NQ,1b]e QruI'dn to prove the-verity of Ids action, This verse states tha.t though the polytheists believe in the Oneness of
AUBlh. theyassoclate others with Him.

Relevance of the 'Train lion to the Chapter
It affirms that wearing threads to aUeviate illnesses is an act of polythelsm, which must be strictly opposed,

lessons Drawn fromthe Tradition
'. 'Wead.ng threads to remove afflictions or repel them is prohibited, for it is regarded <is an act of polytheism.
-:- It is obligatory to forbidevU and remove it whenever pesslble .

•:. lit is possible to use QUT'auk verses and. .Prophetic traditions pertaining to major polytheism to prove the prohibition of ads classified as
minorpolytheism .

. ) Tbough the polytheists confess Taw:b..rdur-Ru.bubiyyah (belief ln Allah's Lordship), they are deemed polytheists because they worship false deities besides Allah,

74

Endnotes
:~Ahmad ir. AJ-J'Vfusnad (.4/445), Ibn H,~bb8Ilill M~Wilri:d ,A&-Zamin (F~ul'ltui:t:ls for
the. Thirsty} No, {14i!Qa[ld ]4.11)., Ibn Majiah (1531), and A~"I:Pkim. in, Al-Mu$fadmk 1(41216) who g;ra.decl it ,~al!ih,miPith and Adh·Oh;'lha:lili agreed '1:0. that grading_ f 2. Ahil!'!l.8idin. A,/-iW'uSl'uui {4!l54), [0.[1 Hibb1nin ~\:t(lwrlrjd A~ ~!Hn \~n (141J). and A.1·Hahlm in Al·Mu$tadmk (4/417) . .3 A,b,:ml:ld i:n Ai- Mtlsnad (4/156) ..~ AI-H~kim in A{-M~~ad,rak (4/417').

I ..• '. I

Incantations and Amulets

AhClBaslth Al-AJl§:ftti (may ADah be pleased with h~m) narrated; "'J was in the c,ompa.ny of the Me.ssenger of A.llah (PBUH) on· one of hi$, j.ourtu:rys. The Messe.nger of Allah (PBUH:) .sent a messenger and ordered him nat to let any necklace of string or any kind of necklaces (the narrator doubted the exact wording

of th,e .Prophet) round the necks of ,camels except it should be •.f:I"1 cut OJ).

Relevance of the Chapter

to the

Book of Tn-wbii

Inthis chapter, the author further elaborates on other practices that Impair pure monotheism sueh as using charms or amulets and. other acts

of polytheislm.

76

Abu B;ashir Al ..An~i

(the Narrator)

Albfi lBashir Al-An.l~d was one ofthe Prophets Compani.tui.s. He witnessed the Battle ofAl- Khandaq and died. at the: age' of about 66; .may Allah be pleased withh~m.

GeneralMeaning

of the Hadith
that

In oneof his journeys> the Prophet (P~UH) sent a man announcing

all necklaces attached to the camels should. be removed. People used to believe that such necklaces could guard the camels ",-galns~ harm m:-evil eyes. TheProphet commanded them to remove sum neclt]a.ces. These practices ale deemed as ads of polytheism.

Relevance of the Had:ith ·to the Chapter
The badith asserts the p.rohibIUon of adomlng camels and o[her an]ma~s with strings for the' sake of guardling themagainet harms or envious eyes. Such

practicesare

acts of poifytheism..

Lessons Drawn from the: HIuli'th
(. Auaching strings to animals in order

to reiPd harm

is as prohibited as

attaching amulets •
•:. It i:5 db1igato,F.y [,0 remove evil when~1"' possible ..

<. People

must be warned againstall forms of poD.ytheism so that: their. true belief may be properly maintained.

Ibn Ma.s"ud (may Allah he pleased with him) narrated:

f'l heard the Prophet (PBUH) $(jiYi'n~'Using (illegal) incanta:ti01l'5 amulets. er tiwialah (a kind qfm~g,i' used to make awomau loves her husbandJ~ ls an act of pr/ly.thei$m: ... 2
1

(Related by Ahmad~ AJ]b.uDawUd)

'GeneralMeaning of th,e Hadith
The Prophet (PBUH)affinns. that reciting an Ulegal inca[]t3Jtioo~ertachtng an amulet and referring to $O'J"~:ry to repel harm or derive' a benefit are acts of polytheism, as none can g!uarrl against evil er bring benefit other than Anah,. GIQrified be He.

ReJ.evanceof the Hadithto the Chapter
This b,aiJ1th affirms tlila,tusing any of the aforementloned p'oJythe.ism~and thus impairs ones pure belief. means entaUs

Lessons Drawn from the lIndtt"
<1:)

A Mus~]m should be alert to all £orms and. aetsof'polytheism,
OF

.. It is imp~[missible to seek the help of amulets) incaetetions,
.. Being confident ab out the influence tiwaJans 'is an. act of polytheism,

tiwalahs~

of Incantations, amulets, or

An amulet is defined as am object worn.especially around the child's neck, as a charm to protect him from. ,ev.~~. envious ey,es. However, some schOlars and of our Sal~f (eady Mw]im. scholars) permit auac'hillg amulets ff they contain Qur~mk verses, whereas some others incJIlJdhl,g Ibn Mas' ftd deem it furibidde.n.
The Prephet only mendons legal incantations, whichare free of all forms of po~ythe~sm,> Such Jegi3l1 mcantations, accor-d~ng to the Prophet's commands, . .may btl recited fur the per$.OIis who fan prey to. envious eyes or those stung by a harmful animal. As far as the tiwaiah is eoncerned, ~tWS Oil form of magic w.rongly believed to make a wife more e;nd.eaood!~o ,her husband. or te make a hU$ban.d more beloved by his w~f:e,

Keywords and Phrases
., LegalIncsntatiom It refers to a ritual red~iiJUon of rome verses ,of the Ever=G1orious Qur':5n for ~hose SUffftlng ;('1 disease or anaffUction. It may also be breatbed il1:~o water. wh~ch is given to the patient A ]egal incantation mJaYalso be wr~trten on a dishand then erased by ap~lyin,g fresh water, which Is presented to the sufferer,

Conclusion

+'

Legal, incantaticn may be heldpesmissfble or pwhililitred, To become p.ermissible, a ]~gal ~.ncaJntaUQnmust be free ef any form" act or conviction entamn,g polytheism, H:it is o(ul!~ami:nated bY' amy act of polyt:he.~sm,itwill be rendered prohibited .

., Amulet is !.1Iib&o~llltely prohibited U .h contains any spellor charm entaUmg polytheism according to the consensus of Muslim scholars, Schoillars"however, differed. onthe amulet ccntatningpasssges of the Qi!:.u";in:WhUeS!o:me permitted it,. others forbade it The seundview is that i!t is furbldd.en~est its use should.open further ave.nues ofiImoV2!tive acts of worship .. lit is simlla:dy proh]bH:ed for the sal:Q.e f se,clJlr.ing the o QUiai'll fmm all innovative practices .. .;. Acco.[~[ng to the unanimous agreement ofMus[im scholars .. tiwalahws fo,rb:idden because ]It is classified as Cll.for.m. of son:ery.

79

"AbdUlHlh Ibn 'Ukaym (may Allah be pleased wIth him) I'IJar~ated~ a as rn:a'rfii' hadim:; that the Prophet (PBUH) said! "If anyoM:e )iI,ears anythi'ng (like an amulet) (believing that it ,brings gOQd or repel: evil). Allah wi'U leav'e him to such ,n thing he attached himself to:']

·Abdullah Ibn' Ukaym (tbe Narrator)
'Abdu~~Ah Th.n'Ukaym was nicknamed AbO Ma 'bad A[~Juhmi Al~KCdl Though he was alive during the Hfelime of the Prophet (P'E-UH) there is no evidence that he heard amy b_ad'tt:h from the Prophet (PBUH).
j

Generel Meanmg of the H.adith
In. this ll,adtth. the Prophet (PBUH) states thar if the perSion attaches, bis heart, or his deeds or both to any false dei.ty QI ,object besides AJab bel]ieving that it can bring benefit Of avert harm" he wUl be ~eft to such a thing and deprived! of A~]ah':scompassion. However, whoever [urns to Allah win have all hls affairs accornpllshed, aad his hardships released.

Rilevance of the lladith to the Chapter
Mco:rding tothe hadith, it is fbrbidd-en and grmtiyoondmJ'[I.ed to ~rttach oneself eo any objiect believing that it can independently bring benefit or avert harm.

Lessons Drawn. from the ,Radith
.:. It is prohibited toauach oneselfte l:1.ny object besides Allah . .. . A Muslim must exclusively rely on Allah fur accompUshlng all hisdeeds • : .:. Falli]lg into polytheism incurs great harm and bad consequences.

+. Rewards

are' always pl!oporrio:naJt1.'l to deeds.

30

In1amAbimad related that: Ruwayfi' (may.Alah be p]e~dwith

nrum) ~t~l:ill~

"'The .M:ess.enge.r lAJlah (PBUH) said, '0 R.uwayft 'J You may live o Jor a· lQHg time after J ,amgol1:e~so, teUpeople that if anyone ties .his beard or wears a: string round his neck to w,a:rd.off :the evil eye; or cleanses himself (aft'€r defocation:or uri.l1alion) with animal d~g or bone~ then Mubammad has no:thl'ngto do with him.' w! -

His fun name is Etuwayfl' Ibn TMIb]~Ibnus-Sakan Ibn 'Adli: Ilbnu]-H~lith. He was from the ~r~beoflBanu Mo1UkIbn An.~Najj5:r Al~AJl!atLHe ruled both Barca and Tripoli and conquered Tu.nisia (lfriqiyyah) in 47 A.l:t He di.ed in 56 (A.H. ),. may Allah be pleased wi.th Mm.

Keywords and Phrases
• Ties Ids heardliPeop]e used to twjst: their beards in. WIltS out of a:rTGg.atIl.{:-e, They also used to twist theb hair :forsbo,wing effemina.temaillme:rs.It may also refer to tying beards at times of O.ffedAg prayt;:'r,s. • Wears a stri:ag:; The Ara[(, pa.gal18 used. to wearst:rings as necklaces or. PUI!t them iU'01!lT~danima1s' neeks to guard them agamstenvlous eyes.

GeneralMeaejng of the Hadfth
The Prophet (PBUH) assured Ruwayfi'tna.t he would live :fo.ra 10lflg time untH he witnessed a. gwiJt1paf people wlli1.Q wOldd renounce hts guidance by c:om,mitUng certain forbidden acts, Such people would deviate fromthe PFQphet::S guidance of :Le:tting one's beard gm,w to twisting tilleh: beardls into, rin,gJ.e1ts or coils in awa.y that resembles the manners (If !\'jilemina.t·e men, Those people wQu~da~sQr exercise ads impairirJB pure bdief such as wearing necklaces or auaching tilil.emto animals' necks m:a:j!lly forthe sake of a.vertil]Jg antidpated harm. Su.cha.group of people would further comm:ltvi.o]aiions of the .Pmph.et's. €'x.empli1l.ry practices, They 'W:otiJ.d~ therefore,de.anse
themselves by using impure o:bjectssuch as dung or bone, Therefore, the Prophet (PRUM) entrusted .Ruwa.yfi· with the task ofinoorming Mus]ims that their Prophet would dissoda!te himself from those W!nO would dare to commit

such abominable acts,

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