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org Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures

3 (2006) 107–123

**Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm considering dynamic analysis
**

Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro∗ and Paul William Partridge

Dept. Eng. Civil e Ambiental - FT, Universidade de Bras´ ılia, Campus Darcy Ribeiro – Asa Norte, Bras´ ılia, DF - Brazil Abstract Genetic Algorithms can be considered as a family of computational models inspired on the principals of evolution. These algorithms start from a set or population of chromosomes in which each chromosome contains a possible solution to the speciﬁc problem. Genetic operators, (selection, crossover and mutation) are applied which generate a new population preserving and improving the information considered in the original chromosomes. Here the optimization of the cross-sectional area of frame structures is considered in order to obtain the minimum weight for dynamic analysis. The optimization is obtained through the minimization of an objective function, which, for the examples considered is written using the cross-sectional area and the length of the bars and the speciﬁc weight of the material from which the total weight of the structure can be obtained. The cross-sectional areas are the project variables which should be within certain limits in order to obtain realistic solutions. Restrictions are applied on the natural frequencies. Results are obtained for some test problems.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, framed structures, dynamic analysis, minimum weight.

1

Introduction

A large part of the engineers who design framed structures employ robust commercial software for the structural analysis such as ANSYS or SAP2000N. In general, such users do not have access to the source code or detailed knowledge of the structural analysis algorithms employed in this software. On the other hand, the biggest challenge for researchers in structural optimization is the development of methods which are appropriate for use with the commercial codes mentioned above. Another important challenge is the high computational cost associated with the more complicated optimization problems encountered. This is all the more serious given that the project engineer who designs the structure, does not have time to analyse it exhaustively. Given the above it is of practical interest to ﬁnd techniques which minimise the need for commercial software and require as few iterations as possible.

∗

Corresp. author Email: lichonglee@unb.br

Received 10 Nov 2005; Revised: 24 Feb 2006

one has Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . [20–22]. for example a limitation on the range of the natural frequencies. applications having been made for example to problems such as the design of turbines for aircraft and even recently in anlyses of the structure of proteins. This is an important area of research particularly in relation to weight optimization.108 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge An interesting approach to such problems is the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for the optimisation combined with the ﬁnite element method for evaluating the conﬁgurations encountered. An important consideration is that the coding be capable of representing the entire search space being investigated. [5. considering 4300 articles is given in reference [13].1 Encoding of possible solutions There are several diﬀerent alternatives for mapping a ﬁnite length string to the parameters of an optimization problem. numerical results are given for some examples employing diﬀerent frequency constraints. In addition. For a search space with continuous variables. that is. 2 Description of the computer code employed The computer code considered here was implemented using FORTRAN 90. and more recently some applications to dynamic analysis have been considered. there is a better chance of obtaining a true global minimum. [28]. A review paper. any solution should be capable of being represented by a chromosome. The chromosome contains a discrete or continuous value of one or more parameters. In this way an open code can be written. 2. In structural design for which the comfort of users is to be taken into account. and reciprocally. each of which is called an allele. using the GA. The number of bits to be used to represent each variable deﬁnes the size of the allele. 30]. support location and the location of sensors and actuators. Here a binary coding is employed. including damage detection. The Genetic Algorithm employed is described below. Genetic Algorithms have the advantages of not needing derivatives or other auxiliary information. starting only from the initial population. A block ﬂow diagram is given in Fig. 10–12. 19]. 1. Here. though real numbers may also used. The use of the binary coding of the parameters rather than the parameters themselves improves accuracy. 16. it is necessary that the structure has a speciﬁc dynamic response. after a description of the algorithm used. 23. [1. and depends on each problem. any chromosome generated by the GA should be associated with a valid solution for the problem under consideration. The GAs have been applied to static structural weight optimization of frames since 1989. The use of Genetic Algorithms for optimization in science and engineering is widespread. followed by some considerations on dynamic analysis and the penalty function used to impose the frequency constraints.

Eq. consists of a set of alleles. xU with a interval between each value. (2) is employed. In the case of continuous values.Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 109 Figure 1: Block ﬂow diagram for Genetic Algorithm employed ≥ log2 xU − xL (1) where is the length of the string.2 Mapping of variables The chromosome as shown in Fig. or the number of bits used for each allele in the chromosome. One allele in the chromosome with this length is capable of representing 2 values uniformly distributed over the range xL . 2. In order to recuperate the value contained in an allele with binary coding a decoding procedure is necessary. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . 2.

If one substitutes the values given above in Eq. (2). 2. (1) is thus 10. On the other hand. 01. respectively. the choice will depend on the experience acquired in the optimization process and on the problem itself. 00. In this way the population size has a direct inﬂuence on the overall performance and eﬃciency. with = 2. 2. 50. [12]. For this example. Considering ID to be the value of the binary code. a large population will be able to represent a large and diverse number of solutions. [17] suggests that the population size for the great majority of problems should be between and 2 ≤ npop ≤ 2 (3) Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . however as the population size increases so does the computer cost necessary to carry out the repeated evaluations of the ﬁtness function. 10 and 11 corresponding to the decoded values 20. in this case ID = 1×21 + 0×20 = 2. Consider also that the search space for this variable has lower limit xL = 20 and upper limit xU = 50. as = 2 the binary code may take 4 values. With an insuﬃcient population size. 50]. the GA will probably not perform satisfactorily. 40.110 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge xi = xL + ID xU − xL 2 −1 (2) Figure 2: Binary code string for chromosome Consider for example the ﬁrst allele in Fig. The value of in Eq. the value of which is x1 = 10 in binary notation. 30. because a too small population is unable to represent the problem search space correctly. one obtains xi = 40 which is the decoded value of the ﬁrst allele in the interval [20. There are as yet no well deﬁned criteria for ﬁxing the population size for a given case.3 Population size The population size (npop ) indicates the total number of chromosomes to be considered for a given problem. Khan.

in such a way that the area of each region is proportional to the ﬁtness of each individual.The circle is divided into npop regions. (5).5 Selection of chromosomes At this stage the ﬁttest individuals from the present generation are selected. the probability of selection pi in Eq. It is possible that in the process of evolution a high ﬁtness individual is eliminated in the process of crossover or mutation. On the other hand.4 Evaluation of the chromosomes According to Ochi and Rocha. consider the circle shown in Fig. As a consequence. as: pi = fi npop j=1 fj (5) In order to visualise roulette wheel selection. For this reason the elitist model is used. 2. If the OF produces values which are very close to each other. In order to evaluate a chromosome in a GA. The value of the objective function is not always adequate for use as a ﬁtness parameter. the evaluation of the chromosomes is the most important part of the process. These individuals are used to generate a new population by crossover and each individual has a probability of being selected which is proportional to its ﬁtness. [12]. Amongst the methods available. the linear scale introduced by Baker. For this reason the ﬁtness is obtained by ordering the values calculated by the objective function. in which it is guaranteed that the best individual passes to the next generation without modiﬁcation. The individuals in regions with larger areas will have a larger probability of being selected more than once. the selection of individuals may contain several copies of the same high ﬁtness individual. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) .Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 111 2. Given a population of npop individuals. for each chromosome i with ﬁtness fi . it is here that one ﬁnds the connection between the algorithm and the problem. while others will disappear. the selection process becomes random. [27]. a very high value in relation to the rest of the population causes the algorithm to converge too soon. is given by Goldberg. 3 representing a population of size npop = 4. The modiﬁed objective function (AFi ) is given by AFi = min + (max − min) npop − i npop − 1 (4) The value of i is the position of the chromosome in decreasing order of the value of the objective function and npop is the number of individuals in the population. obtained using the objective function (OF). This method is known as roulette wheel selection. Here. [2]. it is necessary to calculate its ﬁtness for survival in relation to the other individuals in the population. the values min = 1 and max = 2 were taken. is most often encountered in the GA literature. At this stage the ﬁrst step in the selection process is carried out: each individual is associated with a numerical value which represents its degree of ﬁtness.

Figure 4: Two point crossover Crossover is an important mechanism of the GA since it permits the exchange of genetic Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . a process known as crossover.112 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge Figure 3: Roulette wheel: probabilities of the selection of each chromosome 2. This is done by exchanging part of the two strings to form a new pair. pairs of individuals are chosen randomly for mating. After the selection of the new set of chromosomes by the roulette wheel described above.6 Probability of crossover This parameter indicates the probability of an individual being mated with another. The probability of an individual being chosen is pc .

Fig. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . Usually a probability of crossover between 0. shown in Fig.Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 113 material between the two individuals involved producing two new points in the optimization space.50 and 0. Here pc = 0. is the chance that the binary value of a given position in the chromosome be changed. The higher the probability pc .80. For this reason some researchers recommend the choice of a probability of mutation related to the size of the chromosome and to the total population. [15]. limited only by the creative capabilities of the researcher. 4. These numbers are only a guideline. the population may be saturated with similar chromosomes. If the change is carried out. works as follows. Mutation is employed in order to introduce new information into the population. Employing mutation the diversity of the population increases and new points in the search space are found. Two random positions. individuals with high levels of ﬁtness will be removed quickly from the population. Hesser and Manner. High probabilities of mutation make the strings become random. The part of the string between these two positions is then exchanged to form two new individuals which will then receive a value for individual ﬁtness. a bit originally 0 will become 1 and vice versa. given that there are many types of crossover. The two point crossover.7 Probability of mutation The probability of mutation pm . 5 illustrates the basic procedure adopted for the mutation operator. the probability of mutation depends on the problem being considered. if this probability is too high. Each bit of the chromosome is considered with a probability of change of pm .95 is used. Without this feature. the more rapidly new individuals are introduced into the population. the same for each of the two strings. after many crossovers. suggest that an optimum probability of mutation can be found using the expression pm = 1 npop √ (6) Figure 5: Mutation operator Mutation is carried out on the individuals which result from the crossover process (oﬀspring). On the other hand. 2. As is the case for the other parameters. are chosen. Low values can make the algorithm slow to converge. which represents a loss of good solutions.

in such a way that this algorithm can be classiﬁed as generational. The consistent mass and stiﬀness matrices used here were obtained from [32]. [4. [18. Here the static penalty method as considered below is employed for simplicity. substituting this completely. n OF (Ai ) = f (Ai ) + α · i=1 Si (8) For the present case including natural frequency limitations. in which only feasible solutions are considered. natural frequency constraints are considered as explained below. This analysis has the basic objective of determining the natural frequencies. Here the generalized Jacobi method is employed given that both the mass and stiﬀness matrices are symmetric. and indirect or exterior in which any solution is used in the optimization process. the vibration modes may be calculated optionally. Here in the optimisation problem. Here this point is given when 98% of the chromosomes have the same value. [25]. The damping which normally exists in a structure is considered to be relatively small and does not practically eﬀect the calculation of the natural frequencies or the vibration modes.14. In the static method the objective function is deﬁned as a ﬁxed part plus the product of a constant chosen by the designer and the sum of the residuals of each violated constraint. The population continues to be of the same size.114 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge 2. 6. The penalty function is used to modify the objective function in the following way: n OF (Ai ) = f (Ai ) + Penal(x) = i=1 ρAi Li + Penal(x) (7) Classical applications of penalty functions to impose constraints can be classiﬁed as direct or interior. [9. 2. dynamic and adaptive penalty methods.9 Dynamic analysis In order to evaluate each of the possible solutions obtained by the Genetic Algorithm a dynamic analysis using ﬁnite elements is carried out as shown in the block ﬂow diagram given in Fig. the penalty function took the form given below: Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . 26].31]. The process is stopped by a test to establish if the GA has reached a predetermined stopping point. 2. the individuals resulting from the process of crossover and mutation are inserted into the new population.8 Stopping criterion At this stage. 29]. 7. [32]. However since the 1990s these techniques have been classiﬁed as static. 1. the same number of individuals were created as in the previous population.10 Penalty methods A problem with constraints can be eﬃciently transformed into a problem without constraints using a penalty function.

m is the number of frequency restrictions and ω is a natural frequency. The frequency constraints considered are based on Castro. 3 Numerical examples Three examples are considered. Table 2: Material Parameters for all of the problems considered Parameter Cross-sectional area: Youngs Modulus (E) Density (ρ) Moment of Inertia (I) (McGee and Phan. [3].2in2 ≤ Ai ≤ 100.1 ≤ Ai ≤ 44.2in2 I = 4. the ﬁrst two being traditional frame structures and the third being a real structure.0in2 3 ×107 Ksi 0.62 ∗ A2 i for 44. MacGee and Phan. [35]) Value Lower limit xL = 0.0in2 I = 256 ∗ Ai − 2300 Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . [8]. [24] propose that for structural problems which involve continuous sections. the moment of inertial should be a function of the area of the section.283lb/in3 for 0. once for each of the frequency constraints shown in Table 1.Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 115 n m F (Ai ) = i=1 ρAi Li + α j=1 |wj | −1 wmax (9) where n is the number of bars considered.1in2 Upper limit xU = 100. represented by a frame with some pin joints Each problem was solved four times. Table 1: Natural Frequency constraints for problems considered Case I II III IV Characteristics First natural frequency ω1 = 5Hz Second natural frequency ω2 = 15 Hz Third natural frequency ω3 = 30 Hz First natural frequency ω1 ≥ 5 Hz Second natural frequency ω2 ≥ 15 Hz Third natural frequency ω3 ≥ 30 Hz Table 2 shows the material parameters for all of the cases considered.

116 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge 3. show in Table 3. the other information required is input Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . gives the areas of the bars for each of the four constraints considered. The cross-sectional areas of the bars considered are those given by the GA. the chromosome is of size 60 bits. each variable cross-sectional area is represented using 10 bits. and thus 6 alleles.1 Problem 1: plane 6-bar frame The structure considered is shown in Fig. in such a way that the chromosomes posses 6 alleles. 6.1. The GA solution. the cross-sectional areas of each of the six bars of which the frame is composed are the project variables. (1). (6) one obtains the total number of individuals in the population. Figure 6: Problem 1: 6-bar plane frame The size of the alleles of the chromosomes is determined using Eq. In this case. Considering = 0. Using Eq. A solution is obtained for the natural frequencies using the SAP2000N commercial code.001 The results obtained by the program for the ﬁrst three natural frequencies for each of the four cases of frequency constraints given in Table 1 are shown in Table 4. given that there are six bars. npop = 100 pm = 0. (3) and Eq. npop and the probability of mutation pm respectively. and the maximum and minimum values for the cross-sectional area as given in Table 2.

2 Problem 2: plane 14-bar truss The structure considered is shown in Fig.60 10.00 4. pm will then be npop = 200 pm = 0.38 21. (Hz) frequency ω1 ω2 ω3 Case 1 GA SAP 5. The population size npop and the probability of mutation.17 data.87 14.80 10.90 3. Table 4: Results for natural frequencies for Problem 1.00 12. respectively. 1032.92 32.53 28.95 Case 2 6.70 13.90 19.20 6.50 2.20 20.99 Case 4 GA SAP 7.Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 117 Table 3: Results for Cross-sectional areas for Problem 1.40 Case 3 6.87 25.01 Case 3 GA SAP 22.06 29.88 10.63 6. 1422 and 823.02 3.20 5.28 31.00 2791.72 9. Comparison is made with Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) .90 2783.12 6.48 10.99 22.51 14.12 10. The solutions obtained for the four cases considered converged at generation numbers 756. (in2 ) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Total Weight (lb) Case 1 5.50 3056.80 1.90 5.60 2.50 10. From this point the graphical capabilities of this program can be taken advantage of.01 Case 2 GA SAP 9.96 7.97 25.58 18.71 Case 4 10. there are now 14 alleles per chromosome.80 3079. The number of bits in each allele is found in the same way as in the previous problem.20 5.11 21.21 6.0004 The results obtained by the program for the ﬁrst three natural frequencies are shown in Table 6 for the four diﬀerent frequency constraint cases considered.00 18. 7.44 7. The best solution was found for case 3 in which a constraint is placed on ω3 . In a similar way to the previous problem. giving a chromosome of 140 bits.20 19. Table 3 also presents the minimum weight of the structure for each of the four cases considered.20 20.

For this problem. The frame comprises 29 bars with pin-joints at the places indicated.3 Problem 3: industrial building The structure considered in this case is shown in Fig. together with the minimum weight of the frame. the minimum weight solutions for the four cases considered were obtained at generation numbers 926. as in case IV. 3.118 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge Figure 7: Problem 2: 14-bar plane truss results obtained using the commercial software SAP2000N. Given this. npop and the probability of mutation. as in the previous problem. pm are then given by npop = 200 pm = 0. 1832. It is observed that if several frequencies are taken into consideration. Values for population size. for each case.004 The solutions for the four sets of frequency constraints considered were given at generation numbers 1052. [8]. the total weight of the structure and the ﬁrst three natural frequencies are given in Tables 8 and 9 respectively in the same way as in the previous cases. 1364 and 2051 and the results for the cross-sectional areas of the bars. 1256. The best solution was found for case 2 in which a constraint is placed on ω2 . 1223 and 1822. less than in the previous problem. a lighter structure is obtained than if only one frequency is considered. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . For this problem the bars are considered to be grouped together. The values obtained for the cross-sectional areas of the bars are given in Table 5. each group shown in Table 7 has the same cross-sectional area. and the chromosome has 120 bits. 8 and is a real problem analysed statically by Erbatur. only 12 independent sections need to be obtained.

66 442.54 3.89 4.33 7.02 4.57 3.68 0.42 0. The minimum weight for the structure was obtained by the algorithm for three problems.98 1.62 0.11 Case 3 GA SAP 19.57 15.95 14.86 Case 2 8.00 29.23 24.33 4.86 Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) .33 4.06 1.28 8.98 8.Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 119 Table 5: Results for cross-sectional areas for Problem 2.23 3. (Hz) frequency ω1 ω2 ω3 Case 1 GA SAP 4.33 9.17 Case 4 4.65 7.22 630. The natural frequencies Table 6: Results for natural frequencies for Problem 2.53 14.56 1.25 13.78 11.62 0.25 9.38 5.81 4.89 3.03 6.53 14.30 6.45 19.23 6.58 6.00 5. (in2 ) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12 Section 13 Section 14 Total Weight (lb) Case 1 12.88 30.79 6.54 4.12 3.64 2.23 0.10 20.28 3.60 Case 4 GA SAP 7.55 562.34 Case 3 3.32 0. for each problem four diﬀerent cases of frequency constraints are considered.23 8.63 6.60 1.31 0.31 7.99 31.66 29.89 1.66 0.62 402.32 0.13 11.07 12.21 9.28 2.89 19.68 23.20 3.51 0.66 6.88 1.00 3.18 2.48 3. The constraints on natural frequency are considered using a modiﬁed objective function in which a penalty term is added.65 5.14 4 Conclusions The minimum weight of frame structures for free vibration analysis is considered using a Genetic Algorithm of the generational type using binary coding for the chromosomes and employing the elitist model. The penalty function employs parameters which remain constant during the evolutionary process.66 9.51 2.89 Case 2 GA SAP 12.

03 2.120 Li Chong Lee Bacelar de Castro and Paul William Partridge Table 7: Groups of sections for Problem 3 A1 = A24 A2 = A23 A3 = A26 A28 = A29 A4 = A5 = A22 = A25 A7 = A8 = A9 = A10 A11 = A12 = A13 = A14 A15 = A21 A16 = A20 A17 = A19 A18 Table 8: Results for cross-sectional areas for Problem 3.29 Sections 6.89 4.21 Sections 16.66 0.59 2.30 10.00 1.55 3.92 0. For the plane frame.64 2. For the truss.61 13.30 2.8.24 6. Problem 3.72 3.10 2.53 10171. It is considered that the results presented show the versatility and robustness of the algorithm.25 0. the minimum weight is obtained with the restriction on ω3 .36 8020.80 2.55 3. Problem 1.55 6.21 0.30 3.69 1.9. (in2 ) Sections 1.98 1.11 5.00 1.33 Case 2 4.10 Sections 11.63 7510.33 20.75 6873.13.12.32 1.62 Case 3 11.22.26 Sections 28.12 4.25 Sections 7.24 Sections 2.14 Sections 15. the minimum weight is obtained with the restriction on ω2 . the minimum weight is obtained with restrictions on several frequencies.24 3.35 0.20 14.19 Section 18 Total Weight (lb) Case 1 10.20 1.74 8.50 1.68 1.23 0.05 obtained are compatible with results obtained by the commercial code SAP in each case.00 3.30 3.23 Sections 3.70 4.28 4.5. For the industrial building.10 9. and that this can be used by designers in order to obtain initial values for cross-sectional Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) . Problem 2.11 2.20 Sections 17.27 Sections 4.38 2.56 13.00 5.12 Case 4 8.

12 5.65 19.92 29.20 25. (Hz) frequency ω1 ω2 ω3 Case 1 GA SAP 4. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 3 (2006) .03 Case 4 GA SAP 6.99 areas for steel structures.53 19.92 4.27 29.20 24.31 19.Minimum weight design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm 121 Figure 8: Problem 3: Industrial Building Table 9: Results for natural frequencies for Problem 3.31 33.42 11.87 14.80 19.89 19.20 Case 3 GA SAP 19. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the ﬁnancial support of the brazilian agency CNPq.13 12.53 19.01 14.89 19.20 10.69 Case 2 GA SAP 12.44 32.

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