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AN INTRODUCTION TO FINISHING
Akshay singh(01) Divya kaushal(06)
o To cover faults in the original fabric. o To improve the feel of the fabric by softening. That may mean. o To set the texture of certain fabrics and make others dimensionally stable. that is. crease resistant or free from pills and soiling. water repellent. o To produce stronger and more durable fabrics. Objects of finishing: o To improve the appearance of the fabric. etc. crease resistant or a combination of these properties. making the fabric shrinkproof. stiffer. It is the final processing of the cloth and its purpose is to make the fabric suitable for its intended end use. o To impart special properties to the fabric for specific end uses. o To make garments hold their shape and enable them to be worn without ironing. o To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making it shrink resistant. stiffening. for example. Finishes take many forms and are selected or applied with the regard to the: o Type of the fiber and yarn o Thread count o Method of fabric construction o Federal Trade Commission Rulings o Hand. weight.TEXTILE FINISHING Finishing is the general term for a multitude of processes and treatments which a fabric may undergo after it has been made (woven or knitted) and coloured (dyed or printed). make it more attractive or lustrous by operations like calendering. o To produce novelty effects. drapability qualities required o Anticipated end use of the fabric or garment Finishes : o Change and alter the fabric o Modify or improve the hand of the fabric o Make fabric attractive and serviceable o Produce a change in behavior or service characteristics o Provide specific characteristics and desired properties o Control instability or shrinkage of the fabric o Provide aesthetic value to fabric o Are used to conceal inferior structure o Are used to stimulate superior quality goods . softer. etc. o To increase weight of the cloth. optical whitening.
It improves the wearing qualities –non soiling. Improved feel which depends on the handle of the fabric and its softness. while the latter improve the performance of a fabric under specific end use conditions.Lusture. Mechanical change causes physical change in the fabric. Whiteness etc. suppleness. . flame proofing etc. fullness etc. o Climate conditions o Work-related activities o Sports. respectively. anti crease It gives special properties required for particular uses water proofing. merchandisers and sales personnel) usually categorize finishes as aesthetic finishes and functional finishes. Persons concerned with textile processing (chemists and finishers) categorize finishes into chemical finishes and mechanical finishes. which refer to the handling of cloth in its dry state. It covers the faults of original fabric It increases the weight of the fabric It increases the sale value of the material It improves the natural attractiveness of the fabric It improves the serviceability of the fabric CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES Textile finishes and finishing are classified in several ways. The former modify the appearance and/or hand (feel) of fabrics. perforated cylinders or tentering frames. These are also called wet finishing and dry finishing. They are dry-finishing operations.Recognizing and understanding the function of finishes is necessary in order to select the proper fabric suitable for the following specific or particular considerations. Persons concerned with end products (designers.related activities o Care factors o Construction procedures o Design and end use of the fabric and the garment o Life of garment o Federal Trade Commission Rulings Finishing gives the following advantages: o o o o o o o o o Improved appearance . Mechanical finishes are applied to the fabric by mechanical equipment such as copper plates.
yarn or fabric. alkalies. Durable finishes usually last throughout the life of the article. External finishes are additives to coat the surfaces of yarn. and near the end of the normal use life of the article. modify. but effectiveness becomes diminished after each cleaning. Permanent finishes usually involve a chemical change in fibre structure and will not change or alter throughout the life of a fabric. These finishes are called permanent. alter or improve the behavior or service characteristics of a fabric to produce certain specific properties. Basic finishes are considered general or routine procedures and are added to most fabrics by mechanical or chemical means as a normal or regular process. Semi-durable finishes last through several launderings or dry cleanings and many are renewable in home laundering or dry cleaning.Chemical finishes are finishes in which acids. Special finishes affect the performance of the fabric. detergents. Special finishes change. semi-durable and temporary. durable. . bleaches . Internal finishes are deposited and absorbed within the fiber to modify or to inhibit inherent faults or weaknesses. Basic finishes are used to produce certain characteristics associated with definite fabric construction. fabric and/ or garment. They impart the desired end use properties in finished goods. External finishes may alter or improve the appearance and hand of the fabric. Special finishes may or may not be permanent or durable. Aesthetic finishes give fabric a distinct surface effect and pleasing to both hand and eye. Functional finishes alter or improve the wearability and performance of a fabric or garment and provide for: o Additional comfort o Safety measures o Environmental and biological resistance o Durability for wear life of garment o Improved care performance Aesthetic finishes change or modify the appearance and/or hand of the completed garment. Finishes are also categorized by their degree of permanence. resins and other chemical substances cause a reaction and produce a permanent change in the fiber. the finish is nearly removed.
These are removed in a process called solvent scouring. RESINS Resins are the chemical group used in many of the finishes. which destroys the cellulose but leaves the wool unharmed. cotton blend. silk and man-made fibres. rinsed. mottled fabric surface. which is actually a dry-cleaning process. Most bleached fabrics are also additionally whitened with optical brighteners if the fabric is to remain white or dyed to pastel shades. They are used for many purposes. are first bleached. the fabric is treated with an additional process known as desizing. Improper singeing or elimination of this operation results in unclear print patterns.Temporary finishes are removed or substantially diminished the first time an article is laundered or dry cleaned. Fabrics are treated with soaps or detergents. it is called a scour or scouring. An additional pretreatment process known as carbonizing removes leaf particles and bits of grass and other cellulosic impurities that become embedded in the wool while sheep are grazing. Pretreatment processes may also include bleaching. In woolens and worsteds. printing or finishing can be accomplished. Singeing is another pretreatment process which involves burning off projecting fibers or filament splinters from the surface of a fabric. In cottons. depending upon the fibre. Many knit fabrics contain oils that were used for lubricating and softening yarns and to reduce static during knitting. and then dried. the processes are. Fabrics to be dyed in light to medium shades. The treatment consists of steeping the wool fabric in sulfuric acid. PRE-TREATMENT PROCESSES Pre-treatment processes consist of cleaning operations to rid the fabric of all soil and additives used during the weaving or knitting process. . The processes consist of various types of cleaning actions. the impurities present and the fabric construction. Resins are the most widely used chemicals in the textile industry. primarily on cellulosic and cellulosic blend fabrics. known generally as the boil-off. These processes are usually the first treatments a fabric undergoes after leaving the loom or knitting machine and are required before any dyeing. If warp starches are present. Resins have a profound effect on and cause changes in the hand (feel). or premature pilling of fabrics. and is efficient and effective for knit fabrics.
Resins combine chemically with cellulosic fibres (cotton. Resins stabilize fabrics in the same shape or configuration as when the resin was cured. Fabrics will become less moisture absorbent. These finishes wash out or wear out in several launderings or dry cleanings. breaking strength and tear strength. Fabrics cured m a smooth. They will also be less comfortable in warm. Yarns in fabric will be stabilized and will resist shrinkage in laundering. while fabrics cured with creases in garments will retain these creases.drapability and physical characteristics of textiles. They add stiffness to fabrics and are thus used as stiffening agents or to create a firm hand. Soil release finishes help alleviate this objection. F. Resins modify fabrics in the following ways: A.ete. Most resins produce an offensive "fish-like" or formaldehyde odour in fabric. B. nonwrinkled condition will return to that shape after being wrinkled in wear. Antiseptic Finishes Antiseptic finishes are chemical agents inhibiting the bacterial growths which cause irritation and odour in shoes. there are also some shortcomings. thus reducing the dryness of the fabric. IMPORTANT FINISHES Anti-static Finishes Anti-static finishes are chemical substances applied at the textile finishing mill for the purpose of reducing or eliminating static. D. humid weather. however. rayon. with the man-made fibres which have been especially modified for this purpose. E. These finishes are low in cost. This odour eventually disappears on exposure to air and/or laundering. thus drying more rapidly.) to cause significant reductions in abrasion resistance. C. G. While many benefits are achieved through these changes. Resins have an affinity for oily soils. luggage. easily applied and are durable to laundering and . creating a soiling problem. This reduction can be as high as 50%. underwear fabrics and similar items. These chemicals are actually substances which absorb small amounts of moisture from the atmosphere. Permanent anti-static efrects are obtainable. Anti-static finishes are not a truly satisfactory method for coping with the problem of static in textiles because they are merely semi-durable.
They are used on cotton. less absorbent and more resistant to wrinkling. with soaps or with water softeners. The cylindrical rollers are in contact with each other under pressure. The resultant fulled fabric is smoother. each producing different types of finished fabrics. Most CRF finishes are durable. The specific type of calendered finished fabric varies with the nature of the cylinder surface. Fundamentally. The process is a carefully controlled scouring or laundering process to induce felting shrinkage in wool fabrics. Fulling Fulling is a permanent finish used on wool fabrics. rayon and linen because these three fibres wrinkle easily. more compact and has yarns more tightly embedded than an unfulled fabric. All of the many types of flame retardant finishes now available suffer from at least one of the following shortcomings : (a) they cause stiffening and loss of fabric drapability. it is also known as milling or felting. Flame Resistant Finishes There are two systems to make fabrics flame resistant. Resin treatments also results in tensile strength loss and reduction of abrasion resistance in cellulosic fibres. a ealender is a mechanical device consisting of two or more large rotating cylindrical rollers stacked on top of each other and usually heated.dry cleaning. Calendering Calendering is not a single type of finish. The fabric becomes stiffer. The first is to use selective fibres which have characteristic flame resistant properties. Fabric being calendered passes around and between these cylinders. (b) they result in significant strength loss in fabric. (c) they are easily removed in laundering (nondurable). There are various types of calender machinery. the fabric is saturated with resin and then the resin is cured at temperatures of about 360°F. The various types of calendering finishes include the following (a) Simple calendering (b) Glazing calendering (c) Embossed ealendering (d) Moire calendering (e) Schreiner calendering Crease Resistant Finishes Crease resistant finishes are popularly known as CRF finishes. the speed of the cylinders and the nature of the fabric being finished. The second is by the use of flame resistant finishes. and (d) they become ineffective when laundered in household bleach. . CKF finishes are resin finishes.
This action results in fibres actually being raised from the fabric. producing a puckered effect. Plisse Plisse is the name of a finish as well as the name of a fabric treated with this finish.The nap can partially be restored by frequent brushing. Soil Release Finishes Soil release finishes in fabrics permit relatively easy removal of soils (especially oily soils) with ordinary home laundering. It makes uniform the surface of napped fabrics.Woolens are frequently heavily fulled. their wide use in blankets. All of them accomplish the end . Both fabrics and yarns can be mercerized. The low resilience of these fibres causes premature flattening of the fibre nap. but unlike mercerizing. the insulating value of cotton and rayon napped fabrics is not long lasting. The finish consists of treating the material while under tension with cold. but fibres cannot. Most cut pile fabrics are also sheared to provide uniform pile height. concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. The overall effect is a fabric with raised fibre surface. Napping Napping is a mechanical finish in which woven or knitted fabrics are passed against rotating. Shearing Shearing is a process used to cut off surface fibres on fabrics.The fabric shrinks only where the sodium hydroxide is applied. no tension is used. produced on cotton by the action of sodium hydroxide. This finish imparts luster to the cotton. hence. Mercerization Mercerization is one of the most important of all cotton finishes. sleepwear and winter clothing. producing brighter shades than unmercerized cotton. The sodium hydroxide is printed on the fabric in the form of a paste. bristled wire-covered brushes. increases its strength by nearly 25% and improves dye affinity. There are several types of soil release finishes. Napped fabrics have a softer hand and provide better insulation than the same materials unnapped because they can entrap more air. It also enhances the hand as well as uses less dye to achieve the same depth of shade. However. It is a permanent finish. Mercerization is a permanent finish.
These include: improved antistatic properties. References: Understanding Textiles By P. Most soil release finishes are applied at the same time that the resins are applied to textiles. Tortora (pg-361-365) Textile Fibers. Most are durable through 40 to 50 launderings and are routinely applied to fabrics for work clothes and table cloths. They are also often applied to fabrics for slacks and skirts. thus permitting better “wettability" for improved soil removal. Dyes. Several other benefits arise from the use of soil release finishes in durable press fabrics because of their increased absorbency. Finishes and Processes By Howard L.result of making the fibre more absorbent (hydrophilic). Needles . improved fabric drapability and somewhat greater comfort in hot weather.G.
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