1947-1958 The Teething Years Liaquat Ali Khan as Prime Minister [1947-1951] Liaquat Ali Khan

's contributions to the struggle for independence were numerous. After independence, he was thus the natural choice for the premiership. Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Being the first Prime Minister of the country, Liaquat Ali Khan had to deal with a number of difficulties that Pakistan faced in its early days. He helped Quaid-i-Azam in solving the riots and refugee problem and in setting up an effective administrative system for the country. He established the groundwork for Pakistan's foreign policy. He also took steps towards the formulation of the constitution. He presented The Objectives Resolution, a prelude to future constitutions, in the Legislative Assembly. The house passed it on March 12, 1949. It is considered to be the "Magna Carta" in Pakistan's constitutional history. Liaquat Ali Khan called it "the most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance, only to the achievement of independence". Under his leadership a team also drafted the first report of the Basic Principle Committee and work began on the second report. During his tenure, India and Pakistan agreed to resolve the dispute of Kashmir in a peaceful manner through the efforts of the United Nations. According to this agreement a ceasefire was affected in Kashmir in January 1948. It was decided that a free and impartial plebiscite would be held under the supervision of the UN. After the death of Quaid-i-Azam, he tried to fill the vacuum created by the departure of the Father of the Nation. The problem of religious minorities flared during late 1949 and early 1950, and it seemed as if India and Pakistan were about to fight their second war in the first three years of their independence. At this critical moment in the history of South Asia, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan met Nehru to sign the Liaquat-Nehru Pact in 1950. The Liaquat-Nehru Pact was an effort on his part to improve relations and reduce tension between India and Pakistan. In May 1951, he visited the United States and set the course of Pakistan's foreign policy towards closer ties with the West. An important event during his premiership was the establishment of National Bank of Pakistan in November 1949, and the installation of a paper currency mill in Karachi. Liaquat Ali Khan was unfortunately assassinated on October 16, 1951. Security forces immediately shot the assassin, who was later identified as Saad Akbar. The question of who was behind his murder is yet to be answered. The government officially gave Liaquat Ali Khan the title of Shaheed-i-Millat.

The main problems were: . Mountbatten made an offer to the Quaid that India would hold a plebiscite in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. with its massive Muslim majority. He also made it clear that the Indian forces would remain in the valley and Sheikh Abdullah in the chair.Jinnah . 1947. Thus the talks ended and the problem remained unsolved. He was also convinced that plebiscite under the supervision of Sheikh Abdullah and Indian regular army would be sabotaged. who hoped for a better standard of living. As India was not interested in the immediate resolution of the problem and wanted to gain time. refused to come to Lahore. he was not the complete master of his country and had to take the consent of Nehru and Patel. and children. However. practice their religious faith and develop their culture. Mountbatten told the Quaid that unlike him. Quaid-iAzam opposed the unjust plan and claimed that the State of Jammu and Kashmir. This left Mountbatten alone in his visit to Pakistan. But what the Muslims wanted and what they achieved was a homeland of their own. women. The meeting of the Joint Defense Council was scheduled at Delhi only four days after the occupation of Kashmir by the Indian forces. But it seemed in those early years (1947-58) that the immense sacrifices might have been in vain for Pakistan had been struggling from one major crisis to another. to avoid direct talks with his Pakistani counterpart.Mountbatten Talks [1947] The history of bilateral negotiations pertaining to Kashmir between the leaders of India and Pakistan at the state level can be traced back to November 1947. independence had opened up a bright future for the Muslims. It came into existence with horrible loss of life and property. fighting to ward off the multiple problems that threatened the nation. The venue of the meeting was changed from Delhi to Lahore. if Mountbatten was ready to fly with him to Srinagar at once. Sardar Patel. Afterwards. provided Pakistan withdrew the Azad Kashmiri forces and their allies. Moreover. The cost was heavy in terms of human suffering. belonged to Pakistan as an essential element in an incomplete partition process. Mountbatten came to Lahore on November 1. and the migration of millions of dazed and destitute men. The Governor General and Prime Minister of the two countries were supposed to attend the meeting. prosperity and a fuller life. They now had the freedom to worship. and had a three and a half hour long discussion with the Governor General of Pakistan. Post Independence Problems Pakistan was carved out in desperate urgency. economic development. Quaid-i-Azam asked for the immediate and simultaneous withdrawal of both the Pathan tribesmen and the Indian troops. he suggested that the leaders of India and Pakistan should take control of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and sort out all matters including the arrangement of a free and fair plebiscite. Quaid-i-Azam guaranteed his counterpart that the two of them would be able to solve the problem once and forever. Jawaharlal Nehru declared himself ill and his deputy. Presenting his proposal. stating that there was nothing to discuss with the Pakistani leadership.

There were not sufficient skilled personnel to run the railways. fed and sheltered. districts. In an almost frantic. The boundaries had to be defined as such that provinces. N. Indus Water 3. 1948. clothed. cruel rush. There weren't enough chairs. But this amount was withheld on the plea that Pakistan would use it in the war going on in Kashmir. it resulted in many tragic events. Soon afterwards. water and property.000 million. Panic. leaving Pakistan with minimal resources to survive and build on. Both India and Pakistan were soaked in blood. tables or even stationery and paper pins for administrative purposes. the remaining amount was later on released after Gandhi's fast and under world pressure on January 15. But deep problems arose when boundaries in Punjab had to be fixed. got the lion's share in all transactions. It left on Pakistan's doorstep. Partition also involved dividing of the assets of the Sub-continent. India and Pakistan mutually came to an agreement that Pakistan would get Rupees 750 million as her share. there were also a substantial number of Hindus and Sikhs residing in this region. farmlands. seven million refugees who had to be rehabilitated. revenge and reprisals followed. The British Government immediately appointed a Boundary Commission under Sir Cyril Radcliffe to demarcate permanent borders. it was upon Gandhi's request that . F.1. the commission divided districts. fear. Sardar Patel threatened that the implementation of the agreement would depend upon the settlement of the Kashmir issue. and villages that were predominantly Muslim went to Pakistan. while Hindu majority areas went to India. Sindh. When the boundaries were drawn between India and Pakistan. Accession of Princely States Refugees It had been agreed between Jinnah and Nehru that a Boundary Commission should be setup to define the borders between India and Pakistan. being the larger country. villages. Refugees 2. as this stand was morally untenable. and East Bengal provided little difficulty. leaving their homes. India. At the beginning of December 1947. P. W. Thousands of innocent men. the province was partitioned. other than the Muslims. At the time of partition. land and personal property to seek refuge. Pakistan had no industry. Rupees 200 million had been already paid to Pakistan while Rupees 550 million were to be paid immediately. Food was scarce. the cash balances of undivided India stood at about Rupees 4. women and children were caught unaware. hospitals and offices. However. Provinces like Baluchistan. The result was that many hastened across the border. Equally disastrous was the economic situation. But. However.

A solution acceptable to both governments was agreed upon in 1960 at the Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement at Karachi. The Indus Water The most explosive of Indo-Pakistan disputes was the question of sharing the waters of the Indus basin. Accession of Princely States Prior to partition. On September 15. Eugene Black. Hyderabad. He was reluctant to accede either to India or Pakistan but was dismissed by Mountbatten for adopting this course. This treaty is commonly known as the "Indus Water Treaty". stormed in her troops. The treaty allowed for a transitional period of 10 to 13 years. retaining the balance of Rupees 50 million to adjust some trumped up claim against Pakistan. II. Jodhpur and Kashmir. and forcibly reversed the Nawab's decision and Junagadh became a part of India. the second of the defiant states was the largest and richest in India. there existed in British India many semi-autonomous Princely states whose future had to be settled before Britain withdrew from India. Junagadh. Lord Louis Mountbatten (the last Viceroy of India) in his address to the Chamber of Princes advised them that in deciding the question of accession. During the transitional period. 1947. they should take into consideration communal composition and the geographical location of their states. which defied the principle of partition. 1948. after which the three eastern rivers would fall exclusively to India's share and the three western rivers to Pakistan. The Nizam was forced by the Indian government and Lord . Pakistan would construct a system of replacement works consisting of two dams. India cut off the supply of water from the two headworks under her control. India protested. On April 1. Fortunately. Junagadh: The ruler of Junagadh was a Muslim but 80 percent of his subjects were Hindus. despite the fact that his state did not fall within the geographical grouping of Pakistan. the Nawab acceded to Pakistan.the Reserved Bank of India paid Pakistan Rupees 500 million. others in Pakistan. But there were four states. There were some 560 such states all over the Sub-continent. Hyderabad: Hyderabad. Its population was 85 percent Hindu but the ruler (Nizam) was a Muslim. 1947. On July 25. Some fell within Indian territory. five barrages and seven link canals financed by the Indus Development Fund. I. President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development offered the offices of the Bank for the solution of the water problem in 1952. Nearly all the states accepted the reality of the situation and opted either for Pakistan or India accordingly.

the Maharaja of Jodhpur. but his subjects were mostly Muslims. Kashmir: Kashmir Crisis [1948] Kashmir. The Pathan tribesmen from the North West Frontier Province. wanting to avenge the deaths of their brothers. On reaching the valley of Kashmir. On October 26. Pakistan consented but India refused. 1947. and launched a fullscale attack on the tribesmen. Indian troops entered Hyderabad to "restore order". Pakistan was prepared to send in her troops but the British General Gracey. The Maharaja was reluctant to join either India or Pakistan. the capital. Jodhpur: Yet another prince. He asked his Hindu paratroopers to open fire. a local barrister called Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim immediately set up the Azad Kashmir government and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Maharaja. and under the pretext of "police action" Hyderabad was forced to join India. and within a matter of seconds. The local population of Poonch began to press the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan. Commander- . the last of the defiant states. As a result Jodhpur.Mountbatten to join India. accounting to 78 percent of the total population. Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession on behalf of India. too. In August 1947. acceded to India. invaded the valley. 1948. But Lord Mountbatten urged him to take a decision to join either of the states before August 15. The Hindu subjects were incited to revolt against the Nizam's desire to be independent. IV. they held a massive demonstration to protest against the Maharaja's indecisiveness. Hyderabad filed a compliant with the Security Council of the United Nations. 1947. Maharaja Hari Singh. The whole province suffered turmoil and violence. The Hyderabad army surrendered on September 17. expressed a wish to join Pakistan but Mountbatten warned him that his subjects were mostly Hindus and his accession to Pakistan would create problems. The Maharaja asked for more time to consider his decision. The Maharaja sensing his defeat took refuge in Jammu whence he appealed to India to send troops to halt the onslaught of the tribesmen. several hundred Muslims were killed. Before the hearing could be started. A standstill agreement was concluded between India and Hyderabad. 1947. Rising up against this brutal action. III. In the meantime he asked the Indian and the Pakistani government to sign a "standstill agreement" with him. the war of Kashmir had begun in earnest. India agreed on the condition that Kashmir would accede to India. was the reverse of Hyderabad. By October 1947. Despite her scant military resources. It had a Hindu ruler. the Maharaja acceded to India. India began to airlift her troops to Srinagar. The Maharaja panicked. they defeated the Maharaja's troops and reached the gates of Srinagar. Pakistan was stunned. and finally Hyderabad was annexed into the Indian Union. On October 27.

India kept the valley of Kashmir. he was quite an old man but still possessing a strong spirit. the ceasefire line was demarcated. the Indian troops launched a full-scale attack and drove the tribesmen right back to the Pakistani border. Gilgit. The cease-fire has remained in existence since 1949. the withdrawal of all Pakistani and Indian troops and holding of plebiscite under United Nations' supervision. But Pakistan held that the accession of Kashmir had been brought about by force. . At the time of independence. Poonch. Pakistan's side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of Jammu. But the Security Council on August 13. and a great chunk of Ladakh territory near the Chinese border in the North. be allowed to continue as a joint Governor General of both Pakistan and India. In January 1948. Jinnah Passes Away [1948] Quaid-i-Azam had been ailing since long before Independence. some areas of Western Kashmir. the resolution began to be implemented. There it accused Pakistan of aggression and demanded that Pakistan withdraw her tribesmen. called for an immediate ceasefire. 1948. Jinnah proposed an immediate ceasefire and later on a fair and free plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir. He worked almost 24 hours a day and always preferred performing his national obligations to his own ailment. Both the Indian and Pakistani governments accepted the resolution. The government requested the Security Council to arrange a cease-fire and asked both the tribesmen and the Indian troops to withdraw so that a free and impartial plebiscite could be held to ascertain the wishes of the people of Kashmir.in-Chief of the Pakistan Army. He hid the debilitating weakness caused by severely advanced tuberculosis. No plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed and unresolved. Quaid-i-Azam refused to accept this proposal as he felt that a joint Governor General would not be able to do justice to both the countries. In July 1949. it must be sovereign in all respects with its own executive and government. It had been proposed that the last Viceroy of India. Jammu and the remainder of Ladakh territory near the Tibet border. cancer had developed as well. was against it. While the Kashmir issue was still on the table. Pakistan rushed her regular troops into Kashmir and a full-scale war with India ensued. his opponents would make the most of it. He denied his illness even to himself and remained intent and unflinching so as to achieve the dream of millions of Muslims. She took control of the Azad Kashmir Army. In January 1949. Quaidi-Azam was convinced that if word of illness leaked out. He firmly believed that since Pakistan was a sovereign state. Lord Mountbatten. By the time of Independence. India took the dispute to the Security Council. he was worn out by his intense struggle and opted to take the position of Governor General instead of that of Prime Minister. Researchers like Professor Stanley Wolpert believed that by the end.

Accordingly. On June 3. The Constituent Assembly had a dual purpose. to draft the constitution of Pakistan and to act as a legislative body till the new constitution was passed and enforced. was first outlined. it was now at the cost of his own life. both aging and illness had mounted a terrible toll upon the Quaid. His physicians regularly advised him to take care of his health and to ease back on his work. 1948. the working constitution of Pakistan. . W. and the Kashmir problem were a real test for the Quaid. he went to Karachi to inaugurate the State Bank of Pakistan. Although the flame still burnt bright. the Government of India Act of 1935 became. However. When the founder of Pakistan. Nazimuddin was appointed the first Chief Minister of the Province of East Bengal. It was here that the idea of Pakistan. He selected Karachi as the federal capital. His sickness grew more serious until his death on September 11. P. This new state was formed of East Bengal. Khawaja Nazimuddin Becomes Governor General [1948-1951] After Pakistan came into being on August 14. F. Despite the warning from his physicians. 1947. 1948. 1947. But he never cared for it and kept on working hard day and night. West Punjab. Under Section 8 of the Indian Independence Act of 1947. It came to be known as the Pakistan Resolution. a part of Assam (Sylhet). The refugee problem. As a result. This was his last public appearance. Objectives Resolution is passed [1949] The history of formulation of the constitution of Pakistan begins with the Lahore Resolution in 1940. 1947. established an independent currency and the State Bank of Pakistan. and Baluchistan provinces of undivided India. However. a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. India created numerous problems. Muhammad Ali Jinnah died on September 11. Quaid-iAzam. After the establishment of Pakistan. He also worked out a sound economic policy. N. with certain adaptations. his indomitable will prevailed. the withholding of Pakistani assets by India. He was buried in Karachi amidst the tears of the entire nation mourning an irreparable loss. His health deteriorated to such an extent. that he had to go to Ziarat for the restoration of his health. a Constituent Assembly was set up under the Independence Act.By this time. the new state of Pakistan came into being on August 14. the Quaid's aim was the establishment of a truly Islamic society. the British Government accepted in principle the partition of India in order to create two independent dominions of Pakistan and India. 1947. Nazimuddin was appointed as the second Governor General of Pakistan. The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18. Sindh.

8. the Constituent Assembly adopted a resolution moved by Liaquat Ali Khan. Mr. At the time it was passed. shall be fully observed. proclaimed the following principles: 1. Adequate provision shall be made for the minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures. 1949. Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust. as enunciated by Islam. The Objectives Resolution is one of the most important and illuminating documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. equality. next in importance only to the achievement of independence". The Objectives Resolution. Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. 3. but on the ideology and democratic faith of Islam. Fundamental rights shall be guaranteed. The State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people. The importance of this document lies in the fact that it combines the good features of Western and Islamic democracy. 5. 4. The Objectives Resolution became a part of the constitution of Pakistan in 1985 under the Eighth Amendment. It was called the Objectives Resolution. freedom. It proclaimed that the future constitution of Pakistan would not be modeled on European pattern.Objectives Resolution On March 12. The principles of democracy. 7. . tolerance and social justice. Pakistan shall be a federation. the then Prime Minister of Pakistan. It is a happy blend of modernism and Islam. which is considered to be the "Magna Carta" of Pakistan's constitutional history. Liaquat Ali Khan called it "the most important occasion in the life of this country. 2. 6. Judiciary shall be independent.

A Board of Ulema was to be set up by the head of state and provincial governors. The main function of this committee was to determine the basic principles of the future Constitution of Pakistan. In order to include public opinion. According to the Basic Principles Committee Report. The judiciary was to be headed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan consisting of a Chief Justice and two to six other judges. with a majority of the population. The Board of Ulema was to examine the law making process to ensure that no law was passed that went against the principles of the . The Central Legislature was to consist of two houses: the House of Units with 120 members and the House of People with 400 members. F. Liaquat Ali Khan agreed to consider the objections with an open mind. The setting up of the committee was a right and commendable step. East Pakistan. There was to be a High Court for each of the units of East Pakistan. The most important among those committees was the Basic Principles Committee set up on March 12. which was presented by Khawaja Nazimuddin in the National Assembly on December 22. elected by a joint session with the majority vote of the Central Legislature for a period of five years. Adult franchise was introduced. Maulvi Tamiz-ud-din Khan headed it and Liaquat Ali Khan was its Vice President. Liaquat Ali Khan called forth general comments and suggestions by the public on the report. The subcommittee. but its working was immensely affected by the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan. the Constitution Assembly set up a number of committees to draw the future constitution on the basis of the principles given in the Objectives Resolution. thus reducing the representation of the majority of the population in Pakistan by one-fifth. the head of the state was to be a Muslim. postponed the deliberation of the Constituent Assembly in order to enable the Basic Principles Committee to examine and consider suggestions that might be made by the people regarding the principles of the Constitution. He. Sindh Baluchistan and the N. however. The Prime Minister was to be appointed by the head of the state. by Khawaja Nazimuddin on the advice of Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan. East Pakistan representatives also did not like Urdu being declared as the only national language of Pakistan. P. A large number of proposals and suggestions were sent by the public. which were examined by a special subcommittee headed by Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar. The main criticism was against the quantum representation in the Central Legislature. This was a short document presenting the guidelines and principles of the future Constitution of Pakistan. Punjab. W. The committee comprised 24 members. The Chief Justice was to be appointed by the head of state. was given an equal number of seats in the Upper House as West Pakistan. The committee presented its interim report to the Legislative Assembly in 1950. therefore. 1949. 1952. Representatives of East Pakistan raised objections against the report. There were to be three lists of subjects for the division of power between the Federation and the Units. gave its report to the Basic Principles Committee in July 1952.Basic Principles Committee [1949-1952] After the Objectives Resolution was passed in 1949.

the Governor General appointed Muhammad Ali Bogra. Khawaja Nazimuddin's downfall was not only due to his meekness of character. who was the Governor General at that time. Khawaja Nazimuddin becomes Prime Minister [1951-1953] Under Quaid-i-Azam's constitutional framework. 1952. Imposition of Martial Law became imminent. After coming to power. undemocratic and objectionable because the Prime Minister still enjoyed the confidence of the Parliament. welcomed the report and commended it as a valuable document according to the aspirations of the people of Pakistan. the Chief Minister of Punjab. Most historians agree that the removal of Khawaja Nazimuddin was improper. Khawaja Nazimuddin was summoned by the Governor General along with his Cabinet and ordered to resign. took over as the second Prime Minister of Pakistan. an unknown person from East Pakistan. 1953.Quran and Sunnah. After the dismissal of Khawaja Nazimuddin. executive powers lay with the Prime Minister. Khawaja Nazimuddin. Khawaja Nazimuddin declined but was dismissed by Malik Ghulam Muhammad on April 17. was elevated to the post of Governor General. When Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated on October 16. This movement soon spread to other parts of the country. The Basic Principles Committee's report was severely criticized and raised much bitterness between East and West Pakistan. thus creating continued instability in the country. It was under Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin that the second draft of the Basic Principles Committee was presented to the Constituent Assembly on December 22. Ghulam Muhammad. The movement for Tahaffuz-i-Khatam-i-Nabuwat and the worsening food condition in Punjab caused a lot of trouble for Khawaja Nazimuddin. Ghulam Muhammad . Khawaja Nazimuddin. The Prime Minister. He remained in power till April 1953 when Ghulam Muhammad removed him from the office. Ghulam Muhammad becomes Governor General [1951] When Khawaja Nazimuddin took over as Prime Minister in 1951. as the Prime Minister. The anti-Ahmadiya movement was started in Punjab by the Ahrar and had the support of Mian Mumtaz Daultana. But the fact was that the nation was not satisfied with the report and hence there was a serious deadlock in making of the constitution. Ghulam Muhammad was appointed as the Governor General. who had been Finance Minister since the inception of Pakistan. however. There were widespread disturbances and the situation in the country soon worsened to the brink of anarchy and civil war. but also due to the power struggle amongst the various leaders. This act set an unhealthy tradition and precedent for the future Presidents who were fond of removing elected governments. 1951. The Objectives Resolution was adopted as a preamble to the proposed Constitution.

Muhammad Ali Bogra becomes Prime Minister [1953] Khawaja Nazimuddin was dismissed by the Governor General. After coming to power.wanted to change the status quo of executive powers. He worked hard towards accomplishing this task and within six months of assuming power. came out with a constitutional formula known as the Bogra Formula. He worked hard towards accomplishing this task and within six months of assuming power. Ghulam Muhammad dissolved the Assembly. he set a new precedent of inviting the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army to become the Defense Minister. His constitutional proposal is know as the Bogra Formula and was presented before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on October 7. and replaced by Muhammad Ali Bogra. Governor General Ghulam Muhammad had dissolved the Constituent Assembly although the Assembly had accomplished the task of framing the Constitution and all obstacles in the way of its promulgation were removed. This move was apparently to counter a bill passed in the Assembly curtailing the powers of the Governor General. Although the expulsion of Ghulam Muhammad from power seemed necessary. before the constitution could be finalized. After dismissing Khawaja Nazimuddin. Malik Ghulam Muhammad was forced to retire from the post of Governor General due to his failing health and Major General Iskander Mirza. To this end. Iskander Mirza proved to be a greater menace for the country. Muhammad Ali Bogra was allowed to continue in office with a new cabinet. yet his successor. Malik Ghulam Muhammad. The Bogra Formula was presented before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on October 7. the Governor General appointed a rather unknown leader from East Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Bogra was sworn in again as the Prime Minister and it was promised that fresh elections would be held later on. 1953. Bogra was then the Pakistani Ambassador to the United States. took over the office. Muhammad Ali Bogra. The Prime Minster. as the Prime Minister. There was great enthusiasm amongst the masses as they considered it a plan that could bridge the gulf between the two wings of . Unlike the two reports of the Basic Principle Committee. 1953. Khawaja Nazimuddin in April 1953. 1953. However. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra declared that the making of the Constitution was one of his primary targets. on April 17. he dismissed the Prime Minister. Bogra declared that the making of the Constitution was one of his primary targets. A committee was set up to draft the constitution according to the approval of the Constituent Assembly. and all obstacles in the way of its promulgation had been removed. he came out with a constitutional formula. in an undemocratic move. After coming to power. After coming to power. the Bogra Formula was appreciated by different sections of the society. Ghulam Muhammad had also dissolved the Constituent Assembly although the Assembly had accomplished the task of framing the Constitution. the Minister of Interior.

The new government promised fresh elections. the news of American military aid to Pakistan gave Pandit Nehru an excuse to go back on his commitments to hold referendum in Kashmir. a provision was made that if the head of the state was from West Pakistan. and vice versa. and 17 for Baluchistan. Due to his strenuous efforts. The 300 seats for the Lower House were to be allocated to the provinces on the basis of proportionate representation. Both the houses were given equal power. F. before the constitution could be finalized. The Prime Minster. His constitutional proposal. As a result of his efforts. a committee was set up to draft the constitution according to the approval of the Constituent Assembly. O. T. Bogra Formula While taking charge as Prime Minister. and in case of a conflict between the two houses. was presented before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on October 7. It was during the tenure of Muhammad Ali Bogra that Pakistan joined C. N. Muhammad Ali Bogra was sworn in again as the Prime Minster on October 26. Bhawalpur and Karachi. However.. Muhammad Ali Bogra as Prime Minister of Pakistan worked hard for the settlement of the Kashmir issue. Thus Bogra was unable to solve the Kashmir problem. the four provinces and the princely states of the Western Wing. 1953. Baluchistan States Union. A total of 50 seats were reserved for the Upper House. W.Pakistan and would act as a source of unity for the country. the Prime Ministers of both the countries met numerous times in London and Karachi. came out with a constitutional formula. 19 for Sindh and Khairpur. One hundred and sixty five seats were reserved for East Pakistan. the issue was to be presented before a joint session. 75 for Punjab. 1955. 1954. In this way East Pakistan was given more seats in the Lower House than the combined number of seats reserved for the federal capital. He urged Nehru to settle the Kashmir dispute in order to promote friendly relations between the two countries. This move was apparently to counter a bill curtailing the power of the Governor General. known as the Bogra Formula. In August 1955. Letters and telegrams were also exchanged between the leaders of the two countries. Ghulam Muhammad dissolved the Assembly. E. and S. So in all. F. The acting Governor General also dismissed Muhammad Ali Bogra on August 8. P. 24 for N. in May 1954. P. was allowed to continue in office with a new cabinet. The plan proposed for a Bicameral Legislature with equal representation for all the five provinces of the country in the Upper House. 1953. Muhammad Ali Bogra. T. the Prime Minister was to be from East Pakistan. O. W. The two houses of the Legislative Assembly formed the . A. both the wings were to have 175 seats each in the two houses of the Legislative Assembly. The proposal was discussed in the Constituent Assembly for 13 days. However. Muhammad Ali Bogra declared that formulation of the Constitution was his primary target.. tribal areas and the states located in N. On November 14. Pandit Nehru agreed to hold a free and fair plebiscite in Kashmir. E. He worked hard on this project and within six months of assuming power. the Governor General was forced to resign due to ill health and Major General Iskander Mirza was made the acting Governor General. In order to prevent permanent domination by any wing.

He dropped Muslim League members from his cabinet. Major General Iskander Mirza in the absence of Malik Ghulam Muhammad. Dr. This ultimately led to his downfall. however. Muhammad Ali Bogra. Unlike the two reports of the Basic Principles Committee. The 1956 Constitution was Islamic and democratic in character. formed his own party. In the Central Government. before the constitution could be finalized. the Muslim League shared power as a major component of the coalition without being in office in any province. In place of the Board of Ulema. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali's greatest achievement was framing the Constitution of 1956 and its approval by the Constituent Assembly. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali. the Supreme Court was given the power to decide if a law was in accordance with the basic teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah or not. Malik Ghulam Muhammad dissolved the Constituent Assembly of Muhammad Ali Bogra on the grounds that it had "lost the confidence of the people". Prime Minister Chaudhry Muhammad Ali was urged by the Muslim League to act against the West Pakistan Ministry. and had the blessings of almost all schools of thought. Dr. the then Governor General of Pakistan. The proposal was discussed in the Constituent Assembly for 13 days. could not come up to the bargaining and the deals necessary to reconcile the various interest groups into accepting the One Unit and the adoption of the Constitution. There was great enthusiasm amongst the masses as they considered it as a plan that could bridge the gulf between the two wings of Pakistan and would act as a source of unity for the country. however. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali was appointed as the new Prime Minister on August 11. Khan Sahib as Chief Minister of the Unified Province of West Pakistan. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Becomes Prime Minister [1955] On October 24.Electoral College for the presidential elections and the President was to be elected for a term of 5 years. he was dismissed by the acting Governor General. despite the opposition of the Muslim League. His greatest blunder was the selection of Dr. however. 1955. The entire country with great joy and enthusiasm celebrated the promulgation of this Constitution on March 23. and declared a state of emergency in the country. the Republican Party. and a committee was set to draft the constitution on November 14. 1953. since he was again invited to form a cabinet known as the Ministry of Talents. the Assembly was dissolved by Ghulam Muhammad. enjoyed the support of the President Iskander Mirza. Khan Sahib. remained as the Prime Minister. The Republican Party kept growing in number and claimed to be the single largest party in the National Assembly. acceptable to people of all parts of the country. On August 8. his . 1956. who had gone on a temporary leave and was also subsequently forced to resign due to his ill health. However. 1954. and by bringing the dissident Muslim Leaguers and other supporters. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali believed that as a Prime Minister. Khan Sahib was an old Congressman who had opposed the creation of Pakistan. the Bogra Formula was appreciated by different sections of the society. therefore the Muslim League opposed his appointment. He proved to be a poor politician who failed to control his own party. 1955.

The problem of representation of . Thus. with Lahore as its provincial capital. Major General Iskander Mirza took over as Governor General when Ghulam Muhammad became too ill to continue. 1955. West Pakistan Established as One Unit [1955] Even after eight years of existence. a number of states that had acceded to Pakistan. The result of the new bill was to unify these various units into one province to be known as West Pakistan. and the tribal areas. 1955. the Assembly passed the bill merging 310.actions should be governed by the good of the country and not by the resolution of any party. He wanted a controlled democracy for Pakistan with more powers for the civil bureaucracy. To this end. Iskander Mirza was also a great advocate of the One Unit scheme and it was under his rule that all the four provinces and the states of West Pakistan were merged into one unit in October 1955. but with marked linguistic and ethnic distinctions. West Pakistan had formerly comprised three Governor's provinces. It was during his tenure that Chaudhry Muhammad Ali presented the 1956 Constitution and Iskander Mirza was elected the first President of Pakistan. 1956. He believed that he was responsible only to the Cabinet and the Parliament. Iskander Mirza Becomes Governor General [1955] In August 1955. On September 30. The Bill was hailed as a measure of administrative rationalization as it was likely to reduce the administrative expenditure. one Chief Commissioner's province. He was of the view that democratic institutions could not flourish in Pakistan due to lack of training in the field of democracy and low literacy rate of the masses. He thought that politicians should be given the power to make policy but not allowed to interfere in administration. the Government of Pakistan decided that all the four provinces and states of West Pakistan should be merged into one unit. enumerating the benefits of having one unit or province. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali made the first official announcement on November 22. they formed a homogenous block with easy communication. 1954. To diminish the differences between the two regions. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali resigned as a Prime Minister on September 8. Iskander Mirza was a civil servant and it is widely believed that he lacked the parliamentary spirit. His decision to resign of his own accord is considered as a unique example of political decorum in the history of Pakistan. Pakistan was without a constitution. also resigning from his membership of the Muslim League at the same time. He was confirmed as the fourth Governor General of Pakistan on October 4. Geographically. he refused the demands of the Muslim League.000 square miles into a single province. It was claimed that one unit of West Pakistan would eliminate the curse of provincial prejudices. Disgusted with the scenario. The main reason was believed to be the fact that there were two unequal wings of Pakistan separated from each other by more than a thousand miles.

P. was to consist of 300 members. The Constitution of 1956 After assuming charge as Prime Minister. however. while Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani was appointed as the first Governor of West Pakistan. His efforts led to the first constitution that was enforced in the country on March 23. While the One Unit scheme in West Pakistan could be supported on various grounds. W. Dr. Subsequently. Delimitation Commission and Public Service Commission. Along with other Islamic provisions in the Constitution. He also had the power to appoint the Prime Minister from amongst the members of the National Assembly. came to an end when the President himself took over the administration. Sindh and N. his appointee had to take a vote of confidence from the Assembly within two months of his appointment. The President had the discretionary powers to make the appointment of the Chairman and members of the Election Commission. Dr. which it could not do. the president. who was required to be a Muslim of at least 40 years of age. the method of its establishment was not free from criticism. the National Assembly. The Islamic provisions were contained in the directive principles of the state policy. only made the preamble of the Constitution and not included in its main text. 1956.various units in the proposed Federal Legislature had been a big hurdle in the way of making a Constitution and it was said that with the removal of this hurdle. was to set up an organization for Islamic research with the aim of establishing a true Islamic society. Khan Sahib's Ministry. The Constitution recognized the concept of One Unit. and the seats were divided equally between the two wings of the country. Sardar Abdur Rashid and Muzzaffar Ali Qazilbash were appointed Chief Ministers of that province in succession. F. The Constitution vested the executive authority of the President in the Federation. The Constitution of 1956 consisted of 234 articles. Khan Sahib was appointed as the first Chief Minister of the One Unit. However. Thus the principle of . The government wanted to introduce the One Unit Scheme by an executive decree. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali along with his team worked day and night to formulate a constitution for Pakistan. Pakistan's status as a dominion ended and the country was declared an Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 1970. So the Central Government dismissed the Ministry in Punjab. however. The President also had the power to remove the Prime Minister if he felt that the Prime Minister had lost the confidence of the majority of the National Assembly members. The only house of parliament. the formation of the Constitution would now speed up. One of the main features of the Constitution was its Islamic character. The Objectives Resolution was. which were divided into 13 parts and 6 schedules. The Constitution of 1956 provided for parliamentary form of government with a unicameral legislature. Thereupon the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan became the interim National Assembly and Governor General Iskander Mirza was sworn in as the first President of Pakistan. One Unit continued until General Yahya Khan dissolved it on July 1.

Urdu and Bengali were both accepted as state languages. The Constitution provided for federal form of government in the country. Suhrawardy tried to remove the economic disparity between the Eastern and Western wings of the country but to no avail. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy replaced Chaudhry Muhammad Ali as Prime Minister on September 12.parity was introduced. In West Pakistan. For the first ten years. . He also tried unsuccessfully to alleviate the food shortage in the country. 94 items in the provincial list and 19 items in the concurrent list. 1958. Suhrawardy had managed to secure the office for himself by forging an alliance with the Republican Party. Residuary powers were vested in the provinces. Suhrawardy and his party in East Pakistan supported the joint electorate. revived as soon as Suhrawardy became Prime Minster. In case of a conflict between center and provinces or between the two provinces. Every citizen of Pakistan with minimum age of 21 was allowed to vote in the elections. The provincial structure was similar to the one in the center. Suhrawardy Becomes Prime Minister [1956] Soon after the adoption of the 1956 Constitution. The Constitution offered direct elections under adult franchise. whether joint or separate. There were federal. It advocated the fundamental rights of the individual. Not a man to let setbacks destroy his morale. The Constitution of 1956 was a written and flexible constitution. the President was to appoint a commission with the task to make recommendation for the replacement of English as the official language. Marital Law was promulgated and the constitution was abrogated. S. National Assembly was to meet at least twice a year with at least one session at Dhaka. Judiciary was to remain independent. There were 30 items in the federal list. The Constitution of 1956 proved to be short lived as on October 7. the President had the power to suspend these rights in case of an emergency. The controversy over One Unit and the appropriate electoral system for Pakistan. 1935. provincial and concurrent lists of subjects. five additional seats were reserved for women for each wing. After ten years' passage of the Constitution. there was strong opposition to the joint electorate by the Muslim League and the religious parties. Suhrawardy thought his political fortunes might change if he scored some success on the economic front during his tenure. However. 1956. These differences over One Unit and the appropriate electorate caused problems for his government. while English was to remain the official language for the first 25 years. The federal legislation was to get precedence over provincial legislation regarding the concurrent list. the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was to act as the mediator. H. The pattern for the center-province relations was the same as it was in the Government of India Act.

the Muslim League and the Republican Party. yet another despot. Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution on October 7. Supported by these lobbyists. S. I. Muhammad Ali Bogra was the first Prime Minster under Iskander Mirza. A. he resigned and went back to the U. which ended with Iskander Mirza being arrested and exiled to Britain where he later died. Although his removal was necessary. Chundrigar Becomes Prime Minister [1957] After merely a year. During his tenure from 1956 to 1958. I. He was sworn-in as the first President under the 1956 Constitution. Suhrawardy resigned from his Premiership in October 1957. Iskander Mirza and Ayub Khan began the new era with apparent unanimity. Bogra could not stay at this position for long. Nizam-i-Islam Party. Being a nominated Prime Minister. Although the two were responsible for bringing about the change. who was the fourth Governor General and then the first President of Pakistan. I. Chundrigar as the interim Prime Minister. Suhrawardy resigned under threat of dismissal on October 10. but this request was turned down. where he was reinstated as the Ambassador of Pakistan. The Muslim League had agreed to form a coalition government with . Chaudhry Muhammad Ali became the next Prime Minster. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. President Mirza demanded the Prime Minister's resignation. In collusion with the Commander-in-Chief. I. Share of power soon led to a struggle between the two. Chundrigar and Malik Feroz Khan Noon succeeded him as Prime Ministers under Iskander Mirza's despotic rule. During his regime not only was the first Constitution of Pakistan finalized. President Iskander Mirza appointed I. He headed a coalition government including the Krishak Sramik Party. C. Suhrawardy requested to seek a vote of confidence in the National Assembly. succeeded him. they had different views on dealing with the new situation. A. Big business groups in Karachi were lobbying against Suhrawardy's decision to distribute the better part of the $10 million I. After Bogra. 1957. 1958 and declared Martial Law. the movement for the dismemberment of the One Unit had started. aid to East Pakistan and to set up a national shipping corporation. President Iskander Mirza brought about various cabinet changes and advocated a controlled democracy for Pakistan. Iskander Mirza Becomes President [1956] Governor General Ghulam Muhammad's despotic and dictatorial policy led Iskander Mirza and his collaborators to force him out of power. but also all the provinces and princely states of West Pakistan were knitted together to form One Unit of the West Pakistan Province. It was under his premiership that the establishment of One Unit was given practical shape and the Constitution of 1956 was introduced. His resignation came as a result of the President's refusal to convene a meeting of the Parliament to seek a vote of confidence. Iskander Mirza. Suhrawardy was at the mercy of central bureaucracy fighting to save the One Unit. Chundrigar held a weak position from the very beginning. I.By early 1957. Muhammad Ayub Khan.

it was able to form a stable government. Malik Feroz Khan Noon Becomes Prime Minister [1957] On December 16. the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of Pakistan. After the formation of the Cabinet. President Iskander Mirza turned towards General Ayub Khan. affronted the Speaker of the Assembly. the principle of separate electorate would be implemented in the country. in West Pakistan. National Awami Party. The Republican Party opposed the amendment as it wanted to gain advantage over its political opponent. On the other side. At midnight between October 7 and 8. being the party in power. Malik Feroz Khan Noon was the last in the line of Prime Ministers under the President-ship of Iskander Mirza. 1957. the President of Pakistan . the Muslim League. Awami League. With all these events in progress.the Republican Party on the condition that by amending the Electoral Act. President Iskander Mirza also tried to seek the help of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in June 1958. Malik Feroz Khan Noon took over the office of Prime Minister from Chundrigar. he displayed his willingness to dissolve West Pakistan's One Unit for his own interests. H. Though the coalition was dependent on the support of such a large number of political parties. an attack on the Deputy Speaker occurred from which he could not survive. Being the leader of the Republican group in the National Assembly. The Krishak Sramik Party also criticized the government for its actions. The tussle for power reached a critical point. Under these tumultuous circumstances of political instability. Krishak Sramik Party. The Awami League. and also started negotiations with the Governor of East Pakistan in order to break the strength of the Awami League there. He not only felt a serious threat to his office but also perceived that he had lost his grip over the politicians. Ministers from East Pakistan and the Republican Party started opposing the proposed amendments. He tried to counter by bring other politicians to his side and making alliances with other political parties. National Congress and the Scheduled Caste Federation. The Noon Cabinet was fortunate to have the support of the Bengali and Punjabi group of politicians. Muslim League had become quite popular under the leadership of Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan. Noon came to power by forging an alliance with five different political groups. President Iskander Mirza was distressed by the alliance of Suhrawardy and Noon. 1958. S. reaching an accord between them for the first time. Suhrawardy's Awami League Party assured full cooperation to the cabinet of Feroz Khan Noon. As events were going against Iskander Mirza. Iskander Mirza exploited the differences between the parties and thus made Chundrigar an easy victim as he remained Prime Minister for only two months and therefore could not give any practical shape to his program.

.abrogated the Constitution and imposed Martial Law in the country. This brought an end to the term of Malik Feroz Khan Noon. The Parliamentary Government came to an end in Pakistan. thus setting the stage for the recurrence of Martial Law again and again in the future. which lasted for less than a year.