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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT
(Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India) (Equivalent to MBA) ACADEMIC SESSION 2008-10 Under the Guidance of: Dr. Sadia Samar Ali, Associate Prof. of Statistics, IMS Ghaziabad. Submitted By: Ritu Singh (BM-08151) Rohit Rathee (BM-08152) Rohit Sharma (BM-08153) Rohit Singhal (BM-08154) Rohit Verma (BM-08155) Rohit Yadav (BM-08156) INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES C-238, BULANDSHAHR ROAD,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: A single person alone can never be credited for performing any extraordinary work successfully. It is only possible with the continuous and constant help and guidance that they receive from others. With due respect and regards we wish to express our deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and sincere phrases of thanks to Dr. Sadia Samar Ali for his invaluable mentoring and exuberant guidance. we are highly obliged by the constant support that we have got from our faculty during the course of the project. Starting from the initial stages to the end stages we have received continuous feedback with regard to the progress of the project. Thanking her, once again.
TEAM MEMBER’S Ritu Singh (BM 08151) Rohit Rathee (BM-08152) Rohit Sharma (BM-08153) Rohit Singhal (BM 08154) Rohit Verma (BM 08155) Rohit Yadav (BM-08156)
DECELARATION TO WHOSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that the Team Members of PGDM (Full time), 2008-2010 batch, IMS Ghaziabad, have done this project under the supervision and able guidance of Dr. Sadia Samar Ali (Associate Prof. ) This work is done solemnly by the group members and has never been published or done before. All the information provided is true to the best of our knowledge.
TEAM MEMBERS:Ritu Singh (BM 08151) Rohit Rathee (BM-08152) Rohit Sharma (BM-08153) Rohit Singhal (BM 08154) Rohit Verma (BM 08155) Rohit Yadav (BM-08156)
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.OBJECTIVES 4.REFERENCES .ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED 6. 3.INTRODUCTION 2.CONTENTS 1.SCOPE OF STUDY 8.
business process outsourcing has also benefited third world nations by generating much needed jobs. is growing at a phenomenal pace. For a fresh college graduate.INTRODUCTION: Business process outsourcing otherwise know as BPO is the process of leveraging technology vendors in various third world or developing nations for doing a job which was once the responsibility of the enterprise. a call centre job pays about 2. And the boom shows all signs of continuing considering that the cost per transaction in India is estimated to be the lowest at 29 cents compared . The Indian business process outsourcing industry. Most of these jobs are outsourcing by first world nations like USA and UK to third world nations like India. The number of BPO companies in Indian cities has mushroomed from a handful a few years ago to about 500 in 2004. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is one of the fastest growing segments of the Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) industry. it is the process of shifting an internal job process to an outside/external company which might have a completely different geographical location. data entry and the like. medical transcription. China.000 people (ICRA. Or simply put. billing. These nations have a good pool of English speaking youth who receive accent and job related training before they are inducted at a salary which is much lesser than what their counterparts in first world nations would demand. The size of the Indian BPO market is likely to be around $9-12 billion by 2006 and will employ around 400. roughly around 4-5 years old.5 times as much as other job openings. Indian BPO industry report). Malaysia and some eastern European countries. payroll processing. ABOUT THE INDUSTRY Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is the delegation of one or more IT-intensive business processes to an external provider that in turn owns administers and manages the selected process based on defined and measurable performance criteria. Generally the processes being outsourcing as part of BPO are backend jobs like call/help centers. This allows first world organizations to get higher profits and provide better services by lowering the prices and by recruiting more labor than they could possibly do otherwise. Philippines. In addition to benefiting the first world nations.
600 1. the BPO industry in India is bleeding with heavy attrition. Even after displaying impressive statistics about the growth and future. By outsourcing business processes to countries like India many companies have nearly cut their operational costs by half resulting into huge profits.000 professionals by 2012. have understood the benefits of outsourcing and are taking a major dive into the industry.to 52 cents in China. companies can get huge cost cuts and concentrate on their core businesses. increased productivity.500 . By doing so they can provide better customer satisfaction leading to customer retention. No wonder there is so much hype about outsourcing as almost all companies no matter how big or small they are. deal with competition effectively and in turn increase profitability.500 2. this is only the reported figures and the actual figures are much higher and can be as high as 80% annually. This impediment is likely to affect the industry severely in the long run by creating a man power shortage as well as bringing up the cost arbitrage on which the Indian industry is playing at the moment. Nasscom in a report said the outsourcing industry was expected to face a shortage of 262. Benefits of BPO By outsourcing their back office operations to third world countries. KEY PLAYERS IN OUTSOURCING BUSINESS Company EXL Spectramind Daksh WNS vCustomer Number of Employees 4.600 2.000 1. According to several recruitment firms in the country. The worse news is that. attrition in the ITES (IT enabled services)-BPO industry is close to 35-40 %.
126 979 584 475 350 Source: Nasscom ITES directory September 2008 .149 1.646 1.128 1.000 3.Tracmail HCL e-serve Epicentre ICICI OneSource GTL CONVERGYS 1.000 Source: Nasscom ITES directory September 2008 Captive Centres GE Capital e-serve International eFunds HSBC Healthscribe India American Express Sitel India Global e:Business Operations (HP) Axa Global Number of Employees 12.365 870 700 650 650 14.
412 13.03 3 173.017 6.68 7 131.563 24.91 912 Revenue Total BPO Market 110.81 1 69.S Some old numbers Indian Market size estimates of BPO Revenue \ Year Offshore BPO Revenue Indian BPO 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 CAGR 1.0 70 9.17 1 143.322 1.35 121.16 7 1.45 CAGR in % 2002-07 Figures in $ million Source: Gartner Dataquest (May 2007) Where are your BPO Providers today? .439 12.09 0 157.825 3.928 7.205 1.961 3.23 0 78.
They combine their process expertise. Genpact manages business processes for companies around the world. information technology and analytical capabilities with operational insight derived from experience in diverse industries to provide a wide range of services using our global delivery platform. including Finance . Genpact’s goal is to help clients improve the ways in which they do business by using Lean Six Sigma principles. Genpact provides a wide range of services. combining its process expertise.QuickTim and a eª decom pressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. as well as cutting-edge technology. COMPANY: AN OVERVIEW Genpact manages business processes for companies around the world. to continuously improve business processes. information technology and analytical capabilities with operational insight derived from experience in diverse industries to provide a wide range of services using its global delivery platform.
Genpact became an independent company in 2005 and. it strive to be a seamless extension of our clients’ operations. Spain.& Accounting. Many elements of GE’s success-the rigorous use of metrics and analytics. GE began in 1997 as the India-based business process services operation of GE Capital. delivering its services from a global network of more than 31 operations centers in ten countries. Its goal is to help their clients improve the ways in which they do business by continuously improving their business processes through Six Sigma and Lean principles and by the innovative use of technology. Analytics. the relentless focus on improvement. Romania. Guatemala and the United States. Genpact manages complex processes in multiple geographic regions. the Netherlands. continued to expand their range of services and diversified our client base. Collections and Customer Service. IT Infrastructure and Management. Mexico. the Philippines. As a service provider. they have grown rapidly. Genpact has a unique heritage. since then. Insurance. Enterprise Application. Genpact leadership team. processes and culture have been deeply influenced by our eight years as a captive operation of GE. Hungary. China. Supply Chain & Procurement. . a strong emphasis on the client and innovative human resources practices-are the foundations of our business. Its global delivery centers are located in India. They built their business by meeting the demands of the leaders of the General Electric Company (GE) to increase the productivity of their businesses.
Insurance.HISTORY: Genpact began in 1997 as GE Capital International Services (GECIS) .the India-based business process services operations of GE Capital. including Finance & Accounting. changing our name to Genpact. During the eight years that followed. GE became an independent company. they took on a wide range of complex and critical processes and became a provider to many of GE’s financial-services and manufacturing businesses. In 2005. PRODUCT AND SERVICES Genpact provides a wide range of business process. significantly expanding its range of services and diversifying its client base. Since then it has grown rapidly. . technology and knowledge services. which conveys its desire to generate value and business impact for our clients. Collections & Customer Relations.
Genpact draws on three core capabilities – process expertise. Content Solutions and Re-engineering. technology integration.IT Infrastructure: Genpact provides global IT-infrastructure. 1. By offering these services. 3. while maintaining alignment with your overall IT strategy. Software. 2. ITInfrastructure . Content Solution: . Colllection and Customer relations: Genpact was a pioneer of outsourcing Collections & Customer Service. 7. Insurance: Genpact offers a diverse set of services for all major insurance verticals. Procurement and supply chain From sourcing and procurement. analytical capabilities and technology expertise – as well as the operational insight gained from the experience of managing thousands of processes in diverse industries. These services are powered by deep domain expertise and process excellence through application of Lean Six Sigma principles. sales support. to manufacturing. application/database management. 5. process innovation and operating excellence within the over-arching framework of compliance. and re-insurance. including life. Over the years. servers.Procurement & Supply Chain. we have built expertise offering end-to-end solutions designed to deliver unsurpassed service excellence to our customers and their end customers. from planning and designing to implementing and managing mission-critical IT systems like desktops. Finance and Acounting Genpact provides a comprehensive range of Finance & Accounting services with proven capability to deliver cost savings. mortgage. and support services. Softwares: Genpact's integrated spectrum of software solutions spans enterprise solutions deployment. Analytics. health. 6. networks and security. among others. within an overall IT programmanagement framework. 4. Genpact combines its rich experience with best practices and process rigor to deliver true business impact. aftermarket services and financial services support.
6 million at 30 September. “We completed a good third quarter.” Genpact President and CEO Pramod Bhasin said.3 million for the same period in the last fiscal. creative media and content management solutions to enhance business performance by positively impacting key metrics. he expects the company’s revenue for the full year to grow by 26-28% from $823 million in 2007. For the nine month period ended 30 September. Re engineering: With over 10 years of experience in managing and improving a range of business processes and by leveraging our Lean Six Sigma DNA. whereas it was $214. 2007.8 million. compared with $16. 2008. 2008. the company’s revenue grew by 28% to register $759 million at the end of September 2008 from $591. there are several important challenges are .1 million compared with $25. PERFORMANCE: BPO major Genpact today said its net profit more than doubled to $33.3 million for the corresponding period in the last fiscal. 2008.6 million for the third quarter ended 30 September. the company posted a net profit of $78. a company statement said. Genpact vastly improves and re-engineers business processes to deliver significant impact. registering a growth of 26%. registering a growth of 209%. The company’s net profit grew more than double by 106 per cent for the corresponding period. For the nine month period.8 million in the same period a year ago. THE CHALLENGES BEING FACED: India is making progress by leap and bound on one hand.Genpact offers a creative set of e-learning. He also said based on the company’s performance to date. despite the dramatic changes in the global economy that began several months ago. Company’s revenue for the third quarter ended 30 September. touched $270. 8. and on the other hand.
identity management. fatigue and ill health. and detection (firewalls. * Language problems: . virus control.being faced by the industry. will be in a state of technology refresh and will need to upgrade/replace aging/obsolete equipment and technology. Many companies.Though educated youngsters are available in plenty. These challenges are: * Managing the high attrition rate of 30-to40%: Sometimes the prospect of earning could trigger the young employees to switch over to a rival firm. is a major . cyber-forensic investigation). * Shortage of training programme: . Many BPOs will be able to use IT to drive efficiencies and lower costs in customer processes and internal processes in the organization.Insufficient proficiency in English language is a major hurdle. This can drive down IT costs per FTE on a y-o-y basis. of course.To retain employees is a problem since this is a low margin industry with billing rates varying between $6 per hour to $20 per hour based on the nature of work. * Offering high incomes: . * Mushrooming of small players: .Attractive growth rate of the has resulted in many reckless starts-ups. intrusion detection. training a large number of them in the needed skills for quick ramp up of numbers is difficult due shortage of trainers. prevention. which have completed four to five years of operations. IT can provide high degree of Info-security cover for operations through policies. access control. Several companies from unrelated sectors without the required expertise entered the industry lured by the healthy potential of the industry. SECURITY CHALLENGE: Security. they also suffer from high stress level. These small companies are now finding difficult to survive in this capital-intensive industry. * TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES: The BPO companies in India need to maintain a highly consistent infrastructure through optimum redundancy and BCP capability. * Night shifts: Because of night shifts the employees become impatient and even angry. data encryption and security.
and there is no security consideration. . 7) To understand the rules and policies followed by the organization. 3) To ensure co-ordination between the employees and the organization. The rsector and provideesearch project format can be used by the industry to analyse the reasons for employees satisfaction and dissatisfaction.and legwork on client systems-application development companies program client systems. and applications integrators integrate and deploy client systems. We must instill confidence in our customers that we can secure their transactions better than their on-shore IT staff. USE OF STUDY: 1. OBJECTIVES OF SYUDY: 1) To analyse the future needs and aspirations of employees in the organization. So. 2. It can be used to forecast the future working pattern and behaviour of the worker interested to work in this industry. The cost benefits and efficiencies will be passed on to the client. and no IPR issues.technological challenge. maintain. if onshore regulations permit. and enhance application systems to process the data. Right now BPOs do the arm.The research project can also be used to determine the likely impact of BPO working conditions for new generation call centres. The client doesn't want a system. 6) To study measures to improve the situation and conditions of employment. 4) To focus the interest of the employees in the organization. host. The client wants the work done. then BPO players will have the opportunity to own. 3. 4. 2) To verify the satisfaction level of employee in the organization. The research project report can be further used for future references. 5) To bring out proper working between employees and organization in order to project the company’s image.
IMPORTANCE TO ORGANISATION: The project report is important in itself for the organization to get a bird eye view of the problem currently faced by the company and the sector itself. its future prospects. The competitive provides an overview of landscape the major participants in the sector. the existing industry senario.The study further covers some of the key drivers for the sector and provides an overview of the outlook for the industry and some major factors that are likely to play a role in shaping the future of the industry.It will also seek to highlight the key challenges that are faced by the industry.It will cover the size and segment of the market.client satisfaction and employee satisfaction ratio. and major trends in the sector. 2. IMPORTANCE TO EMPLOYEES: New and existing aspirants and employees of the BPO industry can analyze the data of the performance of the industry as a whole as well of the organization and can make a move. SCOPE OF STUDY: The report will provide a snapshot of the Indian BPO industry and the dynamics that drive the sector. The research project can be used for industry and organization planning in order to provide customer delite solve employees problem related to work. IMPORTANCE TO SHAREHOLDERS: The project report is important for the shareholders point of view. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY: 1. So they can come out with new ideas and plans to tackle the situation. it is a no brainer: Attrition! .5. It gives them an idea regarding the efficient working of the organization. current operations problems faced. 3. Attrition in Indian BPO Industry What is the biggest challenge for the BPO industry in India today? Well.
Mercer India said the industry should look beyond the traditional areas of recruitment and some thought should be given to employ physically challenged people and housewives. With 245. while the top ones averages at least 15%. ICRA said in its Indian BPO industry report. adding that there is always the danger of costs increasing while billing rates decline.The business process outsourcing (BPO) industry in the country which is expected to employ around one million people by 2008 is facing the challenge of finding quality human resources given the current attrition rate of around 50 percent. Attrition rates in IT-enabled business process outsourcing sector have come down from the 30-33 per cent being witnessed of late to about 25 per cent now. Nasscom in a report said the outsourcing industry was expected to face a shortage of 262. 2004 against 171. work timings. The size of the Indian BPO market is likely to be around $9-12 billion by 2006 and will employ around 400. On the hiring front. the industry absorbed about 74. Analysts say attrition rates vary by 20%-40% in some firms. .100 last year.000 people in 2003 despite the attrition rate of 45-50 percent being a matter of concern.100 people employed at the end of March 31.000 professionals by 2012. the industry witnessed a hiring growth rate of about 40-42 percent. other career options.000 people. according to statistics compiled by the National Human Resource Development Network. The reasons for the high rate of attrition was due to various factors like salary.
TIMES NEWS NEW YORK 2008 % 42% 29% 24% 18% 24% If you compare attrition rates for a Voice and Non-voice process. Companies are being encouraged to adopt responsible behavior in order to ensure that the industry does not become a victim of its own actions. Basic norms are being put in place and code of ethics is being stressed upon by industry. Industry needs to go aggressive but not cannibalistic. the industry needs to work with the government to . then attrition rates are significantly lower in a nonvoice process. given the attrition rates in the industry. For BPO service providers. attrition rates will further decrease. It will not be possible for the industry to arrive at a blanket agreement on poaching but bilateral agreements between companies are being signed. moving up the value chain is critical. In order to ensure a consistent flow of trained manpower in the future. As the industry moves up the value chain and becomes a full-scale BPO player.ATTRITION RATES UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AUSTRALIA EUROPE INDIA GLOBAL AVERAGE SOURCE. which are on an average higher in low value-added segments (in call centres) as compared to higher value-added segments like engineering.
you need at least a 300% to 400% wage spread between American software writers. . This seemed to sum up the views of BPO fraternity at the Nasscom summit here. companies can look into various options like good rewards.to compensate for time-shifting. With attrition rates ranging between 30-60 percent in the BPO industry. Tackling Attrition Head-On Industry experts feel. very low overseas -. India has one of the largest pool of English speaking graduate workforce. poor infrastructure and lack of data protection laws could derail India's booming outsourcing industry. The challenge for the industry is not in employment but employability. and decreased productivity. which are in line with the requirements of the ITES-BPO industry.not just lower -. High attrition rate.introduce courses at a school and college level. Honest corporate managers will tell you that to make offshoring work. bonding programme. engineers. To arrest this trend. Labor costs have to be very. managing over such long distances. price wars. flexible working hours and stronger career path. and callcenter employees and their Indian and Chinese counterparts. HR specialists feel that a scientific and analytical approach should be implemented. accountants. The industry is also hiring professionals from outside the industry in order to meet its steady supply of manpower. NASSCOM BPO forum has identified HR as one of the key challenges of the BPO industry and has formed a special task force to address short-term challenges such as Attrition and also long-term challenges such as ensuring availability of a skilled talent pool. as the industry was still in its nascent strategy there was lot of strategies available to reverse this trend and make it an attractive employer.
making work a fun place. gender diversity. Age should not be a barrier for training employees and could in fact bring in more stability to the company. So BPOs need to focus on roles. she quipped. having education and ongoing learning for the workforce and treating applicants and employees in the same way as one treats customers. HR specialists at the Nasscom 2004 summit brainstormed on various approaches to handle this bugbear. since studies showed that 80 percent of the company's profit comes from the efforts of 20 percent of the employees. According to experts. The attrition rate in few leading companies are. benefits. or adopt a more scientific analytical approach. but also include age. The attrition battle could be won by focusing on retention. perks and communication. In November 2008 BPO attrition fell to 30%. The 80:20 rule also applies to recruitment. Companies need to go in for a diverse workforce. Pay cheques alone are not enough to retain employees. Management also needs to consider other aspects like secure career.either declare war on attrition and tackle it head on.The tremendous turnover rate is undeniably one of the main problems faced by the BPO industry globally. Diversity in turn results in innovation and success. which have the most important impact.5 times the annual salary. . the cost of attrition is 1. Infosys BPO 28% Wipro BPO 18% TCS BPO 21-22% Tesco HSC has seen a 6% drop in attrition In 2007 the attrition rate was about 50-55%. which does not only mean race. experience and perspectives. Update In November 2008 With the global financial meltdown it appears employees prefer to stick to their current jobs as much as possible.
% of respondents Employee -----------------------.08. in extensive interviews with HR directors at 30 companies found that most companies have little real understanding of why employees leave.53.82% .15% Compensation & Job Profile -------. The results of the poll on a specific date were as follows (The poll still continues and numbers of voters have increased. the result remains more or less same).38. Greg Weiss. A public poll that was conducted at Cite HR (a popular meeting point for HR professionals) to find the opinion of the HR community on the reasons for attrition.WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ATTRITION? HR Heads are worried about employees leaving their organizations.03% Supervisor or line manager -------. Not only is it costly to lose trained employees but their replacements are not easy to come by. The options were: Employee Supervisor or Line Manager Compensation & Job Profile The Poll Results: The HR community welcomed the poll and a large number of them participated. Reason for exit----------------. an HR consultant and principal of Humanagement. The poll was titled 'Who will held responsible for attrition? and participants have to chose an option responsible for attrition. Hence the HR strives hard to keep attrition at the minimum. however.
Very important trends can be identified by regular surveys conducted over the period of 1 – 2 years. employees are not self-motivated to leave the company they are working in. Except in a few cases such as personal reasons. Nevertheless it is important to find out common causes for employee initiated exits where supervisors and/or Job Profile / compensation are not the cause. location preference. company brand and peer relationships. new findings may identify critical gaps in how the employees perceive your policies. one of which may be HR policy guidelines of the company. These can also help define future HR guidelines with minimal . Employee Satisfaction surveys are the ways to identify such areas of dissatisfaction. family issues. 1. If you conduct these surveys on a regular basis and map their results to exit interviews. Employee as a reason for attrition Only 8% HR professionals felt that employees leave organizations on their own.QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
sudden increase in paid-timeoff and should be prepared to act quickly if any visible trends are evident. and most managers cannot do it effectively and consistently. It confirms Wayne Hochwarter[an associate professor of management in the College of Business at Florida State University] theory that "Employees don't leave their job or company. HR should also be able to track changes in employee performance rating. Compensation and Job Profile HR Managers voted unanimously that 'Compensation \and Job Profile' are the primary cause of attrition. 2. HR should continually train managers in handling employee expectations and provide them with tools to manage tasks related to their teams. Supervisor or Line Manager as a cause of attrition A large majority of HR professionals polled that immediate managers are a bigger reason for attrition. they leave their manager". . Further managers do not have appropriate tools to manage employee related tasks and this leads to further dissatisfaction. An online Manager Services solution allows a manager to constantly counsel employees.disruption and dissatisfaction. gaps between employee and manager performance. manage their career growth and aspirations and track their achievements. 'Satisfying employee needs' often gets lower priority in a manager's quadrant of activities. 3. Meeting employees' expectations is a difficult task.
Measurable. disparity in the compensation packages is bound to occur and a mis-matched job profile increases the likelihood of an exit. balancing P&L and employee compensation shall always be a nightmare for them given the high cost of talented employees. The responsibility for compensation policy and enriching the job profile lies on the senior management. Every company wants to become the 'best paying employer'. Reviewable and Time Based) goals and you can cascade these from organization objectives. However. but market forces. . the likelihood of a satisfied and motivated workforce increases and Compensation or Job Profile become manageable causes. you have won half the battle. If your employees are convinced that they are compensated in direct proportion to their productivity. Achievable. team & individual performance.With a war for talent. The other half is won when each individual is assigned SMART (Specific. When all employees work on goals that are aligned to the company objectives and there is a fair and transparent system to capture employee performance. A fair and transparent compensation policy can still be adopted where each employee gets his/ her dues based on company. tough competition and a slow economy dictate otherwise.
the presence of which is felt across the globe. The globalization effect and the booming Indian market. which states that there is no significant difference between the expected and observed result The formula for calculating chi-square ( χ 2) is: χ 2= (o-e)2/e .STUDY OF MICRO RESEARCH PROBLEM Workplace stress and attrition—a direct corelation? The buzzing BPO sector and the exceeding stress levels and increasing attrition rates in this industry go hand-in-hand. imposing bosses. the graveyard shift in the BPO industry. constant pressure to perform. adhering to timelines and meeting stringent deadlines. The chi-square test is always testing what scientists call the null hypothesis. the investigator. you expected 10 of 20 offspring from a cross to be male and the actual observed number was 8 males. or were they due to other factors. have their share of challenges and pressures for the workforce. all of them in totality are taking their toll on people. demanding clients. then you might want to know about the "goodness to fit" between the observed and expected. How much deviation can occur before you. The evolving sector brings along with it long working hours. Were the deviations (differences between observed and expected) the result of chance. must conclude that something other than chance is at work. if. excel and be abreast of the latest know-how. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Chi-Square Test Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. For example. according to Mendel's laws. multi-tasking. causing the observed to differ from the expected. lack of a perfect work-life balance.
not percentages.6. A p value of 0. Move up the column to determine the p value. d). 5. State the hypothesis being tested and the predicted results. Chi-square should not be calculated if the expected value in any category is less than 5. 3. Complete all calculations to three significant digits. if working genetics problems.That is. a. Gather the data by conducting the proper experiment (or. Step-by-Step Procedure for Testing Your Hypothesis and Calculating Chi-Square 1. 4. chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed (o) and the expected (e) data (or the deviation. divided by the expected data in all possible categories. means that there is a 60% probability that any deviation from expected is due to chance only. State your conclusion in terms of your hypothesis.05. 2. Determine the expected numbers for each observational class. Use the chi-square distribution table to determine significance of the value. use the data provided in the problem). Locate the value closest to your calculated 2 on that degrees of freedom df row. If the p value for the calculated 2 is p > 0. Determine degrees of freedom and locate the value in the appropriate column. for example. accept your hypothesis. Remember to use numbers. Round off your answer to two significant digits. 'The deviation is small enough that chance alone accounts for it. Calculate 2 using the formula. This is within the range of .
A list of all those referral websites are mentioned later in the report in references. a p value of 0. A specimen of the questionnaire is attatched. The chi-square test will be used to test for the "goodness to fit" between observed and expected data from several laboratory investigations. Therefore.The industry profile . . problems their working environment and all useful information has been taken up. QUESTIONNAIRE A study of on employees working in BPO and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction level in terms of salary earned and working conditions. reject your hypothesis. b. growth. ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTION In order to present the report with a pragmatic approach along with the theoritical aspect some primary and secondary data is collected so as to present our report with facts and figures. and conclude that some factor other than chance is operating for the deviation to be so great. If the p value for the calculated 2 is p < 0.01 means that there is only a 1% chance that this deviation is due to chance alone. other factors must be involved. PRIMARY DATA: The primary data has been collected by preparing a questannaire which was circulated over fifty BPO employees working in different organisations. Various facts and figures have been gathered through the industry websites and organization portals. It helps in the indepth analysis of the industry and the organization. For example. SECONDARY DATA: The secondary data is also of utmost importance.They have beeen asked questions regarding the satisfaction level in terms of pay packages provided to them and their satisfaction and dissatisfaction level in terms of working conditions that is followed by the industry.acceptable deviation. services.05.
5 lakhs (2) 1.PARTICULARS OF EXECUTIVE/PROFESSIONAL RESPONDENT NAME: AGE:: SEX(M/F): QUESTIONS QUES 1 : What salary package are you withdrawing annually ? ANS : lakhs (1) upto 1.5 to 3 lakhs (3) more than 3 QUES 2: Are you satisfied with the salary package you are working on ? ANS : (1) YES (2) NO QUES 3: Do you think salary packages provided by BPO industry is justified ? ANS : (!) As per the workload (2) Working shift (3) Qualification (4) As per the industry norm. QUES 4: Would you like to switch to other company if rovided with a better salary package ANS : QUES 5: (1) YES (2) NO Which shift would you like to prefer ? ANS : (1) day shift (2) night shift (3) evening shift (4) early morning shift QUES 6: Why do you prefer a particular shift ? ANS : (1) work load (2) salary package (3) convinent (4) comfortness. QUES 7: Have you ever faced any health disorder while working in irregular working hours ANS : (1) YES (2) NO QUES 8: What do you think is the main reason for high attrition rate in the BPO ANS : (1) Salary Packages (2)Work load (4) Less (3) changing working hours/night shifts scope of promotion .
88 5.24 10.76 E22 = 17 X 18/50 = 6.0711 0. Therefore there is no association between the .0711 0.12 E32 = 17 X 18/50 = 6.1.0976 0.76 6.1265 1.12 6.88 E12 = 16 X 18/50 = 5.12 O 12 10 10 4 7 7 E 10. Shift Day Evening Night Total Good 12 10 10 32 Bad 4 7 7 18 Total 16 17 17 50 Analysis of the association between the shift and response of the employees : Taking the null hypothesis that there is no association between the shift and the good & bad responses.The expected frequencies are as follows: E11 = 16 X 32/50 = 10.3025 0.1265 0.2354 χ 2 = Σ (O-E)2/E = 1. null hypothesis is accepted. Survey conducted to determine does the employee response varies according to the shifting pattern or not.88 E31 = 17 X 32/30 = 10.0976 0.7744 0.5377 0.12 (O-E)2 3.05 =5.88 10.7744 Total (O-E)2/E 0.2354 For υ =2.7744 3.24 E21 = 17 X 32/50 = 10.991 Since the calculated value is much lower than the table value. χ 2 0.7744 0. The following table depicts the number of good and bad response shown by the employees of the company.
8486 0. . 2.5 lakhs 6 7 10 23 1.82 (O-E)2 1. The following table depicts the level of satisfaction and average salary (Rs.shift and the response of the employees.84 E23 = 17 X 12/50 = 4.36 E21 = 17 X 23/50 = 7.82 E12 = 16 X 14/50 = 4.0859 0.6077 .7524 (O-E)2/E 0. lakhs) shown by the employees of the company. lakhs).08 E33 = 17 X 12/50 = 4. The expected frequencies are as follows: E11 = 16 X 23/50 = 7.82 7.82 E31 = 17 X 23/50 = 7.76 E32 = 17 X 14/50 = 4. lakhs) shown by the employees : Taking the null hypothesis that there is no association between the level of satisfaction and average salary (Rs.2513 0.36 7.6724 4.08 O 6 7 10 E 7. Level of satisfaction High Medium Low Total Upto 1.48 E22 = 17 X 14/50 = 4. Survey conducted to determine does the level of satisfaction varies according to the salary pattern or not.76 E13 = 16 X 12/50 = 3.5 – 3 lakhs More than 3 lakhs 5 5 4 14 5 4 3 12 Total 16 17 17 50 Analysis of the association between the level of satisfaction and average salary (Rs.
The main job functions of the employees have been sales and marketing [routine] in BPO and Call Centers. 95% of the employees are of 22 to 32 years of age in Call Centers. χ 2 0. 2.3504 0.0064 1. 15% indicates that unions protects employees rights in finance sector majority of them do not have any previous experiences about unions. Role of Trade Unions has been perceived negatively in both sectors.2704 0. and only 45% express job satisfaction. lakhs) of the employees.488 Since the calculated value is much lower than the table value.3456 0.0121 0.7763 For υ =4. Employees are working more than 40 hrs per week in Call Centers.48 4.84 4. 4. Around 40% of the respondents in finance sector BPO and telecom call centers indicates that unions most important role as salary and wage negotiation and .5 5 4 5 4 3 4. Young candidates with general and IT related qualifications have been employed in BPO. 3. including night shifts and overtime being paid.08 0.0576 0.2858 1. Work pressure is moderate in both categories.0015 0. null hypothesis is accepted.76 4.7763 χ 2 = Σ (O-E)2/E = 1. Average monthly income ranges between US$ 100 to 200 in BPO and Call Centers. Therefore there is no association between level of satisfaction and average salary (Rs.1213 0.0603 0.08 4. CONCLUSION 1.5776 1.05 = 9.76 3.1664 Total 0.
RECOMMENDATION 1.html .grievance handling. and campaigns to attract the young exposed to routine. but also include age. which does not only mean race. 6. 7. repetitive and monotonous jobs in BPO and Call Centers. 9. Making work a fun place. 4. 3. 2. www. bonding programme. Job promotions in the organization itself by way of internal job posting and providing effective training program regarding skill enhancement are the key to retain workers. benefits. Companies can look into various options like good rewards. Build up confidence among workers that unions could extend protection and safeguard their rights under International Labor Standards. as their present job functions in BPO and Call Centers are now extended beyond national boundaries. having education and ongoing learning for the workforce and treating applicants and an employee in the same way as one treats customers. Management also needs to consider other aspects like secure career. 8. Companies need to go in for a diverse workforce. with an objective to instill positive attitudes towards unions. experience and perspectives REFERENCES 1.citehr. flexible working hours and stronger career path.com/84816-project-attrition-bpo-sector. Increase awareness about unions and their importance focusing on the traditional role in protecting workers rights and protecting their interest in workplace. gender diversity. 5. supported with technology and job migration. Prepare unions and their members to cope with changes now emerging in the new global supply chains. perks and communication. Organize activities.
www.com/news/attrition-rate-haunts-the- booming-bpo.asp 9.com/82795-employee-attrition-bpo-sector.telecom. www.html 5.coolavenues.com/portal/news/Local-News/Attrition-rate-in-BPO- Companies-is-7-8.indopia. www.scribd.html 7.bpoindia.2.tvoir.com/know/hr/kasi3.com/doc/49804/SG-KE-BL-BPO-Sector-Busting-the- Myth 6.coolavenues.citehr.com/82795-employee-attrition-bpo-sector. www. www.com/ml/org.citehr.php 10.com/know/hr/kasi3.php .in/India-usa-uk-news/latest- news/327947/Editorial/18/20/18 11. www.points-higher-than-Other-Industries.india-gii/2002-12/msg00077.html 8. www.sector/62777/ 4. www. www.org/research/attrition-rate-big-challenge.financialexpress.osdir. www.shtml 3.
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