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If the ovum becomes fertilized, a new sequence of events called <?> takes place.

gestation or pregnancy

In the ovary, the ovum is in what stage?

primary oocyte
shortly before ovulation

When does the next division take place?

What type of division does the primary oocyte undergo?

mieosis

What does the primary oocyte turn into?

secondary oocyte

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What is expelled from the nucleus of the primary oocyte?

First polar body

What is the amount of genetic content in a primary oocyte?

23 paired chromosomes

What is the amount of genetic content in a secondary oocyte?

23 unpaired chromosomes

Where does the ovum enter the secondary oocyte stage?

In the ovary. Expelled shortly after.

Secondary oocyte is expelled from the ovary into?

abdominal cavity

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granulosa cells around the ovum are called

corona radiata

The inner surfaces of the fimbriated tentacles of the fallopian tubes are are lined with

ciliated epithelium

cilia of the fallopian tubes are activated by

estrogen from the ovaries

openning of the fallopian tube also called

ostium 2%

Percentage of ovum that fail to make it into fallopian tubes

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After male ejaculation, how long does it take for sperm to reach ampullae?

5-10 min
(1) Prostaglandins in the male seminal fluid and (2) Oxytocin released from the posterior pituitary gland of the female during her orgasm"

Transport of the sperm is aided by contractions of the uterus and fallopian tubes stimulated by:

Fertilization of the ovum normally takes place where?

ampulla

Upon fertilizing the cell, the head of the male sperm becomes what structure?

Male pronucleus

When is the second polar body expelled?

Once a sperm has entered the ovum and the oocyte divides again to form the mature ovum.

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blastocyst # of cells

fertilized ovum of about 100 cells

days normally required for transport of the fertilized ovum through the remainder of the fallopian tube into the cavity of the uterus

3 to 5
last two cm before the tube enters the uterus

define: isthmus

when is the isthmus is spastically contracted?

first 3 days after ovulation

Why does the isthmus eventually relax?

the rapidly increasing progesterone secreted by the ovarian corpus luteum first promotes increasing progesterone receptors on the fallopian tube smooth muscle cells; then the progesterone activates the receptors, exerting a tubular relaxing effect

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Dividing ovum is at what stage when entering the uterus?

blastocyst 1-3 days

How many days is blastocyst in the uterine cavity before implantation?

blastocyst obtains its nutrition from?

the uterine endometrial secretions, called "uterine milk."

cells that develop over the surface of the blastocyst

trophoblast cells

function of trophoblast cells

(1) Promote implantation - Secrete proteolytic enzymes that digest and liquefy the adjacent cells of the uterine endometrium (2) Nutrition transportation

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What determines the sex of the fetus

Presence of X or Y chromosome in sperm

During the latter half of each monthly sexual cycle, which cells turn into large swollen cells con- taining extra quantities of glycogen, proteins, lipids, and even some minerals necessary for development of the conceptus?

endometrial stromal cells

When the conceptus implants in the endometrium, the endometrial cells turn into

decidual cells
decidual cells contain more nutrients and are more swollen.

Difference between decidual cells and endometrial cells

What hormone induces the development decidual cells?

continued secretion of progesterone

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Source of nutrients during first week

Decidua about 16 16

Source of nutrients switches completely to placenta after how many days

Blood begins to be pumped by the embyo's heart how many days after fert.?

Projections sent out by the trophoblast are called

placental villi

what grows in placental villi?

fetal capillaries

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How many arteries/veins are in the fetal umbilical cord?

2 fetal umbilical arteries, 1 fetal umbilical vein

What is the name of the structure providing oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus?

Umbilical vein

pockets of blood surrounding villi in the placenta

maternal sinuses

provide oxygenated blood to the placenta

uterine arteries

eliminate deoxygenated blood from the placenta

uterine veins

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In the early months of pregnancy, the placental membrane has a high/low permeability?

Low permeability - due to underdeveloped and thick placenta

The dissolved oxygen in the blood of the large maternal sinuses passes into the fetal blood by: active transport / facilitated diffusion / simple diffusion?

simple diffusion

Occasionally, "breaks" occur in the placental membrane and cause?

fetal blood cells to pass into the mother or, even less commonly, the mother's cells to pass into the fetus

Near the end of pregnancy, the mean PO2 of the mother's blood in the placental sinuses is?

about 50 mm Hg 30 mm Hg

the mean PO2 in the fetal blood after it becomes oxygenated in the placenta is

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the mean pressure gradient for diffusion of oxygen through the placental membrane is

20 mm Hg
(1) Fetal Hb greater affinity for O2 (2) [Hb] 50% greater in fetus than mother (3) Double Bohr effect - hemoglobin can carry more O2 at a low PCO2 than it can at a high PCO2. Fetal blood dumps large amounts of CO2 into maternal circulation [causing high PCO2 in mother, low PCO2 in fetus].

How is 20 mm Hg enough for fetal blood oxygenation?

Compare PCO2 of fetal blood to maternal blood

PCO2 of the fetal blood is 2 to 3 mm Hg higher than that of the maternal blood

Compare CO2 solubility to O2 solubility

Extreme solubility of carbon dioxide in the placental membrane allows carbon dioxide to diffuse about 20 times as rapidly as oxygen.

In the later stages of pregnancy, what kind of transport is employed to meet the fetus's higher demands for glucose?

Facilitated diffusion

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What other substances diffuse with relative ease from maternal blood to fetal blood?

Substances as ketone bodies and potassium, sodium, and chloride ions diffuse with relative ease from the maternal blood into the fetal blood.

Which of the three high concentration waste products (urea, uric acid, and creatinine) are significantly higher in the fetus than in maternal blood?

creatinine (does not diffuse through the placental membrane easily)

Hormones at high levels during a pregnancy

(1) human chorionic gonadotropin (2) estrogens (3) progesterone (4) human chorionic somatomammotropin

Menstruation normally occurs in a nonpregnant woman about how many days after ovulation?

14 days HCG

Menstruation is prevented by the production of

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Which cells secrete HCG?

syncytial trophoblast cells

When can HCG be detected?

8 to 9 days after ovulation, shortly after the blastocyst implants in the endometrium

Function of HCG

Prevents involution of the corpus luteum at the end of the monthly female sexual cycle. Causes the corpus luteum to secrete even larger quantities of its sex hormones—proges- terone and estrogens

If the corpus luteum is removed before approximately the 7th week of pregnancy, what is the result?

Spontaneous abortion

When does the corpus luteum involute during pregnancy?

The corpus luteum involutes slowly after the 13th to 17th week of gestation.

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Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Fetal Testes.

interstitial cell-stimulating effect on the testes, resulting in the production of testosterone in the male fetus

Placenta secretes what hormones?

Estrogen and progesterone

Which cells of the placenta produce hormones?

syncytial trophoblast cells

How are hormones produced by the placenta?

from dehydroepiandrosterone and 16hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, which are formed both in the mother's adrenal glands and in the adrenal glands of the fetus

Fuctions of estrogen during pregnancy

(1) enlargement of the mother's uterus, (2) enlargement of the mother's breasts and growth of the breast ductal structure, and (3) enlargement of the mother's female external genitalia (4) relax the pelvic ligaments

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Functions of progesterone during pregnancy

"(1) development of decidual cells in the uterine endometrium (2) decreases the contractility of the pregnant uterus (3) contributes to the development of the conceptus even before implantation (4) helps the estrogen prepare the mother's breasts for lactation"

human chorionic somatomammotropin begins to be secreted how many weeks into the pregnancy?

5 weeks
enlarges at least 50 per cent during pregnancy and increases its production of corticotropin, thyrotropin, and prolactin

Pituitary gland during pregnancy

Reason for increased water/salt retention and pregnancy-induced hypertension

aldosterone

hormone released for Calcium recapturing from mother's bones to provide fetus (and new born baby) with Ca++ for bone growth

parathyroid hormone

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affect of pregnancy on metabolism

increase 24 lbs vitamin D Vitamin K 1-2 L

average lbs gained by pregnant woman

Vitamin that assists in Ca++ absorbtion in the GI tract

Shortly before birth of the baby, which vitamin is often added to the mother's diet so that the baby will have sufficient prothrombin to prevent hemorrhage, particularly brain hemorrhage, caused by the birth process.

at the time of birth of the baby, the mother has how many liters of extra blood in her circulatory system?

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Mother's cardiac output during pregnancy is how much above normal?

30 to 40 % above normal by the 27th week of pregnancy

Maternal respiration shortly before birth is how much above normal?

20% above normal

volume of amniotic fluid

between 500 milliliters and 1 liter

water in amniotic fluid is replaced how often?

once every 3 hours, and the electrolytes sodium and potassium are replaced an average of once every 15 hours.

rapid rise in arterial blood pressure to hypertensive levels during the last few months of pregnancy associated with leakage of large amounts of protein into the urine is called?

preeclampsia or toxemia of pregnancy

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Birth of the baby is also called:

Parturition
(1) progressive hormonal changes that cause increased excitability of the uterine musculature, and (2) progressive mechanical changes.

What are two major categories of effects that lead up to the intense contractions responsible for parturi- tion

Hormonal Factors That Increase Uterine Contractility

(1) Increased Ratio of Estrogens to Progesterone. (2) Effect of Oxytocin on the Uterus. (3) Effect of Fetal Hormones on the Uterus.

Mechanical Factors That Increase Uterine Contractility

(1) Stretch of the Uterine Musculature. (2) Stretch or Irritation of the Cervix.

Twins are born (on average) how many days earlier than a single child?

19 days earlier

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Periodic episodes of weak and slow rhythmical contractions during most months of pregnancy are called?

Braxton Hicks contractions

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