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NASA PROGRAM GEMINI WORKING PAPER NO. 5041

MISSION TRAINING PLAN FOR THE FOURTH MANNED GEMINI FLIGHT CREW GEMINI VH

GEMINI 7

(NASA)

HIS SION PL ANNING P1A N ED GEMINI FLIGHT CREW 20 p

00/98
DISTRIBUTION AND .REFERENCING

Uncias 17U66

This paper is not suitable for general distribution or referencing. It may be referenced only in other working correspondence and documents by participating organizations.

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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER HOUSTON, TEXAS

ERRATA SHEET
FOR

NASA PROGRAM GEMINI WORKING PAPER NO.

Charles L. Coston Chief, Technical Information Preparation Branch

Page 1 of 1 page

After the following pen-and-ink change has teen made, insert this ERRATA sheet between the cover and title page and write on the cover "ERRATA 1 inserted". 1. The date "October 11, 1965" should appear at the bottom of the cover page and the inside approval page.

NASA PROGRAM GEMINI WORKING PAPER NO. 5041

MISSION TRAINING PLAN FOR THE FOURTH MANNED GEMINI FLIGHT CREW GEMINI VII

Prepared by:

Mission Training Section

Authorized for Distribution:

P/r,
Donald K. Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER HOUSTON, TEXAS

ill

CONTENTS

- -

Section 1.0 2.0 3-0 SUMMARY INTRODUCTION PREPARATION AND TRAINING 3.1 Spacecraft Tests ......................... ...................... ............ ................. ....

Page 1-1 2-1 3-1 3-1

3.1.1 Spacecraft no. 7

.............. ........

3-1 3-2

3..2. .Gemini Mission Simulator Training-'.
3-2.1 3.2.2

Familiarization and systems failures'. . •. . ^3-3 Normal missions with random malfunctions ...............

-k

3.2.3 3-3
3A

Integrated simulations (6 sessions) . . . . ............
.............. ............ ......... . .....

3-5 3-5
3-5 3-6 3-6

Gemini Crew Station Mockup
Briefings and Meetings 3.^.1 3. IK 2 Flight plan reviews Systems briefing

3.1K3
^.k.k

Flight experiments
Training meetings ,,,

.............
............

3-6
3-6

3.5

Celestial Training. . .-' 3.5.1 Planetarium reviews
;! . ':

......

.....

...

3-6 3-7
3-7

............
...........

"':: , " • . . . ».&•

3.6

Egress and Recovery 'Training

3.7 3.8 3-9

Launch Abort and Reentry Training Translation and Docking Training Parachute Training

......... . . .. ......

3-8 3-8

..............

'. . 3-8

IV

Section 3.10

Page Other Training Activities ...... i ...... 3-9 3.10.1 Aircraft flying .............. 3^9 3.10.2 Contractor visitation 3.10.3 Slidewire training 3 1 . Physical training . .04 ..... 3-9

. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3 ^ 9 - 4-1 4-3

4.0

FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Time spent by each crewman in training on each mission activity . . . . . . . . . Crew training schedule .'

t/. 4-2

. . . . . . . 4-5

1-1
1.0 SUMMARY

This training plan outlines crew preparation plans for the 1^-day Gemini VII Mission. The flight plan includes postinsertion station keeping maneuvers with the second stage of the launch vehicle and a wide variety of operational checks and experiments. A summary of the crew time planned for each major training activity is shown in figure k-~L.

2-1
2.0 INTRODUCTION

This training plan defines the specific mission training of the primary and backup flight crews for the Gemini VII Mission. It is published as a guide to the flight crew and the personnel responsible for training for flight crews. The criteria used to develop this plan were as follows: 1. This training plan covers the final period of training (approximately 6 months). 2. Although crew members are normally scheduled as teams in their designated seat positions, cross team and cross seat training will be accomplished to assure that each crew member can satisfactorily perform the more critical tasks. This will permit some late date flexibility in reassignment of crew personnel as well as alleviate scheduling problems. Cross training will be terminated as launch date approaches. 3- Only one crew member shall participate in the less critical activities. He will brief the other crew members on significant results. This applies particularly to spacecraft testing, certain systems and operations meetings. U. The backup crew must be as prepared for flight as the primary crew. This permits replacement as a team or by individual seat position with a minimum delay to launch schedule. 5- Crew members will receive systems briefings prior to participation in major spacecraft tests and prior to flying the Gemini mission simulator. 6. This training plan defines equipment requirements in general terms. Detailed equipment requirements will be defined by the responsible organizations. 7. Crew members and FCSD training personnel will review this plan periodically. The training coordinator and the crew will meet informally each Monday morning to review the training planned for the coming week and discuss the training accomplished the past week. The crew commander, assisted by the training coordinator, is responsible for accomplishing the activities shown in figure k-2.

3-1

3.0

PREPARATION AND TRAINING

The following is a brief description of each of the major activities in which the crew will be involved. Schedules defining specific areas and sequencing of activities are shown on figure k-2.

3.1

Spacecraft Tests

Participation by crew members in the testing of their spacecraft gives them operational and training experience. Many tests require an operator or an observer inside the spacecraft. By participating in these tests, the crew becomes familiar with the characteristics of the spacecraft they will fly. When modiifications are considered or required, the crew can make inputs with an understanding of the situation. Spacecraft tests are often run on a 2^-hour basis requiring both the primary and backup crews to cover the critical crew interface tests. One crewman can cover less critical tests and brief the other crewmen on any significant results. When practical, all crewmen will attend the major spacecraft test reviews. Crew participation in the testing of the Gemini VTI spacecraft is shown in figure k-2. Each crewman will spend between *4-0 and 50 hours in the Gemini VTI spacecraft and more time observing, trouble-shooting, and reviewing the status of the spacecraft. The following outlines the crew .participation in major spacecraft testing activities. The complete spacecraft test plan and test procedures are contained in McDonnell Aircraft Corporation Report B-^19 and McDonnell Aircraft Corporation Report 9 8 . 82 3.1.1 Spacecraft no. 7. -

At St. Louis, Missouri: 1. 2. 3. Systems assurance tests Simulated flight tests Altitude chamber tests

At Cape Kennedy, Florida: 1. 2. Premate systems test Mechanical and electrical mate

3-2

3k. 5. 6. 7.

Environmental and joint guidance and control test Joint combined systems test Weight and balance Final systems test Simulated flight . • •

3-2

Gemini Mission Simulator Training

The flight crew will use the Gemini Mission Simulator (QMS) to provide them with extensive experience in the normal and abnormal, operation of the spacecraft systems as applied to the Gemini. VII flight plan. This program consists of ^1 sessions. Simulator hours are not significant with regard to the training accomplished; hence, no .times are. listed. For planning purposes, sessions are assumed to be 2-hours long; Increased emphasis in the training program will be placed on out-the-window vehicle positioning and control during both day and night side operations. Tasks to be performed using the visual display systems of the mission simulator are: 1. Orientation of the vehicle to various positions from random initial attitudes. 2. Practice estimating vehicle rates using celestial and terrestrial information. 3. Practice station keeping, flight plan maneuvers, and tests.

h. Manually position spacecraft and hold retroattitude during simulated retrofires. 5. Manually control spacecraft attitudes and attitude rates during reentry using the horizon. 6. Practice procedures and maneuvers in conjunction with accomplishment of various experiments. This document contains only an outline of the flight crew mission simulator program. A detailed description of each exercise will be distributed on a limited basis to those personnel who are directly involved in training on the Gemini mission simulators. The mission simulator sessions will be accomplished with crew members in their assigned seat position.

3-3
Generally, the familiarization and systems failure sessions will be accomplished at Houston and the mission training exercises at Cape Kennedy. Each training session includes a briefing and debriefing. The program order may be modified depending upon such factors as availability of simulation tapes, equipment, and assessed value of individual sessions. 3-2.1 Familiarization and systems failures.- The purpose of this phase is to thoroughly familiarize crew members with the normal operating characteristics of the spacecraft systems and prepare the flight crew in systems failure detection and analysis and the application of alternate procedures or systems modes. The application of specific mission rules is at a minimum. These 17 sessions consist of a briefing followed by operation in the simulator. Briefings: Session 1 - Orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) Session 2 - Sequential

Session 3 - Reentry control system (RCS) Session 4 - Electrical Session 5 - Attitude control and maneuver electronics (ACME)
Session 6 - Failures - sequential and electrical Session 7 - Failures - OAMS, RCS, ACME Session 8 - Environmental control systems Session 9 - Communications Session 10 - Computer digital command system (DCS) - Manual data readout unit (MDRU) - Platform Session 11 - ECS failures Session 12 - Failures - communication and computer, DCS, MDRU Session 13 - launch aborts Session 1^ - Rendezvous with backup procedures Session 15 - Reentry with malfunctions (ECS)

Session 16 - Integrated mission with failures Session 17 - Same as Session no. 16

.• •

' *• .•

3-2.2 Normal missions with random malfunctions. - .This phase consists of 18 training exercises with each crew member occupying his assigned seat position. The purpose of this training is to perfect each crew member's capability to accomplish his specific mission duties as detailed in the mission flight plan. The majority of the training sessions will consist of a nominal launch, practicing the orbital activi- ' ties and a reentry. Random failures will be simulated which normally will not require early termination of the mission. Critical mission phases, such as launch, retrofire and reentry, are emphisized by accomplishing sessions devoted to perfecting these tasks. The exercises comprising this phase are as follows: Session 18 - Normal mission Session 19 - Normal mission Session 20 - Launch aborts Session 21 - Normal mission Session 22 - Launch aborts Session 23 - Normal mission with random failures Session 2k- - Normal mission with random failures

Session 25 - Normal mission with random failures
Session 26 - Launch aborts Session 27 - Normal mission with random failures Session 28 - Normal mission with random failures

Session 29 - Normal mission with random failures Session 30 - Retrofires and reentries with random failures • Session 31 - Launch aborts Session 32 - Retrofires and reentries with random failures Session 33 - Normal mission with random failures (suited)

3-5
Session 3^ - Normal mission with random failures (suited) Session 35 - Launch aborts 3.2.3 Integrated simulations (6 sessions).- The final phase of training on the mission simulator (F-14 to F-2 days) consists of several simulations involving the ground network support personnel as well as the flight crews. During these simulations the mission is rehearsed exactly as it is planned for the actual flight. During launch and reentry simulations, the crews will occupy their respective seat positions. Upon completion of each launch or reentry simulation, the crew will participate in the postsimulation discussion.. During the simulated network simulations, the crew will practice countdown, launch, the more important orbital tasks, and reentry in conjunction with the remote simulated site teams. No crew participation in the network simulations is planned. Integrated simulations requiring crew participation are: Session 36 - Launch simulation Session 37 - Launch simulation Session 38 - Reentry simulation Session 39 - Simulated network simulation Session hO - Simulated network simulation Session Ul - Reentry simulation 3-3 Gemini Crew Station Mockup

The Gemini crew station mockup will be used by the flight crew to establish cockpit stowage provisions, ejection seat interfaces, and use of special operational equipment. The advantages afforded by this crew station are early availability and stowage flexibility. The flight crew will utilize this mockup as the need arises. 3-^ Briefings and Meetings

The major areas of briefings (excluding those briefings and reviews in conjunction with training exercises) are flight plan reviews, spacecraft systems briefings, flight experiments briefings and training meetings.

3-6
3.4.1 Flight plan reviews.- Flight plan reviews will be held on an "as required' basis. These reviews will usually be informal in' nature with increased brevity as launch data approaches. 3.^.2 Systems briefing.- The flight crew will receive a'2 to 3 day series of briefings covering each of the major spacecraft systems. The first briefing is given by Flight Crew Support Division personnel at the beginning of the preflight training period, a second briefing is at St. Louis conducted by MAC personnel and the third briefing is shortly after the crew commences training at Cape Kennedy. The briefings given at St. Louis and Cape Kennedy will primarily utilize the MAC engineers involved in spacecraft testing. Each system will be discussed in detail with emphasis on operational techniques and functional inter-, • relationships, . . A fourth series of systems briefings, covering recent modifications to the spacecraft and the altered operational techniques involved, will be conducted approximately 10 days prior to the scheduled launch date. The final briefings will require 1 day or less. 3.^.3 Flight experiments.- The experiments scheduled for this mission will be reviewed in general with the flight crew at the beginning of the specific mission training period and again in detail during a 2 to 3 day period no later than 4 weeks prior to flight. These briefings will be given by the experimenter and the technical monitor emphasizing objectives, pilot procedures, and postflight requirements. A final experiments briefing will be conducted approximately 10 days prior to flight to cover latest status and modification to equipment and procedures. The crew station mockup will be utilized early in the training program to develop operational time-line data on the experiments and to achieve proficiency in the use and manipulation of the experimental equipment. The Gemini mission simulator and the translation and docking trainer will also be utilized for this purpose but on a more limited scale and much later in -the specific mission training program. 3.4.4 Training meetings.- Each Monday morning the flight crew,and the training coordinator will meet to discuss the training planned- for . the coming week, the training accomplished during the past week, and overall crew progress.

3.5

Celestial Training

The crew members will further increase their capability to orient and control the spacecraft by the use of celestial information, as well as make various astronomical observations, through the use of the

3-7
Morehead Planetarium, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and the Gemini mission simulator and Gemini part task trainer incorporating the out-the-window optical display. 5.5.1 Planetarium reviews.- The flight crews will utilize the Morehead Planetarium for general celestial reviews and orientation. The crew will make two visits to the Morehead Planetarium. The activities included in these visits are as follows: Exercise 1 - Review of entire celestial sphere, which includes recognition of relative magnitudes, positions, distances, and celestial coordinates of prominent stars and constellations. Exercise 2 - During this visit more emphasis will be put on reviewing stars and constellations near the orbital plane. The flight crew will observe and identify constellations and star patterns as they drift across the window using the Gemini star charts as a reference. Red lighting, such as the suit finger tip lights, will be utilized. The orbital conditions and the window viewing limits for both pilots will be simulated. A simulation of the booster running lights at various positions and distances will be simulated if possible.

3. 6

Egress and Recovery Training

The flight crew will complete a Gemini egress and recovery operation utilizing Boilerplate no. 201 and Spacecraft Static Article no. 5> if available. A brief outline of the program is as follows: Phase 1 (Applicable only to crew members that were not assigned to Gemini IV crew) - A briefing will be given to provide the crews with information on spacecraft sink rates and flotation characteristics. This will be followed by a briefing on survival and related equipment usage. Upon completion of the briefings, each crew member will make one or more unsuited surface egresses and one or more unsuited underwater egresses from the Boilerplate no. 201 in the Ellington AFB spacecraft flotation tank. Phase 2 - A recovery operation will be conducted in the Gulf of Mexico utilizing the spacecraft handling ship "Retriever" and Spacecraft Static Article no. 5 and Boilerplate no. 201. During this exercise the spacecraft flotation characteristics on open water, possible flooding effects, surface egress and operation of survival equipment will be demonstrated and practiced. Each crew team will make two unsuited or modified suited egresses from the egress trainer, which will include deployment and use of the survival pack equipment and helicopter pickup.

3-8
3-7 Launch Abort and Reentry Training'

In addition to the mission simulator, the dynamic crew proceduressimulator (DCPS) will be utilized for launch vehicle monitoring and abort training. This program includes eight different groups of runs as listed below: Group I Normal launches with minor deviations due to wind transients, high or low booster thrust, et cetera Engine/propulsion failures Staging/sequential failures Tank pressurization failures

Group II Group III • Group IV

Group V
Group VT Group VII Group VIII

Controls/hydraulics failures
Instrument failures Electrical/ordnance failures Selected double failures .

Many of these runs do not require abort action but do involve launch vehicle discrepancies. Each crew member will be given a minimum of 100 runs. This simulator will also be used for flying out-thewindow reentries if this equipment is operational.

3.8

Translation and Docking Training

This training will be conducted on the Gemini translation and docking simulator at MSC. The crewmen will practice station keeping with the Agena vehicle. These sessions are planned to train the crews in maneuvering the spacecraft in close proximity to the target vehicle.

3-9

Parachute Training

•The flight crew will accomplish a parajump review consisting of parachute landing fall and canopy manipulation techniques briefing, followed by two parachute landings per crew member with full gear over water.

3-9
3.10 Other Training Activities

3-10.1 Aircraft flying.- Space flight readiness will be maintained throughout their training. To the extent possible, travel in support of engineering and training activities will be via NASA aircraft. This will expedite and permit greater flexibility in traveling as well as maintain the crew members' flying skills. 3.10.2 Contractor visitation.- In addition to spacecraft systems tests the flight crew will spend a considerable amount of time in support of engineering operations and participation in the various engineering evaluations at contractor facilities. 3.10.3 Slidewire training.- Each crew member will practice slide wire escape from the Gemini spacecraft on the launch pad at Cape Kennedy, Florida, prior to the spacecraft wet mock test. 3.10.^ Physical training.- Physical training will be scheduled each week so as not to interfere with other training activities. If full time is not available during normal working hours, it will be each crew member's responsibility to exercise as regularly as possible during non-duty hours.

Page Intentionally Left Blank

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EXPERIMENTS

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100 SPACECRAFT TESTING

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100 GEMINI MISSION SIMULATOR

SYSTEMS BRIEFINGS

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FLIGHT PLAN REVIEW

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30 OPERATIONS REVIEW

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SPACECRAFT MOCKUP

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EGRESS AND SLIDE WIRE TRAINING

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DYNAMIC CREW PROCEDURES SIMULATOR

_5j PARACHUTE TRAINING

Figure 4-

WEEKS BEFORE GT-7 FLIGHT DATE

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19

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18

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DYNAMIC CREW PROCEDURES SIMULATOR

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GEMINI MISSION SIMULATOR

OPERATIONS REVIEW

EGRESS TRAININC

GT-7 SIMULATIONS
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Illl FLIGHT CONTROLLERS BRIEFING
III

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PLANETARIUM VISITS

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FLIGHT PLAN REVIEWS

SYSTEMS BRIEFINGS

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•• SIMULATED FLIGHT TESTS

EXPERIMENTS BRIEFINGS

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PREMATE SYSTEMS TEST I l l l i l l l l l l i i MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL MATE

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I I I I I I I I I I M I I I WEIGHT AND BALANCE Illl I Mill

ENVIRONMENTAL AND JOINT GUIDANCE AND CONTROL TEST

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JOINT COMBINED SYSTEMS TEST

FINAL SYSTEMS TEST

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Figure 4-2. - Crew training schedule.

SIMULATED FLIGHT

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