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: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Thus India lost its native educational system. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions. The private education market in India is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012. However, India continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2007, there are 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000, plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Overview 2.1 Primary education 2.1.1 Private education 2.1.2 Homeschooling 2.2 Secondary education
2.3 Higher education 2.4 Technical education 3 Literacy 4 Attainment 5 Women's education 6 Rural education 7 Issues 7.1 Funding and infrastructure 7.2 Curriculum issues 7.3 Controversy 8 Initiatives 9 Central government involvement 9.1 Budget 9.2 Public Expenditure on Education in India 9.3 Legislative framework 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links History
Monastic orders of education under the supervision of a guru was a favored form of education for the nobility in ancient India. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform. The priest class, the Brahmins, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the lowered class of the Shudras was
grammar.g. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topics such as logic. The government also held powers to make national policies for educational development and could regulate selected aspects of education throughout India. Maulana Azad. the Manusmriti.6% of the population in 1867 to over 3. it was only the higher education dealing with science and technology that came under the jurisdiction of the central government. Apart from the monastic orders. medicine. Secular Buddhist institutions cropped up along with monasteries. and tertiary centres for education cropped up during the colonial era. and continued to deliver education into the common era.generally deprived of educational advantages. arts and crafts. institutions of higher learning] and universities flourished in India well before the common era. Between 1867 and 1941 the British increased the percentage of the population in Primary and Secondary Education from around 0. This system soon became solidified in India as a number of primary. . In 1901 the literacy rate in India was only about 5% though by Independence it was nearly 20%. India already had a sophisticated system of mathematics and science in place. Additionally literacy was also improved. However this was much lower than the equivalent figures for Europe where in 1911 between 8 and 18% of the population were in Primary and Secondary education.5% of the population in 1941. and the treatise on statecraft the Arthashastra were among the influential works of this era which reflect the outlook and understanding of the world at the time. However. The important urban centres of learning were Taxila and Nalanda. By the time of the visit of the Islamic scholar Alberuni (973-1048 CE). given the cultural and linguistic diversity of India. with a uniform educational system. A number of urban learning centres became increasingly visible from the period between 200 BCE to 400 CE. metaphysics. and had made a number of inventions and discoveries. India's first education minister envisaged strong central government control over education throughout the country. The book of laws.  Following independence in 1947. e. These institutions imparted practical education. medicine. With the arrival of the British Raj in India a class of Westernized elite was versed in the Western system of education which the British had introduced. secondary. among others.
 The government initiated several measures the launching of DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband. advances in female education. the emphasis is also on the development of science and technology education infrastructure. India's initiative for Education for All) and setting up of Navodaya Vidyalaya and other selective schools in every district. India's NPE also contains the National System of Education. envisaging a budget of more than 6% of the Gross Domestic Product. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board. or autonomous. the various curriculum bodies governing school education system are: The state government boards. Islamic Madrasah schools. In India. Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board. The NPE also stresses on higher spending on education. whose boards are controlled by local state governments. The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. inter-disciplinary research and establishment of open universities. While the need for wider reform in the primary and secondary sectors is recognized as an issue. . which ensures some uniformity while taking into account regional education needs. Autonomous schools like Woodstock School. The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (ICSE) board. Overview The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for curriculum related matters for school education in India. in which the majority of Indian children are enrolled. Auroville.The central government of India formulated the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986 and also reinforced the Programme of Action (POA) in 1986. International schools affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations.
due to shortage of resources and lack of political will. However. ) The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. Education has also been made free for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. The current scheme for universalization of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme. which had opened 160000 new schools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 3. shortage of infrastructure and poor level of teacher training. Primary education The Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years (referred to as Elementary Education in India.  There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. Enrollment has been enhanced. making it the largest provider of education in the Country.  80% of all recognized schools at the Elementary Stage are government run or supported. was also supported by UNICEF and other international programmes. this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil teacher ratios. 85% of the DPEP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15 percent was funded by the states.In addition. . However. The DERP. This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% for the last three years in some states. but the levels of quality remain low.5 million children. 80% of all schools are government schools making the government the major provider of education. The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary education system. Private education According to current estimates. both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. NUEPA (National University of Educational Planning and Administration) and NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education) are responsible for the management of the education system and teacher accreditation.
because of poor quality of public education. In their favour. According to the latest DISE survey. music and drama. general knowledge.  However. Private schools are often operating illegally. There is some disgreement over which system has better educated teachers.44% for government schools.91% in private. the percentage of untrained teachers (paratechers) is 54. operation of unrecognized schools has been made illegal under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act which has also significantly simplified the process of obtaining recognition. though it is the less explored option.88% in government schools and only 2. A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools. others have suggested that private schools fail to provide education to the poorest families. . A 2001 study found that it takes 14 different licenses from four different authorities to open a private school in New Delhi and could take years if done legally.32% teachers in unaided schools receive inservice training compared to 43. 27% of Indian children are privately educated. if they wish to and have the means. The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for government schools and more teachers in private schools are female. a selective being only a fifth of the schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation. if someone decides not to send his/her children to school. yet most schools make profit. sports. compared to 44. The competition in the school market is intense.However. Homeschooling Homeschooling is legal in India. Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free. the government would not interfere. it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs. HRD Minister Kapil Sibal has stated that despite the RTE Act of 2009. According to some research. However. private schools often provide superior results at a fraction of the unit cost of government schools. The Indian Government's stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home.
The academies of higher learning were known as 'Parisads'. It . It was supposed to be the language of learned men. Korea used to come here for higher studies. It was supposed to be the re-birth of the child and was known as 'Dvijya'. Kautilya. In ancient India women were given the equal right to education and teaching. and Charaka. Women seers like 'Gayatri' were prominent participants in educational debates and the proceedings of the 'Parishads'. The University had eight colleges. the well known grammarian. The education system involved of three basic processes. The second stage was 'Manana' which means that pupils had to think themselves about what they have heard. In the 'Sravana' stage of education. Sanskrit was the language of teaching. Students from foreign countries like China. the minister of Chandragupta Maurya. It had around 10. Few of the most important universities of India in the ancient times were Taxila. With the accomplishment of this ceremony the child had to leave his home for the 'ashrama' where he would receive education. "twice born". They have to make their own inferences and assimilate the lesson taught by their teacher into the life.000 students and teachers on its roll cards. which means. Nalanda was the highest learning center not just of India but also of the entire South Asia. Japan. The third stage 'Nidhyasana' means complete comprehension of truth and its use in the life. a medical teacher of repute. which was passed orally from one generation to another. And one of the colleges had four-storied building. students received 'shrutis' knowledge. Taxila University of 7th century BC was famous for medical studies and a galaxy of eminent teachers such as Panini. ( Assemblies) It was mainly the Brahmins followed by Kshatriyas that received education at the Gurukuls while the boys from the lower caste learnt their family trade from their fathers. 'Manana' and 'Nidhyasana'. Vikramshila and Nalanda.The formal admission ceremony was known as 'Upanayana'. which included 'Sravana'.
Present The present educational system of India is an implantation of British rulers. Vikramshila University. began to root them out. Varanasi was famous for religious teachings. "I say without fear of my figures being challenged successfully. British government started giving funds to indigenous schools in need of help and thus slowly some of the schools became government-aided. instead of taking hold of things as they were. decimal and Pythagoras Theorem were all developed here. education system was private one. the whole scenario changed. They . Wood's Dispatch of 1854 laid the foundation of present system of education in India. The concept of zero. Huan Tsang in his records mention the university to be at par with Nalanda and Vikramshila universities. Contemplating on the new system which was introduced Mahatma Gandhi expressed his anguish in following words. Kanchi was famous for its studies while the Vallabhi University was no less. Before the advent of British in India.was one of the earliest examples of residential cum learning complex. because the British administrators. when they came to India. In the South. As India progressed from ancient to medieval its education system deteriorated. With the introduction of Wood's Dispatch known as Magna Carta of Indian education. Various factors were responsible for the degradation of this most efficient and most ancient education system of the world. that today India is more illiterate than it was fifty or a hundred years ago. which contributed in every aspect of life. and so is Burma. The main purpose of it was to prepare Indian Clerks for running local administration. Under it the means of school educations were the vernacular languages while the higher education was granted in English only. India had several great minds at work.
and so forth. Middle . and the beautiful tree perished. This very poor country of mine is ill able to sustain such an expensive method of education. Undergraduate . For medical student this stage is of four and a half years plus one year of compulsory internship. Pre. There are statistics left by a British administrator which show that. This course may vary according to the subject pursued by the student. because there was no recognition for these schools. which is completed in college. I defy anybody to fulfill a program of compulsory primary education of these masses inside of a century. Primary . Well. Secondary . there were no such schools at all. The village schools were not good enough for the British administrator.It includes the age group of children of 6-11 years studying in classes from first to fifth.scratched the soil and began to look at the root. in places where they have carried out a survey. ancient schools have gone by the board. lower kindergarten and upper kindergarten. " Today education system in India can be divided into many stages. building. a student goes through higher education. and therefore they could not possibly overtake the thing. Postgraduate . and the schools established after the European pattern were too expensive for the people.It consists of children of 3-5 years of age studying in nursery. Our state would revive the old village schoolmaster and dot every village with a school both for boys and girls.After completing graduation a student may opt for post graduation to further add to his qualifications.it includes students studying in classes ninth and tenth.Primary . .It consists of children studying in classes from sixth to eighth. Every school must have so much paraphernalia. while a simple graduate degree can be attained in three years.Includes students studying in eleventh and twelfth classes. so he came out with his program. At this stage student is given knowledge about school life and is taught to read and write some basic words.Here. and left the root like that. Higher Secondary .
The State Government Boards: Apart from CBSE and CISCE each state in India has its own State Board of education. Indian Certificate of secondary education is a k-10 examination for those Indian students who have just completed class 10th and Indian school certificate is a k-12 public examination conducted for those studying in class 12th. It conducts exam and looks after the functioning of schools accredited to central education system. The National Open School: It is also known as National Institute of Open Schooling.Education Governing Bodies The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): This is the main governing body of education system in India. Mid Day Meal have been successful to great extent. which looks after the educational issues. India has about 688. The government has rolled out many plans to increase the percentage of elementary education. . elementary education is a fundamental right of children in the age group of 6-14 years.000 secondary schools. which are accredited to curriculum of international standard. Operation Blackboard. At least half of all students from rural area drop out before completing school. It conducts two examinations 'Indian Certificate of Secondary Education' and 'Indian School Certificate'. It has control over the central education system. It is a ray of hope for those students who cannot attend formal schools. It was established by the Government Of India in 1989. Elementary Education According to the Constitution of India. The Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE): It is a board for Anglo Indian Studies in India. District Primary Education Program (DPEP). The International School: It controls the schools. The plans such as 'Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA).000 primary schools and 110. According to statistics two third of school going age children of India are enrolled in schools but the figures are deceptive as many don't attend schools regularly.
Its main features are Universal Access. which do not have any school or where schools are very far off. National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) Mahila Samakhya Scheme District Primary Education Program This program was launched in 1994 with the objective of universalization of primary education. Appointment of teachers.Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) The main goal of this program is that all children of 6-11 years of age should complete primary education by the year 2007 and all children of 6-14 years of age should complete eight years of schooling by 2010. Universal Retention and Universal Achievement. The final step is achievement of the goal of education. once a child is enrolled in school he/ she should be retained there. This plan covers the whole country with special emphasis on girl education and education of Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribe (ST) children and children with special needs. It aims that the primary education should be accessible to each and every child of school going age. . The main components of this program are: Construction of classrooms and new schools Opening of non-formal schooling centers Setting up early childhood education centers. Providing education to disabled children. The SSA centers are mainly opened in those areas. Special girl oriented programs include: Girl education at elementary level.
20. According to this program every primary school should have at least two rooms.203 disabled students have been successfully enrolled into the schools. chalk.000 schools and 84. The aim of this program is to improve human and physical resource availability in primary schools of India.000 alternative schools have been opened under this program. creed.60.758 schools. two teachers and essential teaching aids like blackboard. duster etc. National Bal Bhavan The National Bal Bhavan was opened with the aim of developing overall personalities of children of all strata of society irrespective of their caste. Other important endeavors taken up by Indian government for the development of education in India includes: Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Integrated Education for disabled children National Council of Educational Research and Training Secondary Education .The program has been successful to the large extent as 1. It supplements school education by helping children to learn in play way and natural environment. 4. And work is going on for the construction of new buildings of 52. Operation Blackboard It was started in 1987-88. religion and gender.
Education system in India is making fast progress. Depending upon the nature of course .000 colleges and 887 polytechnics. University Grant Commission (UGC). coordinates and looks after the maintenance of standard of university education in India. 17. The university education in India starts with undergraduate courses. a national body. The data of students' enrollment at primary and secondary level of school education testifies to it. 18 Central. Year Primary (Lakh person) Middle (Lakh person) 50-51192 60-61350 68-69544 79-80716 89-90973 99-2000 2000-01 31 67 125 193 322 1136 421 926 342 2-Jan 1098 426 3-Feb1184 457 4-Mar 1224 468 University Education This massive system of higher education in India constitutes of 342 universities (211 State.The enrollment at secondary school throughout the country was close to 28 million in 1998-99. Efforts are being made to increase this figure through the implementation of proposed new educational strategies. 95 deemed universities) 13 institutes of national importance.
The important medical colleges of India are: All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS). After completing this course student get a Bachelor's degree in the subject studied such as Bachelor of Arts. Vellore Grants Medical College. Professional Course There are large numbers of professional courses at the undergraduate level. An all India level examination is also conducted by CBSE for admission to colleges all over India based over 15% reserved seats. Student may opt for any of it depending upon their interest and condition of eligibility. Bachelor of Commerce or Bachelor of Science. Varanasi Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and . Ludhiana Christian Medical College (CMC).pursued its duration may vary from three to five and a half years. Pune Christian Medical College (CMC). New Delhi Air Force Medical College (AFMC). Mumbai Institute of Medical Science (BHU). Various medical colleges conduct entrance examination for admission to this course. It is of four and a half year's duration plus one year of obligatory internship. Medical Courses This course at undergraduate level is known as MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery). Academic Degree Course This undergraduate course in India is of three years' duration.
Delhi Indian Institute of Technology. Mumbai Indian Institute of Technology. Delhi Indian Institute of Technology. Wardha Engineering Course The bachelor of Engineering (BE) or bachelor of Technology (B Tech) is a four-year course. Delhi (for girls only) Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Science . Delhi Lady Harding Medical College (LHMC). KANPUR Indian Institute of Technology. Roorkee Institute of Technology. BHU . Chennai Indian Institute of Technology. It has wide range of options. Kharagpur Indian Institute of Technology. Some of them are: Aeronautical and Aerospace engineering Agriculture engineering Computer engineering Electronic and electrical engineering Industrial engineering Marine engineering Mining engineering The best engineering colleges of India are: Delhi college of Engineering. Pondicherry Maulan Azad Medical College (MAMC).Research (JIPMER).
Indore Faculty of Management Studies. Architecture. Kolkata Indian Institute of Management. Pune JBIMS. BBM. Fashion Designing. Bangalore Indian Institute of Management. Travel and Tourism. The institutes. Jamshedpur The other professional courses offered by Indian universities include. Postgraduate degree course is known as MBA (Masters of Business Administration). Lucknow Indian Institute of Management. Ahmedabad Indian Institute of Management. BBS. undergraduate and post-graduate. Undergraduate degree courses include BBA. which impart education in management. CBSE Map Lists Business Schools in Delhi . Delhi Indian Institute of Foreign Trade. Mumbai XLRI. are known as "Business Schools". Warangal Management Course In India education in management is one of the most sort out courses. In India management education is given at two levels.NIT Karnataka. Delhi Symbiosis. Dental. Some of the important Business schools of India are: Indian Institute of Management. Surathkal National Institute of Technology.
Many college courses like in arts (history. A common educational structure (10+2+3) for the whole of India. accounting) are offered by Indian universities. engineering. Apart from these. Development of curriculum and study material in the language of tribal people.Distance Education in India Indian Education system offers distance education to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges. It includes: Development of International cooperation and peaceful coexistence through education. It could be achieved by providing equal access and equal condition of success to children. law. reservation of seats in institution of higher studies in India. recruitment of SC teachers. providing scholarship to SC students for higher studies. banking. Education for women's equality. mass media. Education Policy The national policy of education (1986) and program of action (1992) lay down the objectives and features of Indian education policy. travel and tourism are also part of distance education in India. Equalization of SC population with others in the matter of education. The Indian education should be used as a tool to change the status of women in the society. This is ensured by giving incentives to parents who send their children to schools. University Education is also offered thorough distance learning. commerce (finance. professional courses in management. Islamic studies). economics. National Institute of Open Schooling offers school education through distance learning. Emphasis on the education of minorities. . para medical. Promotion of equality. Opening of primary schools in tribal area for promotion of education in ST people. literature.
the humanities. Measures to be taken for easy accessibility of books at minimum costs to all sections of students. Minimum exposure to computers and training in their use to be the part of professional education. A combined perspective of technical and management education. . Multiple task performance for teachers such as teaching. Special emphasis on early childhood care and education by opening up of day care centers. Development of languages in great deal. and social science. Strengthening of science education for the development of spirit of inquiry and objectivity in the minds of students. extension and management of the institution. Redesigning of courses of higher education to meet the increasing demand of professionalism. Increasing the scope of Operation Blackboard for upliftment of standard of primary education in India. And making them aware of the day-to-day realities of their surroundings. promotion of child focused programs. and monitoring of technical and management education in India. research. for teaching illiterate people of age group 15-35. development of learning resource material. Secondary education curriculum should expose the students to differentiated roles of science. Providing teachers a better deal to make education system in India work in proper way.Adult education . Efforts to relate ancient Indian knowledge with the contemporary reality. Setting up of Open Universities and Distance Learning centers to promote the goal of education as a life long process. Providing better facilities to institutions and improved services to students. as teachers are the backbone of the system.Initiation of National Literacy Mission. Providing enhanced support to the research work in Universities. funding. The All India Council for Technical Education will be responsible for maintenance of norms and standards. accreditation.
Review of the implementation of the parameters of the policy every five years. The education in India seems to encourage rote learning instead of experimentation and questioning. which need to be worked upon. . It has specified that the examination system should discourage the memorizing but it is what is going on. These are some of the issues. Corruption is visible in the allocation of seats of institutions of higher studies and student politics is another sore point. National Policy of Education (1992) laid down many objectives for the development of education system in India but it has not been successful in achieving all of them. Methods of teacher recruitment to be recognized one to ensure merit and objectivity in the system. Though there are disparities between the objectives and their implementation in education but still education system in India has come a long way and will continue to improve in the future.The purpose of examination to be to bring about qualitative improvement in education. Reviewing of educational developments by the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Involvement of local communities for school improvement programmes. Overhauling of the system of teacher education and establishment of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) to organize courses for elementary school teachers. There is some disparity in assessment as all the State Boards have different standards of evaluation. Strengthening the base of pyramid of Indian population for proper development of education system in India. It should discourage memorization. The reservation on the basis of caste and religion is also a negative point in Indian education.
Some important facts about Indian education: Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to the world and 'charaka' is known as the father of Ayurveda. education was the exclusive responsibility of the States. special emphasis on education of girls. was considered to be the honor of ancient Indian system of education as it was one of the best Universities of its time in the subcontinent. which invented number system. Aryabhatta. which included education in the Concurrent List. Nalanda University. algebra and calculus studies were originated in India. 1986 as updated in 1992. maintaining quality and standards including those of the teaching profession at all levels. He developed this system some 2500 years back. the Union Government accepted a larger responsibility of reinforcing the national and integrated character of education. financial and administrative implication required a new sharing of responsibility between the Union Government and the States. While the role and responsibility of the States in education remained largely unchanged. built in 4 AD. The Constitutional Amendment of 1976. Indian language Sanskrit is considered to be the mother of many modern languages of world. The modified policy envisages a National System of education to bring about uniformity in education. The Central Government continues to play a leading role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.C. was a far-reaching step. the Indian scientist. Takshila was the first university of world established in 700 B. starting more Open Universities in the States. synthesis of knowledge and inter-disciplinary research in higher education. establishment of pacesetting schools like Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district. retention and quality in elementary education. The substantive. 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA). the most notable of which are the National Policy on Education (NPE).C. invented digit zero. making adult education programmes a mass movement. vocationalisation of secondary education. Before 1976. India was the country. Trigonometry. Place value system was developed in India in 100 B. and the study and monitoring of the educational requirements of the country. providing universal access. strengthening of the All India Council of .
The POA lays down a detailed strategy for the implementation of the various policy parameters by the implementing agencies. it calls for consolidation of the existing system of higher and technical education. physical education. that the Central and State Governments. which envisages a common core along with other flexible and region-specific components. The Board consists of nominated members representing various interests in addition to elected members from the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. It is a matter of importance therefore. Besides. It also emphasises the need for a much higher level of investment in education of at least six per cent of the national income. 1986 (as modified in 1992) also envisages that the CABE will play a pivotal role in reviewing educational development. and the representatives of the Government of India.Technical Education. the highest advisory body to advise the Central and State Governments in the field of education. CABE has a particularly important role to play at the present juncture in view of the significant socio-economic and socio-cultural developments taking place in the country and for the review of the National Policy on Education which is also due. Yoga and adoption of an effective evaluation method. The National Policy on Education. encouraging sports. and educationists and people representing all interests. the various areas of human resource development. which enhances the federal structure of our polity. etc. the CABE has since been reconstituted by the Government in July 2004 and the first meeting of the reconstituted CABE was held on 10 and 11 August 2004. It was revived in 1935 and had continued to exist till 1994. a decentralised management structure had also been suggested to ensure popular participation in education. determining the changes required to improve the system and monitoring implementation. should increase their interaction and evolve a participative process of decision making in education. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE). Despite the fact that in the past. it was unfortunately not reconstituted after the expiry of its extended tenure in March 1994. State Governments and UT Administrations. and coordination among. . was first established in 1920 and dissolved in 1923 as a measure of economy. important decisions had been taken on the advice of CABE and it had provided a forum for widespread consultation and examination of issues relating to educational and cultural development. Accordingly. and will function through appropriate mechanisms created to ensure contact with. While the policy stresses widening of opportunities for the people. The National System of Education as envisaged in the NPE is based on a national curricular framework.
Necessary steps are being taken to identify the action points emerging from all these reports and to prepare a road map for action on them in a time bound manner. In the meeting it has also been decided. Accordingly. child development. A Standing Committee on Inclusive Education for Children and Youth with Special Needs to oversee the implementation of the new education policy on this subject. seven CABE Committees were set up to examine: Free and Compulsory education Bill and other issues related to Elementary Education Girls Education and the Common School System Universalisation of Secondary Education Autonomy of Higher Education Institutions Integration of Culture Education in the School Curriculum Regulatory Mechanism for the Text Books and parallel text books taught in schools outside the Government system.In the meeting of the reconstituted CABE held on 10 . and Financing of Higher and Technical Education. viz. to constitute three Standing Committees of the CABE. nutrition and health aspects. The above mentioned Committees were set up in September 2004. inter alia. .11 August 2004 some critical issues had emerged needing detailed deliberations. A Standing Committee for looking at the integration and coordination of efforts for children's development. A Standing Committee on Literacy and Adult Education to guide the National Literacy Mission.. The reports of these Committees were discussed in the 53rd Meeting of the CABE held on 14-15 July 2005 at New Delhi. taking into account different schemes of education.
1860. the Government has constituted ''Bharat Shiksha Kosh'' as a Society registered under the Societies Registration Act. Non-Resident Indians and People of Indian Origin for various activities across all sectors of education. Measures have been taken to reform the functioning of the accrediting and affiliating institutions by introduction of steps to receive and process the applications on-line and also bringing in the reforms in other processes by making things transparent.On the recommendations made by the CABE. . Consultation process has been initiated to consider the setting up of a National Commission on Higher Education for overseeing generation of new ideas and monitoring the reforms in the higher education sector. in its meeting held on 6-7 September 2005. In order to facilitate donations including smaller amounts from India and abroad for implementing projects/programmes connected with the education sector. a monitoring committee has been setup to oversee the preparation of syllabus for the textbooks by NCERT. Central and State Governments. The Kosh will receive donations/ contributions/endowments from individuals and corporate. It was launched officially on 9 January 2003 during the celebrations of Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas.
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