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This document describes in detail 113 popular technical indicators. These indicators

are being used for the Olaptrader application in concert with additional historical

stock market data.

In our application the following technical indicators have been calculated for over

14,000 Stocks, ETF’s, and Indices from 1988-2008. The data currently resides in a

SQL Server database. A subscription based application will be available soon. Please

check our website for details. http://www.olaptrader.com

1. Accumulation/Distribution Line

which sums the volume times +1/-1 based on whether the close is higher than the

previous close. The Accumulation/Distribution indicator, however multiplies the

volume by the close location value (CLV). The CLV is based on the movement of the

issue within a single bar and can be +1, -1 or zero.The Accumulation/Distribution

Line is interpreted by looking for a divergence in the direction of the indicator

relative to price. If the Accumulation/Distribution Line is trending upward it

indicates that the price may follow. Also, if the Accumulation/Distribution Line

becomes flat while the price is still rising (or falling) then it signals an impending

flattening of the price.The Accumulation/Distribution Line was developed by Marc

Chaikin.The Accumulation/Distribution Line should not be confused with the Williams

Price Accumulation/Distribution indicator.

The Accumulation Swing Index is a running total of the Swing Index. The Swing

Index is calculated using only the two most recent bars, by summing it, the

Accumulation Swing Index shows long-term trends. It will be positive in a long-term

uptrend, negative in a long-term down trend and it will hover around zero if the

market is flat. The shape of the Accumulation Swing Index line closely matches the

shape of the price line. It can be interpreted by comparing it to the price and

looking for divergence or confirmation.The Accumulation Swing Index was

developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described in his 1978 book New Concepts In

Technical Trading Systems.

3. Accumulate or Running Total

The Accumulate function calculates the running total of the input data. This is

especially useful if the input data contains both positive and negative values so that

the output will vary around zero.

The ADX is a Welles Wilder style moving average of the Directional Movement Index

(DX). The values range from 0 to 100, but rarely get above 60. To interpret the

ADX, consider a high number to be a strong trend, and a low number, a weak

trend.The ADX was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described in his 1978 book

New Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

The ADXR is equal to the current ADX plus the ADX from n bars ago divided by 2. In

effect, it is the average of the two ADX values. The ADXR smoothes the ADX, and is

therefore less responsive, however, the ADXR filters out excessive tops and

bottoms. To interpret the ADXR, consider a high number to be a strong trend, and a

low number, a weak trend.

6. Ease of Movement

The EMV emphasizes days in which the stock is moving easily and minimizes the

days in which the stock is finding it difficult to move. This indicator is used

frequently with equivolume charts to identify market formations. A buy signal is

generated when the EMV crosses above zero, a sell signal when it crosses below

zero. When the EMV hovers around zero, then there are small price movements

and/or high volume, which is to say, the price is not moving easily.The volume is

divided by a volume increment (typically 10,000) to make the resultant numbers

larger and easier to work with. The EMV is usually smoothed with a moving

average. The Arms Ease of Movement indicator was developed by Richard W. Arms,

Jr. See also Arms Index (TRIN).

7. Aroon

The word aroon is Sanskrit for "dawn's early light." The Aroon indicator attempts to

show when a new trend is dawning. The indicator consists of two lines (Up and

Down) that measure how long it has been since the highest high/lowest low has

occurred within an n period range. When the Aroon Up is staying between 70 and

100 then it indicates an upward trend. When the Aroon Down is staying between 70

and 100 then it indicates an downward trend. A strong upward trend is indicated

when the Aroon Up is above 70 while the Aroon Down is below 30. Likewise, a

strong downward trend is indicated when the Aroon Down is above 70 while the

Aroon Up is below 30. Also look for crossovers. When the Aroon Down crosses

above the Aroon Up, it indicates a weakening of the upward trend (and vice

versa).The Aroon indicator was developed by Tushar S. Chande and first described

in the September 1995 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities

magazine.

8. Aroon Oscillator

The Aroon Oscillator is calculated by subtracting the Aroon Down from the Aroon Up.

The resultant number will oscillate between 100 and -100. The Aroon Oscillator will

be high when the Aroon Up is high and the Aroon Down is low, indicating a strong

upward trend. The Aroon Oscillator will be low when the Aroon Down is high and the

Aroon Up is low, indicating a strong downward trend. When the Up and Down are

approximately equal, the Aroon Oscillator will hover around zero, indicating a weak

trend or consolidation. See the Aroon indicator for more information.

The ATR is a Welles Wilder style moving average of the True Range. The ATR is a

measure of volatility. High ATR values indicate high volatility, and low values

indicate low volatility, often seen when the price is flat. The ATR is a component of

the Welles Wilder Directional Movement indicators (+/-DI, DX, ADX and ADXR).

The ATR was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described in his 1978 book New

Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

10.Average Price

The Average Price is the average of the open + high + low + close of a bar. It can

be used to smooth an indicator that normally takes just the closing price as

input.See also Median Price, Typical Price and Weighted Close.

11.Bollinger Bands

Bollinger Bands consist of three lines. The middle band is a simple moving average

(generally 20 periods) of the typical price (TP). The upper and lower bands are F

standard deviations (generally 2) above and below the middle band. The bands

widen and narrow when the volatility of the price is higher or lower,

respectively.Bollinger Bands do not, in themselves, generate buy or sell signals;

they are an indicator of overbought or oversold conditions. When the price is near

the upper or lower band it indicates that a reversal may be imminent. The middle

band becomes a support or resistance level. The upper and lower bands can also

be interpreted as price targets. When the price bounces off of the lower band and

crosses the middle band, then the upper band becomes the price target.See also

Bollinger Width, Envelope, Price Channels and Projection Bands.Bollinger Bands

were developed by John Bollinger.

The Bollinger Band Width indicator is the distance between the upper and lower

Bollinger Bands. It is a measure of volatility. The Band Width value is higher when

volatility is high, and lower when volatility is low. High Band Width values indicate

that the current trend may be about to end. Low Band Width values indicate that a

new trend may be about to start.

The CCI is designed to detect beginning and ending market trends. The range of

100 to -100 is the normal trading range. CCI values outside of this range indicate

overbought or oversold conditions. You can also look for price divergence in the

CCI. If the price is making new highs, and the CCI is not, then a price correction is

likely.The Commodity Channel Index was developed by Donald Lambert and is

described in his article in the October 1980 issue of Commodities magazine (now

called Futures).

short term support and resistance levels for commodities. It consists of two support

an two resistance levels.

The Chaikin Money Flow compares the total volume over the last n time periods to

the total of volume times the Closing Location Value (CLV) over the last n time

periods. The CLV calculates where the issue closes within its trading range.When

the Chaikin Money Flow is above 0.25 it is a bullish signal, when it is below -0.25, it

is a bearish signal. If the Chaikin Money Flow remains below zero while the price is

rising, it indicates a probable reversal. The Chaikin Money Flow indicator was

developed by Marc Chaikin.

16.Chaikin Oscillator

The Chaikin Oscillator (AKA Chaikin A/D Oscillator) is essentially a momentum of the

Accumulation/Distribution Line. It is calculated by subtracting a 10 period

exponential moving average of the A/D Line from a 3 period exponential moving

average of the A/D Line. When the Chaikin Oscillator crosses above zero, it

indicates a buy signal, and when it crosses below zero it indicates a sell signal. Also

look for price divergence to indicate bullish or bearish conditions.

17.Chaikin Volatility

The Chaikin Volatility indicator is the rate of change of the trading range. The

indicator defines volatility as a increasing of the difference between the high and

low. A rapid increases in the Chaikin Volatility indicate that a bottom is

approaching. A slow decrease in the Chaikin Volatility indicates that a top is

approaching.

The Chande Momentum Oscillator is a modified RSI. Where the RSI divides the

upward movement by the net movement (up / (up + down)), the CMO divides the

total movement by the net movement ((up - down) / (up + down)).There are several

ways to interpret the CMO. Values over 50 indicate overbought conditions, while

values under -50 indicate oversold conditions. High CMO values indicate strong

trends. When the CMO crosses above a moving average of the CMO, it is a buy

signal, crossing down is a sell signal.The Chande Momentum Oscillator was

developed by Tushar S. Chande and is described in the 1994 book The New

Technical Trader by Tushar S. Chande and Stanley Kroll.

series over the last n periods. This statisticalcalculation is used to determine if two

series of numbers are related. The closer the value is to 1, the closer the data is

related.

20.Moving Covariance

The Moving Covariance calculates the covariance of two data series over the last n

periods.

the ADXR (Average Directional Movement Rating) and the ATR (Average True Range)

by a constant that incorporates the move value, commission and margin. The CSI

selects commodities that are suitable for short term trading (those with high CSI

values).The Commodity Selection Index was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is

described in his 1978 book New Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

22.DEMA

The DEMA is a smoothing indicator with less lag than a straight exponential moving

average. DEMA is an acronym for Double Exponential Moving Average, but the

calculation is more complex than just a moving average of a moving average.The

DEMA was developed by Patrick Mulloy and is described in his article in the

February, 1994 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine.See

also Exponential Moving Average, TEMA and T3.

23.Demand Index

The Demand Index is a market strength indicator based on price and volume that

calculates a ratio buying pressure to selling pressure. It can be a leading indicator

of price moves. The Demand Index can be interpreted by looking for divergence

with price to indicate impending price moves. Peaks in the Demand Index signal a

coming peak in price. When the Demand Index hovers around zero, it indicates

weak price moves.The Demand Index was developed by James Sibbet.

24.De-trended Price

The De-trended Price first calculates a regression line for a time series, then

subtracts the slope of the line from the price. By removing the trend from the time

series, the result is a series of detrended prices. It has the effect of flattening out

the trend to make oscillations more visible.

The +DI is the percentage of the true range that is up. The -DI is the percentage of

the true range that is down. A buy signal is generated when the +DI crosses up

over the -DI. A sell signal is generated when the -DI crosses up over the +DI. You

should wait to enter a trade until the extreme point is reached. That is, you should

wait to enter a long trade until the price reaches the high of the bar on which the

+DI crossed over the -DI, and wait to enter a short trade until the price reaches the

low of the bar on which the -DI crossed over the +DI.See also DX, ADX and ADXR.

The DI was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described in his 1978 book New

Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

26.Moving Dispersion

The Moving Dispersion calculates the absolute change between values over a given

time period.

The Dynamic Momentum Index is a variable term RSI. The RSI term varies from 3 to

30. The variable time period makes the RSI more responsive to short-term moves.

The more volatile the price is, the shorter the time period is. It is interpreted in the

same way as the RSI, but provides signals earlier.See also RSI.The Dynamic

Momentum Index was developed by Tushar S. Chande and Stanley Kroll and is

described in their 1994 book The New Technical Trader.

28.Down Average

The Down Average is a Welles Wilder style moving average of the decreases

between consecutive prices. Used in the calculation of the RSI.

The Detrended Price Oscillator removes the trend in prices by subtracting a moving

average of the price from the price. The Detrended Price shows cycles and

overbought/oversold conditions.

The DX is usually smoothed with a moving average (i.e. the ADX). The values range

from 0 to 100, but rarely get above 60. To interpret the DX, consider a high number

to be a strong trend, and a low number, a weak trend.See also +/-DI, ADX and

ADXR.

The DX was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described in his 1978 book New

Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

31.Envelope

The Envelope function creates plus and minus bands around series of numbers,

based on a second series. A common use is creating support/resistance bands

around the close.See also Envelope Percent, Bollinger Bands, Price Channels and

Projection Bands.

32.Envelope Percent

The Envelope Percent function creates plus and minus bands around series of

numbers, based on a percentage of the series. A common use is creating

support/resistance bands around the close.See also Envelope, Bollinger Bands, Price

Channels and Projection Bands.

countless technical indicators. In a Simple Moving Average, each value in the time

period carries equal weight, and values outside of the time period are not included

in the average. However, the Exponential Moving Average is a cumulative

calculation, including all data. Past values have a diminishing contribution to the

average, while more recent values have a greater contribution. This method allows

the moving average to be more responsive to changes in the data.See also Least

Squares MA, Simple MA, Triangular MA, Weighted MA, Welles MA, Variable MA,

Volume Adjusted MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA, TEMA and T3

34.Forecast Oscillator

The Forecast Oscillator calculates the percentage difference between the actual

price and the Time Series Forecast (the endpoint of a linear regression line). When

the price and the forecast are equal, the Oscillator is zero. When the price is

greater than the forecast, the Oscillator is greater than zero. When the price is less

than the forecast, the Oscillator is less than zero.If the Forecast Oscillator stays

below zero, it indicates that prices are about to fall, and if the Oscillator stays above

zero, it indicates that prices are about to rise. The signal is an exponential moving

average of the Forecast Oscillator. When the Oscillator crosses above/below the

signal line, then prices are expected to rise/fall.The Forecast Oscillator was

developed by Tushar S. Chande.

Ichimoku Kinko Hyo is Japanese for "one glance cloud chart." It consists of five lines

called Tenkan-sen, Kijun-sen (sen is Japanese for line), Senkou Span A, Senkou Span

B and Chinkou Span. The calculation uses four different time periods which we call

termT, termK, termS and termC. The Ichimoku Kinko Hyo is graphed over the

closing price line. The space between the Senkou spans is called the Cloud, and is

usually graphed in a hatched pattern.The Senkou Spans are support and resistance

lines. When the price is in the Cloud, the market is non-trending. When the price is

above the Cloud, the higher Span is the first support level and the lower Span is the

second support level. When the price is below the Cloud, the lower Span is the first

resistance level and the higher Span is the second resistance level. Kijun-sen and

Tenkan-sen are trend indicators. When the price is above the Kijun-sen, prices will

likely continue to go up, when the price is below the Kijun-sen, prices will likely

continue to go down. The direction of the Tenkan-sen indicates the direction of the

trend. If the Tenkan-sen is flat, the market is in a non-trending channel.A buy signal

is generated when the Chinkou Span crosses over the price, or when the Tenkan-sen

crosses over the Kijun-sen. A sell signal is generated when the Chinkou Span

crosses under the price, or when the Tenkan-sen crosses under the Kijun-sen. Look

for confirmation when both crosses occur.The Ichimoku Kinko Hyo was developed by

Goichi Hosoda before WWII, and published in 1969

The Intraday Momentum Index is similar to the RSI, but uses the movement

between the open and close whereas the RSI uses the movement between the close

and the previous close. IMI values over 70 indicate an overbought condition, and

values under 30 indicate oversold.The Intraday Momentum Index was developed by

Tushar S. Chande and Stanley Kroll and is described in their 1994 book The New

Technical Trader.

37.Inertia

The Inertia indicator is the Relative Volatility Index (RVI) smoothed with a Least

Squares Moving Average. Like the RVI, the Inertia ranges from 0 to 100. Inertia

signals long-term trends. Positive Inertia is indicated by values above 50, while

values below 50 indicate negative inertia (slowing).The Inertia indicator was

developed by Donald Dorsey and was introduced his article in September, 1995

issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine.

The Klinger Oscillator uses a combination of high-low trading range, volume and

accumulation/distribution to find trading tops and bottoms. The KO is used with a

signal line which is a 13 period Exponential Moving Average of the KO.To interpret

the KO, look for divergence with the price to signal the coming end of a trend, or to

indicate that rising/falling prices are not forming a new trend. A buy signal is

generated when the KO rises from below zero to cross above the trigger line. A sell

signal is generated when the KO falls from its high and crosses below the trigger

line. The Klinger Oscillator is also known as the Klinger Volume Oscillator or KVO.The

Klinger Oscillator was developed by Stephen J. Klinger and was first presented in his

article in the Winter 1994/Spring 1995 issue of MTA Journal.

39.Line Oscillator

The Line Oscillator is the difference between the Simple Moving Averages of two

input data series. It is a generic function that can be used in conjunction with other

indicators.

The Least Squares Moving Average first calculates a least squares regression line

over the preceding time periods, then projects it forward to the current period. In

essence, it calculates what the value would be if the regression line continued.The

Least Squares Moving Average is also known as an Endpoint Moving Average, a

Time Series Moving Average or a Time Series Forecast.See also Exponential MA,

Simple MA, Triangular MA, Weighted MA, Welles MA, Variable MA, Volume Adjusted

MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA, TEMA and T3.

The Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) is the difference between two

Exponential Moving Averages. The Signal line is an Exponential Moving Average of

the MACD.The MACD signals trend changes and indicates the start of new trend

direction. High values indicate overbought conditions, low values indicate oversold

conditions. Divergence with the price indicates an end to the current trend,

especially if the MACD is at extreme high or low values. When the MACD line

crosses above the signal line a buy signal is generated. When the MACD crosses

below the signal line a sell signal is generated. To confirm the signal, the MACD

should be above zero for a buy, and below zero for a sell.The time periods for the

MACD are often given as 26 and 12. However the function actually uses

exponential constants of 0.075 and 0.15, which are closer to 25.6667 and 12.3333

periods. To create a similar indicator with time periods other than those built into

the MACD, use the Price Oscillator function.The MACD was developed by Gerald

Appel.

The MA Envelope function creates high and low bands around a moving average.

43.Moving Averages of the High and Low

The MA High Low function creates moving averages of the high and the low.

44.Mass Index

The Mass Index is a moving sum of a 9 period Exponential Moving Average of the

trading range (high minus low) divided by the double smoothed moving average of

the range. The Mass Index is intended to identify trend reversals. Higher Mass

Index values are created by widening trading ranges, which indicate a trend

reversal.The MASS Index was developed by Donald Dorsey and was presented in his

article in the June, 1992 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities

magazine.

45.Median Price

The Median Price is the average of the high + low of a bar. It can be used to smooth

an indicator that normally takes just the closing price as input.See also Average

Price, Typical Price and Weighted Close.

46.MESA Sinewave

The Mesa Sine Wave calculates two sine curves. When the two curves resemble a

sine wave, the market is in a cycle, otherwise the market is trending. Signals are

generated only when the market is in a cycle. A buy signal is generated when the

Sine crosses up over the Lead Sine, and a sell signal when the Sine crosses down

below the Lead Sine.The Mesa Sine Wave was developed by John Elhers and was

introduced in his article in the November, 1996 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks

& Commodities magazine.

Market Facilitation Index (MFI) is the trading range divided by the volume. The MFI

measures the price movement per unit of volume.To interpret the MFI, compare it to

the volume. When the MFI is high and volume is low, it signals a fake trend which

will soon reverse. When the MFI is low and volume is high, it signals a new trend in

either direction is about to occur. When the MFI is low and volume is also low, it

signals a fading market and an impending trend reversal. When the MFI is high and

volume is also high, it signals a strong trend.The Market Facilitation Index was

developed by Dr. Bill Williams and is described in his 1995 book, Trading Chaos.

48.Momentum

indicates if prices are increasing at an increasing rate or decreasing at a decreasing

rate. The Momentum function can be applied to the price, or to any other data

series.

The Money Flow Index calculates the ratio of money flowing into and out of a

security. To interpret the Money Flow Index, look for divergence with price to signal

reversals. Money Flow Index values range from 0 to 100. Values above 80/below 20

indicate market tops/bottoms.

50.Moving Average

The Moving Average function calculates a moving average using one of eight

methods: Exponential, Least Squares, Simple, Triangular, Variable, Weighted, Welles

Wilder style, or Zero Lag Exponential. The purpose of the function is to make it easy

to change the calculation method by just changing one parameter.

51.Moving Summation

The moving summation is the sum of the last n values. It is a Simple Moving

Average without dividing the sum by n. The moving sum is used in the calculation

of many indicators. It can also be used to modify any existing indicator.

The Net Momentum Oscillator (NMO) is a variation on the RSI. Whereas the RSI

based on the ratio of up periods to down periods, the NMO is the ratio of the

momentum (up – down) to the absolute momentum (up + down) . The NMO is able

to show overbought and oversold levels (greater than +50, less than -50) better

than the RSI. The Net Momentum Oscillator was developed by Tushar Chande and

Stanley Kroll and was introduced in their article in the May, 1993 issue of Technical

Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine.

Negative Volume Index (NVI) attempts to identify bull markets by showing what the

smart investors are doing. It is based on the assumption smart investors dominate

trading on light volume days and uninformed investors dominates trading on active

days. The NVI changes on days when the volume is down and stays flat on up

volume days. Look for the NVI to rise above its one year moving average to signal a

bull market.Also see the Positive Volume Index.

The On Balance Open Interest (OBOI) is a total of the up and down open interest.

The calculation is based on the On Balance Volume (OBV). When the close is higher

than the previous close, the open interest is added to the running total, and when

the close is lower than the previous close, the open interest is subtracted from the

running total. This version of the OBOI is a moving total, not a cumulative total.

That is, only the values from the past n days are totaled.

The On Balance Volume (OBV) is a cumulative total of the up and down volume.

When the close is higher than the previous close, the volume is added to the

running total, and when the close is lower than the previous close, the volume is

subtracted from the running total.To interpret the OBV, look for the OBV to move

with the price or precede price moves. If the price moves before the OBV, then it is

a non-confirmed move. A series of rising peaks, or falling troughs, in the OBV

indicates a strong trend. If the OBV is flat, then the market is not trending.The On

Balance Volume was developed by Joseph Granville and is described in his 1963

book, New Strategy of Daily Stock Market Timing for Maximum Profit.

The On Balance Volume, Expanded System calculates OBV and identifies the

breakouts and field trends as described in Joseph Granville's 1963 book New

Strategy of Daily Stock Market Timing for Maximum Profit. The breakout Array is

filled with the following codes: 1 = up, -1 = down, 0 = no breakout on this bar. The

fieldtrend Array is filled with the following codes: 1 = rising, -1 = falling, 0 =

doubtful.Also see On Balance Volume and On Balance Volume, Moving.

This version of the On Balance Volume (OBV) is a moving total, not a cumulative

total. That is, only the values from the past n days are totaled, as opposed to

totaling all days from the beginning of the data series. See On Balance Volume for

more information. Also see On Balance Volume, Expanded System.

58.Oscillator

The Oscillator function calculates the difference between two data series. It is a

generic function that can take any price or indicator data as input. It is used in the

calculation of many indicators.

59.Oscillator (Percent)

The OscillatorPct function calculates the difference between two data series as a

percentage. It is a generic function that can take any price or indicator data as

input. It is used in the calculation of many indicators.

60.Performance Indicator

The Performance indicator displays the percentage difference between the price

today and the price at the start of the data series. It is also known as a normalized

price. It can be useful for comparing the performance of two securities or a security

and an index.

61.Price Channels

The Price Channels indicator creates a high band of the highest high over the last n

periods and a low band of the lowest low over the last n periods. The bands are

support and resistance levels.See also Bollinger Bands, Envelope and Projection

Bands.

62.Price Oscillator

The Price Oscillator shows the difference between two moving averages. It is

basically a MACD, but the Price Oscillator can use any time periods. A buy signal is

generate when the Price Oscillator rises above zero, and a sell signal when the it

falls below zero.See also Price Oscillator Percent, MACD.

The Price Oscillator Percent shows the percentage difference between two moving

averages. A buy signal is generate when the Price Oscillator Percent rises above

zero, and a sell signal when the it falls below zero.

64.Projection Bands

Projection Bands are calculated by finding the highest high and lowest low over the

last n periods and plotting them parallel to a regression line of the high/low. The

Projection Bands are support and resistance levels. When the price reaches the

upper band, it signals a price top and probable reversal. Likewise, when the price

reaches the bottom band, it signals a bottom. The price will never actually break

above or below the bands (unlike Bollinger Bands). See also Projection Bandwidth

and Projection Oscillator. For other types of bands, see Bollinger Bands, Envelope

and Price Channels.Projection Bands were developed by Mel Widner, Ph.D and were

originally introduced in his article in the July, 1995 issue of Technical Analysis of

Stocks & Commodities magazine.

65.Projection Bandwidth

Projection Bandwidth is based on the Projection Bands indicator. It is the ratio of the

width of the bands to the midpoint. A low number indicates that the bands are

narrowing, a high number means that the bands are widening. The band width is a

measure of volatility. Narrow bands mean a narrow trading range and low volatility;

wide bands, wide range, high volatility.See also Projection Bands and Projection

Oscillator.

66.Projection Oscillator

The Projection Oscillator is based on the Projection Bands indicator. The Oscillator

calculates where the close lies within the band as a percentage. Therefore, an

Oscillator value of 50 would mean that the close is in the middle of the band. A

value of 100 would mean that the close is equal to the top band, and zero means

that it is equal to the low band. The calculation is similar to a Stochastic which uses

the raw highest high and lowest low value, whereas the Projection Oscillator adds

the regression line component, making it more sensitive.The Projection Oscillator

can be interpreted several ways. Look for divergence with price to indicate a trend

reversal. Extreme values (over 80 or under 20) indicate overbought/oversold levels.

A moving average of the oscillator can be used as a trigger line. A buy/sell signal is

generated when the Projection Oscillator to cross above/below the trigger line. The

signal is stronger if it happens above 70 or below 30.See also Projection Bands and

Projection Bandwidth.Projection Bands were developed by Mel Widner, Ph.D and

were originally introduced in his article in the July, 1995 issue of Technical Analysis

of Stocks & Commodities magazine.

The Positive Volume Index (PVI) attempts to identify bull markets. The PVI shows

what the uninformed investors are doing, while the Negative Volume Index shows

what the smart investors are doing. It is based on the assumption smart investors

dominate trading on light volume days and uninformed investors dominates trading

on active days. The PVI changes on days when the volume is up and stays flat on

down volume days. Also see the Negative Volume Index.The Positive and Negative

Volume Index were developed by Norman Fosback and are described in his 1976

book, Stock Market Logic.

The Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO) is the percentage difference between two

moving averages of volume. The PVO has a maximum of 100, but no minimum

value.PVO crosses over zero when the fast Exponential Moving Average (EMA) is

greater than the slow EMA indicating that volume is above average. The PVO

crosses below zero when the fast EMA is less than the slow EMA indicating that

volume is below average. The direction of the PVO curve indicates rising or falling

volume levels. Look for strong volume (rising PVO) to confirm price trends. A

moving average of the PVO can be used as a signal line to indicate longer term

movements and to look for crossovers.

The Price Volume Rank was developed as a simple indicator that could be calculated

even without a computer. The basic interpretation is to buy when the PV Rank is

below 2.5 and sell when it is above 2.5.The Price Volume Rank was developed by

Anthony J. Macek and is described in his article in the June, 1994 issue of Technical

Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine.

The Price Volume Trend (PVT) is similar to the On Balance Volume (OBV). The OBV is

a cumulative total of volume times +1/-1 based on whether the close is greater or

less than the previous close. However, the PVT is a cumulative total of volume

times the percentage change of the close from the previous close. So, it adds more

of the volume to the total when the price makes greater moves. The PVT is

interpreted in the same ways as the OBV. See also On Balance Volume.

71.Qstick

The Qstick indicator is an exponential moving average of the difference between the

open and close. The "stick" in the name comes from candlestick charting. The

body of a candlestick is from the open to the close. A white candlestick is an up and

a black candlestick is a down day. Positive Qstick values indicate a majority of up

days; negative values, a majority of down days.To interpret the Qstick, look for a

buy signal when it crosses above zero, and a sell signal when it crosses below zero.

Also look for a buy signal when the Qstick is very low and turns up, and a sell signal

when it is very high and turns down. A moving average of the Qstick can be used

as a trigger line (look for the Qstick to cross the trigger). You can also look for

divergence between the Qstick and price to indicate the end of a trend or as a non-

confirmation of a price move.The Qstick indicator was developed by Tushar S.

Chande and Stanley Kroll and is described in their 1994 book The New Technical

Trader.

72.Range Indicator

The Range indicator compares the intraday range (high - low) to the inter-day (close

- previous close) range. When the intraday range is greater than the inter-day

range, the Range Indicator will be a high value. This signals an end to the current

trend. When the Range Indicator is at a low level, a new trend is about to start.The

Range Indicator was developed by Jack Weinberg and was introduced in his article in

the June, 1995 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine.

73.Rate of Change

The Rate of Change function measures rate of change relative to previous periods.

The function is used to determine how rapidly the data is changing. The factor is

usually 100, and is used merely to make the numbers easier to interpret or graph.

The function can be used to measure the Rate of Change of any data series, such as

price or another indicator. When used with the price, it is referred to as the Price

Rate Of Change, or PROC.

74.Ratio

The Ratio function measures relationships between two data series. It is used in the

calculation of many indicators and can be used with the output of other indicators.

The Moving Regression Line function fills two output arrays with the slope and

constant of a least squares regression line of the input data series over the given

time period. This function is used in the calculation of several indicators. It can be

used to calculate the slope of the price or any indicator.

76.Relative Momentum Index (RMI)

The Relative Momentum Index (RMI) is a variation on the Relative Strength Index

(RSI). To determine up and down days, the RSI uses the close compared to the

previous close. The RMI uses the close compared to the close n days ago. An RMI

with a time period of 1 is equal to the RSI. The RMI ranges from 0 to 100. Like the

RSI, The RMI is interpreted as an overbought/oversold indicator when the value is

over 70/below 30. You can also look for divergence with price. If the price is

making new highs/lows, and the RMI is not, it indicates a reversal.See also Relative

Strength Index.The Relative Momentum Index was developed by Roger Altman and

was introduced in his article in the February, 1993 issue of Technical Analysis of

Stocks & Commodities magazine.

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) calculates a ratio of the recent upward price

movements to the absolute price movement. The RSI ranges from 0 to 100. The

RSI is interpreted as an overbought/oversold indicator when the value is over

70/below 30. You can also look for divergence with price. If the price is making new

highs/lows, and the RSI is not, it indicates a reversal.The Relative Strength Index

(RSI) was developed by J. Welles Wilder and was first introduced in his article in the

June, 1978 issue of Commodities magazine, now known as Futures magazine, and is

detailed in his book New Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

78.r-squared

The r-squared indicator calculates how well the price approximates a linear

regression line. The indicator gets its name from the calculation, which is, the

square of the correlation coefficient (referred to in mathematics by the Greek letter

rho, or r). The range of the r-squared is from zero to one.High r-squared values

indicate a strong correlation, and an indication of a trend. An r-squared value above

the critical value listed below indicates a positive correlation between the price and

the linear regression line with 95% confidence.n r-squared5 .7710 .4014 .2720

.2025 .1630 .1350 .0860 .06120 .03

The Relative Volatility Index (RVI) is based on the Relative Strength Index (RSI).

Whereas the RSI uses the average price change, the RVI uses a 9 period standard

deviation of the price. The RVI indicator is a revision of the original RVI. The

original version of the RVI is calculated using the closing price. The revised version

is calculated by taking the average of the original RVI of the high and the original

RVI of the low. See Relative Volatility Index - Original Calculation for the original

version.The RVI is a volatility indicator. It was developed as a compliment to and a

confirmation of momentum based indicators. When used to confirm other signals,

only buy when the RVI is over 50 and only sell when the RVI is under 50. If a signal

is ignored, buy when the RVI is over 60 and sell when the RVI is under 40. Exit a

long position if the RVI drops below 40 and exit a short position when the RVI rises

above 60.

Also see the RVI Original.The Relative Volatility Index was developed by Donald

Dorsey and was originally introduced in his article in the June, 1993 issue of

Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine, and later revised in his

article in the September, 1995 issue of the same magazine.

The Relative Volatility Index (RVI) is based on the Relative Strength Index (RSI).

Whereas the RSI uses the average price change, the RVI uses a 9 period standard

deviation of the price.The original version of the RVI is calculated using the closing

price. The revised version is calculated by taking the average of the original RVI of

the high and the original RVI of the low. See Relative Volatility Index for the revised

version .The RVI is a volatility indicator. It was developed as a compliment to and a

confirmation of momentum based indicators. When used to confirm other signals,

only buy when the RVI is over 50 and only sell when the RVI is under 50. If a signal

is ignored, buy when the RVI is over 60 and sell when the RVI is under 40. Exit a

long position if the RVI drops below 40 and exit a short position when the RVI rises

above 60.

random trading range by comparing it to a straight line. The more random the price

movement, the more the RWI fluctuates.The short-term (2 to 7 periods) RWI is an

overbought/oversold indicator, while the long-term (8 to 64 periods) RWI is a trend

indicator. An issue is trending higher if the RWI of the highs is greater than 1, while

a downtrend is indicated if the RWI of the lows is greater than 1. A buy signal is

generated when the long-term RWI of the highs is greater than 1 and the short-term

RWI of the lows rises above 1. A sell signal is generated when the long-term RWI of

the lows is greater than 1 and the short-term RWI of the highs rises above 1.The

Random Walk Index was developed by Michael Poulos and is described in his article

in the February, 1991 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities

magazine.

82.Parabolic SAR

The Parabolic SAR calculates a trailing stop. Simply exit when the price crosses the

SAR. The SAR assumes that you are always in the market, and calculates the Stop

And Reverse point when you would close a long position and open a short position

or vice versa.The Parabolic SAR was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described

in his 1978 book, New Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

Moving Averages are used to smooth the data in an array to help eliminate noise

and identify trends. The Simple Moving Average is literally the simplest form of a

moving average. Each output value is the average of the previous n values. In a

Simple Moving Average, each value in the time period carries equal weight, and

values outside of the time period are not included in the average. This makes it less

responsive to recent changes in the data, which can be useful for filtering out those

changes. See also Exponential MA, Least Squares MA, Triangular MA, Weighted MA,

Welles MA, Variable MA, Volume Adjusted MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA,

TEMA and T3.

The Stochastic Momentum Index (SMI) is based on the Stochastic Oscillator. The

difference is that the Stochastic Oscillator calculates where the close is relative to

the high/low range, while the SMI calculates where the close is relative to the

midpoint of the high/low range. The values of the SMI range from +100 to -100.

When the close is greater than the midpoint, the SMI is above zero, when the close

is less than the midpoint, the SMI is below zero. The SMI is interpreted the same

way as the Stochastic Oscillator. Extreme high/low SMI values indicate

overbought/oversold conditions. A buy signal is generated when the SMI rises

above -50, or when it crosses above the signal line. A sell signal is generated when

the SMI falls below +50, or when it crosses below the signal line. Also look for

divergence with the price to signal the end of a trend or indicate a false trend.The

Stochastic Momentum Index was developed by William Blau and was introduced in

his article in the January, 1993 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities

magazine.

The Moving Standard Deviation function fills the output Array with the standard

deviation of the last n values of the input Array. This function is used in the

calculation of several indicators. It can take price or the output of any indicator as

its input. Standard Deviation is often used as a measure of volatility.

Standard Error Bands are a type of envelope. They look similar to Bollinger Bands,

however the calculation and interpretation is different. The middle band is a Least

Squares Moving Average. The high band is the middle band plus a factor times the

n period standard error. The low band is the middle band minus a factor times the n

period standard error.When the bands are close together, it means that there is a

low standard error, which means that the price is in a trend. When the bands are

farther apart, then the price is not trending. When the price is in a trend and the

bands are close together, look for the bands to widen to signal the end of the

trend.Standard Error Bands were developed by Jon Anderson.

This is a general form of the Lane Stochastic Oscillator calculation that works on any

Array, instead of Bars. This is very useful for building composite indicators. The

general Stochastic theory still applies, that is, that as prices decrease, they tend to

accumulate near the extreme lows, and when rising, they tend to accumulate near

the extreme highs.

88.Stochastic Oscillator

The Stochastic Oscillator measures where the close is in relation to the recent

trading range. The values range from zero to 100. %D values over 75 indicate an

overbought condition; values under 25 indicate an oversold condition. When the

Fast %D crosses above the Slow %D, it is a buy signal; when it crosses below, it is a

sell signal. The Raw %K is generally considered too erratic to use for crossover

signals.Also see the General Stochastic Calculation.

Terminology:

Raw %K Un-smoothed %K

Fast %K Un-smoothed %K

Slow %K Smoothed %K

Fast %D Moving average of an un-smoothed %K

%K.%D Always refers to a smoothed %K (whether or not the %K

itself is smoothed) .

89.Stochastic RSI

Strength Indicator (RSI) relative to its range in order to increase the sensitivity of

the standard RSI. The values of the StochRSI are from zero to one. The Stochastic

RSI can be interpreted several ways. Overbought/oversold conditions are indicated

when the StochRSI crosses above .20 / below .80. A buy signal is generated when

the StochRSI moves from oversold to above the midpoint (.50). A sell signal is

generated when the StochRSI moves from overbought to below the midpoint. Also

look for divergence with the price to indicate the end of a trend.See also Stochastic,

Stochastic Oscillator and RSI.The Stochastic RSI was developed by Tushar S. Chande

and Stanley Kroll and is described in their 1994 book, The New Technical Trader.

90.Swing Index

The Swing Index attempts to determine the real price. The numbers range from

-100 to +100. It is difficult to interpret in its raw form, and is usually summed to

form the Accumulation Swing Index.It is important to use the correct limit move for

the commodity you are analyzing (e.g. $3.00 for T-Bonds, $0.04 for Heating Oil, etc).

For a stock, limit move should be a large number, such as $10,000.The Swing Index

was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is described in his 1978 book New Concepts

In Technical Trading Systems.

91.T3

DEMA. The T3 takes the DEMA calculation and adds a vfactorwhich is between zero

and 1. The resultant function is called the GD, or Generalized DEMA. A GD with

vfactor of1 is the same as the DEMA. A GD with a vfactorof zero is the same as an

Exponential Moving Average. The T3 typically uses a vfactor of 0.7.The T3 triple-

smoothes the data series by calling the GD three times. You can pass any value for

tcountto the T3 function. For instance, a tcount of 4 would be quadruple-smoothed,

in effect a T4. A tcount of 1 would be a single-smoothed GD.Any data series can be

smoothed with the T3, including price or the output of another indicator. See also

Exponential Moving Average, DEMA and TEMA,

The T3 was developed by Tim Tillson and was described in his January, 1998 article

in Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine.

92.TEMA

The TEMA is a smoothing indicator with less lag than a straight exponential moving

average. TEMA is an acronym for Triple Exponential Moving Average, but the

calculation is more complex than that.The TEMA was developed by Patrick Mulloy

and is described in his article in the January, 1994 issue of Technical Analysis of

Stocks & Commodities magazine.See also Exponential Moving Average, DEMA and

T3.

The True Range function is used in the calculation of many indicators, most notably,

the Welles Wilder DX. It is a base calculation that is used to determine the normal

trading range of a stock or commodity.

94.Trend Score

The Trend Score is a simple indicator that attempts to show when price is trending

by looking at up and down days. The trend is equal to one when the price is greater

than or equal to the previous price, and as a negative one when the price is less

than the previous price. The Trend Score is the moving summation of those ones

and negative ones over the past n periods.

The Triangular Moving Average is a form of Weighted Moving Average wherein the

weights are assigned in a triangular pattern. For example, the weights for a 7

period Triangular Moving Average would be 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1. This gives more

weight to the middle of the time series and less weight to the oldest and newest

data. The Triangular Moving Average is mathematically equivalent to a Simple

Moving Average of a Simple Moving Average.See also Exponential MA, Least

Squares MA, Simple MA, Weighted MA, Welles MA, Variable MA, Volume Adjusted

MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA, TEMA and T3.

96.TRIX

The TRIX indicator calculates the rate of change of a triple exponential moving

average. The values oscillate around zero. Buy/sell signals are generated when the

TRIX crosses above/below zero. A (typically) 9 period exponential moving average

of the TRIX can be used as a signal line. A buy/sell signals are generated when the

TRIX crosses above/below the signal line and is also above/below zero.The TRIX was

developed by Jack K. Hutson, publisher of Technical Analysis of Stocks &

Commodities magazine, and was introduced in Volume 1, Number 5 of that

magazine.

The True Strength Index (TSI) is a variation of the Relative Strength Index (RSI). The

TSI uses a double smoothed exponential moving average of price momentum to

eliminate choppy price changes and spot trend changes. This indicator has a little

or no time lag.The True Strength Index was developed by William Blau and is

described in his 1995 book Momentum, Direction, and Divergence.

98.Typical Price

The Typical Price is the average of the high + low + close of a bar. It is used in the

calculation of several indicators. It can be used to smooth an indicator that

normally takes just the closing price as input.See also Average Price, Median Price

and Weighted Close.

99.Ultimate Oscillator

The Ultimate Oscillator is the weighted sum of three oscillators of different time

periods. The typical time periods are 7, 14 and 28. The values of the Ultimate

Oscillator range from zero to 100. Values over 70 indicate overbought conditions,

and values under 30 indicate oversold conditions. Also look for

agreement/divergence with the price to confirm a trend or signal the end of a

trend.The Ultimate Oscillator was developed by Larry Williams and was introduced

in his article in the April, 1985 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities

magazine.

100.Up Average

The Up Average is a Welles Wilder style moving average of the increases between

consecutive prices. Used in the calculation of the RSI.

A Variable Moving Average is an exponential moving average that automatically

adjusts the smoothing weight based on the volatility of the data series. The more

volatile the data is, the more weight is given to the more recent values. The

Variable Moving Average solves a problem with most moving averages. In times of

low volatility, such as when the price is trending, the moving average time period

should be shorter to be sensitive to the inevitable break in the trend. Whereas, in

more volatile non-trending times, the moving average time period should be longer

to filter out the choppiness.Almost any measure of volatility can be used in

calculating the Variable Moving Average, however, most implementations use a 9

period Chande Momentum Oscillator (CMO).The Variable Moving Average is also

known as the VIDYA Indicator.The Variable Moving Average was developed by Tushar

S. Chande and first presented in his March, 1992 article in Technical Analysis of

Stocks & Commodities magazine, in which a standard deviation was used as the

Volatility Index. In his October, 1995 article in the same magazine, Chande

modified the VIDYA to use his own Chande Momentum Oscillator (CMO) as the

Volatility Index.See also Exponential MA, Least Squares MA, Simple MA, Triangular

MA, Weighted MA, Welles MA, Volume Adjusted MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA,

TEMA and T3.

The Vertical Horizontal Filter (VHF) determines whether prices are trending. When

the VHF is rising, it indicates the formation of a trend. Higher VHF values indicate a

stronger trend. When the VHF is falling, it indicates the trend is ending and price is

becoming congested. Very low VHF values indicate a trend may follow.The Vertical

Horizontal Filter was developed by Adam White.

103.VIDYA

exponential moving average that automatically adjusts the smoothing weight based

on the volatility of the data series. The more volatile the data is, the more weight is

given to the more recent values. The VIDYA solves a problem with most moving

averages. In times of low volatility, such as when the price is trending, the moving

average time period should be shorter to be sensitive to the inevitable break in the

trend. Whereas, in more volatile non-trending times, the moving average time

period should be longer to filter out the choppiness.The VIDYA is also known as the

Variable Moving Average.The VIDYA was developed by Tushar S. Chande and first

presented in his March, 1992 article in Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities

magazine, in which a standard deviation was used as the Volatility Index. In his

October, 1995 article in the same magazine, Chande modified the VIDYA to use his

own Chande Momentum Oscillator (CMO) as the Volatility Index.

104.Volume Adjusted Moving Average

The Volume Weighted Moving Average is a weighted moving average that uses the

volume as the weighting factor, so that higher volume days have more weight. It is

a non-cumulative moving average, in that only data within the time period is used

in the calculation.See also Exponential MA, Least Squares MA, Simple MA, Triangular

MA, Weighted MA, Welles MA, Variable MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA, TEMA

and T3.

105.Weighted Close

The Weighted Close is the average of the high, low and close of a bar, but the close

is weighted, actually counted twice. It is used in the calculation of several

indicators. It can be used to smooth an indicator that normally takes just the

closing price as input.See also Average Price, Median Price and Typical Price.

The Weighted Moving Average calculates a weight for each value in the series. The

more recent values are assigned greater weights. The Weighted Moving Average is

similar to a Simple Moving average in that it is not cumulative, that is, it only

includes values in the time period (unlike an Exponential Moving Average). The

Weighted Moving Average is similar to an Exponential Moving Average in that more

recent data has a greater contribution to the average.See also Exponential MA,

Least Squares MA, Simple MA, Triangular MA, Welles MA, Variable MA, Volume

Adjusted MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA, DEMA, TEMA and T3.

The Welles Wilder method of calculating moving averages is very similar to a Simple

Moving Average. Both calculations provide similar results. Welles designed his

formula to be easily computed by hand or with a simple calculator. For the sake of

consistency Welles’ Moving Averages are used in all Welles indicator formulas (ADX,

ADXR and ATR).See also Exponential MA, Least Squares MA, Simple MA, Triangular

MA, Weighted MA, Variable MA, Volume Adjusted MA, Zero Lag Exponential MA,

DEMA, TEMA and T3.

The Welles Sum is the Welles Wilder method of creating the moving sum of a data

series. Each value is the sum of the last n periods. Welles designed his formula to

be easily computed by hand or with a simple calculator. The numbers will vary

slightly from a simple (arithmetic) sum. For consistency with the original formulas,

the Welles Sum is used in the calculation of Welles Wilder’s indicators (the +/-DI and

by extension the DX, ADX, ADXR).See also Moving Sum.

This function calculates the componentsof the Welles Wilder Volatility System. The

components are as follows:ARC - the Average True Range (ATR) times a constant.SIC

- Significant Close, the extreme favorable close price reached while in the trade.SAR

- Stop And Reverse point, a point defined by the distance between the ARC and SIC.

The point at which a trade should be made close the current position and open a

new position in the opposite direction. This occurs when the price breaks

above/below the SAR.The Volatility System was developed by J. Welles Wilder and is

described in his 1978 book New Concepts In Technical Trading Systems.

110.Williams Accumulation/Distribution

divergence with price. When the price makes a new low, but the AD does not, look

for the price to turn up, and vice versa.The Williams Accumulation/Distribution

Indicator is also knownas the Williams AD. It was developed by Larry Williams.

111.Williams %R

The Williams %R is similar to an unsmoothed Stochastic %K. The values range from

zero to 100, and are charted on an inverted scale, that is, with zero at the top and

100 at the bottom. Values below 20 indicate an overbought condition and a sell

signal is generated when it crosses the 20 line. Values over 80 indicate an oversold

condition and a buy signal is generated when it crosses the 80 line.The %R indicator

was developed by Larry Williams.

Average. The Zero-Lag keeps the benefit of the heavier weighting of recent values,

but attempts to remove lag by subtracting older data to minimize the cumulative

effect.See also Exponential MA, Least Squares MA, Simple MA, Triangular MA,

Weighted MA, Welles MA, Variable MA, Volume Adjusted MA, DEMA, TEMA and T3.

113.Zig Zag

The Zig Zag filters out small movements in price to highlight trends. It looks for

price moves greater than the threshold level and plots straight lines between those

points. The Zig Zag is more of a visual tool than an indicator. It is non-predictive, in

fact, the formula looks forward in time to find the zig zag points. The purpose of the

Zig Zag is to make chart patterns clearer.

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