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Met-2023: Concepts of Materials Science I Sample Questions & Answers,(2009) ( Met, PR, FC, MP, CNC, McE )
Q-1.Define the following. (i) Point Defects (ii) Burgers Vector (iii) Slip and Slip system (iv) Interplanar spacing (v) Frenkel Defect (vi) Schottky defect Q-2.Design a heat treatment that will provide 1000 times more vacancies in copper than are normally present at room temperature. About 20,000 cal/mol are required to produce a vacancy in copper.The lattice parameter of FCC copper is 0.36151 nm. Q-3.Determine the number of vacancies needed for a BCC iron lattice to have a density of 7.87 g/cm . The lattice parameter of the iron is 2.866 x 10-8 cm. (at. Wt. for Fe- 55.847 g/mol ) Q-4.(a) The planar density of the ( 1 1 2 ) plane in BCC iron is 9.94 x 10 1 4 atoms/cm 2 . Calculate (i) the planar density of the ( 1 1 0 ) plane and (ii) the interplanar spacings for both the (112) and (110) planes. On which plane would s l i p normally occur? (b) Calculate the length of the Burgers vector in the following materials: (i) BCC niobium ( a0 – 3.294 Aº ) (ii) FCC silver ( a0 – 4.0862 Aº ) (iii) FCC copper ( a0 – 3.6151 Aº ) Q-5.(a) Define Schmid's law. (b) An aluminum crystal slips on the (111) plane and in the [110] direction with a 3.5 MPa stress applied in the [ 1 1 1 ] direction. What is the critical resolved shear stress? Q-6.(a) Calculate the number of vacancies per cm3 expected in copper at 1085°C (just below the melting temperature). The energy for vacancy formation is 20,000 cal/mol. ( a0 –for Cu - 3.6151 Aº )

Met-2023

2 (b) The fraction of lattice points occupied by vacancies in solid aluminum at 660c C is 10-3. What is the energy required to create vacancies in aluminum ? Q-7. The density of a sample of FCC palladium is 11.98 g/cm3 and its lattice parameter is 3.8902 A . Atomic mass of Pd is 106.4 g/mol. Calculate (a) the fraction of the lattice points that contain vacancies and (b) the total number of vacancies in a cubic centimeter of Pd. Q-8.(a) Define the rate of Diffusion of “ Fick's First Law”. (b) Atoms are found to move from one lattice position to another at the rate of 30,000 cal/mol. Calculate the jump rate at 750°C. Q-9.(a) Define (ii) diffusion and (ii) diffusion coefficient. (b) Consider a diffusion couple set up between pure tungsten and a tungsten-1 at % thorium alloy. After several minutes of exposure at 2000° C, a transition zone of 0.01 cm thickness is established. What is the flux of thorium atoms at this time if diffusion is due to (a) volume diffusion, (b) grain boundary diffusion, and (c) surface diffusion? The lattice parameter of BCC tungsten is 3.165A°. Diffusion Coefficient for Thorium in Tungsten Surface Grain boundary Volume 0.47 exp(-66,400/RT) 0.74 exp(-90,000/RT) 1.00exp(-120,000/RT) 5 x 1 O 5 jumps per second at 400 c C when the activation energy for their movement is

Q-10.(a) Define “ Activation energy”. (b) The diffusion coefficient for Cr in Cr 2 O 3 is 6 x 10 cm2 /s at 1400°C. Calculate (i) the activation energy and ( ii ) the constant Do. Q-11.The surface of a 0.1% C steel is to be strengthened by carburizing. In carburizing, the steel is placed in an atmosphere that provides 1.2% C at the surface of the steel at a high temperature. Carbon then diffuses from the surface into the steel. For optimum properties, the steel must contain 0.45% C at a depth of 0.2 cm below the surface. Design a carburizing heat Met-2023
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cm2 /s at 727°C and is 1x10 – 9

3 treatment that will produce these optimum properties. Assume that the temperature is high enough (at least 900°C) so that the iron has the FCC structure. Q-12.(a) Define “ Fick's Second Law”. (b) We find that 10 h are required to successfully carburize a batch of 500 steel gears at 900°C, where the iron has the FCC structure. We find that it costs \$ 1000 per hour to operate the carburizing furnace at 900°C and \$ 1500 per hour to operate the furnace at 1000° C. Is it economical to increase the carburizing temperature to 1000°C? Q-13.A 0.001 in. BCC iron foil is used to separate a high hydrogen gas from a low hydrogen gas at 650°C. 5 x 108 H atoms/ cm3 are in equilibrium with the hot side of the foil, and 2 x 103 H atoms/cm3 are in equilibrium with the cold side. Determine (a) the concentration gradient of hydrogen and (b) the flux of hydrogen through the foil. Q-14.What temperature is required to obtain 0.50% C at a distance of 0.5 mm beneath the surface of a 0.20% C steel in 2 h, when 1.10% C is present at the surface? Assume that the iron is FCC. Q-15.A 0.15% C steel is to be carburized at 1100°C, giving 0.35% C at a distance of 1mm beneath the surface. If the surface composition is maintained at 0.90% C, what time is required? Q-16.A 0.02% C steel is to be carburized at 1200°C in 4 h, with a point 0.6 mm beneath the surface reaching 0.45% C. Calculate the carbon content required at the surface of the steel. Q-17.A 1.2% C tool steel held at 1150°C is exposed to oxygen for 48 h. The carbon content at the steel surface is zero. To what depth will the steel be decarburized to less than 0.20% C? Q-18.A BCC steel containing 0.001% N is nitrided at 550°C for 5 h. If the nitrogen content at the steel surface is 0.08%, determine the nitrogen content at 0.25 mm from the surface.

Met-2023

Q-22. True Strain.A 0.4-in.√in. Observation of the fracture surface indicates that fracture began at the surface of the part.An aluminum alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 25. Q-24.4 Q-19. (i) % Elongation (ii) Endurance limit (iii) Endurance Ratio (iv) Fatigue life (v) Elastic deformation Q-20.diameter rod of copper is to be reduced to a 2-in. Q-25.000 N is applied to a 10 mm x 20 mm iron bar having a yield strength of 400 MPa and a tensile strength of 480 MPa. Estimate the size of the flaw that initiated fracture.A 3-in. To account for the elastic strain. a modulus of elasticity of 16 x 106 psi.(a) Define Engineering Stress. and Poisson's ratio of 0. To be sure that the part does not fail. 1 .Which factors does depend on the ability of a material to resist the growth of a crack? Q-26.000 psi-√in .fails when a stress of 42.000 psi .A ceramic part for a jet engine has a yield strength of 75.000 psi is applied.000 psi. we plan to Met-2023 . long titanium bar has a yield strength of 50. Determine the length and diameter of the bar when a 500-Ib load is applied. diameter rod by being pushed through an opening. True stress and Engineering Strain. Determine (i) whether the bar will plastically deform and (ii) whether the bar will experience necking. Q-23. (i) Tensile strength (ii) Yield strength (iii) Ductility Q-27. (b) A force of 100.000 psi and a plane strain fracture toughness of 5. 12-in. Assume that f = 1 .Define the following. . what should be the diameter of the opening? The modulus of elasticity for the copper is 17 x 106 psi and the yield strength is 40.30.Define the following.Define Hooke's law and Poisson's ratio.000 psi. Q-21. diameter.

A 850-lb force is applied to a 0.15.05 in.4. The stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) curves for a tool steel and an aluminum alloy. Met-2023 . Assuming that f = 1.13. Q-30. NOTES.000 psi and a tensile strength of 55. does our nondestructive test have the required sensitivity? Explain. Design a shaft that will satisfy these requirements. Determine (a) whether the wire will plastically deform and (b) whether the wire will experience necking.15-in.(1) For question no.500 lb. Q-28.18.14. diameter nickel wire having a yield strength of 45. We use a nondestructive test that will detect any internal flaws greater than 0.√in and is exposed to a stress of 45.000 psi during service.000 psi.000 psi.12. need to provide error function Table 2-3 and Diffusion Coefficient Table 2-1 (2) For question no. Design a testing or inspection procedure capable of detecting a crack at the surface of the plate before the crack is likely to grow at a catastrophic rate.A large steel plate used in a nuclear reactor has a plane strain fracture toughness of 80. 11.5 assure that the maximum applied stress is only one-third the yield strength. long. 30.16. need to provide Figure 3-13. The shaft makes one revolution per minute during operation. Q-29.A solid shaft for a cement kiln produced from the tool steel must be 96 inches long and must survive continuous operation for one year with an applied load of 12.17.

during processing of the material. a0 = the lattice parameter or lattice constant d (h k l ) = a0 h.k.l = Miller indices of adjacent planes of atoms Met-2023 . The length of Burgers vector (b) is equal to the repeat distance. (ii) Burgers vector ( b ) The direction and the distance that a dislocation moves in each step. All of these defects disrupt the perfect arrangement of the surrounding atoms. (2) interstitial atom. (iv) Interplanar spacing The distance between the two adjacent planes of atoms with the same Miller indices is called the interplanar spacing d(hkl) and the general equation . Point defects are (1) vacancy. several atoms. possibly. by introduction of impurities. in which the dislocation moves is the s l i p direction and the plane in which the dislocation moves is the s l i p plane.6 Met-02023 Concepts of Materials Science I Sample Questions and Answers. (3) substitutional atom. (i) Point Defects (ii) Burgers Vector (iii) Slip and Slip system (iv) Interplanar spacing (v) Frenkel Defect (vi) Schottky defect (i) Point Defects Point defects are localized disruptions of the lattice involving one or. h2 + k 2 + l 2 where. These imperfections.Define the following. or intentionally through alloying. and (5) Schottky defect. may be introduced by movement of the atoms when they gain energy by heating. shown in Figure. The combination of slip direction and slip plane is the slip system. The direction. (4) Frenkel defect. (2009) Q-1. (iii) Slip and slip system The process by which a dislocation moves and causes a material to deform is called slip.

T = 25 + 273 = 298 K: n v = (8.815 x 108 vacancies/cm3 We wish to produce 1000 times this number. Design a heat treatment that will provide 1000 times more vacancies in copper than are normally present at room temperature. The lattice parameter of FCC copper is 0.987) (298)] = 1. These are common in ceramic materials with the ionic bond.20.000/1.47x 1022) = 0. We could do this by heating the copper to a temperature at which this number of vacancies forms: nv = 1 .36151 nm. The number of copper atoms.987)(26.987T) exp (.815 x 1011 vacancies/cm3.47 x 1022) exp [(.7 (v) Frenkel Defects A Frenkel defect is a vacancy-interstitial pair formed when an ion jumps from a normal lattice point to an interstitial site. per cm3 is 4 atoms / cell = 8.000/1.987T ) = 1.000 cal/mol are required to produce a vacancy in copper.36151 nm.000 / (1. (vi) Schottky Defects A Schottky defect is a pair of vacancies in an ionically bonded material. Solution The lattice parameter of FCC copper is 0. or nv= 1. both an anion and a cation must be missing from the lattice if electrical neutrality is to be preserved in the crystal.214x10 -11 T = 20. About 20. 8 1 5 x 1011 = (8.20.000)/ (1. Q-2.47x 1022) exp (-20.85x10 11 /(8.87) = 375 °K = 102 °C Met-2023 . leaving behind a vacancy.6151 x 10−8 cm)3 At room temperature.47 x1022 copper atoms/cm3 ( 3.

Calculate (i) the planar density of the ( 1 1 0 ) plane and (ii) the interplanar spacings for both the (112) and (110) planes. there should be 0.847 g / mole) atoms / unit cell = = 1.02x1023 atoms/ mol) density = 7.8814 g / cm3 -8 3 23 (2.866x10-8 cm )3 x (6.0029 vacancies per unit cell. wt. then rapidly cooling the copper back to room temperature. (atoms / unit cell ) x (55. theoretical density of iron .866 x 10-8 cm.847 g / mole) = 7. of vacancies per unit cell = 2 – 1. On which plane would s l i p normally occur? Met-2023 . (at.866x10 cm ) x (6.847 g / mole = 7. The lattice parameter of the iron is 2. Determine the number of vacancies needed for a BCC iron lattice to have a density of 7.02x10 atoms/ mol) Let's calculate the number of iron atoms and vacancies that would be present in each unit cell for the required density of 7.866x10-8 cm )3 x (6.8 By heating the copper slightly above 100°C.8814 g / cm3 x (55. Q-3.9971 = 0.23x10 20 vacancies/cm Q-4.94 x 10 1 4 atoms/cm 2 . for Fe = 55. the number of vacancies in the structure may be one thousand times greater than the equilibrium number of vacancies.8814 g / cm3 (2.87 g/cm .87 g/cm3.0029 vacancies per unit cell / (2.866xl0 -8cm)3 3 = 1. two iron atoms are present in each unit cell.0029 Or. Since the iron is BCC. The number of vacancies per cm3 is Vacancies/cm 3 = 0.(a)The planar density of the ( 1 1 2 ) plane in BCC iron is 9. density = 2 atoms / unit cell x 55.02x1023 atoms/ mol) no.847 g/mol ) Solution Theoretical density of iron can be calculated from the lattice parameter and the atomic mass.997 atoms (2.

a0 = 3.294 Aº The directions of the Burgers vector. a 0 = 4.5705 nm The length of the Burgers vector.9 (a) (b) Calculate the length of the Burgers vector in the following materials: (i) BCC niobium ( a0 – 3.0862 Aº The directions of the Burgers vector.3294 nm ) = 0.0862 Aº ) (iii) FCC copper ( a0 – 3. Body diagonal distance = 3 a = 3 x (0. is: b= 1 x ( 0. are in [l 1 0 ] f o r F C C m e t a l Met-2023 . or the repeat distance. since lattice points are located at corners and centers of body.6151 Aº ) (i) For BCC niobium . are in [l 1 1 ] f o r B C C m e t a l The repeat distance is along the [l l 1 ] directions and is equal to one-half of the body diagonal.5705 nm ) = 0.294 Aº ) (ii) FCC silver ( a0 – 4.2852 nm 2 (ii) For FCC silver.

or the repeat distance. Met-2023 .40862 nm ) = 0.36151 nm The directions of the Burgers vector. A τ = σ Cosφ Cosλ where .10 The repeat distance is along the [l l 0 ] directions and is equal to one-half of the face diagonal. since lattice points are located at corners and centers of faces.(a) Define Schmid's law.36151) = 0.51125 nm) = 0.51125 nm The length of the Burgers vector.5778 nm ) = 0. Schmid's law The relationship between shear stress. Face diagonal distance = 2 a = ( 2) x (0. a 0 = 0. is: b= 1 x ( 0. λ = the angle between the direction of force and the slip direction. are of the form(l 1 0 ) . is: b= 1 x ( 0.5778 nm The length of the Burgers vector. or the repeat distance. the applied stress. since lattice points are located at corners and center of the face. and the orientation of the slip system and the resolved shear stress ι in the slip direction is τ= F Cosφ Cosλ .2889 nm 2 (iii) Copper is FCC . τ = the resolved shear stress in the slip direction σ = the applied stress φ = the angle between the direction of the force and the normal to the slip plane.25563 nm 2 Q-5. The repeat distance along the ( l l 0 ) directions is one-half the face diagonal. Face diagonal distance = 2 a = 2 x (0.

(b) An aluminum crystal slips on the (111) plane and in the [110] direction with a 3.[110] direction stress applied σ . What is the critical resolved shear stress? [111] applied stress direction and normal to slip plane (111) slip plane [110] slip direction Solution Aluminum crystal slips plane .3.[ 1 1 1 ] direction. the critical resolved shear stress ι = ? τ = σ Cosφ Cosλ From the Fig: Met-2023 .5 MPa stress applied in the [ 1 1 1 ] direction.11 Q-5.5 MPa applied stress direction .(111) plane slip direction .

T = 660 C + 273 = 933 K .6151x 10−8 cm)3 nv = n x exp ( −Q − 20.12 the applied stress direction and the direction of the normal to the slip plane are the same. ( a0 = for Cu .8165 3 Cos λ = 2a = 3a τ = 3. 000 cal / mol .(a) Calculate the number of vacancies per cm3 expected in copper at 1085°C (just below the melting temperature). a0 = 3.What is the energy required to create vacancies in aluminum ? Solution Aluminium metal is FCC structure.(b) The fraction of lattice points occupied by vacancies in solid aluminum at 660 c C is 10-3 .of atom per unit cell volume of unit cell 4 atom per unit cell 4 = = 1. R = 1. 4 atoms/ unit cell .6151 x 10−8 cm. nv = ? nv = n x exp n= n= −Q RT no. Cos 0 = 1 2 = 0.5 x 1 x 2 = 2.987 x1358 = 5. Q = 20.987 cal / mol. FCC structure.106 x1024 x exp ( ) RT 1. nv = n x exp −Q RT nv = 10−3 . 4 atoms/ unit cell .12 x 1019 vacancies / cm3 Q-6. Q = ? n Met-2023 . K T = 1085 C + 273 = 1358 K .875 MPa 3 the critical resolved shear stress. = 3. 000 ) = 1.875 MPa Q-6. The energy for vacancy formation is 20.6151 A°.3. the angle φ = 0 .000 cal/mol. τ = 2.106 x 1024 atom / cm3 3 ( a0 ) ( 3.6151 Aº ) Solution (a) copper metal.

8902 A = 3.375 x10−3 n 4 ? atoms/ unit cell 3.375 x 10−3 = = = 1.4 g/mol a0 = 3.(a) Define the rate of Diffusion of “ Fick's First Law”. The density of a sample of FCC palladium is 11.0095 n = no.98 g/cm3 and its lattice parameter is 3.6 x1020 vacancies / cm3 cm3 volume of unit cell (3. For the given density 11.8902 x 10−8 cm)3 Q-8. of atom per unit cell = 4 (a) (b) nv 0.106.8902 x10 cm) x (6.0085 g / cm3 3 23 −8 (3. Met-2023 .0095 nv no.0085 g/cm3.of vacancies per unit cell 2.4 g / mol = 12. nv = 0. 4 atoms/ unit cell theoretical density = ρ= 4 atoms per unit cell x 106. 4 atoms/ unit cell For the given density 11.0095 = = 2.02 x10 atom / mol ) For theoretical density 12. Calculate (a) the fraction of the lattice points that contain vacancies and (b) the total number of vacancies in a cubic centimeter of Pd.8902 A .4 g/mol. of vacancies per unit cell (nv ) = 4 – 3.9905 = 0.13 nv −Q = exp n RT −Q 10−3 = exp ( ) 1.98 g/cm3.9905 atoms/ unit cell no. Atomic mass of Pd is 106. wt. of Pd .98 g/cm3.98 g/cm3 At.987 x 933 Q = 12800 cal / mol Q-7. Solution FCC Pd – density = 11. (b) v 3 = ? n cm mass of unit cell volume of unit cell .8902 x 10−8 cm (a ) nv n = ?.

which is defined as the number of atoms passing through a plane of unit area per unit time. J is the flux (atoms/cm2. Fick's first law explains the net flux of atoms: J = − D.987 x 673 1. and Δc/Δx is the concentration gradient (atoms/cm3.(b) Atoms are found to move from one lattice position to another at the rate of 5 x 1 0 5 jumps per second at 400 c C when the activation energy for their movement is 30.eq. the jump rate at 750°C = ? T1 = 4000 C + 273 = 673 K T2 = 750 C + 273 = 1023 K By the equation . D is the diffusivity or diffusion coefficient (cm2/s).(1) x = c0 exp ( −Q −Q ) / 5 x 105 = c0 exp ( ) RT2 RT1 −30.14 The rate at which atoms diffuse in a material can be measured by the flux J. c x where. (2) ÷ eq. (1) ----. Q-8. Met-2023 . Rate of diffusion = c0 .eq. 000 x = c0 exp ( ) / 5 x 105 = c0 exp ( ) 1.(a) Define (i) diffusion (ii) diffusion coefficient.08 x 109 jump / sec Q-9. 000 −30.s).000 cal/mol.987 x 1023 x = 1. (2) −Q ) RT2 eq.cm). Solution the rate of diffusion = 5 x 1 0 5 jumps per second at 400 c C the activation energy Q = 30. Calculate the jump rate at 750°C.000 cal/mol.exp ( 5 x 105 = c0 exp ( x = c0 exp ( −Q ) RT1 −Q ) RT ----.

D = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT where. the rate increases exponentially with temperature.000/RT) Solution Met-2023 . Q is the activation energy (cal/mol) R is the gas constant (1. (b) grain boundary diffusion.165A°. The diffusion coefficient depends on temperature and activation energy.400/RT) 0. Rate of diffusion = c0 exp ( −Q ) RT1 where. The rate of diffusion is governed by the Arrhenius relationship — that is.K) T is the absolute temperature in (K) Do is a constant for a given diffusion system Q-9.987 cal/mol. After several minutes of exposure at 2000° C.987 cal/mol.000/RT) 1. and (c) surface diffusion? The lattice parameter of BCC tungsten is 3.00exp(-120.47 exp(-66.74 exp(-90.(b) Consider a diffusion couple set up between pure tungsten and a tungsten-1 at % thorium alloy.K) T is the absolute temperature in (K) Co is a constant for a given diffusion system (ii) Diffusion coefficient (D) The diffusion coefficient D is related to temperature by an Arrhenius equation.15 (a) (i) Diffusion Diffusion is the movement of atoms within a material. Diffusion Coefficient for Thorium in Tungsten Surface Grain boundary Volume 0.01 cm thickness is established. a transition zone of 0. D is the diffusion coefficient ( cm2/ s ) Q is the activation energy (cal/mol) R is the gas constant (1. What is the flux of thorium atoms at this time if diffusion is due to (a) volume diffusion.

6.987 x2273 ) x (.000/RT) cm2/ s J = .3 x 1022 ) = 12.165A°.D.3 x 1020 / 0. the concentration gradient is: ΔC / Δx = 0 .74 exp(-90.3 x 1022 W atoms/cm3 In the tungsten -1 atom % thorium alloy. Thus.Δc/Δx = .987 x2273 ) x (. of W atoms per unit cell / vol.cm T = 2000 C + 273 K = 2273 K (a) for volume diffusion.s (b) for grain boundary .3 x 1022) = 6.s Q-10.3 x 1022 ) = 10.0.000/RT) cm2/ s Met-2023 .01 cm = . J = .Δc/Δx = .s (c) for surface diffusion .00exp(-120.000/1.74 exp(-90.3 x 1013 Th atoms/cm2 . Activation Energy (Q) The atom is originally in a low-energy.3 x 1022 Tho atom / cm3.16 The lattice parameter of BCC tungsten is 3.0.400/RT) cm2/ s J = .165 x 10 -8 cm )3 = 6. the number of thorium atoms is: CTh = ( 0. D = 0.Δc/Δx = .47 exp(-66.D.00exp(-120.01 ) ( 6. the number of thorium atoms is zero.3 x 1022 ) = 1.6.000/1.D.82 x 1010 Th atoms/cm2 . the activation energy is related to the energy required to move an atom from one lattice site to another. This energy barrier is the activation energy Q.987 x2273 ) x (. relatively stable state. The activation energy Q is expressed in (cal/mol). This energy is gained by heat supply. In diffusion.6.3 x 1020 Th atoms/cm3 In the pure tungsten. D = 1. the atom must overcome an energy barrier. D = 0.6.(a) Define “ Activation energy”. In order to move to a new location.6. of unit cell = 2 atom per cell / (a0 )3 = 2 / (3. the number of tungsten atoms/cm3 is: no.1.2 x 1015 Th atoms/cm2 .47 exp(-66.400/1.

= ? D = 1 x10– 9 cm2 /s −Q ) RT (i) the activation energy Q = ? D = D0 exp ( 6 x 10−15 = D0 exp ( 1 x 10−9 = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT1 ----.(b) The diffusion coefficient for Cr in Cr2 O 3 is 6 x 10 -15 cm2 /s at 727°C and is 1x10– 9 cm2 /s at 1400°C. Calculate (i) the activation energy and ( ii ) the constant Do. Assume that the temperature is high enough (at least 900°C) so that the iron has the FCC structure. (1) ÷ eq. Carbon then diffuses from the surface into the steel. (1) ----.2 cm below the surface.1% C steel is to be strengthened by carburizing. Solution The diffusion coefficient for Cr in Cr2 O 3 D = 6 x 10 -15 cm2 /s at T1 = 727°C + 273 K = 1000 K at T2 = 1400°C + 273 K = 1673 K ( ii ) the constant Do. For optimum properties.(2) 6 x 10−15 = D0 exp ( −Q −Q ) /1 x 10−9 = D0 exp ( ) RT1 RT2 −Q −Q 6 x 10−15 = D0 exp ( ) / 1 x 10−9 = D0 exp ( ) 1. (2) −Q ) RT2 eq. Met-2023 .eq.45% C at a depth of 0. Design a carburizing heat treatment that will produce these optimum properties.eq. the steel must contain 0.2% C at the surface of the steel at a high temperature.987 x 1673 Q = 59230 cal / mol (ii) 1 x 10−9 = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT2 −59230 ) 1.055 cm 2 / sec Q-11.987 x 1673 1 x 10−9 = D0 exp ( D0 = 0. In carburizing.The surface of a 0. the steel is placed in an atmosphere that provides 1.987 x 1000 1.17 Q-10.

13 hr t = 6.1 = 0. 1. If T= 1000°C = 1273 K.1 2 ) = 0.71 Any combination of D and t whose product is 0. then.0198 0. If T = 1100°C = 1373 K.23 exp ( Therefore.23exp ( −16558 / T ) Some typical combinations of temperatures and times are: If T = 900°C = 1173 K. C0 = 0.45 0.2 % C .(a) Define “ Fick's Second Law”.7 hr = 4.1% C .68 = erf [ ] 1. t = 14.71 Dt 0.2 − 0.2 − 0.0198 0. 0. Q = 32.360 s = 10.71 or 2 Dt D.82 hr then. If T = 1200°C = 1473K. x = 0.18 Solution Given: Cs = 1. we find that. then.2 = 0.0198 D t= 0. Composition Profile (Fick's Second Law) Met-2023 . Cx = 0.t = ( 0.174 s = 32. then. D0 = 0.900 cal/mol D = 0.880 s Q-12.0198 will work. the diffusion coefficient is related to temperature by: D = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT − 32900 ) 1. the temperature and time of the heat treatment are related by: t= 0. t = 1 16.3 hr t = 36.45% C .2 cm t = ? .23 .1 2 Dt From Table 2-3 .2 = 0.987 T From the table 2-1.560 s = 1.T = ? Cs − C x x = erf [ ] C s − C0 2 Dt By Fick's second law . For carbon diffusing in FCC iron.

t1173 / D1273 t1273 = (10h) exp(−32.concentration of the diffusing atoms at the surface of the material Cx .t1173 . where the iron has the FCC structure.900 cal/mol. Cs .299h)/500 parts=\$ 9.the diffusion time in (s) x – the depth from the surface of the material ( cm ) D .the concentration of the diffusing atom at location x below the surface after time t.t 1273 = D1173 . the cost per part is (\$ 1000/h) (10h)/500 parts = \$ 20/part At l000°C.the initial uniform concentration of the diffusing atoms in the material t .(b) We find that 10 h are required to successfully carburize a batch of 500 steel gears at 900°C. t1173 = 10 hour T = 1000°C = 273 K = 1273 K.19 Fick's second law describes the dynamic or non-steady state diffusion of atoms by the differential equation dc/dt = D (d c/dx2). t 1273 = ? For carbon diffusing in FCC iron.(1173) exp(−32.t 1273 = D1173 .987).900) /(1.900) /(1.299 hour At 900°C. C0 . whose solution depends on the boundary conditions for a particular situation. Is it economical to increase the carburizing temperature to 1000°C ? Solution T = 900°C + 273 K = 1 173 K .the diffusion coefficient Q-12.987). the activation energy Q = 32. Met-2023 . One solution is Cs − C x x ] = erf [ C s − C0 2 Dt where. for the same carburizing treatment at 1000°C as at 900°C: D1273 . the cost per part is (\$1500/h) (3. increasing the temperature reduces the heat-treating cost of the gears and increases the production rate.90/part Considering only the cost of operating the furnace. from Table.(1273) t1273 = 3. We find that it costs \$ 1000 per hour to operate the carburizing furnace at 900°C and \$ 1500 per hour to operate the furnace at 1000° C. .

00 / 1.D. x = 0.0.0012 exp( −36. the flux of hydrogen through the foil.54) = .923) x (. and 2 x 103 H atoms/cm3 are in equilibrium with the cold side. What temperature is required to obtain 0.20% C steel in 2 h.50% C at a distance of 0.5 mm = 0.001) x(2. A 0. Determine (i)the concentration gradient of hydrogen and (ii)the flux of hydrogen through the foil.Δc/Δx = .923) = J = .1% C . Q = 3600 D = 0.5 mm beneath the surface of a 0. D 0= 0. C0 = 0.Δx = 0. Cx = 0. T = ? Met-2023 .20 Q-13.0012 .D.5% C .1969x10 8 H atoms/ cm3 (ii) the flux of hydrogen through the foil .33 x108 H atoms/ cm2. BCC iron foil is used to separate a high hydrogen gas from a low hydrogen gas at 650°C.0012 exp( −36.05 cm t = 2 hr x 3600 = 7200sec .. Solution Given: Cs = 1.54 cm (i) the concentration gradient (Δc/Δx) = ? (ii) the flux of hydrogen through the foil = ? (i) the concentration gradient (Δc/Δx) = 2 x103 − 5 x108 (0.001 in x 2.00 / 1.001 in.2 % C . J = . 5 x 108 H atoms/ cm3 are in equilibrium with the hot side of the foil. from hot side to cold side.s Q-14.Δc/Δx D = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT From Table 2-1.987. T = 650 + 273 = 923 K Cinitial = 5 x 108 H atoms/ cm3 Cfinal = 2 x 103 H atoms/cm3 thickness . when 1.987. = 0. Solution In BCC iron foil.1969x108 ) = 0.10% C is present at the surface? Assume that the iron is FCC. at 650°C.001 in. H in BCC iron.

2 2 Dt From Table 2-3 .987.05 x 0.35% C . Cs = 0.685) 2 = 0.23 exp( −32.9 − 0.00133 .15 = 0.00133/ 7200 = 0.733 = erf [ 0 . D = 0.T ) T = 1180 K = 1180 – 273 = 907 C Q-15.35% C at a distance of 1mm beneath the surface. 0.21 By Fick's second law Cs − C x x ] = erf [ C s − C0 2 Dt 1.23 exp( −32. Q = 32.1 ] 2 Dt By Fick's second law From Table 2-3 .05 ] = 0.900 / 1.t = ( 0. what time is required? Solution Given.5 0.786 2 Dt Met-2023 .15% C steel is to be carburized at 1100°C.T ) and D = 0.900 / 1.9 % C . giving 0. x = 1 mm = 0.t = 0.15% C .05 = 0.00133/ 7200 D = 0. C in FCC iron. D = 0.23 exp( −32.900 / 1.35 0.1 cm T = 1100 C + 273 = 1373 K . If the surface composition is maintained at 0. Cx = 0.667 = erf [ 1.00133/ t .685 2 Dt D.1 = 0. D0 = 0. we find that.T ) D.987. we find that. C0 = 0.1 − 0. A 0.1 − 0.90% C.23 .900 cal/mol D = 0.9 − 0.00133 2 −Q ) RT D = D0 exp ( From the table 2-1. time(t ) = ? Cs − C x x ] = erf [ C s − C0 2 Dt 0. 0.987.00133/ 7200 0.

00405 / D = 0.22 D.45 Cs − 0.00405 . D0 = 0.45% C . time(t ) = 4 hr = 4 x3600 = 4400sec Cs − C x x ] = erf [ C s − C0 2 Dt Cs − 0.53 C % Met-2023 . C in FCC iron.900 / 1.06 = erf [ ] Cs − 0.161 2 Dt 2 Dt Cs − 0.x3600. Solution Given.23 exp( −32.23exp(-32.t = 0.02 2 Dt By Fick's second law erf [ 0. erf [ ] = 0.1373) = 1. Cs = ?.23 . D0 = 0. Cx = 0. with a point 0.987.144] From Table 2-3 .1/2 x 0.02 = 0.45 0. C in FCC iron.06 2 3.6 mm = 0.900 /1.332 x 10-6 cm 2 / s D.900 cal/mol D = 0.019 x 10-6 cm2 /s erf [ 0.02 % C . ] = erf [0.4. Calculate the carbon content required at the surface of the steel.00405 D = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT From the table 2-1. C0 = 0.019 x10−6 x. we find that.45% C.02% C steel is to be carburized at 1200°C in 4 h.06 ] = ? 2 Dt −Q ) RT D = D0 exp ( From the table 2-1.900 cal/mol D = 0. t = 0.987.06 cm T = 1200 C + 273 = 1473 K . x x = 0.786 ]2 = 0. A 0.t = [ 0.161 Cs = 0.1473) = 3. x = 0. Q = 32.144 .00405 / 1.6 mm beneath the surface reaching 0.23 .332 x 10-6 = 3040 s time ( t ) = 3040 sec = 51 min Q-16. Q = 32.

time(t ) = 5 hr = 5 x3600sec = 8000sec By Fick's second law Cs − C x x ] = erf [ C s − C0 2 Dt Met-2023 . 2 Dt D = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT From the table 2-1.1667 = erf [ x ] 2 Dt By Fick's second law erf [ x ] = 0.% C .5929 x = 0. C0 = 1. If the nitrogen content at the steel surface is 0.2 = 0.034 x 10-6 cm2 /s D. x( cm) = ? T =1150 C + 273 = 1423 K . determine the nitrogen content at 0. A 1. C0 = 0. Solution Given. x = 0.3600 = 0. 2 Dt x = 0. D0 = 0.001% N is nitrided at 550°C for 5 h. Cx = ? N % .t = 2.034 x10−6 x.23 .x. The carbon content at the steel surface is zero.900 / 1.08%.5929 . x = 0. To what depth will the steel be decarburized to less than 0.900 cal/mol D = 0.149 .2% C tool steel held at 1150°C is exposed to oxygen for 48 h. C in FCC iron.1423) = 2. Cs = 0.08 N % . A BCC steel containing 0. time(t ) = 4 hr = 4 x3600sec = 4400sec Cs − C x x ] = erf [ C s − C0 2 Dt 0 − 0. 2 0 − 1 .177 cm Q-18. 2 Dt x = 0. 2 x0. Q = 32.48.1667 .25 mm = 0.23 Q-17.987.25 mm from the surface. Cx = 0. Cs = 0.20% C ? Solution Given.149 .001N % . From Table 2-3 .23 exp( −32.25 cm T = 550 C + 273 = 823 K .2 % C .149 . we find that.2 % C .

0342 .823) = 6.987.394 0.5 for many ferrous metals. Q = 18. D0 = 0.The endurance l i m i t divided by the tensile strength of the material.08 − C x x = erf [ ] 0.24 0.08 − 0.The stress below which a material w i l l not fail in a fatigue test. N in BCC iron.x. (iii) Endurance Ratio .x.t = erf [ 6.300 cal/mol D = 0. Define the following.3600 = 0.10−8.001 2 Dt D = D0 exp ( −Q ) RT From the table 2-1. Met-2023 . x 0. (i) % Elongation (ii) Endurance limit (iii) Endurance Ratio (iv) Fatigue life (v) Elastic deformation (i) % Elongation . The ratio is about 0.0047 exp( −18.049 N% Q-19.025 ] = erf [ ] 2 x0. % Elongation = l f − l0 l0 x 100 % where l f – final length of the specimen l0 – initial length of the specimen (ii) Endurance limit .0047 .x.488 x 10-8 cm2 /s D .0342 2 Dt erf [ x ] = 0. 2 Dt 0.08 − 0.488.x.The total percentage increases in the length of a specimen during a tensile test.300 / 1.5.5 trnsile strength The endurance ratio allows us to estimate fatigue properties from the tensile test.001 2 Dt Cx = 0. Endurance ratio = Endurance lim it ≅ 0.394 2 Dt x = 0.08 − C x x = erf [ ] = 0.3655 .

True stress and Engineering Strain. divided by the original cross sectional area of the material. True stress = σ 1 = F1 A1 . ⎡l ⎤ True Strain ε t = ln ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ l0 ⎦ where l – final length of the specimen l0 – initial length of the specimen Met-2023 . Engineering stress = force F =σ = initial. σ2= F2 A2 Engineering Strain . Engineering strain = ε = l − l0 l0 where l – final length of the specimen l0 – initial length of the specimen True Strain .cross sec tional. given by ε t = ln (l/l0).The applied load.The strain. Fatigue life tells us how long a component survives at a particular stress.The load divided by the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen at that load. (a) Define Engineering Stress. or force. produced in a material. Solution (a) Engineering Stress . Determine (i) whether the bar will plastically deform and (ii) whether the bar will experience necking. (v) Elastic deformation . True Strain.000 N is applied to a 10 mm x 20 mm iron bar having a yield strength of 400 MPa and a tensile strength of 480 MPa.The amount that a material deforms per unit length in a tensile test.Deformation of the material that is recovered when the applied load is removed. (b) A force of 100.25 (iv) Fatigue life .area A0 True stress . Q-20.The number of cycles permitted at a particular stress before a material fails by fatigue.

1 . Engineering stress = force F =σ = initial.1 x 42. (ii) applied stress σ is greater than tensile strength ( 500 MPa > 480 MPa ).therefore. stress σ = 42. the fracture began at the surface of the part.093 in Q-22. the size of the flaw = ?.fails when a stress of 42.area A0 σ = 100.480 MPa. Assume that f = 1 . the iron bar will plastically deform.cross sec tional.000 x a = 0.26 Solution Q-20. K IC = f .000 psi-√in .000 = 1.a 25. Estimate the size of the flaw that initiated fracture.000 psi is applied. the bar will occur necking. Hooke's law The relationship between stress and strain in the elastic portion of the Met-2023 . Solution plane strain fracture toughness Kc = 25. 1 .(b) Applied force = 100. Assume that f = 1 .000 psi-√in .σ.000 N / 200 mm2 = 500 N/mm2 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2 .093 in the initial flaw size on the surface – 0. Q-21. Define Hooke's law and Poisson's ratio. Observation of the fracture surface indicates that fracture began at the surface of the part.400 MPa tensile strength .a π . π .therefore.000 N (i) area of iron bar = 10 mm x 20 mm = 200 mm2 yield strength .000 psi is applied. An aluminum alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 25. 500 MPa applied stress σ is greater than yield strength ( 500 MPa > 400 MPa ).

Poisson's ratio μ = 0. relates the longitudinal elastic deformation produced by a simple tensile or compressive stress to the lateral deformation that occurs simultaneously: μ= − ε (lateral ) .27 stress-strain curve. E = the strain σ ε = 3979 psi / 16 x 106 psi = 0.Young's modulus σ .3) Q-23.000 psi. long titanium bar has a yield strength of 50. ε (longitudional ( μ is about 0.)2 = 3979 psi By Hook's Law.00024868 ε= σ E Engineering strain = ε = l f = 12. This relationship is Hooke's law : E= σ ε where E . is the slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic region.00024868 in/in l f − l0 l0 == l f − 12 12 = 0. a modulus of elasticity of 16 x 106 psi. diameter.30. the length = ? and the diameter of the bar = ? when a 500-Ib load is applied.4 in.4-in. Determine the length and diameter of the bar when a 500-Ib load is applied.. E. F = 500 lb the stress σ = F/A = 500 lb / (π/4 )(0. Solution a titanium bar . length = 12-in. or Young's modulus. modulus of elasticity E = 16 x 106 psi.000 psi. The modulus of elasticity.engineering strain Poisson's ratio The ratio between the lateral and longitudinal strains in the elastic region.12-in. diameter = 0. A 0. μ.engineering stress ε .30. yield strength = 50. and Poisson's ratio of 0. Poisson's ratio.00298 in Met-2023 .4-in.

0000746 in / in D f = 0. . A 3-in. Q-25. E= σ . To get 2 in diameter bar.4 = . To account for the elastic strain.00235 = 2 − D0 . E = 17 x 106 psi yield strength σ = 40.39997 in Q-24.39997 in the length of the bar = 12.000 psi.3 ) (0.00235 ε Engineering strain = ε = D0 = ? D0 = 1.995 in l − l0 D − D0 = l0 D0 ε = 0. D 1 = 2-in. D0 the diameter of the opening die = 1. Solution A copper rod is to be reduced in diameter. diameter rod by being pushed through an opening.Which factors does depend on the ability of a material to resist the growth of a crack? Solution The ability of a material to resist the growth of a crack depends on a large number of factors: Met-2023 . dia . 0.diameter rod of copper is to be reduced to a 2-in. D 0 = 3-in. .0000746 in/in D f − D0 D0 = D f − 0.000 / 17 x 106 = 0.000 psi.28 Poisson's ratio: μ = −ε (lateral ) = − 0. ε = σ / E = 40.4 0.995 in.00298 in the diameter of the bar = 0.3 ε (longitudional ε(lateral) = .00235.00024868) = -0.(μ )x ε(longitudinal) = . what should be the diameter of the opening? The modulus of elasticity for the copper is 17 x 106 psi and the yield strength is 40. D = 2 in.(0. the diameter of the opening ? modulus of elasticity for the copper. the diameter of the opening must be smaller than the final dia.0.

which is the maximum stress on the engineering stress-strain curve. does our nondestructive test have the required sensitivity ? Explain. (iii) Ductility The ability of a material to be permanently deformed without breaking when a force is applied. we plan to assure that the maximum applied stress is only one-third the yield strength. Increasing the strength of a given metal usually decreases ductility and gives a lower fracture toughness.000 psi and a plane strain fracture toughness of 5. We use a nondestructive test that will detect any internal flaws greater than 0. just as in the impact test. the smaller the permitted stress. more rigid materials have lower fracture toughness than thin materials.Thicker.Define the following. 4). . (i) Tensile strength (ii) Yield strength (iii) Ductility Solution (i) Tensile strength The stress obtained at the highest applied force is the tensile strength. more point defects and dislocations reduce fracture toughness. Increasing the rate of application of the load. A ceramic part for a jet engine has a yield strength of 75. A small grain size normally improves fracture toughness. typically reduces the fracture toughness of the material. 6). (ii) Yield strength The stress applied to a material that just causes permanent plastic deformation.05 in.√in. long. Increasing the temperature normally increases the fracture toughness.29 1). the larger the flaws size. such as in an impact test. 3).4. Ductility measures the amount of deformation that a material can withstand without breaking.000 psi . Q-26. 5). Assuming that f = 1. Solution Met-2023 . Q-27. To be sure that the part does not fail. 2).

000 psi .√in and is exposed to a stress of 45.05 in.4 x 1/3 x 75. .15-in. our nondestructive test have no the required sensitivity. Q-29. Q-28.a π .000 psi internal flaw size = 2.√in.013 in Non.destructive test can detect the flaw size of length = 0.a π . π . to determine the minimum size of crack.) on the surface can be observed visually.30 A ceramic part for a jet engine . f = 1.a 5000 = 1. π .000 psi.Design a testing or inspection procedure capable of detecting a crack at the surface of the plate before the crack is likely to grow at a catastrophic rate. f = 1. = f.a = 2 x 0.√in.σ. the maximum applied stress = one-third the yield strength. diameter nickel wire having a yield strength of 45. Under these condition. A large steel plate used in a nuclear reactor has a plane strain fracture toughness of 80. applied stress σ = 45. Now. a = 0. Determine Met-2023 . the flaw size is 0.000 psi plane strain fracture toughness K IC = 5.000 psi.0065 in = 0. K IC = Kc = f. If the growth rate of the crack is slow. A 850-lb force is applied to a 0. = 1/3 x 75. This minimum crack size ( 1 in.000 psi plane strain fracture toughness K IC = 80.000 x a = 1 in. surface crack = a = ? .000 psi and a tensile strength of 55. Solution steel plate used in a nuclear reactor.0065 in the length of internal flaw = 2. yield strength σ = 75. the inspection is performed by regular method.a K IC .013 in.000 psi .a 80.σ.000 = 1 x 45.000 .000 psi during service.4. and therefore.

31 (a) whether the wire will plastically deform and (b) whether the wire will experience necking.. therefore.500 lb.60.hr.1.265 x 105 .000 Psi ). Engineering stress on the wire = force F =σ = initial.x.100 Psi (i) Applied stress σ is greater than yield strength ( 48.day. S-N curve for tool steel. continuous operation for one year.area A0 σ = 850 lb / (π/4) (d )2 = 48.100 Psi < 55..cross sec tional.100 Psi > 45.days. (ii)Applied stress σ is less than tensile strength ( 48. applied stress σ = 72.265 x 105 cycles/year From Fig.000 psi .500 lb.000 psi. applied stress σ must be less than 72. Solution nickel wire.000 Psi ). (i)whether the wire will plastically deform and (ii)whether the wire will experience necking. applied force = 850-lb . N = 5.15-in. Solution a tool steel solid shaft for a cement kiln. and one revolution per minute during operation. tensile strength = 55.000 Psi or 72 Ksi. Q-30. 3-13 .x 24. the nickel wire will plastically deform. length L = 96 in.min 1. therefore. N = 5. applied load ( F ) = 12.x. Design a shaft that will satisfy these requirements.x. The shaft makes one revolution per minute during operation.hr.1.x.min .1. year. Design a shaft that will satisfy these requirements. Met-2023 . yield strength = 45.x.365. initial diameter D0 = 0. the nickel wire will no necking occur.000 Psi or 72 Ksi. It means that minimum diameter of the shaft (d ) = ? Number of cycle / year = N = 1 cycle. A solid shaft for a cement kiln produced from the tool steel must be 96 inches long and must survive continuous operation for one year with an applied load of 12. .

will operate for one year. < 72. 60. But. safety is required in the design without failure.x.000 Psi.18.F d3 10.18.54 in For these conditions.x. 000 = 10. without failure.12500 d3 d = 5. the diameter of the shaft 5. 72.88 in The condition that will operate for more than one year.000 Psi. endurance limit 60.L.88 in * * * * * * * * * * * * *END* * * * * * * * * * * * Met-2023 .54 in.x. In Fig. this condition is minimum diameter required to prevent failure.x. the minimum diameter of the shaft (d ) is 5.32 By the equation.18.96.12500 d3 d = 5.96.. 000 = σ= 10.

33 Met-2023 .

34 Met-2023 .

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