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www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

under moving loads

D. Bruno ∗ , F. Greco, P. Lonetti

Department of Structural Engineering, University of Calabria, 87030 - Rende (CS), Italy

Received 5 September 2006; received in revised form 19 June 2007; accepted 2 July 2007

Available online 21 August 2007

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamic response of long span cable-stayed bridges subjected to moving loads. The analysis is

based on a continuum model of the bridge, in which the stay spacing is assumed to be small in comparison with the whole bridge length. As

a consequence, the interaction forces between the girder, towers and cable system are described by means of continuous distributed functions.

A direct integration method to solve the governing equilibrium equations has been utilized and numerical results, in the dimensionless context,

have been proposed to quantify the dynamic impact factors for displacement and stress variables. Moreover, in order to evaluate, numerically, the

influence of coupling effects between bridge deformations and moving loads, the analysis focuses attention on the usually neglected non-standard

terms related to both centripetal and Coriolis forces. Finally, results are presented with respect to eccentric loads, which introduce both flexural

and torsional deformation modes. Sensitivity analyses have been proposed in terms of dynamic impact factors, emphasizing the effects produced

by the external mass of the moving system and the influence of both “A” and “H” shaped tower typologies on the dynamic behaviour of the bridge.

c 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Moving loads; Dynamic impact factors; Cable-stayed bridges; “A” and “H” shaped towers

span cable-supported bridges requires a consistent approach,

Cable-stayed systems have been employed, frequently, to appropriately formulated, in order to fully characterize the

overcome long spans, because of their economic and structural bridge kinematics and train–girder interaction. In the literature,

advantages. Moreover, improvements in the use of lightweight several studies have been developed, which analyse dynamic

and high strength materials have been proposed in different bridge behaviour with respect to different assumptions and

applications, and, consequently, more slender girder cross frameworks. In particular, Fryba and Timoshenko [1,2],

sections have been adopted. As a result, the external loads provided a comprehensive treatment concerning primarily

have become comparable with those involved by the bridge the dynamic response of simply supported girder structures

self-weight ones and an accurate description of the effects travelled by vehicles, and analytical as well as numerical

of the moving loads is needed to properly evaluate dynamic solutions for some specific problems have been presented.

bridge behaviour. At the same time, new developments in During the last few decades, with advances in high performance

rapid transportation systems make it possible to increase the computers and computational technologies, more realistic

allowable speed range and traffic load capacity; consequently,

modelling of the dynamic interaction between a moving system

the moving system can greatly influence the dynamic bridge

and bridge vibration has become feasible. In particular, Yang

vibration, by means of non-standard excitation modes. To this

et al. [3] presented a closed-form solution for the dynamic

end, investigation is needed to quantify the effects produced by

response of simple beams subjected to a series of moving loads

the inertial forces of the moving system on the bridge vibration.

at high speeds, in which the phenomena of resonance and

cancellation have been identified. Moreover, Lei and Noda [4]

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 0984 496914; fax: +39 0984 494045. proposed a dynamic computational model for the vehicle and

E-mail address: d.bruno@unical.it (D. Bruno). track coupling system including girder profile irregularity by

0141-0296/$ - see front matter

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.07.001

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1161

Nomenclature deck. An efficient numerical modelling has been developed

by Yang and Fonder [10] to analyse the dynamic behaviour

α Longitudinal stay geometric slope

of cable-stayed bridges subject to railway loads, taking into

α0 Longitudinal anchor stay geometric slope

account nonlinearities involved in the cable system. Dynamic

As Stay cross sectional area

interaction of cable-stayed bridges with reference to railway

As0 Anchor stay cross sectional area

loads has been investigated in [11], in which strategies to

b Half girder cross section width

reduce the multiple resonant peaks of cable-stayed bridges

β Transverse stay geometric slope

that may be excited by high-speed trains have been proposed

c Moving system speed

for a small length bridge structure. Finally, a computational

∆ Stay spacing step

model and a parametric study have been proposed in [12]

e Eccentricity of the moving loads with respect to

to investigate bridge vibration produced by vehicular traffic

the girder geometric axis

loads. The literature referred to above investigates dynamic

E Cable modulus of elasticity

bridge behaviour properly taking into account the effects

EI Flexural girder stiffness

of interaction between bridge vibration and the moving

EA Axial girder stiffness

system. However, only a few studies have concentrated on

E s∗ Stay Dischinger modulus

∗ the dynamic responses of long span bridges. This paper,

E s0 Anchor stay Dischinger modulus

therefore, focuses on the dynamic behaviour of long span cable-

g Girder self-weight per unit length

stayed bridges, evaluating the effects produced by the moving

γ Stay specific weight

system on the dynamic bridge behaviour. In particular, the

G Jt Torsional girder stiffness

main aims of this paper are to propose a parametric study

H Pylon height

p in a dimensionless context, which describes the relationship

I0 Pylon polar mass moment

between dynamic amplification factors and moving loads and

Kp Flexural top pylon stiffness

p bridge characteristics.

K0 Torsional top pylon stiffness

The structural model is based on a continuum approach,

l Lateral bridge span

which has been widely used in the literature to analyse

L Central bridge span

long span bridges [13–15]. In particular, Meisenholder and

Lp Total train length

Weidlinger [13] have schematized bridge structures as an elastic

λ Mass function of the moving system per unit

beam resting on an elastic foundation, whose stiffness is strictly

length

connected to the geometrical and stiffness properties of the

λ0 Polar mass moment of the moving system with

stays. Moreover, extended models which generalize the bridge

respect to girder geometric axis per unit length

kinematics have been proposed in [14,15], in which the stay

Mp Lumped top pylon equivalent mass

spacing is assumed to be small in comparison with the central

µ Girder mass per unit length

bridge span. As a result, the interaction forces between the cable

µ0 Polar inertial moment of the girder per unit length

system and the girder can be assumed as continuous functions

ω Girder torsional rotation

distributed over the whole girder length. The accuracy of the

p Live loads

continuum approach has been validated in previous works

σa Allowable stay stress

developed in both static and dynamic frameworks, through

σg Stay stress under self-weight loading

comparisons with numerical results obtained by using a finite

σg0 Anchor stay stress under self-weight loading

element model of the discrete cable system bridge [14–16].

ψ L(R) Left (L) and right (R) top pylon torsional

In the present paper, the bridge kinematics and the inertial

rotations

forces have been considered in a tridimensional context, in

u L(R) Left (L) and right (R) horizontal top pylon

which both in-plane and out-of-plane deformation modes have

displacement

been accounted for. Cable-stayed bridges based on both “H”

v Girder vertical displacement

and “A” shaped typologies with a double layer of stays

w Girder horizontal displacement

have been considered. However, cable-stayed bridges with

one central layer of stays, especially for eccentric railway

the finite element method, whereas additional references to bridges, are characterized by high deformability, and difficulties

the influence of AASHTO live-load deflection criteria on the verifying the design rules on maximum displacements occur

vibration in a railway track under moving vehicles can be found frequently. In particular, the girder torsional stiffness needs

in [5–7]. to be significantly improved with respect to those involved

With reference to cable-stayed bridges, in order to evaluate for “H” and “A” shaped typologies, because contributions

the amplification effects produced by the moving system, arising from the cable system are practically negligible. As

different investigations have been proposed. In particular, Au a matter of fact, torsional analysis carried out for typical

et al. [8,9] investigated the dynamic impact factors of cable- concrete or steel girder cross sections shows that in order to

stayed bridges under railway traffic using various vehicle limit torsional rotation to reasonable values (i.e. below 0.02),

models, evaluating the effects produced by random road the maximum allowable central length must be approximately

1162 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

equal to 400 m [16]. The equations of motion for the vehicle- design rules [17,18]. In particular, the cross sectional stay areas

track-bridge element are derived by means of the Hamilton are designed so that the dead loads (g) produce constant stress

principle. Subsequently, the boundary value problem, due to over all the distributed elements, which are assumed equal to

the equilibrium equations, was solved, numerically, by means a fixed design value, namely σg . As a result, the geometric

of a finite difference scheme based on θ-family methods, area of the stays varies along the girder, but the safety factors

in which proper interpolation functions on both spatial and are practically constant for each element of the cable system.

time domains were adopted to obtain stable and accurate Moreover, for the anchor stays, the cross sectional geometric

results. A parametric study in a dimensionless context has been area, As0 , is designed in such a way that the allowable stress is

analysed by means of numerical results, in terms of typical obtained in the static case, for live loads applied to the central

kinematic and stress bridge variables for both in-plane and span only. Therefore, the geometric measurement for the cable

eccentric loading conditions. In particular, results are proposed system can be expressed by the following equations:

to investigate the effects of moving the system description

g∆

with reference to non-standard forces, usually neglected in As = ,

conventional dynamic analyses, i.e. Coriolis and centripetal σg sin α

accelerations. Finally, the influence on the dynamic bridge

" 2 #1/2 " 2 # (1)

gl l L

behaviour of pylon typology with reference to both “A” and As0 = 1+ −1 ,

2σg H 2l

“H” shapes has been analysed,and comparisons in terms of both

moving loads and tower characteristics have been proposed. where α is the slope of a generic stay element with respect

to the reference system, (L , l, H ) are representative geometric

2. Cable-stayed bridge model lengths of the bridge structure, and ∆ is the stay spacing step

(for more details see Fig. 1). The bridge analysis is based on the

To begin with, the bridge geometry is presented with following assumptions:

respect to a fan-shaped self-anchored scheme and both flexural

and torsional deformation modes are evaluated for an “H” (1) the stress increments in the stays are proportional to the live

shaped pylon typology. Subsequently, the formulation is loads, p;

adapted for “A” shaped pylons. This can be easily derived, (2) a long span fan shaped bridge is characterized by a

as explained in the following sections, starting from the “H” dominant truss behaviour.

ones and introducing slight modifications to the main governing In this framework, the tension σg and σg0 for distributed and

equations. In both formulations, the cable system is arranged anchor stays, respectively, can be expressed by the following

symmetrically with respect to both zx and yz planes. relations:

Long span bridges based on cable-stayed systems are g

frequently analysed by means of a continuum approach, in σg = σa ,

g+p

which the stays are assumed to be uniformly distributed along

2 #−1 −1

" (2)

the deck. In particular, the stay spacing is quite small in p 2L

σg0 = σa 1 + 1− .

comparison to the central bridge span (i.e. ∆/L 1). As g l

a result, the self-weight loads produce negligible bending

moments on the girder with respect to that raised by the moving It is worth noting that the allowable stay stress, σa ,

loads. The initial stress distribution, at the “zero configuration”, represents a known variable of the cable system in terms of

is supposed to be produced by a correct erection process which which the design tension under dead loading can be determined

yields tension in the stays and compression in both the girder by the use of Eq. (2). Since it is assumed that for dead loads only

and the pylons. Moreover, under dead loads only, the girder is the bridge structure remains in the undeformed configuration,

arranged with an initial straight profile, which is practically free the application of moving loads leads to additional stress and

from bending moments for reduced values of the stay spacing deformation increments with respect to the self-weight loading

step. In particular, the erection procedure is based on the free condition. In particular, as reported in Fig. 1 with respect to

cantilevered method, which is able to control the initial tension the reference system with the origin fixed at the midspan girder

distribution in the cable system to a value practically constant cross section, the bridge kinematic, for the “H” shaped tower

in each stay. This assumption has been verified for long span typology, is described by following displacement variables:

bridges, in view of the prevailing truss behaviour of the cable-

• horizontal and vertical girder displacements [u(x, t),

supported structures [15–18]. Therefore, the moving loads

v(x, t)],

modify the initial configuration and, consequently, produce

• left and right horizontal pylon top displacements [u L (t),

additional stress and deformation states. It is worth noting that

u R (t)],

for long span bridges, the initial stress state produced by the

• girder torsional rotation [ω(x, t)],

dead loading needs to be accounted mainly in the cable-stayed

• left and right pylon top torsional rotations [ψ L (t), ψ R (t)].

system, in which the initial tension strongly affects the stays’

behaviour due to Dischinger effects [17,18]. In particular, bridge deformations related to flexure and

The geometry and stiffness characteristics of the bridges are torsion for the girder and pylons and axial deformations for

selected with respect to typical ranges suggested by practical the girder and stays have been taken into account, whereas

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1163

Fig. 1. “H” shaped tower moving load problem: bridge kinematics and representative stiffness parameters.

pylon axial deformability has been neglected. Consistently that this influence is practically negligible (less than 3%),

with the bridge configuration reported in Fig. 1, the bridge whereas maximum relative percentage differences, less than

scheme is constrained with respect to both vertical and torsional 10%, are observed for speeds above 140 m/s. In addition, it has

displacements at boundary cross sections of the bridge and at been observed that the analysed maximum amplification factors

girder/pylon connections. occur when the moving system is basically applied on the

The stays are modelled as bar elements and the central bridge span. Therefore, the analysis has been developed

nonlinear behaviour is evaluated consistently with the by assuming the tangent modulus for the double layer of stays

Dischinger formulation [17], which takes into account acting on the lateral spans, whereas for the double layer of stays

geometric nonlinearities of the inclined stays introducing a acting on the central span and for the anchor stays the secant

fictitious elastic modulus for an equivalent straight member, in modulus has been employed.

this way: The axial deformation increments of a stay generic for the

left (L) and right (R) pylons produced by the moving system

E σ depend on both kinematic and geometric variables, as in the

E s∗ = , with β =

σ0

, (3)

γ 2 l02 E 1+β following relationships:

1+

12σ03 2β 2

1

∆ε L = [(v ± ωb) · sin2 α

where E s∗ is known as the secant Dischinger modulus, E is the H

Young’s modulus of the cable material, γ the specific weight, − (u L ± ψ L b − u) · sin α cos α], (4)

l0 the horizontal projection of the stay length and σ0 and σ are 1

the initial and actual tension values of the stay, respectively, ∆ε R = [(v ± ωb) · sin2 α

H

i.e. σ0 = σg for the double layer of stays and σ0 = σg0 for − (u R ± ψ R b + u) · sin α cos α], (5)

the anchor stays. Moreover, the tangent value of the Dischinger

modulus can be obtained from Eq. (3) by putting β = 1. As where (+/−) refers, in Eqs. (4) and (5) and in the following

far as the secant modulus is concerned, its value depends on ones, to the right (+) and left (−) distributed stays with

cable stress states under self-weight and live loading conditions. respect to the longitudinal girder geometric axis. Similarly, for

Sufficient accuracy in the actual stress state might even be the left and right pylon anchor stays, the incremental axial

achieved by assuming β as proportional to the ratio between deformations are described as

live and self-weight loads (dominant truss behaviour) [16–18], 1

i.e. β = σσag ≈ p+g ∆ε L0 = [(u L ± ψ L b − u) · sin α0 cos α0 ] , (6)

g for the double layer of distributed stays H

(L/2l) 2

and β = σσag ≈ p+g g (L/2l)2 −1 for the anchor stays. On the

1

∆ε R0 = [(u R ± ψ R b + u) · sin α0 cos α0 ] , (7)

other hand, numerical investigations have been developed to H

analyse the influence of adopting the secant or the tangent where α0 is the girder/anchor stay orientation angle (Fig. 1).

equivalent moduli on the dynamic impact factors prediction. The external loads evolve at constant speed from left to right

The results, not presented here for the sake of brevity, show along the bridge development. A perfect connection between

1164 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

the girder and the moving system is assumed. Interaction Hamilton principle is utilized to derive the dynamic equilibrium

forces produced by girder profile roughness and friction are equations. In particular, it is assumed that the damping energy

supposed to generate negligible effects with respect to the is practically negligible. This hypotheses is quite verified in

global bridge vibration. This assumption has been verified the context of long span bridges, where it has been proved

in the context of long span cable-supported bridge, where that the bridge damping effects tend to decrease as span

roughness effects have been considered as negligible [19]. As a length increases [20,21]. Detailed results about the influence of

result, the moving system has the same vertical displacements damping effects on the dynamic amplification factors (DAFs)

as the girder. Nevertheless, non-standard contributions arising have been presented in [9], from which it transpires that the

from Coriolis and centripetal inertial forces, produced by the assumption of an undamped bridge system leads to greater

coupling behaviour between the moving system and bridge DAFs. It is well known that the Hamilton principle can be

deformations, have been taken into account. With respect to a expressed for a conservative system and a generic time interval

fixed reference system, the velocity and acceleration functions as

of the moving system are evaluated consistently with a Eulerian Z t2

description of the moving loads as δ (T − V ) dt = 0 (13)

t1

∂v ∂v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v

v̇ = + c, v̈ = 2 + 2c + 2 c2 , where T and V are the kinetic and the potential energy

∂t ∂x ∂t ∂ x∂t ∂x

of the whole dynamic system, respectively, and t1 and t2

∂x

with c = . (8) define the observation period. Therefore, with respect to these

∂t kinematic fields, the kinetic energy functional of the combined

The moving loads are consistent with a train system bridge–moving-load system may now be formulated as

typology, modelled by a sequence of lumped and distributed

1 L 2 1 L

Z Z

masses, representative of both bogie components and vehicle

T = µ v̇ + u̇ 2 dx + µ0 ω̇2 dx

bodies. However, for long span bridges, the internal bogie 2 −L 2 −L

spacing for an elementary vehicle is, usually, small in 1 p 1

comparison with the whole bridge length. Moreover, within the + I0 ψ̇ L2 + ψ̇ D 2

+ M p u̇ 2L + u̇ 2D

2 2

same approximation level, the locomotive, even if it is much Z L

1 L

Z

1

heavier than the carriage, is distributed on a length, which is + ρ v̇ 2 + u̇ 2 dx + ρ0 ω̇2 dx,

assumed, in this context, to be smaller than the whole length 2 −L 2 −L

of the train. As a result, the moving system is supposed to be with L = l + L/2. (14)

described by equivalent uniformly distributed loads and masses

acting on the girder profile. However, improvements to the In particular, (µ, µ0 ) and (ρ, ρ0 ) are the mass functions and

moving load distribution can be easily provided just modifying polar inertial moments per unit length for both moving loads

Eqs. (9)–(12) and introducing a piecewise constant function to and girder, respectively. Moreover, M p is the equivalent lumped

describe carriages and locomotive loads. mass which refers to horizontal top pylon displacement, b is the

p

With respect to a moving reference system, x1 , from the bridge semi-width and I0 is the pylon polar mass moment for

p

left end of the bridge, the mass and loading functions during both left and right pylons, with I0 = b2 M p .

the external loading advance can be written by the following The total potential energy of the system, using a small

expressions, respectively: displacements formulation, can be written as

ρ = λH x1 + L p − ct H (ct − x1 ) , 1 L 1 L

Z Z

(9)

V = E I v 002 + E Au 02 dx + G Jt ω02 dx

f = p H x1 + L p − ct H (ct − x1 ) ,

(10) 2 −L 2 −L

1 0 E s∗ As H 1 L E s∗ As H

Z Z

where x1 = x + (L/2 + l), (λ, p) are the vehicle body + 2

∆ε L dx + ∆ε2R dx

mass and loading forces per unit length and H (·) is the 2 −L ∆ sin α 2 0 ∆ sin α

Heaviside function. Moreover, the moving system is assumed 1 ∗

+ E s0 As0 ∆ε 2L0 + ∆ε 2R0

to be eccentrically located with respect to the bridge half width, 2

and, consequently, distributed moment and rotatory inertial 1h p 2 i

+ K 0 ψL + ψ D 2

+ K p u 2L + u 2D

functions are introduced to properly describe the external loads 2

as Z L

− ( f · v + m · ω) dx

ρ0 = λ0 H x1 + L p − ct H (ct − x1 ) ,

(11) −L

L

m = p · eH x1 + L p − ct H (ct − x1 ) ,

Z

1 L L

(12) + λv δ x + +δ x − v 2 dx (15)

2 −L 2 2

where λ0 represents the torsional distributed polar mass

moment produced by the external loading and e is the where (E I, E A, G Jt ) are the flexural, axial and torsional girder

stiffness and E s∗ As , E s0

∗ A

eccentricity of the moving loads with respect to the cross s0 are the axial stiffnesses of a

p

generic stay or the anchor cables. Moreover, K 0 , K p are the

sectional geometric axes. An energy approach based on the

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1165

torsional and flexural top pylon stiffness and δ (·) is the Dirac L

Z

qu R δu R + m ψ R δψ R dx

+

delta function. In particular, the last term on the right-hand side 0

of Eq. (15) denotes a penalty functional, with λv representing + K0

p

(ψ L δψ L + ψ R δψ R )

the penalty parameter, introduced to penalize girder vertical

+ K (u L δu L + u R δu R )

p

displacements and, consequently, to reproduce the connection

between the girder and the pylons correctly. + SL0 δu − SL0 δu L + M L0 δψ L

x=−L

By integrating by parts the first variation of the kinetic

+ S R δu + S R δu R + M R δψ R

0 0 0

energy functional of the combined bridge/moving loads system x=L

and assuming that the virtual displacements vanish at both the Z L Z L

beginning and end of the actual varied path, the following − f · δvdx − m · δωdx

−L −L

expression is derived: )

Z L

Z t1 Z t2 Z L − [δ(x + L/2) + δ(x − L/2)]λv v · δvdx dt

δT dt = − [µ (v̈δv + üδu) + µ0 ω̈δω] dxdt −L

t1 t1 −L (17)

Z t2

p

ψ̈ L δψ L + ψ̈ R δψ R dt

− I0 where

t1

Z t2 E S∗ A S h i

v · sin3 α − u L(R) − (+)u · sin2 α cos α ,

− M (ü L δu L + ü R δu R ) dt

p qvL(R) =

H∆

t1

E ∗ AS h

Z t2 Z L qh L(R) = S (−)v · sin2 α cos α

− ρ̇0 (ω̇δω) dxdt H∆ i

− (−) u L(R) − u · cos2 α sin α ,

t1 −L

Z t2 Z L

− ρ0 ω̈δωdxdt E ∗ AS h i

t1 −L

qu L = S −v sin2 α cos α + (u L − u) · cos2 α sin α , (18)

H∆

t2 L E S∗ A S h

Z Z i

− ρ (v̈δv + üδu) dxdt qu R = −v sin2 α cos α + (u R + u) · cos2 α sin α ,

t1 −L H∆

E ∗ A S b2

t2 L m ω L(R) = S ω sin3 α − ψ L(R) cos α sin2 α ,

Z Z

− ρ̇ (v̇δv + u̇δu) dxdt. (16) H∆

t1 −L E S∗ A S b2

m ψ L(R) = −ω sin2 α cos α + ψ L(R) cos2 α sin α .

It is worth noting that in Eq. (16), the last two terms on H∆

the right-hand side denote the kinetic energy contributions

∗ A

E s0

produced by the external moving mass, in which the s0

0

u − (+)u L(R) cos2 α0 sin α0 ,

SL(R) =

time derivative for vertical displacement has been assumed H

∗ 2

(19)

consistently with Eq. (8)). As a consequence, non-standard E s0 As0 b

terms due to both Coriolis and centripetal forces are introduced

0

M L(R) = ψ L(R) cos α0 sin α0 .

2

H

in the kinetic functional, which are strictly connected with the

It is worth noting that Eqs. (18) and (19) correspond to

interaction behaviour between the bridge deformations and the

distributed internal forces due to cable system/girder interaction

moving system. Moreover, the time dependence of the moving

and concentrated forces and moments applied to the left

mass determines additional contributions to the inertial forces,

and right girder cross section ends due to the anchor stays,

which are, basically, produced by an unsteady distribution of

respectively (Fig. 2). Moreover, in Eq. (18), the angular

the train/bridge system mass. Taking into account the first

parameter α, as depicted in Fig. 1, depends on the longitudinal

variation of the total potential energy function, expressed by

coordinate x and the geometrical bridge lengths (l, H, L).

Eq. (15), the following expression is obtained:

Assuming the bridge scheme reported in Fig. 1, the boundary

Z t1 Z t1 (Z L h i conditions at the left and right girder cross section ends require

δV dt = E I v I V δv − E Au 00 δu − G Jt ω00 δω dx null values for vertical displacements, bending moments,

t1 t1 −L torsional rotations and specified horizontal axial forces, as in

+ T δv − Mδv 0 + N δu + Mt δω −L

L the following equations:

ω = 0, v = 0, v 00 = 0

Z 0 at x = ±L;

+ (qvL δv + qh L δu + m ωL δω) dx

0

0

E Au 0 L − S 0R = 0.

−L E Au −L + SL = 0, (20)

Z L

+ (qv R δv + qh R δu + m ω R δω) dx The dynamic equilibrium equations can be obtained in

0 explicit form by means of the variation statement of the

Z 0 Hamilton principles. In particular, by substituting Eqs. (16)

qu L δu L + m ψ L δψ L dx

+ and (17) into Eq. (13) and taking into account the boundary

−L

1166 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

conditions, the following dynamic equilibrium equations are the equilibrium conditions for both internal and external forces.

derived: In order to develop a generalized formulation, the dynamic

Girder equilibrium equations have been proposed in dimensionless

form, introducing the following parameters, related to both

µv̈ + E I v I V + H (x) qv R + H (−x) qvL + ρ̇ v̇ bridge and moving load characteristics:

+ ρ v̈ + 2cv̇ 0 + c2 v 00 Girder

− f − δ (x + L/2) + δ (x − L/2) λv v = 0,

(21) 4I σg 1/4 Ct σg 1/2

εF = , εω = ,

µü − E Au + H (x) qh R + H (−x) qh L + ρ̇ u̇ + ρ ü = 0, (22)

00 H 3g Eb2 H g

(28)

λ µ0

µ0 ω̈ − G Jt ω00 + H (x) m ω R + H (−x) m ωL + ρ̇0 ω̇ Aσg

εA = , ζ= , ζ0 = .

+ ρ0 ω̇ − m = 0. (23) Hg µ µb2

!

K p σg γ 2H2E

Z 0 MP

0

SL − qu L dx − K P u L + M p ü L = 0, −L ≤ x ≤ 0, ζP = , ηp = , a= ,

−L µH Eg 12σg3

(29)

(24)

1+β

Z 0 a=a .

p p

I0 ψ̈ L + K 0 ψ L + m ψ L dx + M L0 = 0, −L ≤ x ≤ 0. 2β 2

−L

Moving loads

(25)

1/2

µσg

Right top pylon pσg e

p= , e= , ϑ =c ,

Z L Eg b Eg H

0

(30)

qu R dx + K P u R + M p ü R = 0,

1/2

SR + 0≤x ≤L Eg

0 τ =t .

µH σg

(26)

p p

Z L Bridge kinematic

I0 ψ̈ R + K 0 ψ R + m ψ R dx + M R0 = 0, 0 ≤ x ≤ L.

0 v u uR uL

V = , U= , UR = , UL = . (31)

(27) H H H H

A synoptic representation of both internal and external In particular, (ε F , ε A , εω ) are the relative bending, axial

forces has been proposed in Fig. 2, and, as an alternative to and torsional stiffness ratios between the girder and the cable

the variational approach, the governing equations can be easily system, respectively. Moreover, (a) identifies a bridge size

derived consistently with a local approach taking into account parameter strictly connected with the deformability of the cable

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1167

pylons, depend only on the time variables. Therefore, in order

inertial and stiffness properties for both right and left pylons. to utilize standard numerical methods to solve PDE system

The moving load characteristics are reported in Eq. (30), equations, the integro-differential equations, given by Eqs.

in which ( p, e) describe the dimensionless applied loads and (32)–(38), are converted into a purely differential form. The

eccentricity with respect to the girder cross sectional geometric equivalence between the original and the modified systems

axis, whereas (ζ, ζ0 ) correspond to the mass and polar mass is guaranteed by the use of the penalty method, by which

moment ratio between the external loads and the girder. Finally, it is possible to convert the equilibrium conditions, from

(ϑ, τ ) define the dimensionless moving load speed and the integral to local form. In particular, the pylon kinematics

time variables. Adopting the following notation for spatial and (namely U L , U R ψ R , ψ L ) are assumed, fictitiously, to depend on

time derivatives, f 0 = ∂∂ Xf , f˙ = ∂∂τf , with X = Hx , the both time and space variables. However, they are constrained

dynamic equilibrium equations are now presented in terms over the spatial domain by means of penalty functionals,

of the normalized kinematic variables, dimensionless bridge involving two penalty parameters, i.e. K U , K ψ . Moreover,

and moving system parameters, by means of the following distributed and lumped forces arising from the cable system

expressions: and pylons have been taken into account, utilizing Heaviside

Girder and delta Dirac functions, respectively. As a result, the integro-

! differential dynamic equilibrium equations, i.e. Eqs. (35)–(38),

ε 4F are transformed into the following relationships:

V I V + V̈ + ϕV

4

L

H 1 [−ϕ1 V − ϕ2 (U − U L )] + δ X +

− ϕ1 H 1 (U L − U ) + H 2 (U R + U ) − p f 1

2H

ζ

× η p U L + ζ P Ü L + K U U L = 0,

00

(39)

+ f 2 V̇ + ζ f 1 V̈ + 2θ V˙ 0 + θ 2 V 00

θ

L

H 1 (ϕ1 ϑ − ϕ2 ψ L ) + δ X + ζ p ψ̈ L + η p ψ L

+ ΛV δ (X + L/2H ) + δ (X − L/2H ) V = 0,

(32) 2H

ε A U 00 − Ü − H 1 (ϕ1 V + ϕ2 (U − U L ))

+ K ψ ψ L00 = 0, (40)

ζ

L

+ H 2 (−ϕ1 V + ϕ2 (U + U R )) − f 2 U̇ − ζ f 1 Ü = 0, (33)

θ −H 2 [ϕ1 V − ϕ2 (U + U R )] + δ X −

2H

εω ω00 − ζ0 ω̈ − ϕω + ϕ1 H 1 ψ L + H 2 ψ R

× η p U R + ζ P Ü R + K U U R = 0,

00

(41)

H ζ0

f 2 ω̇ − ζ0 f 1 ω̈ = 0.

+ p f1e − (34) L

−H 2 (ϕ1 ϑ − ϕ2 ψ R ) + δ X − ζ p ψ̈ R − η p ψ R

b θ

2H

Left pylon

+ K ψ ψ 00 = 0. (42)

Z 0

[−ϕ1 V − ϕ2 (U − U L )] dX + η p U L + ζ P Ü L

By comparing the sets of Eqs. (39)–(42) and Eqs. (35)–(38),

−L/H related to the differential and the integro-differential forms,

− χ (U − U L ) = 0, (35) respectively, it is easy to recognize that the internal forces

Z 0 referred to the anchor stays have not yet been introduced. In

ζ p ψ̈ L + η p + χ ψ L + (ϕ1 ϑ − ϕ2 ψ L ) dX = 0.

(36) particular, the transformation of equilibrium equations related

−L/H to the pylons, from global into local form, leads to considering

Right pylon the concentrated forces and moments arising from anchor stay

Z L/H axial forces as boundary conditions, by means of the following

− [ϕ1 V − ϕ2 (U + U R )] dX + η p U R + ζ P Ü R

equations:

0

1

+ χ (U + U R ) = 0, (37) U L0 (−L/H, τ ) = − χ (U − U L ) , U L0 (L/H, τ ) = 0

KU

Z L/H

1

ζ p ψ̈ R + η p + χ ψ R + (ϕ1 ϑ − ϕ2 ψ R ) dX = 0, U R0 (L/H, τ ) = χ (U + U R ) , U R0 (−L/H, τ ) = 0

(38)

0 KU

1 (43)

E∗ A σ

with H 1 = H (−X ) , H 2 = H (X ), χ = S0E 0 g Hg sin α0 ψ L0 (−L/H, τ ) = χ, ψ L0 (L/H, τ ) = 0,

σ

Kψ

cos2 α0 , ΛV = λv Egg , whereas the functions ( f 1 , f 2 , ϕ, ϕ1 , ϕ2 ), 1

for the sake of brevity, are reported in Appendix A. Moreover, ψ R0 (L/H, τ ) = χ, ψ R0 (L/H, τ ) = 0.

Kψ

details of the derivation of dynamic equilibrium equations can

be found in Appendix B, in which, for conciseness, only Eq. Finally, the following relationships summarize the remain-

(32) has been discussed. ing boundary conditions, i.e. Eq. (20), which impose that the

The dynamic equilibrium equations introduce an integro- vertical and torsional displacements vanish at the left and right

differential boundary value system. Moreover, in Eqs. (35)– and bridge cross section ends, natural conditions for girder ax-

(38), the kinematic variables, related to both left and right ial displacements and homogeneous relationships with respect

1168 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

Fig. 3. Moving load problem for “A” shaped tower typology: bridge kinematics and internal force distribution.

χ which describe the orientation of a generic stay element with

U 0 (−L/H, τ ) = (U − U L ) , respect to vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively,

εA

χ and transverse displacement w regarding the xy plane, the

U 0 (L/H, τ ) = − (U + U R ) , interaction forces between cable system and girder assume the

εA

following expressions:

V (−L/H, τ ) = 0, V (L/H, τ ) = 0,

V 00 (−L/H, τ ) = 0, V 00 (L/H, τ ) = 0, E S∗ A S h

qvL(R) = v · sin3 α

ω(−L/H, τ ) = 0, ω(L/H, τ ) = 0, (44) H∆ i

− u L(R) − (+)u · sin2 α cos α cos β ,

ω(X, 0) = 0, ω̇(X, 0) = 0,

U (X, 0) = 0, U̇ (X, 0) = 0, E ∗ AS h

qh L(R) = S (−)v · sin2 α cos α cos β

V (X, 0) = 0, V̇ (X, 0) = 0, H∆ i

− −u L(R) − u · cos2 α sin α cos2 β ,

ψi (X, 0) = 0, ψ̇i (X, 0) = 0, Ui (X, 0) = 0,

U̇i (X, 0) = 0 i = R, L . E ∗ AS h

qu L(R) = S −v sin2 α cos α cos β (45)

H∆

From a numerical point of view the penalty stiffness i

+ u L(R) − (+)u · cos2 α sin α cos2 β ,

parameters, ΛV , K U , K ψ , are assumed to be sufficiently high

∂w

to introduce numerical instabilities in the computation. For a m ω L(R) = ϑ sin3 α + cos α sin2 α cos β

H∆ ∂x

numerical evaluation of the stiffness values, from the Author’s

w 2

experience of applying the model over different structures, a − sin α cos α sin β

range between [105 –106 ] is suggested. b

∗

E As0

Long span bridges are frequently designed with “A” shaped 0

= s0 u − (+)u L(R) cos2 α0 sin α0 cos β,

pylon typologies, which are able to efficiently reduce both SL(R)

H

torsional and flexural deformations produced by eccentric or

transverse loading. In order to analyse such a bridge typology,

E ∗ AS

the previous formulation still applies, but slight modifications qwL(R) = S sin α cos α sin β

to the main governing equations need to be performed. As H∆

∂w

a matter of fact, the dynamic equilibrium equations with × ωb · sin α − (+) b cos α cos φ − w cos α sin β ,

respect to flexural deformation in the plane xy are, basically, ∂x

∗ (46)

the same. In contrast, the top pylon kinematic is governed E AS b

m wL(R) = − (+) S sin α cos α cos β

by longitudinal displacements only, because both out-of-plane H∆

(xz) and torsional (with respect to y) kinematic parameters ∂w

are assumed to be meaningless. Moreover, the distributed × ωb · sin α − (+) b cos α cos β − (+)w cos α sin β ,

∂x

stays are now inclined with respect to the vertical direction,

i.e. the y axis, and determine a coupling behaviour between where (qi , m ω , S 0 ) with (i = v, h, u), are the internal forces

out-of-plane flexural and torsional deformations. As depicted produced by the cable system girder and pylons. Moreover,

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1169

Table 1

Comparison of maximum normalized torsional rotation in terms of the relative torsional stiffness (εω ) and bridge size parameter (a) between simplified (S) and

general (G) formulations

0.05 G 115.39 93.21 74.85 61.69 53.08

S 115.89 93.57 75.06 62.05 53.50

0.10 G 184.65 139.79 107.17 86.44 77.08

S 183.78 137.35 105.84 86.82 77.22

0.15 G 237.77 174.45 133.39 111.17 237.77

S 237.84 174.37 133.29 111.14 237.84

0.20 G 272.12 209.57 164.16 135.73 272.12

S 271.76 210.71 164.20 135.97 271.76

0.25 G 338.72 250.96 195.65 160.61 338.72

S 332.65 246.57 191.63 157.65 332.65

0.30 G 381.34 283.29 218.71 176.48 160.61

S 377.06 280.07 217.45 176.61 151.20

Table 2

Comparisons of maximum normalized torsional rotation in terms of speed parameter (θ ) and relative torsional stiffness (εω ) between simplified (S) and general (G)

formulations

θ Model a = 0.1 a = 0.2

εω = 0.1 εω = 0.15 εω = 0.2 εω = 0.1 εω = 0.15 εω = 0.2

0.05 G 117.99 95.31 83.67 191.55 152.52 128.74

S 117.31 94.97 83.66 188.85 150.41 129.68

S 122.80 98.82 84.49 191.65 153.11 131.01

S 127.98 101.82 85.38 208.57 163.62 135.53

S 138.49 106.20 87.78 222.20 170.95 139.88

S 143.75 113.48 92.64 237.56 181.12 145.11

qwL(R) and m wL(R) represent distributed forces and moments behaviour. To this end, sensitivity analyses have been proposed

in the (xz) plane (Fig. 3), produced by the coupling behaviour in terms of maximum normalized torsional rotation during

by torsional and flexural deformations, arising from the inclined moving load application, i.e. (ω/ pe). In particular, results

stays of the “A” shaped tower typology. concerning the actual solution, namely the General Approach

The dynamic equilibrium equations, for “A” shaped bridge (GA), derived from Eqs. (21)–(26) and (47), and a simplified

typology, can be easily derived, starting from Eqs. (21)– one, namely the Simplified Approach (SA), obtained assuming,

(26) and making use of Eq. (45) to describe the interaction “a priori”, that the transverse displacements are negligible,

forces between the cable system and the girder. Moreover, an i.e. w(x, t) = 0, have been compared. The following bridge

additional equilibrium equation is required due to the presence and moving load parameters, typically utilized in practical

of the transverse displacement, w. In particular, as reported in applications, have been assumed constant during the analyses:

Fig. 3, the following expression regarding flexural deformation

in the xy plane is introduced: e/b = 0.5, p/g = 1, Jw /J = 100, L p = 750 m,

µẅ + E Is w I V + H (x) qs R + m 0s R ζ = 1, ζ0 = 0.5, η p = 0.085.

(48)

+ H (−x) qs L + m 0s L = 0.

(47) Variability with respect to dimensionless torsional girder

Finally, the dynamic equilibrium equations for the “A” stiffness, εω , bridge size parameter, a, and moving system

shaped tower typology can be summarized by Eqs. (21)–(26) speed, θ, have been investigated. The results reported in

and (47). However, in the typical range of both geometrical, Tables 1 and 2 denote that the dynamic bridge behaviour is

mechanical and moving load characteristics, investigations practically unaffected by the transverse flexural deformations

have been shown that for in-plane loading conditions (loads deriving from w displacements. The actual solution and the

applied in the x y plane), the transverse deformations are simplified ones make the same prediction, with an error of less

practically negligible and do not influence dynamic bridge than 2%.

1170 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

The dynamic equilibrium equations for “A” shaped towers O(h ∧ 2) local truncation error of second order in h (where h

in the dimensionless context are not presented here for the sake is the mesh spacing for the spatial variable). Alternatively, the

of brevity, but they can be easily derived by introducing the time error estimate is obtained by comparing the solution to

dimensionless parameters previously defined in Eqs. (28)–(31) another computed with a larger time step, but the same spatial

in the governing equations. mesh. This gives an estimate of the O(k ∧ 2) local truncation

error of second order in k (where k is the time step). However,

3. Numerical procedure these estimates are local, so they do not account for situations

where a small perturbation in the solution at a time t = t1 can

The dynamic equilibrium equation system introduces a PDE lead to a large change in the solution at a later time.

system from which it is quite difficult to derive an analytical The numerical results are derived providing at first a

solution, because a large variable number and complexities are trial integration time step, which is subsequently reduced by

involved in the main equations. The governing equations are means of a proper adaptive procedure in order to satisfy the

converted to an equivalent differential system of the first order. convergence conditions. Contrarily, the spatial discretization

In particular, for any dependent variables involved with an remains fixed during the analysis, and consequently, in order

order higher than the first one, additional functions representing to minimize the integration errors, a proper mesh point number

all lower order time derivatives are introduced, by means of over the bridge structure has been adopted. In the following

supplementary equations, which are appended to the main results, the spatial domain is discretized utilizing more than

system. As a result, the reformulated boundary value problem 10 000 subdivisions over the whole bridge length. The initial

assumes the following form: integration time step, which is automatically reduced due to the

ai j (X, τ ) y 0j + bi j (X, τ ) ẏ j = f i (y1 , y2 , y3 , . . . , y14 , X ) , time adaptation procedure, is assumed as at least 1/1000 of the

observation period defined as the time necessary for the moving

with i, j = 1, 14, (49) train to cross the bridge. On a Pentium IV processor at 3000 Mz

where y = (V, V 0 , V 00 , V 000 , V̇ , U, U 0 , U̇ , U R , U R0 , U̇ R , U L , the CPU time required for performing the time history for each

U L0 , U̇ L ) is the vector case was approximately 3 min.

of unknown functions or primary

variables and ai j , bi j are constants depending on both the

moving loads and the bridge properties. Moreover, f i represent 4. Numerical results and parametric study

proper transformation operators, which define the relationship

The results define the relationship between the characteris-

between primary variables and known quantities, in accordance

tics of the bridge and applied moving loads, emphasizing the

with the PDE system given by Eqs. (32)–(34) and (39)–(42).

effects produced by the external mass on the dynamic bridge

In accordance with Eqs. (43) and (44), initial and boundary

vibrations. In particular, a parametric study is proposed, which

conditions with respect to both space and time are introduced

describes cable-stayed bridge behaviour in terms of dimension-

by means of the following equations:

less variables, strictly related to both the moving loads and the

B1 yi X , 0 = e yi , B2 yi (0, τ ) = y i ,

bridge characteristics. Numerical results are presented in terms

of dynamic impact factors, in order to quantify the amplification

with X = ±L/H, i = 1 . . . 14, (50)

effects produced by the moving loads over the static solution

where B1 , B2 are proper transformation matrices, which (i.e. st), by means of the following relationship:

guarantee the consistency of the boundary conditions with Eq.

max X t=0...T

yi , y i represent known quantities related to the

(49), and e ΦX = (51)

temporal and spatial variables, respectively. X st

A numerical integration scheme has been utilized by means where T is the observation period and X is the variable under

of a finite difference method, which uses a second-order centred investigation. The parametric study has been developed to

implicit scheme for both time and spatial derivatives [22]. investigate the following variables:

The method has a truncation error of O((∆t)2 (∆x)2 ) and is

• φV dynamic amplification factor of the midspan vertical

unconditionally stable for all time steps. In order to capture the

displacement,

rapid changes of the solution during the time integration, the

• φ M dynamic amplification factor of the midspan bending

whole domain has been discretized by means of an accurate

moment,

mesh point number. Moreover, requested values, those which

• φσ0 dynamic amplification factor of the axial force in the

do not lie on a mesh point, have been computed using a

anchor stay,

Lagrange interpolation that uses four space subdivisions and

• φσ dynamic amplification factor of the axial force in the

three time points. The solution process is obtained consistently

longest central span stay.

with an error control procedure, which is able to integrate

• φω dynamic amplification factor of the midspan girder

the nonlinear equations with respect to upper bounds’ error

torsional rotation.

tolerances related to both time and spatial variables. In

particular, the spatial error estimate is obtained by comparing The bridge and moving load dimensioning is selected in

the solution to another one computed on a coarser spatial mesh, accordance with the values utilized in practical applications

but assuming the same time step. This gives an estimate of the and due mainly to both structural and economical factors.

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1171

Table 3

Percentage errors of midspan vertical displacement and bending moment

dynamic amplification factors (ΦV , Φ M ) between the moving force model

(MFM), standard acceleration (SA) and proposed results for different

normalized speed parameters (θ )

θ ΦV ΦM

Error % SA Error MFM % Error SA % Error MFM %

0.02 0.37 0.51 0.87 0.21

0.04 1.16 3.54 1.58 21.93

0.05 5.11 6.40 2.59 33.64

0.07 9.24 10.60 11.15 33.87

0.09 2.42 11.25 18.23 39.69

0.11 4.65 20.74 38.32 52.41

0.13 19.17 31.34 37.58 42.87

stiffness, allowable cable stress and moving load characteristics

are assumed as equal to the following representative values:

σa /E = 7200/2.1 × 106 , K p /g = 50, (52)

p/g = [0.5 − 1], ζ0 = [0 − 2].

Fig. 4. Midspan vertical displacement dynamic impact factor (ΦV ) vs normal-

In order to evaluate the influence of both mass schematiza- ized speed parameter (θ ).

tion and moving system speed, comparisons in terms of the

dynamic amplification factors (DAFs) have been proposed in

Figs. 4–7. In particular, the actual solution has been compared

with numerical results based on the following assumptions:

(1) Inertial description of the moving system completely

neglected, i.e. p 6= 0, ζ = 0, namely the moving force

model (MFM).

(2) Inertial description of the moving system neglected with

respect to non-standard inertial forces, i.e. p 6= 0, ζ 6= 0,

f 2 = 0, 2θ V˙ 0 = θ 2 V 00 = 0, namely Standard Analysis

(SA).

The proposed results do not agree with those arising from the

SA, especially at high speed of the moving system, where it

has been shown that non-standard terms in the acceleration

function provide notable amplifications in both kinematic

and stress variables. Moreover the comparisons between the

proposed formulation and those concerning the MFM are not

in agreement in wide ranges of the speed parameter. However,

for reduced values of moving system speed, i.e. θ → 0,

the results arising from the dynamic and static solutions are

practically coincident and, consequently, the influence of the

mass schematization becomes negligible. In order to quantify

numerically the influence of the inertial effects of the moving Fig. 5. Bending moment dynamic impact factor (Φ M ) vs normalized speed

system, the percentage errors between the SA and the MFM and parameter (θ).

the proposed formulation have been reported in Table 3. Finally,

in Figs. 4 and 5, dynamic amplification variability with respect structural and practical conditions, which guarantee stability

to the speed parameter for different intensity ratios between live of the anchor stays, avoiding excessive steel quantity amount

and self-weight loads, are proposed. in the cable system [16–18]. The DAFs for both bending

In Tables 4 and 5, the influence of the geometric ratios of moments and displacements generally grow for increasing

the bridge, i.e. L/l and l/H , on the DAFs is investigated at ratios between the central span and the height of the pylons,

fixed speed of the moving system and relative girder stiffness, because of the most greater deformability of the structural

(i.e. εω = 0.2, θ = 0.10. In particular, the bridge geometry is system. However, the impact factors based on the bending

assumed to verify well-known design rules derived from both moments are quite dependent from the geometric aspect

1172 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

Table 4

Dynamic amplification factors for midspan vertical displacement (ΦV ) vs geometric bridge ratios L/l and H/L

L/H = 4 L/H = 5 L/H = 6 L/H = 4 L/H = 5 L/H = 6

2.75 1.308 1.356 1.390 1.25 1.29 1.35

3.00 1.282 1.332 1.378 1.20 1.25 1.32

3.50 1.235 1.304 1.374 1.16 1.22 1.32

Table 5

Dynamic amplification factors for midspan bending moment (Φ M ) vs geometric bridge ratios L/l and H/L

L/H = 4 L/H = 5 L/H = 6 L/H = 4 L/H = 5 L/H = 6

2.75 1.903 2.394 3.094 1.464 1.855 2.590

3.00 1.664 2.280 2.908 1.431 1.727 2.407

3.50 1.563 1.906 2.583 1.588 1.821 2.262

Fig. 6. Anchor stay dynamic impact factor (Φσ0 ) vs normalized speed Fig. 7. Longest centre span stay dynamic impact factor (Φσ ) vs normalized

parameter (θ). speed parameter (θ).

Moreover, at fixed L/H , the DAFs for vertical displacements tendency to decrease with an oscillating behaviour and some

are quite unaffected by the ratio between the main and central local peaks in curve development. The inertial effects produce

spans, because the cable system stiffness remains practically considerable amplifications in both the displacement and stress

constant during the analyses. variables, especially, for low values of the bridge size parameter

The relationship between the DAFs and bridge size is a. Moreover, results concerning the MFM determine notable

investigated in Figs. 8 and 9. In typical allowable ranges underestimates in both stress and displacement DAFs.

of the a parameter, the DAFs, related to cinematic and In Figs. 10 and 11, the dynamic behaviour of the bridge

stress bridge variables, are analysed for an external moving is investigated with respect to the dimensionless parameter

system with a constant speed advance and different loading ε F , which defines the normalized stiffness of the girder with

lengths (namely c = 120 m/s, L p1,2 = 500, 1000 m, respect to the cable system. In particular, the analysis has

M p σg /µK = 2.3). The comparisons are proposed to been developed at a constant speed of the moving system

investigate the effect of the external moving mass on the and for different values of the bridge size parameter, namely

dynamic bridge vibrations. In particular, the results show a a = (0.1, 0.2), emphasizing the influence of the external

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1173

Fig. 8. Midspan displacement dynamic impact factor (ΦV ) vs bridge size Fig. 10. Midspan displacement dynamic impact factor (ΦV ) vs relative girder

parameter (a). stiffness parameter (ε F ).

Fig. 9. Bending moment dynamic impact factor (Φ M ) vs bridge size parameter

stiffness parameter (ε F ).

(a).

moving mass description on the dynamic behaviour of the ε F parameter, in which the bridge structure is basically more

bridge. As a matter of fact, the actual solution is compared flexible and, mainly, dominated by the cable-stayed system.

to the case in which the inertial effects of the train loads In contrast, for high values of ε F , corresponding to girder-

have not been accounted for. The dynamic bridge behaviour dominated bridge structures, the effects of the inertial forces

appears to be quite sensitive to the external mass description, of the moving system are notably reduced.

and underestimates of the dynamic impact factors are noted The dynamic bridge behaviour is analysed with respect to

if the travelling mass has not been properly evaluated. The eccentric loads, which involve both flexural and torsional de-

major amplification effects are noted for low ranges of the formations. In particular, in order to evaluate the amplification

1174 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

Fig. 12. Midspan torsional rotation dynamic impact factors (Φω ) vs normalized

speed parameter (θ ) for HST. Fig. 14. Midspan torsional rotation dynamic impact factors (Φω ) vs relative

girder stiffness (εω ) parameter for AST-HST.

Fig. 13. Midspan torsional rotation dynamic impact factors (Φω ) vs normalized

speed parameter (θ) for AST.

effects produced by moving loads for bridge structures based Fig. 15. Maximum normalized displacement (ω) vs relative girder stiffness

(εω ) parameter for AST-HST.

on both “A” and “H” shaped towers (namely AST, HST), a sen-

sitivity analysis has been developed. The results are presented determine an intensification of the DAFs. In contrast, in Fig. 13,

in term of maximum normalized torsional rotation and rela- the AST denotes a smaller dependence on the loading strip

tive DAF produced by the moving load application, at midspan length and the moving mass schematization. This behaviour

girder cross section, i.e. X = 0. can be explained due to the fact that the AST typologies show,

In Figs. 12 and 13, the effects of mass distribution of the generally, greater stiffness with respect to the HST ones, which

moving system for both AST and HST is investigated in terms strongly reduce dynamic amplifications, and as a result the

of midspan torsional rotation for different values of the loading effects of the moving mass becomes negligible.

strip length L p . In particular, in Fig. 12, for the HST typology, In Figs. 14 and 15, sensitivity analyses of DAFs and

dynamic amplification displays a tendency to grow especially maximum normalized torsional rotation, i.e. Φω and ω = θ/ pe

for reduced ratios of loading application length and central respectively, with respect to girder torsional stiffness parameter,

bridge span. Moreover, the inertial forces of the moving system εω , are proposed. The comparisons reported in Fig. 14, denote

D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177 1175

significant differences between the AST and HST typologies

are noted.

Similar results have been proposed in Figs. 16 and 17,

in which sensitivity analyses have been developed in terms

of the bridge size parameter a. In particular, in Fig. 16, the

effects of moving mass description have been investigated,

emphasizing the influence of the inertial forces of the moving

system on the DAFs. The comparisons denote that with respect

to the HST, the AST are subject to major amplification effects.

Moreover, DAFs are strictly dependent on inertial forces of

the moving system, because solutions arising from the MFM

greatly underestimate the dynamic response of the bridge for

both AST and HST. Finally, in Fig. 17, normalized torsional

rotations have been compared in terms of pylon typology. The

results show a tendency to increase for increasing values of the

bridge size parameter a, and as with previous results, the AST

with respect to the HST typology shows smaller displacements

in the whole investigation range.

Fig. 16. Midspan torsional rotation dynamic impact factors (Φω ) vs bridge size 5. Conclusions

parameter (a) for AST-HST.

Long span bridges under moving loads have been analysed

for both flexural and torsional deformation modes, in terms

of dynamic impact factors for typical kinematic and stress

variables of the bridge. The effects of the inertial description

of the moving system on the dynamic bridge behaviour have

been investigated, by means of a parametric study developed

in terms of both moving loads and bridge characteristics.

The influence of the inertial forces are considerable, while

those corresponding to non-standard contributions arising from

Coriolis and centripetal accelerations determine the major

amplifications, mainly at high speeds of the moving system.

The inertial effects of the moving system have been discussed

with respect to typical geometrical and stiffness parameters of

the bridge, emphasizing the amplification effects produced by

the inertial forces of the moving system. For eccentric loads,

sensitivity analyses have been developed in terms of dynamic

impact factors and maximum normalized displacements with

respect to both “A” and “H” shaped tower typologies. In

the framework of the “A” shaped tower typologies, the

coupling behaviour between torsional and transversal flexural

deformations has been discussed. In particular, the influence of

Fig. 17. Maximum displacement (ω) vs bridge size parameter (a) for AST- the transverse displacements has been investigated, by means

HST. of sensitivity analyses. This establishes that, for an in-plane

loading condition, the effect of transverse deformability on

that DAFs for AST are generally greater than the corresponding the dynamic behaviour of the bridge is practically negligible.

ones obtained for bridges based on HST. This behaviour can Moreover, numerical results have shown that, in comparisons

be explained in view of the enhanced stiffness properties of with the “H” shaped tower topology, the “A” shaped ones,

AST, which although reducing bridge deformations means an even if having greater dynamic amplification factors, are

intensification of the dynamic impact factors. Moreover, for characterized by enhanced stiffness properties, which are able

increasing values of εω , which basically correspond to girder- to efficiently reduce torsional bridge deformation.

dominated bridge structures, the dynamic impact factors are The investigation is developed in terms of the main

practically unaffected by the shape of the towers. dimensionless parameters related to both geometric and

In Fig. 15, comparisons in terms of normalized torsional stiffness properties of the bridge. As a result, a parametric

rotations for both “A” and “H” shaped tower typologies have study may be useful in the design procedure since the dynamic

been reported. The results show a tendency to decrease for impact factors for typical deformation and stress variables can

increasing values of girder stiffness. The dynamic solution be determined in advance.

1176 D. Bruno et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1160–1177

Appendix A E S∗ A S

qvL = v · sin3 α − (u L − u) · sin2 α cos α

H ∆

Eg

In order to simplify the presentation of the dynamic = (V · ϕ − (U L − U ) · ϕ1 ) (B.4)

equilibrium equations in dimensionless formulation, the σg

following relationships have been utilized: E ∗ AS

qv R = S v · sin3 α − (u R + u) · sin2 α cos α

Lp

H ∆

f 1 = H (τ θ − X 1 ) H X 1 + − τθ , (A.1) Eg

H = (V · ϕ − (U L + U ) · ϕ1 ) (B.5)

σg

Lp

ρ = λH x1 + L p − ct H (ct − x1 )

f 2 = δ (τ θ − X 1 ) H X 1 + − τθ

H

Lp

= λH X 1 + − τ ϑ H (τ ϑ − X 1 )

Lp (B.6)

− δ X1 + − τ θ H (τ θ − X 1 ) , (A.2) H

H

Eg 1/2 λ

ϕ (X ) ρ̇ = δ X1 +

Lp

− τ ϑ H (τ ϑ − X 1 )

1 1 L µHσg ϑ H

* − ≤ X ≤ 0, Lp

1 + aX 1 + X2

2 H − H X1 + − τ ϑ δ (τ ϑ − X 1 ) . (B.7)

= 1 1 L (A.3) H

, 0 ≤ X ≤ ,

L

1 + a 2H

2

− X 1+ L

−X

2 H By substituting Eqs. (B.4)–(B.7) in Eq. (21), and taking into

2H account Eqs. (B.1)–(B.3), the following equation is obtained:

ϕ1 (X )

∂2V σg I I V

1 X L − − V − H (X ) (V · ϕ − (U L + U ) · ϕ1 )

*

2 2

, − ≤ X ≤ 0, ∂τ 2 gH3

1 + aX 1 + X H

= L

L (A.4) − H (−X ) (V · ϕ − (U L − U ) · ϕ1 )

1 2H − X

2 2 , 0 ≤ X ≤ , λ

Lp

L

1 + a 2H − X 1 + 2H L

−X H − δ X1 + − τ ϑ H (τ ϑ − X 1 )

µϑ H

ϕ2 (X )

Lp

1 X2 L − H X1 + − τ ϑ δ (τ ϑ − X 1 ) V̇

* , − ≤ X ≤ 0, H

1 + aX 1 + X2

2

2 H λ

Lp

= L (A.5) − H X1 + − τ ϑ H (τ ϑ − X 1 )

1 2H − X L

µϑ

2 2 , 0 ≤ X ≤ , H

L

1 + a 2H − X 1 + 2HL

−X H

∂ V

2

× + 2ϑ 0

V̇ + ϑ 2 00

V + p f1

with X 1 = x1 /H . ∂τ 2

σg

+ δ (X + L/2H ) + δ (x − L/2H ) λv

· V = 0,

Appendix B Eg

(B.8)

Starting from Eqs. (28)–(31), the following expressions can and taking into account Eqs. (28)–(31) and Eqs. (A.1) and

be determined: (A.2), Eq. (32) is finally determined.

∂v ∂ V ∂τ Eg 1/2

=H = H V̇ , References

∂t ∂τ ∂t µH σg

(B.1) [1] Fryba L. Vibration of solids and structures under moving loads. London:

∂ 2v ∂2V

Eg Thomas Telford; 1999.

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∂t 2 ∂τ µH σg

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∂v ∂V ∂ X ∂ 2v 1 ∂2V [3] Yang YB, Liao SS, Lin BH. Impact formulas for vehicles moving over

1

=H = V 0, = = V 00 . . . simple and continuous beams. J Struct Eng 1995;121(11):1644–50.

∂x ∂ X ∂x ∂x 2 H ∂ X2 H [4] Lei X, Noda NA. Analyses of dynamic response of vehicle and track

(B.2)

∂ 4v 1 ∂4V 1 IV coupling system with random irregularity of track vertical profile. J Sound

= 3 = 3V Vibration 2002;258(1):147–65.

∂x4 H ∂ X4 H [5] Roeder CW, Barth KE, Bergman A. Effect of live-load deflections on steel

bridge performance. J Bridge Eng 2004;9(3):259–67.

∂ 2v Eg 1/2 Eg H 1/2

= V̇ 0 , c= ϑ. (B.3) [6] Warburton GB. The dynamical behavior of structures. Oxford: Pergamon;

∂t∂ x µH σg µσg 1976.

[7] Wiriyachai A, Chu KH, Garg VK. Bridge impact due to wheel and track

Moreover, in view of Eqs. (B.1) and (B.3) and Eqs. irregularities. J Eng Mech Div 1982;108:648–65.

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