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MSC-TA-R -67-2
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

INTERIM REPORT

MANNED SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIlVIENTS
GEMINI XI MISSION

September 12-15, 1966

-

(NASA-TH-X- 74348) MANNED SPACE PLIGHT EXPERIHENTS : GEHINI 11 1ISSION Interim R e p o r t , 12- 15 Sep. 1976 (NASA) 137 p
'

N 77-73 238

00/98

Unclas 16358

... ............... ............... ............... .. ............... ................ .............. ..

INTERIM REPORT
MANNED SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIMNTS

G E M I N I X I MISSION September 12 t o
8,

1 5 , 1966

Prepared by:

Mission and Data Management O f f i c e Science and A p p l i c a t i o n s D i r e c t o r a t e

Approved :

Wilmot N . Hess Director Science and A p p l i c a t i o n s D i r e c t o r a t e

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center Houston , Texas May

1967

iii
CONTENTS

Section
INTRODUCTION

Page

I

I
I d

1. EXPERIMENT ~ 0 0 3 ,MASSDETERMINATION
2.

I

I

EXPERIMENT ~015, NIGHT
EXPERlMENT ~ 0 1 6 ,POWER

I f

3.

............ ....... IMAGE INTENSIFICATION TOOL EVALUATION . . . . . . . . . .

9
17 35

4.
5.

EXPERIMENT SO&, RADIATION AND ZERO-G EFFECTS ON BLOOD AT\SDNEuROSPORA EXPERIMENT S005,

..................... SYNOPTIC TERRAIN PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . .

45

67 75
83
93
105

6.
7.
8.

EXPERIMENT s006, SYNOPTIC WEATHER PHOTOGFAPHY
EXPERDENT

EXPERIMENT
EXPER= EXPERWT

9.

....... soog, NUCLEAR EMULSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . S O U , AIRGLOW HORIZON PHOTOGMPHY . . . . . . . s013, ULTRAVIOLET ASTRONOMICAL CAMERA . . . . .
s 0 2 6 , ION-WAKE

io.

m a s m

...........
.......

117
131

11. EXPER~MENT s030, DIM SKY PHOTOGRAPHS/ORTHICON
DISTRIBUTION L I S T

........................

137

iv
TABLES

Table

Page

I
I1
2-1

....... ...... MPERIMESJT F L I G H T PLAN FOR GEMINI X I . ...... FLIGHT PIAN FOR EXPERIMENT ~015 . . . . ......
EXPERIMEf\JTS OR GEMINI X I RESULTS OF GEMINI X I SO& ABERRATION ANALYS I S

2

4 27

4-1 4-11
9-1

................

BLOOD EXPERIMENT CHROMOSOME

59
60

C O E F F I C D N T S OF ABERRATION PRODUCTION FOR GEMINI X I SO& BLOOD EXPERIMENT

................... EXPERIMENT so13 INFLIGHT EXPOSURES . . . . . . . . . . .

109

V

FIGURES Figure Page Experiment D003, mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n ( t e l e m e t r y method). Experiment Experiment

1-1
2-1 2-2 2-3

.. ...... .. .... . ... . .. .. D O 1 5 equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DO15 equipment l o c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . ... ......

14
28 29

Comparison o f DO15 experiment d a t a r e c o r d of Calc u t t a , I n d i a , w i t h t h e map l o c a t i o n of same a r e a C o a s t l i n e s of w e s t e r n A f r i c a and Saudi Arabia

30 31

2-4 2-5

C o a s t l i n e of Somalia Republic, a c o u n t r y i n e a s t e r n Africa , Comparison o f DO15 experiment d a t a r e c o r d of Istmo dos T i g r e s w i t h map l o c a t i o n of same a r e a

.......... .............
. . . . . ..

31

2-6
2-7 2-8 2-9

32

Cloud f o r m a t i o n i l l u m i n a t e d by a l i g h t n i n g f l a s h
L i g h t s of v i l l a g e s and c i t i e s i n A f r i c a

.... .. . .. .. . . .... .... .... . . . .
. . . .

33

33

I l l u m i n a t i o n e f f e c t on clouds caused by l o c a l l i g h t ningflashes Earth Power Power

2-10 3-1 3-2 3-3

.............. h o r i z o n , a i r g l o w , and s t a r f i e l d . . t o o l equipment i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . . t o o l i n t e r n a l drawings . . . . . . .

Simplified Power t o o l

3-4

4-1
4-2

Blood c e l l

.. . . .. .. drawings of impactor assembly o p e r a t i o n . . . o p e r a t i o n a l concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Neurospora experiment equipment . . . . . . . .

34
34
40

41
42 43

61

The SO04 experiment mounted on t h e Gemini X I l e f t hand h a t c h , s h o r t l y a f t e r r e c o v e r y of s p a c e c r a f t The SO04 Neurospora device mounted on i n b o a r d s i d e o f r i g h t f o o t w e l l of Gemini X I s p a c e c r a f t

62 63

4-3

......

vi
Figure Page Dose-effect c u r v e s f o r s u r v i v a l i n f l i g h t and ground samples o f SO04 Neurospora Dose-effect c u r v e s f o r forward-mutation i n t h e ad-3 r e g i o n f o r f l i g h t and ground samples of SO04 Neur o s p o r a Dose-effect c u r v e s f o r ad-3 m u t a t i o n s due t o i n t r a genic a l t e r a t i o n s (ad-3R) some d e l e t i o n (ad-31R) X-rays and gene l o s s by chromo-

4-4

...............

64

4- 5

.......................

65

I

4-6

V

5-1

Typical

......................... s y n o p t i c t e r r a i n photography . . . . . . . . . . .
.........................

a f t e r exposure t o 250 kV

66
69

6-1

Southern I n d i a photographed on r e v o l u t i o n 26 w i t h t h e 80-mm f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s on t h e Maurer 70 camera Southern I n d i a and Ceylon photographed on revolut i o n 26 w i t h t h e 38-mm wide-angle l e n s on t h e Hasselblad camera

79

6-2

...................
.........

80

6- 3
6- 4

A montage of t e l e v i s e d p i c t u r e s from ESSA 1 weather s a t e l l i t e o f s o u t h e r n I n d i a and Ceylon

81

Southern I n d i a and Ceylon, a t t h e upper l e f t , photographed on r e v o l u t i o n 27 w i t h t h e 80-1t~1l e n s on t h e Maurer camera Experiment

7-1
7- 2 7- 3 7- 4

..................... f l i g h t hardware c o n f i g u r a t i o n . . . . . . . . .

02

a8
89
90

D i s t p i b u t i o n o f a r r i v a l t i m e s o f heavy primary n u c l e i nuclei Charge Charge

......................... ( z ) e s t i m a t i o n from i o n i z a t i o n l o s s . . . . . . . . spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.............

91 99
100 101

8- 1
8-2

I n d i v i d u a l and combined t r a n s m i t t a n c e s o f l e n s f i l t e r and f o c a l p l a n e f i l t e r s

Maurer camera i n f / 0 . 9 5 c o n f i g u r a t i o n w i t h r e f l e x sight Camera

0- 3

......................... a t t a c h e d t o window b r a c k e t . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

Figure

Page Ten-second exposure looking n o r t h Ten-second exposure looking s o u t h

8- 4 8- 5

. .. . .... ....

102

............

103
104

8-6
9-1 9- 2 9- 3 9- 4
10-1 10-2

.............. Middle-ultravio1et.spectru-n of Canopus . . . . . . . . . Comparative s p e c t r a o f Canopus and S i r i u s . . . . . . . .
U l t r a v i o l e t s p e c t r a of hot s t a r s i n c o n s t e l l a t i o n Scorpius

Four-second exposure without l e n s f i l t e r , l o o k i n g eastward o v e r South A f r i c a

113

114
115

..... . . . ....

...........

U l t r a v i o l e t objective-prism s p e c t r a o f t h e s t a r s i n c o n s t e l l a t i o n Orion P a r t i c l e f l u x e s t o s a t e l l i t e i n t h e lower ionosphere

... .. .. . .... .. ....

116
123

......................
.. ... .. ..

Curves of c o n s t a n t p a r t i c l e d e n s i t y i n t h e r a r e f a c t i o n r e g i o n behind a c i r c u l a r c r o s s s e c t i o n f o r a Mach no. of 8 . Experiment so26 equipment l o c a t i o n on GATV T a r g e t Docking Adapter

..........

.

124

10-3
10-4

.................... .. ................

125

E l e c t r o n and i o n s e n s o r c u r r e n t o u t p u t d u r i n g t e t h e r e d flightat29Okm , Ion-wake measurement during n i g h t o u t - o f - o r b i t a l p l a n e maneuver

126

10-5

.................... ..................

127

10-6
10-7

Ion-wake measurement during n i g h t i n - o r b i t a l p l a n e maneuver ,

....

128
129

Ion-wake measurement during d a y l i g h t o u t - o f - o r b i t a l p l a n e maneuver Ion-wake measurement during l i n e a r d e p a r t u r e maneuver Airglow and

....................

10-8
11-1

....................... star f i e l d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . .

130

135

INTERIM REPORT
MANNED SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS GEMINI X I MISSION

INTRODUCTION T h i s c o m p i l a t i o n of p a p e r s c o n s t i t u t e s an i n t e r i m r e p o r t on t h e r e s u l t s of manned s p a c e f l i g h t experiments conducted on t h e Gemini X I mission. Manned space f l i g h t experiments conducted on e a r l i e r f l i g h t s have been p u b l i s h e d i n similar i n t e r i m r e p o r t s which are a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t from t h e Mission and Data Management O f f i c e , S c i e n c e and Applic a t i o n s D i r e c t o r a t e , Code TF2, Houston, Texas.

Twelve s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l experiments were o r i g i n a l l y planned f o r t h e Gemini I X mission. A f t e r a 3-day d e l a y , t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n l i f t o f f o c c u r r e d a t 8:05:02 a . m . e a s t e r n s t a n d a r d t i m e ( e . s . t . ) on September 1 2 , 1966, w i t h s p a c e c r a f t touchdown a t 71 h o u r s 17 minutes 8 seconds ground elapsed t i m e ( g . e . t . ) on September 1 5 , 1966. The Gemini Agena Target V e h i c l e was launched a t 6:28 e . s . t . on Septemb e r 1 2 , 1966. The 3-day d e l a y e d launch r e s u l t e d i n c a n c e l l a t i o n of t h e SO29 L i b r a t i o n Regions Photography experiment because t h e earth-moon l i b r a t i o n r e g i o n s became obscured by t h e Milky Way s t a r background, prev e n t i n g t h e experiment from meeting i t s b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s . Table I l i s t s t h e 1 scheduled experiments i n alphanumeric o r d e r , and shows t h e exper1 iment t i t l e , sponsoring agency, p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , and q u a l i t a t i v e s u c c e s s on t h i s m i s s i o n . The a c t u a l s c h e d u l e of experiment a c t i v i t i e s shown i n t a b l e 11, w a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e p r e f l i g h t p l a n , onboard v o i c e t a p e s , m i s s i o n n o t e s , crew f l i g h t l o g s , and s c i e n t i f i c d e b r i e f i n g s .
Analyses o f a v a i l a b l e photographic and t e l e m e t r y d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t 1 t h e fundamental o b j e c t i v e s were o b t a i n e d f o r 9 of t h e 1 scheduled experi m e n t s . The ~ 0 1 6 Power- Tool E v a l u a t i o n experiment w a s not a t t e m p t e d bec a u s e o f premature $ e r m i n a t i o n of t h e u m b i l i c a l e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ( E V A ) . The SO30 D i m Sky Photographs/Orthicon experiment w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y performed; however, o n l y one o f t h e s e v e r a l scheduled a c t i v i t i e s w a s p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y recorded.
C

I
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I

I
I

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9
1. EXPERIMENT D003, NASS DETERMINATION

by Rudolph J . Hamborsky Department of t h e A i r Force Detachment 2 Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center

SUMMARY
The accuracy of u s i n g a d i r e c t c o n t a c t method w i t h a s p a c e c r a f t t o determine t h e mass of an o r b i t i n g o b j e c t (Gemini Agena Target V e h i c l e ) w a s e v a l u a t e d . Two methods f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e ' m a s s of t h e Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) were used. The Astronaut Method w a s accomplished by t h e f l i g h t crew i n r e a l time using d a t a c o l l e c t e d onboard and t h e Telemetry Method w a s .accomplished a f t e r t h e f l i g h t u s i n g t e l e m e t r y d a t a . The r e s u l t s of b o t h methods of c a l c u l a t i o n were compared t o t h e i t e r a t e d m a s s of t h e GATV. For t h e time of t h e mass-determination t r a n s l a t i o n maneuver, t h e weight of t h e G A T V w a s e s t i m a t e d as 7268 pounds. Using t h i s v a l u e as a s t a n d a r d , t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r i n determining mass by t h e Astronaut Method i s 7.6 p e r c e n t and t h e e r r o r u s i n g t e l e m e t r y d a t a i s approximately 4.9 p e r c e n t . However, some of t h e v e h i c l e weight v a l u e s used i n c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o adjustment u n t i l s t a t i s t i c a l sampling i s accomplished. Both methods appear t o be f e a s i b l e .

OBJECTIVE

The o b j e c t i v e of t h e D003'Mass Determination experiment was t o e v a l u a t e t h e accuracy of u s i n g a d i r e c t c o n t a c t method w i t h a s p a c e c r a f t t o determine t h e mass of an o r b i t i n g o b j e c t . The method c o n s i s t e d of a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) u s i n g t h e Gemini spacec r a f t p r o p u l s i o n system. The mass of t h e GATV was c a l c u l a t e d from t h e r e s u l t a n t a c c e l e r a t i o n , updated s p a c e c r a f t mass, and c a l i b r a t e d t h r u s t l e v e l s of t h e v e h i c l e s . EQUIPMENT

N s p e c i a l equipment was r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s experiment; however, t h e o f o l l o w i n g s p a c e c r a f t equipment was used.

(a) periods

Computer:

Computed v e l o c i t y change ( A V ) d u r i n g t h e t h r u s t i n g

10
(b)

Manual Data I n s e r t i o n U n i t :

Displayed AV

( c ) Time Reference System: I n d i c a t e d t o t h e crew and r e c o r d e d t h r o u g h t e l e m e t r y t h e e v e n t t i m e i n ground e l a p s e d t i m e ( d ) O r b i t a l A t t i t u d e and Maneuver System (OAMS): r e q u i r e d s p a c e c r a f t maneuvers Used t o perform

(e)
ment s

I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n System:

Provided s t a n d a r d t e l e m e t r y measure-

(f)
data

Voice t a p e r e c o r d e r :

Used by f l i g h t crew t o r e c o r d experiment

PROCEDURES

T h i s experiment w a s performed u s i n g s t a n d a r d s p a c e c r a f t p r o c e d u r e s ; t h e r e f o r e , a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g w a s n o t r e q u i r e d by t h e crew. A c a l i b r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s f i r s t r e q u i r e d so t h a t t h e t h r u s t of t h e a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s c o u l d be a c c u r a t e l y determined. A massd e t e r m i n a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Gemini spacecraft/GATV i n t h e docked c o n f i g u r a t i o n w a s t h e n r e q u i r e d t o complete t h e experiment. Because of o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n w a s performed e a r l y i n t h e m i s s i o n (1:55:29.3 g . e . t . ) a f t e r t h e f i r s t docking. The c a l i b r a t i o n maneuver w a s accomplished l a t e r (54:37:28.1 g . e . t . ) a f t e r t h e s p a c e c r a f t had been s e p a r a t e d from t h e GATV. The planned procedure w a s t h a t , a f t e r docking, t h e spacecraft/GATV combination was t o b e t h r u s t e d f o r 25 seconds w i t h t h e a f t - f i r i n g OAMS t h r u s t e r s . The f i r s t 18 seconds of t h e t h r u s t i n g a s s u r e d t h a t a minimum GATV f u e l motion would occur d u r i n g t h e subsequent 7-second measurement p e r i o d . The average a c c e l e r a t i o n w a s t o b e determined over t h i s 7-second p e r i o d and i s d e r i v e d by measuring i n c r e m e n t a l v e l o c i t y ( A V ) and t h r u s t ing t i m e (AT) intervals. The mass o f t h e GATV w a s t o b e computed from

I

where

MA
C

= GATV mass, s l u g s

F

C

= maneuvering t h r u s t of t h e s p a c e c r a f t , lb

A t = measured t h r u s t i n g t i m e i n t e r v a l , sec AV = measured incremental v e l o c i t y , f t / s e c

MG = Gemini s p a c e c r a f t mass, s l u g s
C

The g r e a t e s t e r r o r i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n would normally a r i s e from v a r i a b l e o r unknown t h r u s t e r o u t p u t ; t h e r e f o r e , i n f l i g h t crew e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t OAMS t h r u s t was r e q u i r e d p r i o r t o docking. This v a l u e f o r Fc w a s used i n t h e GATV mass computations.

Two methods f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e mass of t h e GATV were t o b e employed. The Astronaut Method w a s t o be accomplished by t h e f l i g h t crew i n r e a l t i m e u s i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d onboard. The Telemetry Method w a s t o be accomp l i s h e d a f t e r t h e f l i g h t u s i n g t e l e m e t r y d a t a . The r e s u l t s of b o t h methods of c a l c u l a t i o n were t o be compared w i t h t h e mass o f t h e GATV determined from t h e known i n s e r t i o n weight and t h e consumption of expendables. Due t o t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e f l i g h t crew d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r b o t h methods were a c t u a l l y accomplished p o s t f l i g h t .

( a ) Astronaut Method: The Manual Data I n s e r t i o n Unit ( M D I U ) i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s used f o r t h e A t measurement. The A V . w a s a v a i l a b l e w i t h 0 . 1 f t / s e c r e s o l u t i o n and A t had e r r o r s of l e s s t h a n 0 . 2 second. The crew computed t h e t h r u s t , m a s s , and updated m a s s u s i n g t h e s e i n f l i g h t d a t a . The crew performed t h e predocking p a r t of t h e experiment by t h r u s t i n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t f o r 7-seconds w i t h t h e a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s , measuri n g t h e AV and A t , and t h e n computing %e maneuvering t h r u s t based on updated s p a c e c r a f t mass and t h e measured parameters. After docking and r i g i d i z i n g t h e spacecraft/GATV combination, t h e crew t h r u s t e d w i t h t h e OAMS and a c t i v a t e d t h e event timer t o commence t h e mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n phase of t h e experiment. The crew monitored a countdown t o 7-seconds, t h e n a c t i v a t e d t h e computer f o r t h e AV c a l c u l a t i o n over t h e 7-second p e r i o d . When t h e timer reached zero, t h e crew stopped t h r u s t i n g . The crew t h e n computed an updated s p a c e c r a f t mass and used t h i s v a l u e , w i t h t h e computed predocking v a l u e of t h e maneuvering t h r u s t and t h e measured AV and A t , f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e GATV v e h i c l e mass.
( b ) Telemetry Method: An independent a n a l y s i s w a s accomplished a f t e r t h e m i s s i o n , u s i n g t e l e m e t r y d a t a as shown i n f i g u r e 1-1. T h i s method employed t h e same equation as t h e Astronaut Method, b u t t h e AV w a s o b t a i n e d from computer t e l e m e t r y d a t a and A t through t h e Time Reference System (TRS). The v a l u e s of AV and A t were a v a i l a b l e w i t h r e s o l u t i o n s of 0 . 1 f t / s e c and 0.125 of a second, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Using t h e s e d a t a systems, t h e v a l u e s o f AV and A t were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e undocked and
I

12 t h e docked phases of t h e experiment. Mass u p d a t i n g d a t a , i n c l u d i n g prop e l l a n t consumption and environmental oxygen consumption, were used i n u p d a t i n g t h e mass of t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t h e midpoint of b o t h maneuvers and i n updating t h e GATV mass a t t h e midpoint of t h e mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n maneuver. P o s t f l i g h t comparisons were t h e n made w i t h t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e Astronaut Method of mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n .

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

During t h e c a l i b r a t i o n maneuver, t h e assumed s p a c e c r a f t weight, based on prelaunch c o n d i t i o n s and consumables expended p r i o r t o t h e manFor t h e c a l i b r a t i o n maneuver, u s i n g t h e Astroe u v e r , w a s 7402 pounds. n a u t Method, forward t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h t h e OAMS a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s l a s t e d The t h r u s t 1 seconds and r e s u l t e d i n a v e l o c i t y change of 9.8 f t / s e c . 1 c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e s e v a l u e s , assuming a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y t o be 32.17 f t / s e c / s e c , w a s 205.0 pounds. Using t h e Telemetry Method, t h e f i r i n g t i m e w a s a c t u a l l y 1 1 . 2 seconds and t h e a c t u a l v e l o c i t y change w a s 9.71 f t / s e c . The t h r u s t c a l c u l a t e d from t h e t e l e m e t r y v a l u e s w a s 200.4 pounds. These v a l u e s compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e nominal v a l u e o f 189 pounds t h r u s t c i t e d i n DOD/NASA Gemini Experiments Study, MAC Report SSD-TDR-63-406 , J a n u a r y 1964. During t h e mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n maneuver i n t h e docked c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e OAMS a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s were f i r e d f o r 25 seconds. The f i r s t 18 seconds were used o n l y t o minimize t h e e f f e c t s of p r o p e l l a n t s l o s h i n t h e GATV. The t h r e e - a x i s v e l o c i t y changes d u r i n g t h e subsequent 7-second p e r i o d were t h e n recorded. The r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y change o b t a i n e d was 2.9 f t / s e c . Using t h e c a l i b r a t e d t h r u s t of 205.0 pounds, assuming a s p a c e c r a f t weight of 7881 pounds, t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y , and t h e measured v a l u e s of AV and A t , t h e weight of t h e GATV w a s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e Astronaut Method t o be 7820 pounds. For t h e Telemetry Method, a t h r u s t i n g t i m e of 7 seconds a c t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n a v e l o c i t y change of 3.05 f t / s e c . Using t h e s p a c e c r a f t weight of 7881 pounds, t h e mass of t h e GATV w a s c a l c u l a t e d t o b e 214.9 s l u g s , corresponding t o a weight of 6912 pounds.
I

J

For the t i m e of t h e mass d e t e r m i n a t i o n t r a n s l a t i o n maneuver, t h e weight of t h e GATV w a s e s t i m a t e d as 7268 pounds. Using t h i s v a l u e as a s t a n d a r d , t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g mass by t h e A s t r o n a u t Method i s 7.6 p e r c e n t and t h e e r r o r u s i n g t e l e m e t r y d a t a i s approximately 4.9 p e r c e n t .

It should be noted t h a t some of t h e v e h i c l e weight v a l u e s used i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o a d j u s t m e n t . C a l c u l a t i o n s are v e r y seni t i v e t o p r e c i s e measurements of v e l o c i t y changes and d u r a t i o n of t h r u s t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y over v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d s such as t h o s e employed. Both o f

13 the mass determination methods appear to be feasible; however, neither should be adopted until confirmation by additional statistical samples is accomplished.

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u 111 al

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543726
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:28

:x)

:32

:34

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54:37:46

Ground elapsed lime, hr:min:sec

(a) Calibration maneuver. Figure 1-1.

- Experiment D003, mass determination (telemetry method).

3

2.

EXPERIMENT ~ 0 1 5 ,NIGHT IMAGE INTENSIFICATION

By Thomas J. Shopple, George F. Eck, and Albert R . P r i n c e Naval A i r Development C e n t e r

SUMMARY
T h i s experiment i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a s t r o n a u t s c a p a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e o b j e c t s on t h e ground i n d a r k n e s s can b e i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h use o f n i g h t image i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n equipment. E a r t h geographic features were l o c a t e d and t r a c k e d . The Gemini Agena a c q u i s i t i o n l i g h t w a s a l s o d e t e c t e d u s i n g t h e DO15 equipment. A r e d u c t i o n i n p i c t u r e q u a l i t y occ u r r e d when t h e o p t i c a l axis o f t h e equipment exceeded 20' from t h e n a d i r . A p r o b a b l e c a u s e of t h e d e g r a d a t i o n w a s e a r t h a i r g l o w . Performance of t h e D O 1 5 experiment equipment provided a b a s e l i n e f o r e v a l u a t i o n and d e s i g n of f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f image i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n equipment i n manned space f l i g h t .

OBJECTIVE

The o b j e c t i v e of experiment D O 1 5 w a s t o t e s t t h e ' performance o f a n i g h t image i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n system f o r use as a v i s u a l a i d i n t h e observ a t i o n o f s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s under c o n d i t i o n s o f darkness and w i t h o u t crew d a r k - a d a p t a t i o n .

EQUIPMENT

The experiment equipment c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e b a s i c u n i t s ( f i g . 2-1) which are t h e (1)image i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n camera, ( 2 ) camera c o n t r o l , ( 3 ) viewing m o n i t o r , ( 4 ) r e c o r d i n g monitor and photographic r e c o r d e r , and ( 5 ) monitor e l e c t r o n i c s and equipment c o n t r o l . The camera views an a r e a , t h e n f o c u s e s t h e image on a s e n s o r t h a t c o n v e r t s t h e o p t i c a l image i n t o an e l e c t r o n i c video s i g n a l which i s c a b l e d t o t h e m o n i t o r s . The camera l i n e o f s i g h t i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l axis of t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t and t h e r e f o r e t o t h e l i n e o f s i g h t o f b o t h crewmembers through t h e s p a c e c r a f t windows. The viewing m o n i t o r , r e c o r d i n g m o n i t o r , and t h e photographic r e c o r d e r r e c e i v e t h e

18
v i d e o s i g n a l from t h e camera, reproduce and d i s p l a y t h e scene viewed on cathode r a y tube r e a d o u t s . The r e c o r d i n g monitor d i s p l a y i s photographed when a c t u a t e d by a manual pushbutton switch. A permanent photographic r e c o r d w a s t h u s o b t a i n e d f o r p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s i s . The u n i t l o c a t i o n s o f t h e experiment equipment are shown i n f i g u r e 2-2.
A d e s c r i p t i o n of each u n i t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .

Image I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n Camera The camera o p t i c a l s e n s o r views an area and c o n v e r t s t h e o p t i c a l image i n t o a n e l e c t r i c a l v i d e o s i g n a l which i s c a b l e d t o m o n i t o r s . The camera system c o n t a i n s an o b j e c t i v e l e n s , a l i g h t c o n t r o l and p r o t e c t i v e s h u t t e r assembly, an image i n t e n s i f i e r assembly, an image o r t h i c o n t u b e , a d e f l e c t o r , focus and alinement c o i l assembly, an a m p l i f i e r and regul a t o r assembly, automatic beam c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y , and a v i d e o p r o c e s s o r and r e g u l a t o r assembly. The l i g h t c o n t r o l and p r o t e c t i v e s h u t t e r assembly r e g u l a t e s t h e amount of l i g h t which s t r i k e s t h e photocathode of t h e image i n t e n s i f i e r by movement of a t a p e of v a r y i n g d e n s i t y t h a t p r o v i d e s a c o n s t a n t average b r i g h t n e s s t o t h e photocathode as t h e l i g h t l e v e l changes. T h i s assembly a l s o p l a c e s a s h u t t e r i n t o t h e l i g h t p a t h when l i g h t l e v e l s exceed 1 0 foot-candles as a means of p r o t e c t i n g t h e image i n t e n s i f i e r t u b e from damage. The image i n t e n s i f i e r assembly w a s a 40-mm e l e c t r o s t a t i c t u b e w i t h an S-20 photocathode and P-20 phosphor. The i n t e n s i f i e r i s o p e r a t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t i a l of 20 kV between t h e photocathode and t h e phosphor. The v o l t a g e i s s u p p l i e d by an o s c i l l a t o r and v o l t a g e m u l t i p l i e r assembly which t r a n s f o r m s 20 V dc t o 20 000 V dc. The phosphor o f t h e i n t e n s i f i e r a l s o operated a t -600 V w h i l e t h e i n t e n s i f i e r photocathode i s opera t e d a t -20 000 V. The image o r t h i c o n t u b e was designed t o w i t h s t a n d abnormal environmental c o n d i t i o n s . The t u b e h a s a f i b e r o p t i c f a c e p l a t e and a t h i n - f i l m magnesium oxide t a r g e t . The t u b e i s m a g n e t i c a l l y focused and d e f l e c t e d . The d e f l e c t i o n c o i l assembly c o n s i s t s of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l d e f l e c t i o n ' c o i l s , v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l alinement c o i l s , focus c o i l s , and w i r i n g which p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y of power and s i g n a l s from f r o n t t o t h e rear of t h e camera head.
?

4

The a m p l i f i e r and r e g u l a t o r assembly i n c l u d e s a high-voltage power s u p p l y , t h e image o r t h i c o n g r i d - v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r s , a f o c u s - c u r r e n t regu l a t o r and t h e p r e a m p l i f i e r subassembly. The purpose o f t h e automatic beam c o n t r o l c i r c u i t i s t o i n c r e a s e l i g h t l e v e l dynamic r a n g e of t h e camera by a u t o m a t i c a l l y a d j u s t i n g beam c u r r e n t t o t h e p r o p e r l e v e l t o m a i n t a i n an.optimum t a r g e t c u r r e n t t o beam-current r a t i o . The beam c u r r e n t i s c o n t i n u o u s l y a d j u s t e d t o maximize t h e s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e r a t i o as w e l l as t o i n c r e a s e t h e dynamic opera t i n g r a n g e of t h e c a n e r a . The v i d e o p r o c e s s o r c i r c u i t s p r o v i d e c o n s t a n t amplitude, b a l a n c e d , noncomposite v i d e o t o b o t h t h e viewing monitor and r e c o r d i n g m o n i t o r , and f u r n i s h c o n t r o l s i g n a l s t o t h e a u t o m a t i c l i g h t c o n t r o l assembly. The r e g u l a t o r c i r c u i t s p r o v i d e c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t t o t h e v e r t i c a l and hori z o n t a l alinement c o i l s and r e g u l a t e d dc v o l t a g e s f o r t h e a u t o m a t i c beam control circuits. The camera c o n t r o l u n i t c o n t r o l s t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e t e l e v i s i o n camera by p r o v i d i n g power, timing and g a t i n g s i g n a l s , h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l sweep d r i v e s , and blanking and a u t o m a t i c l i g h t c o n t r o l s i g n a l s . The u n i t a l s o p r o v i d e s power, sync, and d r i v e s i g n a l s f o r b o t h m o n i t o r s . The power supply assembly i s a h i g h e f f i c i e n c y , v a r i a b l e p u l s e width, r e g u l a t e d c o n v e r t e r which u s e s c o n s t a n t i n p u t power and c o n v e r t s a 26 * 4-V dc i n p u t i n t o v a r i o u s dc l e v e l s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e system. The sync g e n e r a t o r assembly p r o v i d e s a l l t h e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n p u l s e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e system. The assembly i s composed o f a c r y s t a l - c o n t r o l l e d o s c i l l a t o r , countdown s t a g e s , l o g i c g a t e s , m u l t i v i b r a t o r s , f l i p - f l o p s , l e v e l t r a n s l a t o r s , and o u t p u t a m p l i f i e r s .

'

A f a i l - s a f e c i r c u i t , l o c a t e d on t h e v e r t i c a l d e f l e c t i o n assembly p r o v i d e s t a r g e t b l a n k i n g and b i a s v o l t a g e s t o t h e image o r t h i c o n t u b e and c u t s o f f t h e image o r t h i c o n t a r g e t t o p r e v e n t damage t o t h e t u b e whenever e i t h e r h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l d r i v e i s l o s t .
The programer assembly provides c o n t r o l s i g n a l s f o r t h e a u t o m a t i c l i g h t c o n t r o l of t h e camera. S i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c i r c u i t s l o c a t e d on t h e programer p r o c e s s t h e image o r t h i c o n t a r g e t b l a n k i n g , v i d e o o u t p u t l e v e l , and camera s h u t t e r command s i g n a l s b e f o r e t h e y a r e p r o c e s s e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t t e l e m e t r y system.

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Viewing Monitor The viewing monitor r e c e i v e s t h e video s i g n a l and reproduces and d i s p l a y s t h e scene viewed by t h e camera. The u n i t c o n t a i n s a cathode ray tube and yoke assembly, a video a m p l i f i e r , a h o r i z o n t a l d e f l e c t i o n c i r c u i t , a sweep f a i l u r e p r o t e c t i o n c i r c u i t , a 12-kV high-voltage power s u p p l y , and a m u l t i p l i e r and r e g u l a t o r assembly. The viewing s c r e e n i s a s q u a r e (3.5 i n c h e s on a s i d e ) w i t h a m a x i m u m s c r e e n b r i g h t n e s s o f 20-foot-lamberts. The u n i t c o n t a i n s a monitor b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r o l and a manual pushbutton s w i t c h which c o n t r o l s t h e photographic camera recorder. V e r t i c a l d e f l e c t i o n f o r t h e viewing monitor i s s u p p l i e d by a v e r t i c a l d e f l e c t i o n assembly l o c a t e d i n t h e monitor e l e c t r o n i c s and equipment control unit. When t h e viewing monitor i s viewed from a d i s t a n c e of 1 2 . 9 i n c h e s t h e m a g n i f i c a t i o n power o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s 1:l i f t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t an a l t i t u d e of 160 n a u t i c a l miles above t h e viewing area.

Recording Monitor and Photographic Recorder The r e c o r d i n g monitor r e c e i v e s t h e video s i g n a l , r e p r o d u c e s , d i s p l a y s t h e scene viewed by t h e camera, and r e c o r d s t h e monitor d i s p l a y by use o f t h e photographic r e c o r d e r . The u n i t c o n t a i n s a video a m p l i f i e r , v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l d e f l e c t i o n a m p l i f i e r s , a photographic d r i v e l o g i c assembly, d a t a lamps, lamp d r i v e r assembly, h i g h v o l t a g e c o n v e r t e r and m u l t i p l i e r s , and a photographic r e c o r d e r assembly. The photographic recorder optics include mirrors f o r folding t h e o p t i c a l path t o t h e r e c o r d e r l e n s . The film magazine accommodated 180 f e e t o f t h i n - b a s e f i l m . The frame r a t e o f t h e photographic r e c o r d e r w a s 3 frames p e r second.

Monitor E l e c t r o n i c s and Equipment C o n t r o l The monitor e l e c t r o n i c s and equipment c o n t r o l u n i t c o n t a i n e d a sync d r i v e assembly , a sawtooth g e n e r a t o r assembly, a v e r t i c a l d e f l e c t i o n assembly, a h o r i z o n t a l d e f l e c t i o n t i m i n g assembly, and a low-voltage power c o n v e r t e r . The u n i t s u p p l i e s o p e r a t i n g power, v e r t i c a l d e f l e c t i o n c u r r e n t , h o r i z o n t a l d e f l e c t i o n t i m i n g p u l s e s t o t h e viewing monitor , o p e r a t i n g power , and d e f l e c t i o n sawtooth g e n e r a t i o n for t h e r e c o r d i n g monitor and photographic r e c o r d e r .

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PROCEDURES
The experiment r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o t h t h e command p i l o t and t h e p i l o t . The p i l o t s were r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e t h e equipment, m a i n t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e , i n some c a s e s maneuver t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o keep a scene i n view, and voice r e c o r d t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s . The experiment w a s a c t i v a t e d n e a r t h e end o f r e v o l u t i o n 34 and t h e experiment was performed d u r i n g t h e n i g h t s i d e p o r t i o n s of r e v o l u t i o n s 35 and 36. The e x p e r i m e n t a l f l i g h t plan used f o r t h i s p e r i o d i s shown i n t a b l e 2-1. The system w a s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i t h t h e camera l i n e of s i g h t p a r a l l e l t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s . Each o b s e r v a t i o n r e q u i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t so t h a t i t s l o n g i t u d i n a l axis w a s nominally normal t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h . The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n camera viewed an e a r t h scene which w a s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p i l o t on t h e viewing monitor and t o t h e recording monitor. The command p i l o t viewed t h e same scene d i r e c t l y through t h e l e f t window of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . Three modes of o p e r a t i o n , scan mode, t r a c k mode, and s e a r c h and t r a c k mode were planned f o r crew o b s e r v a t i o n . The t h r e e modes are des c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs.

.
Y

Scan Mode The scan mode r e q u i r e d t h a t s p a c e c r a f t l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s be a l i n e d normal t o t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h as t h e s p a c e c r a f t passed over t h e ground t r a c k area t o be observed. A photographic r e c o r d of t h e f e a t u r e s of i n t e r e s t were t o be made as long as t h e f e a t u r e remained i n t h e f i e l d of view.

Track Mode The t r a c k mode r e q u i r e d t h a t s p a c e c r a f t be o r i e n t e d t o an a t t i t u d e which would e a s e a c q u i s i t i o n of a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e ( n o t n e c e s s a r i l y on t h e s p a c e c r a f t ground t r a c k ) as t h e s p a c e c r a f t approached t h e f e a t u r e . A f t e r a c q u i s i t i o n t h e f e a t u r e was t o be t r a c k e d and photographic r e c o r d w a s t o be made u n t i l t h e f e a t u r e was 20° p a s t t h e n a d i r .

22

Search and Track Mode The search and t r a c k mode r e q u i r e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t b e o r i e n t e d t o s e a r c h f o r a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e on t h e ground t r a c k ahead of t h e spacec r a f t . Upon a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e feature would b e t r a c k e d t o 20' p a s t t h e n a d i r . A photographic r e c o r d w a s t o be made from t h e t i m e of a c q u i s i t i o n u n t i l t h e f e a t u r e w a s 20' p a s t t h e n a d i r . An o r a l r e p o r t w a s t o b e made by b o t h t h e command p i l o t , viewing t h e s c e n e d i r e c t l y through t h e l e f t viewing p o r t , and t h e p i l o t , observi n g t h e viewing monitor d u r i n g each sequence. S i n c e t h e r e ' w a s a loss of r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e photographic r e c o r d i n g system as compared t o t h e viewing monitor, t h e photographs d i d not c o n t a i n a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e p i l o t observed on t h e viewing monitor. Verbal d e s c r i p t i o n s were r e q u i r e d t o determine what t h e p i l o t i n f e r s from what h e o b s e r v e s . E v a l u a t i o n of experiment r e s u l t s were t o b e based on a comparison o f t h e t h r e e r e c o r d s o b t a i n e d f o r each o b s e r v a t i o n .

RESULTS

Forty-two f i l m sequences of t h e experiment were r e c o r d e d u s i n g

9 minutes and 8 seconds of a v a i l a b l e f i l m t i m e . Of t h e 42 f i l m sequences t a k e n , 13 were of medium t o heavy c l o u d f o r m a t i o n s a n d 1 4 were t a k e n over
open ocean a r e a s , Some of t h e sequences were t a k e n d u r i n g d a y l i g h t as t h e s p a c e c r a f t passed over South America; however, t h e m a j o r i t y of sequences were t a k e n a t n i g h t d u r i n g t h e e x i s t i n g new-moon p h a s e . During t h i s new-moon phase, t h e ambient e a r t h - s c e n e i l l u m i n a t i o n w a s n e a r
1x

foot-candles.

The d a y l i g h t sequences t a k e n over South America c o n t a i n e d no u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n . These sequences w e r e t a k e n t o i n s u r e s u f f i c i e n t scene i l l u m i n a t i o n f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e s y s t e m ' s l i m i t i n g r e s o l u t i o n and f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s y s t e m ' s maximum c a p a b i l i t y . A t t h e p o s t f l i g h t d e b r i e f i n g , t h e f l i g h t crew r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e d a y l i g h t sequences they were a b l e t o v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f y f e a t u r e s on t h e monitor which t h e y determined t o b e d r y l a k e beds. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e photog r a p h s t a k e n were of a r e a s which d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e s e f e a t u r e s and syst e m performance c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e . Although t h e s i z e of t h e d r y l a k e s was not known, t h e y were observed a t t h e l i m i t i n g r e s o l u t i o n of about 550 TV l i n e s , even though t h e y P r e s e n t e d a very low c o n t r a s t a g a i n s t o t h e r e a r t h backgrounds.

23

The c o n t e n t o f t h e film sequences 0 : t h e n i g h t o b s e r v a t , m part o f t h i s experiment i s summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .

~~

Contents L i g h t s of towns and c i t i e s Cloud f o r m a t i o n s Lightning f l a s h e s Horizon and stars Airglow

Remarks

C i t i e s can b e i d e n t i f i e d by l i g h t s
Good q u a l i t y Good q u a l i t y Good q u a l i t y Good q u a l i t y ( e x c e l l e n t when comp a r e d t o n i g h t photographs) Good t o poor c o n t r a s t Most s i g n i f i c a n t geographic f e a t u r e

Coastlines Pen i n s u l a

R e p r e s e n t a t i v e photographs of t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s are shown i n f i g ures 2-3 t o 2-10. The f i l m sequences are predominantly l i g h t s and c l o u d s because of a l a c k of s u i t a b l e s i t e s , such as i s l a n d s , on t h e ground t r a c k of r e v o l u t i o n s 35 t o 36. More s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n would have been o b t a i n e d had it been p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t r e v o l u t i o n s where i s l a n d s o r o t h e r prominent l a n d features were a v a i l a b l e f o r photographing. Clouds and l i g h t s from small v i l l a g e s , towns, and c i t i e s were promi n e n t features i n t h e photographs. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e chara c t e r i s t i c shape of t h e c i t y o f C a l c u t t a , I n d i a , which i s d e f i n e d by i t s l i g h t s i n t h e photographs of f i g u r e 2-3(a) as compared w i t h t h e map of t h e C a l c u t t a area i n f i g u r e 2-3(b). S e v e r a l c o a s t l i n e s were photographed w i t h t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e photographs of f i g u r e s 2-4 and 2-5. The photographs of t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of c o a s t l i n e show c o n t r a s t of t h e l a n d and ocean r a n g i n g from good t o poor. S i n c e t h e area photographed w a s f a i r l y r e g u l a r , t h e c o n t r a s t was o n l y s u f f i c i e n t enough t o a l l o w d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e c o a s t l i n e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t photograph o b t a i n e d w a s t h a t of t h e p e n i n s u l a Istmo dos T i g r e s (Angola) on t h e west c o a s t of A f r i c a . The photograph, f i g u r e 2 - 6 ( a ) , when compared w i t h t h e 1:l 000 000-scaled map of t h e area, f i g u r e 2 - 6 ( b ) , c l e a r l y shows i t s i d e n t i t y . The shape of t h e p e n i n s u l a i s a l o n g , narrow s t r i p of about 7:l length-to-width r a t i o extending

24

o u t from t h e mainland and t e r m i n a t e d by a l a r g e r , rounded a r e a having a 3 :1 length-to-width-ratio. Deviation from t h e experiment p l a n w a s n e c e s s a r y as t h e experiment p r o g r e s s e d because heavy c l o u d cover w a s encountered i n many areas on t h e ground t r a c k . A s u i t a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d o n l y when t h e spacecraf% w a s p i t c h e d down a nominal 70' or more from t h e h o r i z o n t a l . As a r e s u l t , t h e areas l i s t e d i n t h e m i s s i o n p l a n on t h e ground t r a c k were observed, but no a t t e m p t w a s made t o perform t h e t r a c k i n g t a s k s f o r s i t e s l o c a t e d a t p o i n t s o f f t h e ground t r a c k . Most o b s e r v a t i o n s and recordi n g s were made i n t h e scanning mode and o n l y t h o s e f e a t u r e s which appeared prominent were t r a c k e d . Tracking w a s g e n e r a l l y done by p i t c h ing t h e spacecraft. During n i g h t p e r i o d s t h e p i l o t w a s a b l e t o observe on t h e t e l e v i s i o n monitor e a r t h scenes such as c o a s t l i n e s and p e n i n s u l a s . The same s c e n e s were not v i s i b l e t o t h e command p i l o t ; however, t h e command p i l o t ' s window w a s d i r t y and t h e comparison i s n o t completely v a l i d . The p i l o t s t a t e d t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e monitor p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e photographic f i l m sequences o f t h e same c o a s t l i n e s and p e n i n s u l a s . This degradation had been observed d u r i n g l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s and w a s exp e c t e d . The f l i g h t crew w a s a l s o a b l e t o s e e t h e f l a s h i n g l i g h t o f t h e Gemini Agena T a r g e t Vehicle w i t h t h e t e l e v i s i o n monitor when t h e y were not a b l e t o see it w i t h t h e unaided eye.
The DO15 equipment f u n c t i o n e d p r o p e r l y , except f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g anomalies :

( a ) During experiment a c t i v a t i o n , t h e f i e l d o f view appeared t i l t e d by a n a n g l e o f approximately'45' on t h e viewing monitor. Photographs from t h e r e c o r d i n g monitor show a s i m i l a r misalinement, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e anomaly o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n camera or m i r r o r . The camera was mounted 20' from t h e Y-axis of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . P r o v i s i o n s were made i n t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t f o r an u p r i g h t d i s p l a y on t h e viewing monitor. The p i l o t c o r r e c t e d t h e d i s p l a y o r i e n t a t i o n by removing t h e viewing monitor from i t s b r a c k e t , r o t a t i n g t h e monitor u n t i l t h e scene w a s c o r r e c t e d , t h e n h o l d i n g t h e u n i t between h i s l e g s . An a n a l y s i s w a s performed t o determine if a change had o c c u r r e d i n t h e equipment d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t which would have caused t h i s r o t a t i o n . R e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no change had o c c u r r e d . I n s p e c t i o n r e c o r d s on t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n and alinement procedures i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e camera w a s p r o p e r l y i n s t a l l e d and a l i n e d p r i o r t o f l i g h t . S i n c e t h e camera was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e r e t r o g r a d e a d a p t e r s e c t i o n which w a s j e t t i s o n e d b e f o r e r e e n t r y , no p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s i s can be performed on t h e f l i g h t hardware. The c a u s e f o r t h e r o t a t i o n h a s n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d from t h e d a t a available.

.'

25
( b ) The f i e l d v i e w o f t h e camera d i d n o t appear t o b e p r o p e r l y a l i n e d w i t h t h e o p t i c a l s i g h t on t h e command p i l o t ' s window. A f t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n , t h e camera w a s o p t i c a l l y a l i n e d a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t cont r a c t o r ' s f a c i l i t y t o an accuracy o f 1 2 o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r l i n e . /' The camera w a s removed from t h e s p a c e c r a f t f o r shipment t o t h e Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Tolerances on t h e camera mounting base and t h e s p a c e c r a f t mounting f i x t u r e were s u f f i c i e n t t o r e t a i n t h e d e s i r e d a l i n e ment accuracy d u r i n g camera removal and replacement. A comparison o f t e s t results from t h e c o n t r a c t o r and from KSC i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e camera w a s r e i n s t a l l e d p r o p e r l y a t KSC. No e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e misalinement i s a p p a r e n t a t t h i s t i m e ; however, t h e e f f e c t may b e r e l a t e d t o t h e t i l t e d f i e l d o f v i e w previously discussed. ( c ) A b r i g h t area n e a r t h e c e n t e r o f t h e viewing and r e c o r d i n g d i s p l a y s p e r s i s t e d throughout t h e experiment. Adjustment o f t h e beam c o n t r o l reduced t h e area b u t could n o t e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e t h i s c o n d i t i o n . F i g u r e 2-9 shows a s e l e c t e d frame from t h e 3 frame p e r second, 1/30-second e x p o s u r e , 16-~t~m i l m i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n . The b r i g h t f area w a s probably caused by a n ion s p o t b e g i n n i n g t o develop i n e i t h e r t h e image i n t e n s i f i e r or image o r t h i c o n t u b e s e c t i o n s o f t h e camera. ( d ) S e v e r a l photographic sequences t a k e n d u r i n g t h e SO30 e x p e r i ment w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e DO15 equipment were n o t on t h e f l i g h t f i l m . A f a i l u r e a n a l y s i s conducted following t h e f l i g h t on t h e r e c o r d i n g m o n i t o r and photographic r e c o r d e r r e v e a l e d t h a t a f a i l u r e had o c c u r r e d i n t h e cathode r a y t u b e d u r i n g t h e SO30 experiment. A f t e r t h e cathode-ray t u b e f a i l u r e , photographic d a t a could n o t b e r e c o r d e d and a l o s s o f a l a r g e p a r t of t h e SO30 d a t a o c c u r r e d . ( c ) Stowage and h a n d l i n g o f t h e viewing monitor w i t h i n t h e c a b i n were performed w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . Stowage o f t h e viewing monitor i n t h e f o o t w e l l , however, w a s a cause of crew d i s c o m f o r t d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n .

CONCLUSIONS

The experiment demonstrated t h a t geographic f e a t u r e s on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h can b e observed under s t a r l i g h t i l l u m i n a t i o n as l o w as

5

x

10-5 foot-candles.

The a i r g l o w w a s very prominent under a new-moon c o n d i t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n an apparent r e d u c t i o n i n s c e n e c o n t r a s t , a washed-out p r e s e n t a t i o n , and reduced r e s o l u t i o n . The a i r g l o w w a s t h e probable cause o f t h e r e d u c t i o n i n p i c t u r e q u a l i t y when t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s p i t c h e d down a t a n g l e s l e s s t h a n a nominal 7' below t h e h o r i z o n t a l . 0

26 O b j e c t s observed on t h e viewing monitor c o u l d b e t r a c k e d by t h e p i l o t , u s i n g t h e monitor as a r e f e r e n c e . Clouds a t n i g h t were q u i t e prominent on t h e d i s p l a y because o f t h e i r high r e f l e c t i v i t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e experiment photography and t h e crew comments i n d i c a t e t h a t it i s p o s s i b l e t o map n i g h t cloud p a t t e r n s over l a r g e areas. L i g h t a r e a s on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , such as c i t i e s , appeared as extremely b r i g h t s p o t s on t h e m o n i t o r s . Many of t h e l i g h t a r e a s viewed o v e r A f r i c a were r e p o r t e d by t h e crew t o be f i r e s . L i g h t s under c l o u d c o v e r were a l s o r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h e background. S t a r s were q u i t e a p p a r e n t on t h e m o n i t o r . During r e v o l u t i o n 4 1 a t 65:27:21 g . e . t . , t h e GATV w a s s i g h t e d on t h e viewing monitor w h i l e i n t o t a l darkness a t a d i s t a n c e of approximately 1 5 m i l e s . The a c q u i s i t i o n l i g h t w a s e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e s t a r f i e l d background. S u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of t h e experiment equipment proved t h a t d e l i c a t e e l e c t r o n i c components, such as image o r t h i c o n t u b e s , can be des i g n e d , packaged, and i n s t a l l e d t o w i t h s t a n d t h e s e v e r e launch environment of space v e h i c l e s .

.
t

i

TABLE 2-1.-

FLIGHT PLAN F R EXPERIMENT DO15 O

Task

Area t o b e observeda

Mode o f o p e r a t i o n

Film r e c o r d i n g t i m e sec

I

-

e v o l u t i o n 35 West c o a s t o f South America S e a r c h and t r a c k ScanC Scan

b

30

I

'.;

S o u t h America Sea f e a t u r e s Africa

30

60
120

L
5

East c o a s t of A f r i c a
India Calcutta

S e a r c h and t r a c k Scan Track d

30 60 30

6
e v o l u t i o n 36

7

San F e l i x I s l a n d
S o u t h America Sea f e a t u r e s S t . Helena I s l a n d Africa Saudi A r a b i a c o a s t

Track Scan S e a r c h and t r a c k Track Scan

30 50 60 30 120

a
9
10
11

60
Track
30

12
otal

Gulf o f Kutch

% e a t u r e s o f i n t e r e s t : c o a s t l i n e s , i s l a n d s , p e n i n s u l a s , r i v e r s , l a k e s , d e s e r t s , snowcapped mountains, c i t i e s , c l o u d s , and s h i p s . bThe s e a r c h and t r a c k mode r e q u i r e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o b e o r i e n t e d t o a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e a h e a d o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t ground t r a c k . Upon a c q u i s i t i o n , t r a c k i n g w a s performed u n t i l 20° p a s t t h e n a d i r . P h o t o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s were recorded u n t i i 20° p a s t t h e n a d i r . 'The s c a n mode r e q u i r e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s t o be a i i n e r l normal t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h as t h e s p a c e c r a f t p a s s e d o v e r t h e ground t r a c k a r e a t o b e observed. P h o t o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s o f i n t e r e s t were r e c o r d e d as l p n g a s t h e y remained i n view. %he t r a c k mode r e q u i r e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o be o r i e n t e d t o an a t t i t u d e which would f a c i l i -

t a t e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e as t h e s p a c e c r a f t anproached t h e f e a t u r e . Upon a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e f e a t u r e w a s t r a c k e d u n t i l 20O p a s t t h e n a d i r . P h o t o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d
from t i m e o f a c q u i s i t i o n u n t i l 20O p a s t n a d i r .

28

.
#

Image Intensification camera Camera control

"1

n

-

Viewing monitor

Monitor electronics and equipment control

Recording cathode-ray tube photograph IC camera

I

Figure 2-1. - Experiment DO15 equipment.

29

I-

I

i cv

s

.S
0

L

U

30

(a) Lights of Calcutta, India.

(b) Map location of Calcutta, India and surrounding area.

Figure 2-3. - Comparison of DO15 experiment data record of Calcutta, India, with the map location of same area.

31

.
'P

Figure 2-4.

- Coastlines of western Africa and Saudi Arabia.

.

Figure 2-5.

- Coastline of Somalia Republic,
eastern Africa.

a country in

32

(a) Peninsula of Istmo dos Tigres on the west coast of Africa.

(b) Map location of Istmo dos Tigres.

Figure 2-6. - Comparison of DO15 experiment data record of Istmo dos Tigres with the map location of same area.

33

I

I I
I i
I

Figure 2-7.

- Cloud formations illuminated by a lightning flash.

I
I I

I I
I

I
I I I
1

Figure 2-8.

- Lights of villages and cities in Africa.

34

Figure 2-9.

- Illumination effect on clouds caused by local
lightning flashes,

Figure 2-10.

- Earth horizon,

airglow, and starfields.

35
3.
EXPERIMENT ~016, POWER TOOL EVALUATION

By Victor L. E t t r e d g e Department o f t h e A i r Force Space Systems D i v i s i o n , D e t 2 Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center

.

SUMMARY
The ~ 0 1 6 Power Tool Evaluation experiment w a s not a t t e m p t e d d u r i n g t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n due t o premature t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e u m b i l i c a l e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . However, t h e o b j e c t i v e , equipment d e s c r i p t i o n , and experiment procedures a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s r e p o r t .

OBJECTIVE

The primary o b j e c t i v e o f t h e ~016 Power Tool E v a l u a t i o n experiment w a s t o e v a l u a t e t h e c a p a b i l i t y of man t o perform work i n t h e space environment. Encompassing t h i s o b j e c t i v e were t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c objectives:

( a ) To determine t h e a b i l i t y of an a s t r o n a u t t o perform a cont r o l l e d work t a s k

(b) To compare t h e a b i l i t y o f an a s t r o n a u t t o perform work under t e t h e r e d and u n t e t h e r e d c o n d i t i o n s
( c ) To determine t h e performance o f t h e minimum r e a c t i o n power t o o l r e l a t i v e t o o u t p u t and r e a c t i v e t o r q u e s

EQUIPMENT

The ~ 0 1 6 experiment equipment c o n s i s t s of a minimum r e a c t i o n power t o o l , a t o o l r e s t r a i n t box, a c o n v e n t i o n a l hand wrench, a work t a s k p l a c e , and a t e t h e r t o be a t t a c h e d i n t h e knee a r e a of t h e space s u i t . T h i s equipment and i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n i s shown i n f i g u r e 3-1. The g e n e r a l arrangement of components l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e power t o o l i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 3-2. D i r e c t - c u r r e n t power i s s u m l i e d t o t h e

36
motor through t h e e l e c t r i c a l s l i p r i n g assembly shown t o t h e l e f t o f t h e drawing. S i m p l i f i e d i n t e r n a l views a r e shown i n f i g u r e 3-3.

For r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s , t h e d i r e c t i o n s of r o t a t i o n of t h e impactor assembly d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s are viewed from t h e r e a r of t h e t o o l and a r e t h e d i r e c t i o n s encountered when o p e r a t i n g t h e t o o l for tightening fasteners.
When dc power of t h e p r o p e r p o l a r i t y i s a p p l i e d t o t h e motor, i t s a r m a t u r e r o t a t e s clockwise, d r i v i n g t h e p l a n e t a r y g e a r t r a i n , which i n t u r n c a u s e s t h e impactor d r i v e s h a f t t o be r o t a t e d i n a clockwise d i r e c t i o n . A s C a m A i s i n i t i a l l y r o t a t e d , C a m B i s f o r c e d t o move rearward as a s t e e l b a l l r i d e s up t h e i n c l i n e d p l a n e . (See f i g . 3-3, i l l u s t r a t i o n A . ) The impactor b a r r e l assembly i s r e s t r a i n e d from r o t a t i n g a t t h i s time. due t o t h e engagement o f t h e hammer l u g s w i t h t h e a n v i l l u g s o f t h e output s h a f t . The o u t p u t s h a f t i s , p r e v e n t e d from t u r n i n g by t h e f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e s of t h e C o n t r o l l e d I n t e r n a l R e s t r a i n t ( C I R ) c o l l a r , which i s h e l d s t a t i o n a r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t o o l b a r r e l t h r o u g h t h e s l i d i n g sleeve linkage. A s C a m A i s r o t a t e d through approximately 50°, t h e impactor b a r r e l assembly i s moved rearward s u f f i c i e n t l y t o disengage t h e hammer l u g s from The impactor b a r r e l t h e a n v i l lugs. (See f i g . 3-3, i l l u s t r a t i o n B . ) assembly i s now f r e e t o r o t a t e . The s t o r e d energy i n t h e s p r i n g s c a u s e s t h e cams t o attempt t o a l i n e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e b y a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e impact i n g b a r r e l i n ' a clockwise d i r e c t i o n . C o n t i n u a l d r i v e - s h a f t r o t a t i o n a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e b a r r e l . A s t h e b a r r e l r o t a t e s and t h e cams b e g i n t o a l i n e , t h e b a r r e l assemb l y moves forward. (See f i g . 3-3, i l l u s t r a t i o n C . ) A f t e r 180° o f rot a t i o n , t h e hammer l u g s on t h e f a c e of t h e impactor b a r r e l s t r i k e t h e a n v i l l u g s . The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v a l u e of t o r q u e developed on t h e a n v i l / o u t p u t s h a f t assembly exceeds t h e s t a t i c f r i c t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e C I R c o l l a r , and t h e o u t p u t s h a f t r o t a t e s , t i g h t e n i n g t h e b o l t . I n summary, it could be s a i d t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y low power l e v e l d e l i v e r e d by t h e motor g e a r t r a i n assembly i s g r a d u a l l y s t o r e d i n t h e t o o l b a r r e l assembly over a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e and d e l i v e r e d i n t h e form of a high-energy, s h o r t - d u r a t i o n p u l s e t o t h e a n v i l / o u t p u t s h a f t assembly. The r e a c t i o n t o t h e t o r q u e on t h e b o l t i s f e l t back through t h e outp u t s h a f t and a n v i l l u g assembly t o t h e hammer l u g assembly 09 t h e impact o r b a r r e l causing t h e b a r r e l t o rebound. The rebound f o r c e i s i n t e g r a t e d by t h e s p r i n g i n t h e impactor assembly which i n t u r n r e f l e c t s t h e f o r c e backward through t h e d r i v e - s h a f t assembly and d i v i d e s a t t h e p l a n e t a r y g e a r t r a i n . P a r t of t h e r e a c t i v e f o r c e i s t r a n s f e r r e d t h r o u g h t h e g e a r

37
c a s e assembly d i r e c t l y t o t h e t o o l b a r r e l , w h i l e p a r t o f t h e f o r c e i s r e f l e c t e d back t h r o u g h t h e armature, t h e magnetic f i e l d s , t o t h e motor f i e l d r i n g , and i n t u r n t o t h e t o o l b a r r e l . Both r e a c t i v e f o r c e s a r r i v i n g a t t h e t o o l housing are i n phase, t h u s c a u s i n g t h e t o o l b a r r e l t o r o t a t e counterclockwise. The r a t e o f r o t a t i o n of t h e t o o l b a r r e l i s r e s t r a i n e d , due t o t h e d r a g b r a k e a c t i o n o f t h e C I R .
a

r’

The t o o l b a r r e l i s supported by l a r g e - d i a m e t e r r i n g b e a r i n g s , whose i n n e r r a c e i s p r e s s e d over t h e t o o l b a r r e l and t h e o u t e r r a c e i s supported by t h e t o o l housing. The o n l y r e a c t i v e f o r c e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e t o o l housing i s t h a t r e s u l t i n g from t h e f r i c t i o n o f t h e r i n g b e a r i n g s . The s p a c e power t o o l p h y s i c a l and o p e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d below.

SPACE P W R TOOL PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS O E

Weight,lb..

....................
................ ................

7.62

Length : Handle e r e c t e d , i n . Handle f o l d e d , i n . Height : Handle e r e c t e d , i n . Handle f o l d e d , i n . Width, i n .

1O-7/8
10-13/16

I

................ ................ .....................

9-1/16 4-112
5
6-5/32 112

........... 2 Output s h a f t , i n .................. Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Center o f g r a v i t y (from o u t p u t s h a f t e n d ) , i n .

Self-contained, rechargeable , N i - Cd b a t t e r y

38
SPACE P W R TOOL OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS O E

Speed: C I R on-full load, beats/min C I R off-no l o a d ( d r i l l i n g mode), b e a t s /min Operating v o l t a g e

.........

1550-1650 1250

.................

.

volts

...........
. . . . . . . . . . . .

6 to 7
13 t o 16 3

Current : C I R o n - f u l l mode, amps C I R off-no l o a d ( d r i l l i n g mode), amps

........ . Open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e , V dc . . . . . . . Output t o r q u e . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work c a p a c i t y p e r b a t t e r y c h a r g e : Impacting, 3-sec b u r s t D r i l l i n g , running t i m e i n minutes

7.6 t o 8 . 2
Exceeds 45 foot-pounds developed on 1 / 2 - i n c h N AN-type b o l t F

........... ......
PROCEDURES

100 8 to 10

The experiment w a s t o b e performed d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s F i g u r e 3-4 shows an a r t i s t ' s c o n c e p t i o n a t approximately 24:30 g . e . t . o f t h e experiment a c t i v i t i e s . The p r o c e d u r a l sequence o f e v e n t s f o r t h e EVA p i l o t was as f o l l o w s :

1. Grasp h a n d r a i l and p o s i t i o n s e l f f o r k n e e - t e t h e r a t t a c h m e n t .
2. Attach r i g h t knee t e t h e r t o h a n d r a i l .

3. Grasp t o o l b o x h a n d l e , r e l e a s e l o c k , and e x t e n d t o o l b o x u n t i l p o s i t i v e l o c k i s engaged.

4 . Open t o o l b o x , extend power-tool h a n d l e , check l i g h t s w i t c h on, forward-reverse s w i t c h t o forward p o s i t i o n , and t o o l i n impact mode.
5.
Grasp power t o o l , t i g h t e n i n s t r u m e n t e d b o l t f o r

5 seconds.

6.
7.

Reverse s w i t c h , l o o s e n i n s t r u m e n t e d b o l t u n t i l " j u s t l o o s e . " Unscrew i n s u c c e s s i o n f o u r w o r k s i t e b o l t s .

39

I

bolts

.

8. 9.

Stow power t o c

, turn

over works t e p l a t e an

hand-start t h r e e

Unstow power t o o l , r e v e r s e s w i t c h , t i g h t e n t h r e e b o l t s .

I

10. Stow power t o o l on t o o l b o x l i d and remove handtool.

11. Tighten instrumented b o l t for 5 seconds and l o o s e n i n s t r u m e n t
bolt.
' Y

12. 13.

Stow h a n d t o o l i n toolbox. Detach knee t e t h e r from h a n d r a i l . Remove power t o o l , check l i g h t on and t o o l i n impact mode. Using power t o o l , t i g h t e n i n s t r u m e n t e d b o l t f o r

14.
1 5*

5 seconds.

16.
17
18.
t ed b o l t .
20. 21. 22. 23.

Reverse s w i t c h , l o o s e n i n s t r u m e n t e d b o l t u n t i l " j u s t l o o s e Stow power t o o l i n toolbox, f o l d handle. Remove handt 001.
b o l t for

."

19. T i g h t e n i n s t r u m e n t e d

5 seconds, and l o o s e n instrumen-

Stow h a n d t o o l i n toolbox. Close t o o l b o x l i d .

Release l a t c h on worksite and stow box i n a d a p t e r s e c t i o n .
Experiment completed.

RESULTS

This experiment w a s not attempted d u r i n g t h e mission because of premature t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA.

I I I I
I *

fool Housing

Ring Bearings

Figure 3-2.

- Power

tool internal drawings.

42
Cam 'A'

Cam'B'

7

A' Hornmar

I

A
Driveshaft

I
I

Steel ; ' B H a m m e r Ball I I

'

I

"

Output Shaft J I ,

I I
I

I

/

'A ' H a m m e r

I I
I

I

i

! 1
I

\
' B'Ham mer

I

I

I I I

I I
I

1

I
1
'B'Hammer

I

I

/ ,'A'Anvil

C

-

is

'A'Hammer

Figure 3-3.

Simplified drawings of impactor assembly operation.

43

Figure 3 -4.

- Power tool operational concept.

45
4.
EXPERIMENT S004, RADIATION AND ZERO-G EFFECTS ON HUMAN BLOOD AND NEUROSPORA

By M. A. Bender, F. J. de S e r r e s , P. C. Gooch, I. R. M i l l e r , D. B. Smith, and S. Kondo* Biology D i v i s i o n , Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

The SO04 experiment w a s designed t o t e s t f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s t u l a t e d synergism ( s u g g e s t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n s from p r e v i o u s space f l i g h t s ) between r a d i a t i o n and some s p a c e f l i g h t parameter such as "weightl e s s n e s s . " This experiment w a s f i r s t c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e Gemini I11 m i s s i o n . A series o f whole human b l o o d samples w a s i r r a d i a t e d onboard . t h e s p a c e c r a f t d u r i n g t h e o r b i t a l phase o f t h e f l i g h t . A d u p l i c a t e series was i r r a d i a t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on t h e ground. P o s t f l i g h t comparisons were made between t h e induced r a t e s of s i n g l e - and m u l t i p l e - b r e a k chromosomal a b e r r a t i o n s i n t h e i n f l i g h t and ground p o r t i o n s o f t h e experiment t o d e t e c t any p o s s i b l e e f f e c t . While t h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e rates of multiple-break a b e r r a t i o n p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e ground and i n f l i g h t p o r t i o n s o f t h e experiment, a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r r a t e o f s i n g l e - b r e a k a b e r r a t i o n production w a s observed i n t h e i n f l i g h t material. Because o f t h e p e c u l i a r results o b t a i n e d i n t h e Gemini I11 SO04 exp e r i m e n t , t h e experiment w a s r e p e a t e d and extended d u r i n g t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e p e a t i n g t h e experiment w i t h human blood c e l l s , a n o t h e r p a r a l l e l t e s t w a s c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g t h e b r e a d mold Neurospora as e x p e r i m e n t a l material. Although t h e experiments d u p l i c a t e d t h e f i r s t SO04 experiment as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , t h e much l o n g e r d u r a t i o n of t h e Gemi n i X I m i s s i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d a much l o n g e r p r e - i r r a d i a t i o n "weightless" p e r i o d , and i n o r d e r t o b e s u r e t h a t t h e c e l l s would s u r v i v e t h e long s t o r a g e t i m e n e c e s s a r y , t h e blood samples were r e f r i g e r a t e d u n t i l s h o r t l y b e f o r e i r r a d i a t i o n . The Gemini X I experiment w a s c a r r i e d o u t successf u l l y , and most a n a l y s e s of t h e experimental m a t e r i a l have been completed.

No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r a t e s f o r t h e i n f l i g h t and t h e ground p o r t i o n s of t h e experiment were found f o r e i t h e r s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - b r e a k chromosome a b e r r a t i o n s . The Gemini X I SO04 blood experiment has t h u s f a i l e d t o confirm t h e apparent synergism s e e n i n t h e Gemini I11 experiment.
i

Department of Fundamental Radiology, F a c u l t y o f Medicine, Osaka U n i v e r s i t y , Osaka, J a p a n ; on assignment t o ORNL.

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The SO04 Neurospora experiment u t i l i z e d s p o r e s o f a two-component heterokaryon o b t a i n e d from t h e f u s i o n of two d i f f e r e n t ( h a p l o i d ) s t r a i n s each c o n t a i n i n g a s e r i e s o f g e n e t i c markers. These s p o r e samples were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r blood samples i n an a d d i t i o n a l SO04 i r r a d i a t i o n d e v i c e . S u r v i v a l of t h e h e t e r o k a r y o n a s e x u a l s p o r e s w a s s t u d i e d i n a d d i t i o n t o m u t a t i o n of two d i f f e r e n t genes t o determine t h e e f f e c t o f i r r a d i a t i o n d u r i n g space f l i g h t on t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of chromosome breakage and gene mutation. Spore samples were i r r a d i a t e d b o t h c o l l e c t e d on t h e s u r f a c e o f M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r s ( s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e ) and as suspension ( t o mimic t h e human blood e x p e r i m e n t ) . I n a c t i v a t i o n of t h e h e t e r o k a r y o t i c c o n i d i a w i t h i o n i z i n g r a d i a t i o n s r e s u l t s from 1 - h i t e v e n t s b e l i e v e d t o b e t e r m i n a l chromosome d e l e t i o n s . Gene mutation r e s u l t s from b o t h 1 - h i t and 2 - h i t e v e n t s . The t y p e o f 1 - h i t event r e s u l t i n g i n mutation i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e 1 - h i t event r e s u l t i n g i n c e l l i n a c t i v a t i o n . The 2 - h i t m u t a t i o n s r e s u l t from chromosome breakage and d e l e t i o n and are expected t o respond t o changes i n environmental c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e same way as t h e 1 - h i t e v e n t s resulting in c e l l inactivation. N s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between d o s e - e f f e c t curves f o r o s u r v i v a l or mutation-induction o f t h e i n f l i g h t and ground samples irrad i a t e d on f i l t e r s . Thus t h i s p a r t o f t h e Gemini SO04 experiment, l i k e t h e blood experiment, f a i l e d t o confirm t h e apparent synergism s e e n i n t h e Gemini I11 SO04 blood experiment. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Neurospora experiment provides c o n c l u s i v e data t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s o f i r r a d i a t i o n d u r i n g s p a c e f l i g h t and t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s obtained i n ground-based experiments. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e found between t h e d o s e - e f f e c t c u r v e s f o r s u r v i v a l ( P = 0 . 0 2 ) b u t not m u t a t i o n - i n d u c t i o n ( P = 0 . 0 9 ) o f t h e i n f l i g h t and ground Neurospora samples i r r a d i a t e d i n suspension. A t f a c e v a l u e t h e s e d a t a might s u g g e s t antagonism between space f l i g h t parameters and r a d i a t i o n . However, t h e y c l e a r l y do not a g r e e w i t h t h e d a t a from t h e SO04 blood experiments on e i t h e r t h e Gemini I11 or Gemini X I m i s s i o n s , o r w i t h t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from Neurospora samples on M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r s . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from i n f l i g h t and ground s u s p e n s i o n s i s b e l i e v e d t o b e due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i v e anoxia r e s u l t i n g from high s p a c e c r a f t c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n "weightlessness. Both t h e Gemini X I SO04 blood experiment and t h e SO04 Neurospora experiment have t h u s f a i l e d t o confirm t h e a p p a r e n t synergism s e e n i n t h e Gemini I11 experiment. It i s concluded t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e Gemini I11 s i n g l e - b r e a k chromosome a b e r r a t i o n r a t e s w a s probably t h e r e s u l t o f s t a t i s t i c a l sampling e r r o r s . I n any c a s e , even i f t h e e f f e c t found i n t h e Gemini I11 experiment were i n f a c t " r e a l , " it w a s e v i d e n t l y n o t t h e r e s u l t o f a g e n e r a l synergism between " w e i g h t l e s s n e s s " and r a d i at ion.

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OBJECTIVE

The SO04 experiment w a s designed t o t e s t whether or n o t t h e r e e x i s t s a synergism between r a d i a t i o n and some f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p a c e f l i g h t (such as "weightlessness") f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e r a d i o b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . The e x i s t e n c e o f such a synergism, which i s not expected on t h e b a s i s o f ground-based r a d i o b i o l o g y , has been s u g g e s t e d l a r g e l y because o f o b s e r v a t i o n s o f b i o l o g i c a l materials flown on v a r i o u s p r e v i o u s s p a c e f l i g h t s ( s e e r e f s . 1, 2 , and 3 ) . The SO04 human blood experiment w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e Gemini I11 missior, i n March, 1965. The r e s u l t s from t h e Gemini I11 experiment have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l ( r e f s . 4 and 5 ) . I n b r i e f , no evidence o f synergism f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m u l t i p l e - b r e a k chromosomal a b e r r a t i o n s w a s found, n o r w a s t h e r e any evidence t h a t t h e s p a c e f l i g h t i t s e l f had induced a b e r r a t i o n s . However, approximately t w i c e as many s i n g l e - b r e a k a b e r r a t i o n s were found i n t h e i r r a d i a t e d f l i g h t samples as i n t h e samples i r r a d i a t e d on t h e ground, and t h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This unexpected result could not b e e x p l a i n e d by known p h y s i c a l phenomena. Furthermore, subsequent ground experiments r u l e d o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n s and v i b r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s p a c e f l i g h t had i n f l u e n c e d t h e a b e r r a t i o n y i e l d s i n t h e i n f l i g h t blood samples. It w a s d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o r e p e a t t h e Gemini I11 SO04 human blood experiment as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e on a subsequent Gemini m i s s i o n , i n an a t t e m p t t o confirm t h e r e a l i t y , or a t l e a s t t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e Gemini I11 " e f f e c t . " The r e p e a t experiment w a s c a r r i e d out d u r i n g t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n . The experiment c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s . One, l i k e t h e Gemini I11

SO04 experiment, u t i l i z e d human white blood c e l l s as t h e b i o l o g i c a l t e s t
material and chromosome a b e r r a t i o n p r o d u c t i o n as t h e e n d p o i n t . The o t h e r u t i l i z e d t h e mold Neurospora c r a s s a as t h e b i o l o g i c a l t e s t material and measured s u r v i v a l and mutation as e n d p o i n t s . Both t h e experiments c o n s i s t e d of s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i r r a d i a t i n g two s e r i e s o f b i o l o g i c a l samples w i t h measured doses o f 32P B r a y s , one on t h e ground and t h e o t h e r aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f i , d u r i n g t h e o r b i t a l phase of a s p a c e f l i g h t . P o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s e s o f t h e w h i t e c e l l s from t h e i n f l i g h t and ground blood samples for induced chromosomal a b e r r a t i o n s , and o f t h e s p o r e s from t h e i n f l i g h t and ground Neurospora samples f o r s u r v i v a l and f o r m u t a t i o n , provide t e s t s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e p o s t u l a t e d synergism, a t l e a s t f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r r a d i o b i o l o g i c a l endpoints. The Neurospora p o r t i o n of t h e Gemini X I SO04 experiment was added t o t h e o r i g i n a l human blood experiment i n o r d e r t o extend t h e observ a t i o n s t o a n o t h e r organism and t o o t h e r r a d i o b i o l o g i c a l e n d p o i n t s . The Neurospora a s s a y system i s designed t o e v a l u a t e t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s o f

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any " i n s u l t " t o t h e organism w i t h r e g a r d t o chromosome breakage and gene m u t a t i o n . It has been used t o e v a l u a t e t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s i o n i z i n g r a d i a t i o n s as w e l l as a v a r i e t y o f chemical mutagens ( r e f s . 6 t o 9 ) . This organism has t h e same chromosome s t r u c t u r e as i s found i n h i g h e r p l a n t s and animals and t h e r e i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o expect t h a t t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s d e t e c t a b l e w i t h t h i s h a p l o i d t e s t system a r e comparable t o t h o s e found i n h i g h e r d i p l o i d forms. Although t h e Neurospora experiment w a s flown on t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n p r i m a r i l y because o f t h e r e s u l t s which had been o b t a i n e d i n t h e SO04 blood experiment d u r i n g t h e Gemi n i I11 m i s s i o n , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e Neurospora experiment a l s o made poss i b l e a completely independent e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s of r a d i a t i o n and space f l i g h t parameters b o t h on chromosome breakage and p r o d u c t i o n of gene mutations a t s p e c i f i c l o c i .

EQUIPMENT

Because o f t h e much l o n g e r d u r a t i o n planned f o r t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n , some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Gemini I11 SO04 human blood experiment w a s r e q u i r e d t o make it f e a s i b l e f o r Gemini X I . To a s s u r e s u r v i v a l o f t h e white blood c e l l s , r e f r i g e r a t i o n of t h e samples w a s r e q u i r e d duri n g most o f t h e f l i g h t . A l s o , because t h e blood samples would b e subj e c t e d t o leakage B p a r t i c l e and Bremsstrahlung i r r a d i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e experimental d e v i c e f o r a much l o n g e r p e r i o d , it w a s decided t o reduce t h e q u a n t i t y o f 32P i n t h e r a d i a t i o n s o u r c e s . I n consequence, a l o n g e r exposure t o t h e s o u r c e s w a s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o d e l i v e r t h e doses d e s i r e d . The same experimental device was used f o r b o t h t h e human blood and t h e Neurospora p o r t i o n s o f t h e Gemini X I SO04 experiment. Aside from t h e r e d u c t i o n i n t h e 32P s o u r c e s t r e n g t h (and an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t h i c k n e s s of one s i d e o f t h e housing t o a c h i e v e b e t t e r h e a t t r a n s f e r f o r t h e blood e x p e r i m e n t ) , t h e Gemini X I SO04 e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e s were i d e n t i c a l with t h a t used on Gemini 111. D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s experimental d e v i c e have a l r e a d y been p r e s e n t e d ( r e f s . 4, 5 , 1 0 , and 11).

I

To provide c o o l i n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e t o extend t h e t i m e t h a t t h e blood c e l l s would remain v i a b l e , a t h e r m o e l e c t r i c c o o l e r w a s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e mounting b r a c k e t f o r t h e SO04 blood e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e . This r e f r i g e r a t o r b r a c k e t used s p a c e c r a f t power to t r a n s f e r h e a t from t h e experimental d e v i c e t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t h a t c h s t r u c t u r e and a l s o provided a t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l f o r r e a d o u t o f t h e d e v i c e t e m p e r a t u r e d u r i n g t h e mission. F i g u r e 4-1 shows t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l hardware assembly. The experimental hardware w a s mounted on t h e l e f t - h a n d h a t c h t o r q u e box o f t h e G e m i n i X I s p a c e c r a f t , as shown i n f i g u r e 4-2. A s w i t c h t o t u r n t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r on and o f f was provided on t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s right-hand c i r c u i t breaker panel.

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Due t o e l e c t r i c a l power r e s t r i c t i o n s , no a t t e m p t c o u l d b e made t o c o n t r o l t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e Neurospora i n f l i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e s . The Neurospora d e v i c e w a s mounted on t h e i n b o a r d s i d e o f t h e r i g h t f o o t w e l l of t h e Gemini X I s p a c e c r a f t ( f i g . 4-3) , o r i e n t e d s o t h a t t h e Z-axis of t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s p a r a l l e l t o a diameter o f t h e sample chambers. An i d e n t i c a l ground d e v i c e w a s k e p t a t t h e launch s i t e .

PROCEDURE

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A s w a s t h e c a s e f o r t h e Gemini I11 SO04 human b l o o d experiment, e x e c u t i o n o f t h e Gemini X I experiment w a s a f a i r l y complex o p e r a t i o n . The blood and Neurospora samples had t o b e o b t a i n e d and l o a d e d , and t h e f l i g h t and ground experimental d e v i c e s assembled and t e s t e d as l a t e as p o s s i b l e b e f o r e launch. The t i s s u e c u l t u r e p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d t o m a k e chromosome p r e p a r a t i o n s from t h e blood samples a f t e r recovery o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t had t o b e c a r r i e d out aboard t h e r e c o v e r y v e s s e l . Realt i m e c o o r d i n a t i o n d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e m i s s i o n w a s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e t h e c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e correspondence between t h e f l i g h t and ground port i o n s of t h e experiment. Each experiment m a n i p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n w a s a c t u a l l y counted down from Houston Mission C o n t r o l Center.

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Preflight Nine days b e f o r e t h e a c t u a l l a u n c h , s t e r i l e p e r i p h e r a l blood l e u kocyte samples were o b t a i n e d from t h e f l i g h t crew. Short-term l e u k o c y t e c u l t u r e s were p r e p a r e d and incubated a t 37O C f o r 63 h o u r s . The c u l t u r e s were t h e n c o l c h i c i n e - t r e a t e d f o r 5 h o u r s , f i x e d , and chromosome p r e p a r a t i o n s made. Almost 1 0 hours b e f o r e t h e launch, s t e r i l e p e r i p h e r a l blood s a x p l e s were drawn from t h e same two blood donors used f o r t h e Gemini I11 SO04 experiment. The f l i g h t and ground e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e s were assembled and t e s t e d , and t h e f l i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e w a s mounted i n t h e r e f r i g e r a t e d b r a c k e t on t h e l e f t - h a n d h a t c h o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t approxi m a t e l y 1 5 0 minutes b e f o r e launch. The ground c o n t r o l d e v i c e w a s p l a c e d i n a d u p l i c a t e r e f r i g e r a t o r l o c a t e d i n t h e launch s i t e assembly f a c i l i t y . Both r e f r i g e r a t o r s were switched on, and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e exper4 2 i m e n t a l d e v i c e s f e l l r a p i d l y t o t h e normal c o n t r o l r a n g e (' 5 ' C ) i n d i c a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t ion. The Neurospora samples were prepared as a suspension (%5 x 1 07 c e l l s / m l i n 0.12-percent a g a r S o l u t i o n t o p r e v e n t s e t t l i n g ) o r c o l l e c t e d on t h e s u r f a c e of 25-mm diameter M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r s i n Oak Ridge. These samples were kept r e f r i g e r a t e d and hand c a r r i e d t o t h e launch s i t e . The f l i g h t and ground sample h o l d e r s were p r e p a r e d and i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e

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experimental d e v i c e s about 1 0 hours and 5 h o u r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , p r i o r t o launch and t h e n r e f r i g e r a t e d b r i e f l y . The f l i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e w a s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t about 300 minutes p r i o r t o launch. The ground c o n t r o l d e v i c e w a s k e p t i n t h e launch s i t e assembly f a c i l i t y a t a temperature o f 25' C .

Flight A f t e r t h e launch phase o f . t h e f l i g h t had ended t h e experimental d e v i c e s aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f t remained e s s e n t i a l l y " w e i g h t l e s s ,'I except f o r t h e two Agena Primary P r o p u l s i o n System (PPS) b u r n s , u n t i l r e t r o f i r e . The PPS b u r n s each produced an a c c e l e r a t i o n of about 1 . 2 g , b u t o n l y f o r approximately 22 seconds. The second PPS burn w a s completed a t 43:54:27 g . e . t . S t a r t i n g about 1 4 minutes a f t e r l i f t o f f , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e experimental d e v i c e aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f t r o s e above t h e normal c o n t r o l range and remained between 6' and 1' C through t h e f i r s t 24 hours o f 0 t h e mission. The d e v i c e t e m p e r a t u r e f e l l r a p i d l y back t o t h e normal c o n t r o l range when t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s d e p r e s s u r i z e d f o r t h e f i r s t , EVA, and o p e r a t e d w i t h i n t h i s range u n t i l switched o f f a t 65:38:00 g . e . t . , except f o r a b r i e f r i s e t o almost 7' C a t about 62 h o u r s . The ground u n i t remained i n t h e normal c o n t r o l range u n t i l switched o f f simultaneo u s l y w i t h t h e f l i g h t u n i t . A f t e r t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r s were t u r n e d o f f , t h e temperatures o f b o t h d e v i c e s r o s e r a p i d l y t o about 25' C , and s t a y e d a t about t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e u n t i l t h e y were r e c o v e r e d . The c o n t r o l Neurospora d e v i c e w a s m a i n t a i n e d a t 25' C although c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e (and t h u s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e f l i g h t d e v i c e ) appears t o have been h i g h e r d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 24 hours o f t h e m i s s i o n ( p r i o r t o i r r a d i a t i o n of t h e Neurospora s a m p l e s ) . The t e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e c a b i n temperature t e l e m e t r y channel r a n as h i g h as 33' C b u t averaged about 28' t o 29' C. No d i r e c t measurements o f t h e Neurospora d e v i c e were o b t a i n e d , however. N e v e r t h e l e s s , it seems extremely l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n f l i g h t samples were a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n t h e ground c o n t r o l samples d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The i r r a d i a t i o n o f t h e Neurospora samples w a s begun a t Both PPS b u r n s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e i r r a d i a t i o n p e r i o d . The PPS burns were completed a t 43:54:27 g . e . t . The i r r a d i a t i o n of t h e Neurospora samples w a s t e r m i n a t e d a t 67:53:50 g . e . t . The i n f l i g h t samp l e s were t h u s "weightless" d u r i n g a l l of t h e i r r a d i a t i o n p e r i o d except f o r t h e two PPS b u r n s , and t h e remaining approximately 3-1./2 hours p r i o r t o r e t r o f i r e as w e l l . The i r r a d i a t i o n of t h e blood samples w a s s t a r t e d a t 66:43:00 g . e . t . and w a s t e r m i n a t e d a t 67:53:00 g . e . t . The i n f l i g h t samples were " w e i g h t l e s s " d u r i n g i r r a d i a t i o n and remained i n t h i s s t a t e f o r approximately 3-1/2 hours f o l l o w i n g i r r a d i a t i o n .
30:09:00 g.e.t.

Postflight The i n f l i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a l ' d e v i c e s were removed from t h e s p a c e c r a f i s h o r t l y a f t e r recovery. The blood samples had been removed from b o t h t h e i n f l i g h t and t h e ground c o n t r o l d e v i c e s by 73:33:00 g . e . t . , and were i n c u l t u r e by 75:lb:OO. P o s t f l i g h t p e r i p h e r a l b l o o d l e u k o c y t e samp l e s were a l s o o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f l i g h t crew and p l a c e d i n c u l t u r e at t h e same t i m e . All c u l t u r e s were f i x e d a f t e r 66 hours or i n c u b a t i o n , f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t w i t h c o l c h i c i n e f o r 5 h o u r s . The r e s u l t i n g prepa r a t i o n s were s c o r e d a t Oak Ridge i n t h e same manner as were t h o s e from t h e Gemini I11 SO04 experiment ( r e f s . 4 and 5 ) . The samples were t a k e n f r o m t h e i n f l i g h t Neurospora d e v i c e by 73:13:00 g . e . t . The ground c o n t r o l samples were removed f r o m t h e i r d e v i c e by 73:38:00 g . e . t . A l l Neurospora samples were r e f r i g e r a t e d a t bo C and r e t u r n e d t o ORNL f o r a n a l y s i s . Genetic a n a l y s i s w a s i n i t i a t e d by p r e p a r i n g s u s p e n s i o n s from each o f t h e samples f o r i n o c u l a t i o n i n t o t h e a s s a y medium. I n o c u l a t i o n volume w a s v a r i e d s o t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f expected s u r v i v o r s p e r f l a s k would b e about 1 0 i n a t o t a l volume o f 1 0 l i t e r s of medium. In t h i s medium h e t e r o k a r y o t i c s u r v i v o r s form a t i n y w h i t e colony about 2 mm i n d i a m e t e r a f t e r i n c u b a t i o n i n t h e dark f o r about 7 days a t 30° C . Speci f i c l o c u s m u t a t i o n s of t h e ad-3A and t h e ad-3B genes c a u s e accumulation o f a reddish-purple pigment , and such m u t a t i o n s can t h u s b e r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r unusual colony c o l o r . F i v e t o t e n r e p l i c a t e f l a s k s were made from each s p o r e sample. When t h e f l a s k s were h a r v e s t e d , t h e t o t a l volume w a s measured and t h e t o t a l number o f c o l o n i e s p e r f l a s k determined by c o u n t i n g a l i q u o t s . The number o f p u r p l e c o l o n i e s p e r f l a s k w a s determined by hand c o u n t i n g ( t h e number t y p i c a l l y varies from 0 t o 500 p e r f l a s k ) . The r e l a t i o n between t o t a l colony : o u t s and t h e number o f s p o r e s i n o c u l a t e d f o r each of t h e samples i s used t o o b t a i n dose survival curves. The r e l a t i o n between t h e t o t a l number o f p u r p l e c o l o n i e s and t h e t o t a l colony c o u n t s g i v e s t h e forward-mutation frequency. The forwardm u t a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s o b t a i n e d with each s e t o f samples a r e e x p r e s s e d as d o s e - e f f e c t curves f o r forward-mutation. Samples o f ad-3 mutants f r o m each o f t h e i n f l i g h t and ground samp l e s were r e s e r v e d f o r more d e t a i l e d g e n e t i c a n a l y s i s . These a n a l y s e s are s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s .

I
I

I
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1

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RESULTS

Blood Experiment P o s t f l i g h t i n s p e c t i o n and t e s t i n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l hardware showed t h a t a l l o f t h e equipment had f u n c t i o n e d p r o p e r l y . The i n a b i l i t y o f t h e r e f l - i g e r a t o r aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o h o l d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l dev i c e temperature w i t h i n t h e d e s i g n range w a s a p p a r e n t l y caused by unexpectedly high h a t c h t e m p e r a t u r e , not by any equipment m a l f u n c t i o n . I n any c a s e , t h e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e i n f l i g h t b l o o d samples during t h e f i r s t day o f t h e m i s s i o n d i d not a f f e c t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e experiment and cannot have a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s . Analysis o f t h e f l u o r o g l a s s dosimeters and o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s from t h e experimental d e v i c e s gave t e m p e r a t u r e s , t i m e s , and r a d i a t i o n expos u r e s i n agreement w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r s o u r c e s . The doses i n d i c a t e d by t h e dosimeters a g r e e very w e l l w i t h b o t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s and a c t u a l measurements made w i t h f l u o r o g l a s s , l i t h i u m f l u o r i d e , and F r i c k e d o s i m e t e r s a f t e r completion of t h e experiment. About o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l dose s e e n by t h e c o n t r o l blood samples w a s from Bremsstrahlung w i t h a peak energy of 6 5 keV. The " e s t i m a t e d doses" shown i n t a b l e 4-1 a r e i n f a c t t h e c a l c u l a t e d theor e t i c a l doses, w i t h which t h e dosimeters a g r e e very w e l l .

No evidence o f e x c e s s i v e haemolysis o f g r o s s c e l l damage w a s s e e n i n t h e recovered blood samples. A l l o f t h e blood sample c u l t u r e s were s u c c e s s f u l and y i e l d e d s a t i s f a c t o r y chromosome p r e p a r a t i o n s , although t h e c u l t u r e s from t h e blood samples from t h e ground p o r t i o n of t h e experiment y i e l d e d somewhat fewer m i t o s e s t h a n had been hoped. Aitog e t h e r , a t o t a l o f 4340 c e l l s were analyzed f o r chromosomal a b e r r a t i o n s The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n t a b l e 4-1.
The f l i g h t crew samples show no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n a b e r r a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s following t h e f l i g h t . This r e s u l t i s i n agreement w i t h t h e r e s u l t s from t h e Gemini I11 SO04 experiment, as w e l l as w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f similar d e t e r m i n a t i o n s made f o r t h e f l i g h t crews of o t h e r Gemini missions. The chromosome a b e r r a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s s e e n i n t h e c o n t r o l blood samples a r e t y p i c a l of what i s expected i n c e l l s exposed t o such low r a d i a t i o n doses. They a g r e e w e l l w i t h what w a s s e e n i n p r e v i o u s ground experiments as w e l l as i n t h e samples from t h e Gemini I11 SO04 experiment. A l e a s t - s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w a s c a r r i e d o u t t o o b t a i n t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e s of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f chromosome d e l e t i o n prod u c t i o n and r i n g and d i c e n t r i c chromosome p r o d u c t i o n f o r ground and i n f l i g h t p o r t i o n s o f t h e experiment. The chromosome d e l e t i o n d a t a were f i t t e d t o a l i n e a r model, w h i l e t h e m u l t i p l e - b r e a k a b e r r a t i o n d a t a were

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f i t t e d t o t h e dose-square model. The results o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s are shown i n t a b l e 4-11, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e s u l t s from a t y p i c a l p r e f l i g h t c o n t r o l experiment ( R u n 1) f o r comparison. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f l i g h t and ground values f o r e i t h e r d e l e t i o n s o r r i n g s and d i c e n t r i c s . N e i t h e r do t h e values f o r t h e a c t u a l experiment d i f f e r from t h e results o f t h e p r e f l i g h t experiment.

Neurospora Experiment Analysis o f t h e d o s e - e f f e c t curves f o r s u r v i v a l and forward m u t a t i o n f o r a l l o f t h e i n f l i g h t and ground. c o n t r o l samples h a s been completed. The more d e t a i l e d g e n e t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e ad-3 m u t a t i o n s i n each sample i s i n progress. F i l t e r s . - The d a t a from t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e Neurospora samples i r r a d i a t e d on M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r s shows no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n e i t h e r t h e s u r v i v a l curves ( f i g . 4-4) or forward-mutation curves ( f i g . 4-5). The estimates of t h e forward-mutation f r e q u e n c i e s o b t a i n e d w i t h 32P B r a y s a r e i n e x c e l l e n t agreement w i t h c h r o n i c 250 kV X-ray and 137Cs or 85Sr gamma r a y exposures ( r e f s . 1 2 and 1 3 ) . None o f t h e estimates o f t h e s l o p e s o f t h e s e curves are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 1 . 0 . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d with t h e Neurospora samples on M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no g e n e t i c e f f e c t o f r a d i a t i o n under cond i t i o n s o f s p a c e f l i g h t t h a t d i f f e r s from t h e same r a d i a t i o n exposures on t h e ground. I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e SO04 Neurospora experiment and t h e SO04 blood experiment on t h e G e m i n i X I m i s s i o n a r e i n good agreement. N e i t h e r experiment confirmed t h e apparent synergism observed on t h e Gemini I11 m i s s i o n . Suspensions.- The d a t a from t h e Neurospora samples i n suspension show t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ( P = 0.02) s u r v i v a l w a s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e i n f l i g h t samples t h a n w i t h t h e ground samples. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e forward m u t a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s a r e lower f o r t h e i n f l i g h t s u s p e n s i o n s , t h a n f o r t h e ground s u s p e n s i o n s , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s l o p e s of t h e s e c u r v e s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t (P = 0.09). Taken a t f a c e v a l u e , t h e d a t a from t h e Neurospora suspensions a c t u a l l y s u g g e s t antagonism between r a d i a t i o n exposures and some f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h space f l i g h t and t o t h i s e x t e n t d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e SO04 Neuros p o r a f i l t e r samples and t h e blood experiment.

DISCUSSION

The r e s u l t s from t h e Gemini X I SO04 human blood experiment have f a i l e d t o confirm t h e i n c r e a s e i n s i n g l e - b r e a k chromosome a b e r r a t i o n s

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observed i n t h e Gemini .I11 SO04 experiment. The Gemini X I r e s u l t s a g r e e w i t h t h e Gemini I11 r e s u l t s b o t h i n showing no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n a b e r r a t i o n l e v e l s i n f l i g h t crew samples a r t e r an o r b i t a l m i s s i o n and i n f a i l i n g t o demonstrate any i n c r e a s e i n m u l t i p l e - b r e a k a b e r r a t i o n y i e l d s when t h e c e l l s a r e i r r a d i a t e d d u r i n g o r b i t a l f l i g h t . While t h e a b s o l u t e values o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d e l e t i o n p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e Gemini I11 and t h e Gemini X I experiments are d i f f e r e n t , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w a s t o b e e l p e c t e d (as a consequence of t h e change i n t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e t i m e t h e blood was drawn and i t s i r r a d i a t i o n ; c o n t r o l experiments p r i o r t o t h e Gemini X I f l i g h t c o n s i s t e n t l y showed t h e same e f f e c t ) . The SO04 Neurospora experiment w a s flown w i t h samples c o l l e c t e d on f i l t e r s so t h a t any d a t a could b e compared d i r e c t l y w i t h e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s of c h r o n i c and a c u t e exposures t o v a r i o u s i o n i z i n g r a d i a t i o n s ( r e f s . 6 t o 9 , 1 2 , and 1 3 ) . Such samples are i r r a d i a t e d under a e r o b i c c o n d i t i o n s even i n s e a l e d c o n t a i n e r s bec a u s e t h e r a t e of r e s p i r a t i o n o f Neurospora s p o r e s on M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r s i s low, and t h e oxygen c o n t e n t o f t h e a i r l e v e l s o f f a t about 1 6 t o 17 p e r c e n t ( r e f . 1 4 ) . The samples flown i n suspension were i n c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y t o a t t e m p t t o mimic more c l o s e l y t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e SO04 blood experiment. Spores o f Neurospora i n s u s p e n s i o n r e s p i r e r a p i d l y and become a n e r o b i c , t h e r a t e depending on t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e s u s p e n s i o n , and on t h e t e m p e r a t u r e ( r e f . 1 5 ) . F u l l y a e r o b i c suspensions o f c o n i d i a a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n used on t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n , k e p t i n c o n t a i n e r s i m permeable t o oxygen would become a n e r o b i c w i t h i n 75 minutes a f t e r incubation a t 2 5 O C. (We confirmed t h i s by d i r e c t measurement o f t h e oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f such suspensions w i t h a Beckman Model 160 P h y s i o l o g i c a l Gas Analyzer. )

It i s w e l l known t h a t a n e r o b i c c o n d i t i o n s p r o t e c t t h e c e l l a g a i n s t various genetic e f f e c t s of ionizing radiations. I n Neurospora anoxia r e s u l t i n g from endogenous metabolism has been shown t o g i v e h i g h l e v e l s o f s u r v i v a l and lower l e v e l s of r e v e r s e m u t a t i o n s (mutant t o w i l d - t y p e , r e f . 1 5 ) . Data from o t h e r experiments i n t h i s l a b o r a t o r y on a e r o b i c and a n e r o b i c suspensions of t h e same t y p e as used i n t h e SO04 Neurospora experiment have i n d i c a t e d t h a t anoxia produces a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on forward-mutation f r e q u e n c i e s (wild-type t o m u t a n t ) , a l t h o u g h w e do n o t y e t have as e x t e n s i v e background i n f o r m a t i o n on Neurospora samples i r r a d i a t e d as a n e r o b i c s u s p e n s i o n s .
The d a t a from t h e SO04 Neurospora f e a s i b i l i t y experiments and t h e d a t a from t h e i n f l i g h t and ground c o n t r o l samples from t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n c l e a r l y show t h a t t h e a n e r o b i c samples g i v e h i g h e r s u r v i v a l l e v e l s and lower forward-mutation f r e q u e n c i e s t h a n t h e a e r o b i c samples on f i l t e r s .

55
D i r e c t measurements o f t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e p l a s t i c sample holders used i n t h e SO04 d e v i c e have shown t h a t t h e y are somewhat permeable t o oxygen. If t h e s p o r e s i n suspension were m e t a b o l i c a l l y a c t i v e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 24 h o u r s o f t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n , t h e h i g h e r c a b i n temperatures could have r e s u l t e d i n (1)more r a p i d d i f f u s i o n o f oxygen t h r o u g h t h e w a l l s o f t h e sample h o l d e r , and ( 2 ) more r a p i d r e s p i r a t i o n o f t h e Neurospora s p o r e s i n s u s p e n s i o n , so t h a t t h e i n f l i g h t samples may w e l l have been i n a d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e (more complete a n e r o b i o s i s ? ) d u r i n g t h e i r r a d i a t i o n phase of t h e experiment. I n summary, it seems more l i k e l y t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s found between t h e i n f l i g h t and ground samples of Neurospora t r e a t e d i n s u s p e n s i o n ref l e c t u n i n t e n t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e physiology o f t h e s p o r e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e h i g h e r c a b i n temperatures d u r i n g t h e f i r s t day o f t h e m i s s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n antagonism between r a d i a t i o n and some space f l i g h t parameter , such as "weightlessness." The s i m p l e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e results o f t h e SO04 experiment i s t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n chromosome d e l e t i o n y i e l d which w a s observed i n t h e Gemini I11 experiment w a s t h e r e s u l t o f a s t a t i s t i c a l sampling e r r o r (which, w h i l e u n l i k e l y , c e r t a i n l y had a f i n i t e p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r i n g ) . I f it i s argued t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e Gemini I11 results a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t s a real s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t , t h e n t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which such an e f f e c t can occur must be very s p e c i a l ; t h e Gemini I11 and X I m i s s i o n p r o f i l e s c e r t a i n l y c o n t a i n t h e same major elements o f v i b r a t i o n , " w e i g h t l e s s n e s s , " e t c e t e r a . A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y , t h a t t h e l a c k of a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e Gemini X I r e s u l t s i s i t s e l f due t o a s t a t i s t i c a l sampling e r r o r , seems e s p e c i a l l y u n l i k e l y i n view o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e SO04 Neurospora experiment. Further confirmation o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s expected from t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s o f t h e g e n e t i c a n a l y s e s o f t h e mutants r e c o v e r e d from t h e SO04 Neurospora experiment. The recovered ad-3 mutants r e s u l t from two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e v e n t s : (1)p o i n t m u t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from g e n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e DNA r a n g i n g from s i n g l e - b a s e p a i r s u b s t i t u t i o n s t o s m a l l i n t r a l o c a l d e l e t i o n s , and ( 2 ) chromosome d e l e t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from chromosome breakage e v e n t s o u t s i d e o f t h e ad-3A or ad-3B genes t h a t i n t e r a c t t o cause gene l o s s ( r e f . 6 ) . P o i n t m u t a t i o n s i n c r e a s e l i n e a r l y w i t h r a d i a t i o n dose and occur more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n chromosome d e l e t i o n m u t a t i o n s , which i n c r e a s e as t h e s q u a r e of t h e dose ( f i g . 4-6). Genetic a n a l y s i s of t h e ad-3 m u t a t i o n s from t h e f l i g h t and ground c o n t r o l samples o f Neurospora flown on f i l t e r s w i l l p r o v i d e t h e dosee f f e c t c u r v e s f o r i n d u c t i o n of t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e v e n t s . S i n c e t h e r e w a s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e slopes o f t h e curves f o r a l l ad-3 m u t a t i o n s t h e d a t a from t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e Neurospora experiment should also show t h a t t h e r e i s no i n t e r a c t i o n between r a d i a t i o n and t h e v a r i o u s p a r a m e t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p a c e f l i g h t and t h a t t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s ( w i t h r e g a r d

C

I

' .

t o e v e n t s giving r i s e t o chromosome breakage or gene m u t a t i o n by e i t h e r p o i n t mutation o r chromosome d e l e t i o n ) are i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e found i n ground-based experiments. Genetic a n a l y s i s o f t h e ad-3 m u t a t i o n s r e c o v e r e d from suspensions i n t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n seems l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e d a t a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e Neurospora experiment can b e b e s t a t t r i b u t e d t o i r r a d i a t i o n under anoxia. I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e g e n e t i c e f f e c t s of i r r a d i a t i o n under anoxia w i t h r e g a r d t o survival and forward m u t a t i o n d o s e - e f f e c t curves as w e l l as on t h e spectrum of ad-3 m u t a t i o n s recovered , has been s t a r t e d . I n any case, whether o r n o t it i s e v e n t u a l l y p o s s i b l e t o a s c r i b e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s s e e n i n t h e i n f l i g h t and ground Neurospora samples t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e v e l o f a n o x i a caused by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e temperature of t h e experimental d e v i c e s , it i s c l e a r t h a t no synergism between r a d i a t i o n and space f l i g h t w a s demonstrated f o r e i t h e r s u r v i v a l o r forward-mutation by t h e SO04 Neurospora experiment.
The SO04 experiments have shown, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d from e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s ( r e f s . 1, 2 , and 3) , t h a t n e i t h e r o r b i t a l space f l i g h t nor any o f t h e s t r e s s e s connected w i t h it produce s i g n i f i c a n t unpredicted g e n e t i c damage , a t l e a s t i n s o f a r as chromosomal aberr a t i o n production i s a v a l i d measure of t h i s g e n e r a l t y p e o f e f f e c t . Furthermore, t h e Gemini X I r e s u l t s l e a d us t o conclude t h a t no s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t e x i s t s between r a d i a t i o n and f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h space flight.

?

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n of t h e SO04 human blood experiment involved a much l a r g e r group of people t h a n can p o s s i b l y be acknowledged i n d i v i d u a l l y . W a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d , however, t o H . F. Smith, J r . , e W. T. Smith, Jr., F. W. Henson, and E. N . Rogers o f t h e Oak Ridge Y - 1 2 P l a n t and t o F. M. Faulcon, W. H. Lee, F. G . P e a r s o n , K. P. J o n e s , J . R . Azzi, M. C . Gibson, E. C . Gourley, W. P. Henry, L. Oggs, L. B. R a l s t o n , M. T. Sheppard, A. P. T e a s l e y , D. S . C a r r o l l , and J. S. Wasson of t h e Biology D i v i s i o n of t h e Oak Ridge N a t i o n a l Laboratory.

57
RE WRENCE S

1.

S i s a k y a n , N. M . , ed: Problemy Kosmicheskoy B i o l o g i i . v o l . 1; U.S.S.R. Academy o f Sciences P u b l i s h i n g House, Moscow, 1962 (NASA TT F-174). Sisakyan, N . M . ; and Yazdovskiy, V. I . , e d s . : Problemy Kosmicheskoy B i o l o g i i . v o l . 2, U.S.S.R. Academy o f S c i e n c e s P u b l i s h i n g House, Moscow, 1962 (JPRS 18,395; OTS 63-21437). Sisakyan, N. M . ; F a r i n , V. V . ; Antipov, V. V . ; Dobrov, N. N . ; and Saksonov, P. P.: C e r t a i n R e s u l t s of and Long Term P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e Development of R a d i o b i o l o g i c a l Research i n Space. I z v e s t i y a Akademie Nauk U.S.S.H. , S e r i u a B i o l o g i y e s k a y a 3, 304-315, 1964 (JPRS 25,844, pp. 1 - 1 5 ) . Bender, M. A . ; Gooch, P. C . ; and Kondo, S . : Experiment S-4, Zero g 1 . and R a d i a t i o n on Blood During Gemini 1 1 Manned Space F l i g h t Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions I11 and I V , N a t i o n a l Aeron a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Washington, 1965. Bender, M. A . ; Gooch, P. C . ; and Kondo, S . : The Gemini-3 S-4 S p a c e f l i g h t - R a d i a t i o n I n t e r a c t i o n Experiment. R a d i a t i o n Research

2.

3.

4.

5.

31:91-111, 1967.

6.

Webber, B. B . ; and de S e r r e s , F. J . : I n d u c t i o n K i n e t i c s and G e n e t i c A n a l y s i s o f X-Ray-Induced Mutations i n t h e ad-3 Region of Neuros p o r a c r a s s a . Proc. N a t l . Acad. S c i . U.S. 53: 430-437 (1965). de S e r r e s , F. J . ; Webber, B. B . ; and Lyman, J . T . : MutationI n d u c t i o n and Nuclear I n a c t i v a t i o n i n Neurospora c r a s s a Using R a d i a t i o n s w i t h D i f f e r e n t Rates of Energy Loss. R a d i a t i o n Res., ( i n press). Brockman, H. E . ; and Goben, Wini: Mutagenicity of a Monofunctional A l k y l a t i n g Agent D e r i v a t i v e o f A c r i d i n e i n Neurospora. S c i e n c e 1 4 7 : 750-751 (1965). Brockman, H . E . ; de S e r r e s , F. J . ; and B a r n e t t , W. E . : A n a l y s i s o f ad-3 Mutants Induced by Nitrous Acid i n a Heterokaryon of Neuros p o r a c r a s s a . Mutation Res., ( i n p r e s s ) .
Oak Ridge N a t i o n a l Laboratory:

7.

8.

9.

10.

S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t of Zero g and R a d i a t i o n on White Blood C e l l s . Annual R e p o r t , p e r i o d ending June 30, 1964, ORNL-TM-940, 1964.

58
1 . Oak Ridge N a t i o n a l Laboratory: S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t o f Zero g and 1 Radiation on White Blood Cells. Annual R e p o r t , p e r i o d ending June 30, 1965, ORNL-TM-1550, 1966.

12.

de S e r r e s , F. J . ; M a l l i n g , H. V . ; observations.

and Webber, B. B . :

unpublished

13.

Webber, B. B. ; and d e S e r r e s , F. J. :

unpublished o b s e r v a t i o n s .

14.

de S e r r e s , F. J'.; and Webber, B. B . : S u r v i v a l o f Neurospora Conidia i n Simulated Three Day B i o s a t e l l i t e Hardware. Semi-annual r e p o r t f o r p e r i o d ending J u l y 31, 1966, ORNL-3999, pp. 203-204, 1966.
K $ l m a r k , H. G . : P r o t e c t i o n by Endogenous Anoxia Against t h e Mutag e n i c and L e t h a l E f f e c t s o f X-rays i n Neurpspora c r a s s a . Mutation Res. 2, 222-228 (1965).

15.

59

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TABLE

4-11.-

COEFFICIENTS OF ABERRATION PRODUCTION FOR

G E M I N I X I SO04 BLOOD EXPERIMENT

Delet i o n s
Source
(x

Rings and d i c e n t r i c s
(x

10

41
0.87

10

61
2

p e r c e l l per r a d Ground c o n t r o l

per c e l l per rad

10.22

f

3.84

f

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Inflight
Run I

9.01

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0.98
1.12

3.64
3.22

f

0.26

8.16

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61

Neurospora container Experiment containers

Phosphorus source Phosphorus source assembly

Neurospora holder

dosimeter

Figure 4-1.- Blood cell and Neurospora experiment equipment.

62

>

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63

64

0

FLIGHT F I L T E R

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GROUND SUSPENSIONS

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1

2,400

4 8 0 7,200 9,600 ,0
DOSE (rad)

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Figure 4-4. - Dose-effect curves for survival of flight and ground samples of the SO04 Neurospora.

65

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5,000 10,000 DOSE ( r a d )

Figure 4-5.- Dose-effect curves for forward-mutation in the ad-3 region for flight and ground samples of the SO04 Neurospora.

66

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1 2 5 1 0 X-RAY EXPOSURE (kr)

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Figure 4-6.- Dose-effect curves for ad-3 mutations due to intragenic alteration( ad-3") and gene loss by chromosome deletion ad-31R) after exposure t o 250 kV X-rays.

(

67

5.

EXPERIMENT s 0 0 5 , SYNOPTIC TERRAIN PHOTOGRAPHY

By Dr. Paul D. Lowman NASA/Goddard Space F l i g h t Center
+.

OBJECTIVE

The o b j e c t i v e of t h e SO05 Synoptic T e r r a i n Photography experiment w a s t o o b t a i n h i g h - q u a l i t y c o l o r photographs o f s e l e c t e d t e r r a i n and o c e a n i c areas f o r g e o d e t i c , geographic, and oceanographic r e s e a r c h . In p a r t i c u l a r , photographs t a k e n from v e r y h i g h a l t i t u d e s were d e s i r e d of t h e f o l l o w i n g areas, l i s t e d i n o r d e r of p r i o r i t y : northwestern Austral i a , t h e Egypt/Red Sea/Arabian Peninsula a r e a , s o u t h e r n I n d i a , and southe r n Mexico.

EQUIPMENT

Two cameras s u i t a b l e f o r t e r r a i n photography were c a r r i e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t , and b o t h cameras were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e used d u r i n g p r e v i o u s Gemini m i s s i o n s . Many of t h e p i c t u r e s were t a k e n w i t h t h e 70-mm EVA camera u s i n g a 38-m f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s and a 90' prism assembly. The 70-mm general-purpose camera, w i t h t h e ~O-IIUTI f / 2 . 8 l e n s , was a l s o used. S t a n d a r d film magazines were used, and b o t h cameras c o n t a i n e d medium-speed c o l o r - r e v e r s a l f i l m (2.5-mil p o l y e s t e r b a s e ) , a type n o t u s e d on p r e v i o u s m i s s i o n s . A haze f i l t e r w a s used on b o t h cameras.

PROCEDURES

The crew w a s i n s t r u c t e d t o t a k e v e r t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d , s y s t e m a t i c , o v e r l a p p i n g , o r i s o l a t e d photographs d u r i n g t h e high-apogee and o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n s over t h e d e s i r e d a r e a s . A s i n p r e v i o u s f l i g h t s , it w a s s t r e s s e d t h a t photographs of any c l o u d - f r e e l a n d a r e a s would be u s e f u l .

RESULTS

The experiment w a s h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l . About 1 4 5 photographs o f good t o e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y were obtained and i n c l u d e d a l l t h e d e s i r e d areas p l u s a number of a d d i t i o n a l ones.

68
The command p i l o t ' s window w a s obscured, as on p r e v i o u s f l i g h t s , w h i l e t h e p i l o t ' s window w a s r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r . Consequently, t h e p i l o t t o o k most of t h e t e r r a i n photographs, a l t e r n a t i n g between t h e 70-mm EVA s t i l l camera and t h e 70-mm general-purpose camera. T h i s t e c h n i q u e , which had n o t been planned as p a r t of t h i s experiment, provided n o t o n l y s t e r e o s c o p i c coverage b u t a l s o an e x c e l l e n t comparison of t h e two camera l e n s e s . I n g e n e r a l , p i c t u r e s from b o t h cameras were of good q u a l i t y , b u t t h o s e from t h e g e n e r a l purpose camera were n o t as c l e a r . The m a j o r i t y of t h e t e r r a i n photographs were t a k e n d u r i n g t h e two high-apogee r e v o l u t i o n s . During t h i s p e r i o d , most l a n d areas, except I n d o n e s i a and Ceylon, were c l e a r of c l o u d cover. P i c t u r e q u a l i t y i s good t o e x c e l l e n t for most of t h e photographs. Reds and b l u e s are somewhat exaggerated i n s e v e r a l photographs t a k e n w i t h t h e 70-mm EVA s t i l l camera. The p i c t u r e s t a k e n t h r o u g h t h e command p i l o t ' s window w e r e s e r i o u s l y degraded by d e p o s i t s on t h e window.
A p r e l i m i n a r y examination of t h e p i c t u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h e y a r e o f g r e a t v a l u e for r e s e a r c h purposes and, because of t h e wide coverage obt a i n e d , for l o c a t i n g a r e a s photographed on e a r l i e r f l i g h t s . Representat i v e photographs a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 5 - l ( a ) t o 5 - l ( e ) .

69

(a) Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Turkey, and Israel. The water areas include The Red Sea, Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee, Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal and Euphrates River. Taken at an altitude of 220 nautical miles, looking north (7:25 G. m. t., September 14, 1966). Figure 5- 1. - Typical synoptic terrain photography.

(b) Egypt/Saudi Arabia area. Coverage includes Jordan/Israel,

Sinai, Nile River, Red Sea, Dead Sea, and A1 Hijaz. Taken at an altitude of 220 nautical miles looking down with north at the top of the page (7: 26 G. m. t., September 14, 1966). Figure 5- 1. - Continued.

.
(c) Libya, Chad, Sudan, Egypt, and Niger. The Tibesti Mountains, A1 Haruj A1 Swad, Mediterranean Sea, and Great Libyan Land Sea are shown in background. Taken at an altitude of 240 nautical miles, looking northeast (8: 55 G. m. t., September 14, 1966).
Figure 5-1.

- Continued.

(d) Egypt, Libya, and Sudan. Red Sea, Tibesti Mountains, Gulf E l Kebir, and Great Land Sea are also shown. Taken at an altitude of 260 nautical miles, looking east northeast (8: 56 G. m. t., September 14, 1966). Figure 5-1.

- Continued.

73

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*

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(e) Ethiopia, Somali, French Somaliland, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and South Arabia. The Red Sea and G l of Aden a r e directly uf below. Taken at an altitude of 350 nautical miles, looking down, with southeast at the top of the page (9: 01 G. m. t . , September 14, 1966). Figure 5-1.

- Concluded.

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I
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75

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6.

EXPERIMENT s006, SYNOPTIC WEATHER PHOTOGRAPHY

I I I

By Kenneth M. Nagler Environmental S c i e n c e S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (ESSA), Weather Bureau

I
I
I 1 I
I
I

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and S t a n l e y D. Soules ESSA, N a t i o n a l Environmental S a t e l l i t e Center

I

I
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SUMMARY

I I

i

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Photographs were t a k e n w i t h two cameras a t a h i g h a l t i t u d e of approximately 740 n a u t i c a l m i l e s over A f r i c a , t h e I n d i a n Ocean, and A u s t r a l i a . The photographs can be compared w i t h weather s a t e l l i t e phot o g r a p h s t a k e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Analyses of c l o u d development and movement were made from photographs t a k e n o f s o u t h e r n I n d i a and Ceylon on s u c c e s s i v e Gemini v e h i c l e r e v o l u t i o n s . The wide-angle coverage of one camera w a s p r e f e r r e d t o t h a t of t h e o t h e r camera f o r photographic meteorological studies.

I

OBJECTIVE

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I
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I
I .

The o b j e c t i v e of t h e so06 experiment w a s t o o b t a i n a s e r i e s o f c o l o r photographs of t h e e a r t h ' s cloud cover f o r t h e a n a l y s e s of weather syst e m s and t o - a i d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of weather s a t e l l i t e photographs. Cloud system photographs t o be t a k e n a t h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s t h a n from prev i o u s Gemini m i s s i o n s were secondary o b j e c t i v e s . These h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s a r e comparable t o t h o s e o f weather s a t e l l i t e photographic systems. Expos u r e s of t h e same geographic areas on s u c c e s s i v e Gemini r e v o l u t i o n s were d e s i r a b l e f o r comparative e v a l u a t i o n s .

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EQUIPMENT

The equipment f o r t h i s experiment c o n s i s t e d of 70-mm Kodak Ektachrome MS f i l m on a 2l5-mil p o l y e s t e r b a s e and w a s used i n t h e H a s s e l b l a d camera and t h e Maurer g e n e r a l purpose camera. A s u p e r wide-angle l e n s w i t h a 38-mm f o c a l l e n g t h w a s used on t h e H a s s e l b l a d camera w i t h t h e

Maurer camera u s i n g a n 80-III~f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s . F i v e r o l l s of f i l m were exposed f o r t h e SO05 and so06 experiments and f o r documentary photography.

PROCEDURE
c

P r i o r t o t h e m i s s i o n , t h e f l i g h t crew w a s b r i e f e d on t h e t y p e s of weather systems of i n t e r e s t . One day p r i o r t o l a u n c h , and a g a i n on t h e morning o f launch, maps were g i v e n t o t h e crew showing s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t and a r e a s of o p e r a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . S p e c i f i c emphasis w a s on c o n d i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e on r e v o l u t i o n s 26 and 27 when t h e Gemini v e h i c l e w a s t o be a t a n apogee of about 740 n a u t i c a l m i l e s .

RESULTS Approximately 180 good q u a l i t y c o l o r photographs were t a k e n showing cloud formations. Most of t h e p i c t u r e s were t a k e n on September 1 4 , 1966, d u r i n g r e v o l u t i o n s 26 and 27 over A f r i c a , A r a b i a , t h e I n d i a n Ocean, and A u s t r a l i a . P i c t u r e s were t a k e n w i t h b o t h cameras d u r i n g t h e s e revolut i o n s . Between r e v o l u t i o n s 26 and 27 photographs were t a k e n over t h e I n d i a n area from t h e ESSA 1 m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s a t e l l i t e . The Gemini X I p i c t u r e s of t h i s r e g i o n p e r m i t a comparison of t h e a r e a l coverage and d e t a i l o b t a i n a b l e w i t h cameras having d i f f e r e n t l e n s e s w i t h c o n c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n a l weather s a t e l l i t e p i c t u r e s , and e v a l u a t i o n of cloud movements and changes o c c u r r i n g between t h e . t i m e p e r i o d of each r e v o l u t i o n . F i g u r e 6-1 i s a t y p i c a l example of a photograph t a k e n w i t h t h e Maurer camera u s i n g an 80-mm f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s . It shows t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t of I n d i a w i t h t h e surrounding I n d i a n Ocean a t an a l t i t u d e of about 410 n a u t i c a l m i l e s . P a t t e r n s o f cumulus c l o u d s formed by midday over t h e l a n d and t h e absence of many c l o u d s a l o n g t h e c o a s t l i n e i n d i c a t e a sea b r e e z e was blowing o f f t h e c o o l ocean water. Cloud d i a m e t e r s as s m a l l as 1/4 m i l e a r e e a s i l y recognized i n t h i s photograph. F i g u r e 6-2 i s an e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e of s o u t h e r n I n d i a and Ceylon t a k e n w i t h t h e H a s s e l b l a d camera u s i n g t h e wide-angle, 38-mm f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s . Although t h e f i e l d o f view i s g r e a t e r , t h e m a g n i f i c a t i o n i s about one-half t h a t i n f i g u r e 6-1. The a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s s e e n i n f i g u r e 6-2 give a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r - s c a l e c l o u d p a t t e r n s and t h e g a i n i n a r e a l coverage compensates f o r t h e factor-of-two loss i n r e s o l u t i o n . The l a r g e r f i e l d of view i n f i g u r e 6-2 shows a f e a t u r e A c l e a r zone, n e a r l y f r e e t h a t i s n o t r e a d i l y apparent i n f i g u r e 6-1.

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of c l o u d s , e x t e n d s a l o n g t h e west c o a s t o f I n d i a v a r y i n g from 30 t o 50 m i l e s i n w i d t h , and c o n t i n u e s around t h e s o u t h e r n t i p of I n d i a i n t o t h e Bay of Bengal where a l i n e o f c o n v e c t i v e c l o u d s s e v e r a l hundred m i l e s o f f s h o r e had formed.

This c l e a r r e g i o n i s n o t e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t o o d , but two r e a s o n s f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e are suggested. The l a c k of c l o u d s may b e t h e r e s u l t o f d r i e r a i r s u b s i d i n g o f f s h o r e which h a s t h e tendency t o s u p p r e s s c l o u d development. The sea b r e e z e where t h e low-level winds a r e moving t h e a i r toward t h e l a n d may cause t h e a i r t o descend i n t h e c l e a r r e g i o n . There a l s o may b e c o o l water upwelling a l o n g t h e c o a s t . S u r f a c e winds a r e n o r t h w e s t e r l y a l o n g t h e west I n d i a n c o a s t and s o u t h w e s t e r l y a l o n g
t h e e a s t I n d i a n c o a s t . The northwest winds w i l l t r a n s p o r t t h e s u r f a c e water southeastward. However, t h e C o r i o l i s f o r c e w i l l t e n d t o d e f l e c t t h e water toward t h e southwest away from t h e l a n d . T h i s would p e r m i t t h e upwelling o f c o o l e r water along t h e c o a s t l i n e and t h e water temperature may be s u f f i c i e n t l y low t o s u p p r e s s t h e development o f cumulus c l o u d s . A s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e change of about 1 d e g r e e c o u l d be enough t o accomplish t h i s . To t h e e a s t of I n d i a , where southwest winds p r e v a i l , t h e C o r i o l i s f o r c e would a c t t o t r a n s p o r t t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r i n an easte r l y d i r e c t i o n . Again, t h i s produces a f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n f o r upwelling n e a r t h e c o a s t a l area. Observations of sea water t e m p e r a t u r e s from s h i p s were s c a r c e , b u t t h e few r e p o r t s a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t e d t h e c o a s t a l waters were 1 o r 2 d e g r e e s c o o l e r t h a n sea w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s f a r t h e r w e s t i n t h e Arabian Sea. The c l o u d - f r e e zone i s an i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon t h a t i s b e i n g analyzed by o t h e r s c i e n t i s t s . F i g u r e 6-3 i s a montage of weather s a t e l l i t e p i c t u r e s made by ESSA 1 about 45 minutes a f t e r t h e photographs i n f i g u r e s 6-1 and 6-2 were t a k e n . The c l o u d - f r e e zone i s a l s o evident i n t h i s p i c t u r e . An examination of ESSA p i c t u r e s t a k e n of I n d i a on o t h e r days r e v e a l e d s e v e r a l similar s i t u a t i o n s . Many o f t h e smaller cumulus c l o u d s t h a t a r e e a s i l y seen i n t h e Gemini v e h i c l e p i c t u r e s cannot be r e s o l v e d i n t h i s p i c t u r e . Because it i s an o b l i q u e view, t h e r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n Ceylon i n f i g u r e 6-3 i s o n l y about 5 m i l e s . The f l i g h t crew t o o k a n o t h e r s e r i e s of photographs on r e v o l u t i o n 27 w h i l e c r o s s i n g t h e I n d i a n Ocean. F i g u r e 6-4 w a s made a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s o u t h of I n d i a w i t h t h e Maurer camera u s i n g t h e 80-rnm l e n s . The c l o u d i n e s s i n t h e foreground i s t y p i c a l f o r a convergence zone i n t r o p i c a l r e g i o n s . Very l o n g s t r e a m e r s o f c i r r u s c l o u d s extend a c r o s s t h e upper p a r t of t h e p i c t u r e . E a s t e r l y winds a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s have c a r r i e d t h e s e c l o u d s of i c e p a r t i c l e s from t h e t o p s of thunderstorms n e a r Malaysia. Ceylon i s p a r t l y obscured by t h e s e c l o u d s , b u t t h e l a r g e thunders t o r m s n e a r t h e n o r t h e r n end o f t h e i s l a n d a r e very v i s i b l e . The g r e a t

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change i n t h e s e thunderstorms can be seen by r e f e r r i n g t o f i g u r e s 6-2 and 6-4. I n 96 minutes t h e s e c l o u d s changed from t h e towering cumulus s t a g e t o well-formed thunderstorm c l o u d s w i t h a n v i l s s p r e a d i n g westward about 1 0 0 n a u t i c a l m i l e s . The wind v e l o c i t y a t t h e c i r r u s c l o u d l e v e l most l i k e l y exceeds 67 k n o t s t o account f o r t h i s r a p i d c l o u d movement. Other photographs made d u r i n g t h e Gemini X I f l i g h t i n c l u d e views of e x t e n s i v e c l o u d i n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h T r o p i c a l Storm Grace i n t h e Western P a c i f i c Ocean, a v o r t e x i n s t r a t o c u m u l u s c l o u d s s o u t h of Cape R h i r o f f northwest A f r i c a , a v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i z e d p a t t e r n s of c o n v e c t i v e c l o u d s , and e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f cumulonimbus a c t i v i t y i n t h e t r o p i c s .

CONCLUSIONS
The photographs o b t a i n e d from t h i s m i s s i o n have shown t h a t t h e H a s s e l b l a d camera w i t h t h e 38-mm wide-angle l e n s can show l a r g e - s c a l e c l o u d p a t t e r n s . Although t h e r e i s a d e c r e a s e i n m a g n i f i c a t i o n , c l o u d t y p e s a r e s t i l l e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . P i c t u r e s made w i t h t h e two f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s e s have been compared w i t h t e l e v i s e d p i c t u r e s from weather s a t e l l i t e s . From t h e s e photographs, m e t e o r o l o g i s t s w i l l be a b l e t o b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t t h e cloud p a t t e r n s seen :7 s a t e l l i t e p i c t u r e s showing l e s s d e t a i l and l a c k of c o l o r . Changes t h a t occur 1 . t h e same c l o u d p a t t e r n s over s h o r t p e r i o d s of t i m e on s u c c e s s i v e v e h i c l e r e v o l u t i o n s can also be analyzed i n d e t a i l .

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Figure 6-1. - Southern India photographed on revolution 26 with the 83-mm focal length lens on the Maurer camera.

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Figure 6-2. - Southern India and Ceylon photographed on revolution 26 with the 38-mm wide-angle lens on the Hasselblad camera.

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Photograph taken at 0814 G. m. t. on September 14, 1966. The coastline and the latitude-longitude grid is shown in white dots and lines.
Figure 6-3. - A montage of televised pictures from ESSA 1 weather satellite of southern India and Ceylon.

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7.

EXPERIMENT s009, NUCLEAR EMULSION

By F. W. O ' D e l l , M. M. Shapiro, R . S i l b e r b e r g , B. S t i l l e r , and C. H. Tsao; U. S. Naval Research L a b o r a t o r y and N. Durgaprasad, C. E. F i c h t e l , D. E. GUSS, and D. V. Reames Goddard Space F l i g h t Center

SUMMARY

An o r i e n t e d n u c l e a r emulsion d e t e c t o r c a p a b l e of t i m e r e s o l u t i o n w a s exposed d u r i n g t h e Gemini X I Mission t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e primary cosmic-ray n u c l e i above t h e e a r t h ' s atmosphere. T h i s w a s t h e f i r s t use of an emulsion a p p a r a t u s designed t o c o l l e c t 1000 h i g h q u a l i t y t r a c k s o f
heavy n u c l e i under n e g l i g i b l e t h i c k n e s s of matter e q u a l t o 0.07 gram/cm T i m e r e s o l u t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d by moving a lower s t a c k , c o n s i s t i n g of emulsions of v a r i o u s s e n s i t i v i t i e s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o a s h a l l o w e r , s e n s i It w a s t h u s p o s s i b l e t i v e upper s t a c k a t t h e r a t e o f 25 microns/minute. t o s e p a r a t e t h e " u s e f u l " t r a c k s which were formed d u r i n g t h e o r i e n t e d p o r t i o n of t h e f l i g h t from t h o s e formed a t o t h e r times. P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a are p r e s e n t e d on t h e r e l a t i v e abundances o f i n d i v i d u a l chemical. elements i n t h e high-energy cosmic r a d i a t i o n above t h e e a r t h ' s atmosphere. These measurements a r e compared t o p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on b a l l o o n f l i g h t s a t similar l a t i t u d e s . When s u f f i c i e n t d a t a become a v a i l a b l e i n a l a t e r phase of t h i s experiment, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l b e d i r e c t e d towards t h e Be and B abundances, t h e N and F c o n t e n t r e l a t i v e t o C and 0 , and t h e r e l a t i v e number of t h e iron-group n u c l e i compared t o t h e l i g h t e r o n e s .
2

OBJECTIVE

The SO09 Nuclear f i u l s i o n experiment w a s designed t o e x p l o r e cosmic r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t on t h e e a r t h ' s atmosphere u s i n g a n u c l e a r emuslion s t a c k und.er a n e g l i g i b l e t h i c k n e s s of p r o t e c t i v e m a t e r i a l . Cosmic r a y s c o n s i s t of atomic n u c l e i moving w i t h n e a r l y t h e speed of l i g h t and prov i d e means f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g remote a r e a s of our Milky Way galaxy where high-energy p r o c e s s e s are o c c u r r i n g . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g components of primary r a d i a t i o n from n u c l e i h e a v i e r t h a n hydrogen o r helium.

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The cosmic-ray d e t e c t o r c o n s i s t e d of a s t a c k o f n u c l e a r photographic emulsions designed t o r e g i s t e r a t l e a s t 400 t r a c k s of heavy n u c l e i , t h e minimum acceptance number f o r each 1 0 hours of u s e f u l exposure. Exposure u s e f u l n e s s r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t be o r i e n t e d i n a heads-up a t t i t u d e d u r i n g t h e 10-hour p e r i o d .

EQUIPMENT The experiment equipment shown i n f i g u r e 7-1 c o n s i s t e d of a r e c t a n g u l a r package measuring 8 . 5 by 6 by 3 i n c h e s and weighing 13 pounds when loaded w i t h approximately 1 l i t e r of emulsion. An e l e c t r i c a l connector on t h e bottom f a c e of t h e package provided s p a c e c r a f t power t o and t e l e metry information from t h e package. The t o p f a c e of t h e package had a 250-micron aluminum window f o r exposing t h e emulsion t o ambient r a d i a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The package w a s housed i n a temperaturec o n t r o l l e d w e l l d i r e c t l y behind t h e p i l o t ' s h a t c h l o c a t e d i n t h e r e t r o grade a d a p t e r s e c t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . During l a u n c h , p r o t e c t i o n w a s provided by a hinged cover which w a s opened 1 0 a t t h e t i m e of launch 9' v e h i c l e s e p a r a t i o n from t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The package w a s equipped w i t h a deployable handle f o r removal and placement i n s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t a f t e r r e t r i e v a l by t h e crew p i l o t . Each of t h e two s e c t i o n s of t h e emulsion s t a c k c o n t a i n e d 92 s h e e t s of 600-micron t h i c k n u c l e a r emulsion c o n s i s t i n g of s i l v e r bromide c r y s t a l s embedded i n g e l a t i n e l a y e r s . The p l a n e o f t h e emulsion s h e e t s i s i n t h e p l a n e of t h e p i c t u r e . During t h e f l i g h t , when i n i t i a t e d by a s w i t c h , t h e lower s e c t i o n moved i n s t e p s of 25 microns p e r minute w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e upper s e c t i o n . The purpose of t h i s movement w a s t o o b t a i n t i m e r e s o l u t i o n for p a r t i c l e s e n t e r i n g t h e d e t e c t o r through t h e c o l l e c t i o n f a c e . B matching segments of t h e same t r a c k i n t h e two s e c t i o n s , y it i s p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e s e c t i o n s had a t t h e t i m e t h e t r a c k w a s r e g i s t e r e d , and hence t h e time of e n t r y of t h e particle. The moving mechanism i s l o c a t e d below t h e emulsion s t a c k . It cons i s t s of a 60-second t i m e r , a g e a r head motor, and a d r i v e assembly. A h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n p o t e n t i o m e t e r , a t t a c h e d t o t h e d r i v e assembly, provided a s i g n a l i n d i c a t i n g t h e amount of s t a c k movement. I n a d d i t i o n , a b i l e v e l v o l t a g e s i g n a l i n d i c a t i n g motor a c t u a t i o n s , and a s i g n a l from a t e m p e r a t u r e sensor were r e a d o u t . E l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e S p a c e c r a f t and t h e package were made through a p l u g on t h e bottom of t h e package. Telemetry i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of (1)a s i g n a l from t h e potentiome t e r i n d i c a t i n g d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d by t h e lower s t a c k , ( 2 ) a b i l e v e l v o l t age s i g n a l i n d i c a t i n g motor a c t u a t i o n , and (3) t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e experiment housing.

PROCEDURES
The experiment w a s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t approximately 55 hours p r i o r t o launch. A t 1:42:20 ground e l a p s e d t i m e , t h e experiment w a s a c t i v a t e d by t h e p i l o t . Proper o p e r a t i o n of t h e experiment w a s v e r i f i e d by t e l e m e t r y a t 4 hours 30 minutes ground e l a p s e d t i m e . The experiment continued t o o p e r a t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y u n t i l t h e package w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y recovered by t h e p i l o t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t E x t r a Vehicular A c t i v i t y at approximately 24 hours 5 minutes ground e l a p s e d t i m e . The package w a s t h e n stowed i n s i d e t h e c a b i n by t h e command p i l o t , and it remained t h e r e f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t . The f l i g h t p l a n c a l l e d f o r a s p a c e c r a f t heads-up a t t i t u d e w i t h i n * 5 during t h e exposure p e r i o d , except d u r i n g 1' South A t l a n t i c anomaly p a s s e s when t h e blunt-end-forward s p a c e c r a f t configuration was specified.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Approximatley o n e - f i f t h of t h e a v a i l a b l e emulsion volume has been scanned and analyzed. The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d a r e t h e r e f o r e p r e l i m i n a r y . F i g u r e 7-2 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a r r i v a l t i m e s o f t h e heavy primary n u c l e i t h a t have been analyzed. The t i m e s c a l e i s i n hours of e l a p s e d f l i g h t time. The peak of t h e r i g h t on t h e diagram r e p r e s e n t s heavy n u c l e i t h a t e n t e r e d t h e d e t e c t o r d u r i n g t h e l a s t two days of t h e f l i g h t , when t h e package w a s i n s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t c a b i n . The s m a l l peak t o t h e l e f t r e p r e s e n t s p a r t i c l e s recorded e a r l y i n t h e f l i g h t b e f o r e t h e s t a c k movement w a s a c t u a t e d . Out o f t h i s sample of t r a c k s , approximately 250 n u c l e i of c h a r g e 4 and g r e a t e r had a r r i v a l t i m e s w i t h i n t h e 22 hour p e r i o d of u s e f u l exposure. Nuclei of charge 3 have n o t been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s because of t h e low d e t e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y for t r a c k s a t t h i s l e v e l of i o n i z a t i o n i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h background accumulated on t h e p l a t e s d u r i n g t h e t h r e e day f l i g h t . I n o r d e r t o minimize t h e background e f f e c t of Van Allen p a r t i c l e s accumulated on passages through t h e r e g i o n of t h e South A t l a n t i c Anomaly, t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s maintained such t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n f a c e of t h e d e t e c t o r w a s approximatley normal t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e magnetic f i e l d l i n e s i n t h e r e g i o n . I n t h i s way t h e m i r r o r i n g p a r t i c l e s produced t r a c k s i n t h e p l a t e s more o r l e s s a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e t r a c k s of t h e primary n u c l e i . F i g u r e 7-3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e methods used t o determine n u c l e a r c h a r g e . The lower s t a c k c o n t a i n e d emulsions of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e n s i t i v i t i e s , K.5, K.2, and G.O. Charge e s t i m a t e s a r e based on d e l t a - r a y counting i n K.5 emulsions and g r a i n counting i n t h e K. 2 and G . 0 emulsion. I n t h e graph on t h e l e f t i n f i g u r e 7-3, t h e c h a r g e , as determined by d e l t a - r a y

I '
' .

86
c o u n t i n g i n K . 5 emulsion, i s p l o t t e d a l o n g t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s and t h e c h a r g e from g r a i n c o u n t i n g i n G.0 emulsion i s p l o t t e d a l o n g t h e horizont a l axis. I n t h e upper r i g h t i s a s i m i l a r p l o t u s i n g d e l t a - r a y d e n s i t y i n K . 5 v e r s u s K . 5 g r a i n c o u n t i n g i n K . 2 acd on t h e lower r i g h t , a p l o t The f i n a l c h a r g e a s s i g n e d t o each u s i n g g r a i n counts i n K . 2 v e r s u s G.O. p a r t i c l e i s a weighted average of a l l t h e measurements made on t h e t r a c k . F i g u r e 7-4 shows t h e c h a r g e spectrum o b t a i n e d , u s i n g t h e 250 t r a c k s t h u s f a r analyzed, by one o r more of t h e i o n i z a t i o n methods mentioned above. It i s e v i d e n t t h a t good r e s o l u t i o n between charges. i n t h e L and M groups i s p o s s i b l e d e s p i t e t h e f a i r l y heavy background o f e l e c t r o n and p r o t o n t r a c k s . Peaks a l s o occur f o r h i g h e r c h a r g e s , b u t as y e t , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l weights a r e t o o low f o r good s e p a r a t i o n . It i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e abundance of n i t r o g e n i s q u i t e low r e l a t i v e t o carbon and oxygen which i s i n agreement w i t h p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s . I n t a b l e I , p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s a r e summarized and compared t o a v e r ages made of f i v e s e t s of p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on b a l l o o n f l i g h t s The Gemini X I o r b i t s ranged between a t a geomagnetic l a t i t u d e of 41'. + 8 and -28' geographic l a t i t u d e . There i s good agreement between 2' measurements and e x t r a p o l a t e d r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d deeper i n t h e atmosphere on v e r y high a l t i t u d e baloon f l i g h t s when compared w i t h t h e SO09 e x p e r i mental measurements. There i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t secondary p r o d u c t i o n of l i g h t n u c l e i i n t h e atmosphere i s not f u l l y accounted f o r , s i n c e t h e L/M r a t i o of 0.39 i s much h i g h e r f o r t h e b a l l o o n f l i g h t s a t matter t h i c k n e s s e s g r e a t e r t h a n 6 gramslcm

2

.

These p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t s u c c e s s f u l exposures of n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h emulsions were o b t a i n e d on t h e f l i g h t of Gemini X I . F i n a l r e s u l t s and a n a l y s e s w i l l be based on about 1000 t r a c k s produced by t h e heavy primary n u c l e i .

.
TABLE 1.- CHARGE SPECTRUM AT TOP OF ATMOSPHERE ( I N PERCENT)

Average o f p u b l i s h e d data" Balloon f l i g h t s

Z

Gemini d a t a thickness < 3 g/crn2 thickness 2 6 g/cm2

L

16.7 * 3

14.1 62.7 23.6
0.22 0.16

21.8 55.4
22.6

M
H
L/M

58.6

f

5

24.7 * 3
0.28
0.20

0.39
0.28
Can. J . P h y s . ,

L/S

a Judek, B . ; and V a n Heerden, I . J . : vol. 44, 1966, p . 11-21.
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- Experimental flight hardware configuration.

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8.

EXPERIMENT S O l l , AIRGLOW HORIZON PHOTOGRAPHY

By M. J . Koomen and R . T. S e a l , Jr. Naval Research Laboratory and John L i n t o t t Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center

SUMMARY
Twenty-four photographs o f t h e n i g h t a i r g l o w l a y e r a t v a r i o u s geog r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d on September 13, 1966, from t h e p i l o t ' s window of t h e Gemini X I v e h i c l e . The Maurer g e n e r a l purpose camera used had a f/O.g5, 50-mm f o c a l 1eng;h l e n s . TQe camera w a s f i l t e r e d f o r spect r a l r e g i o n s c e n t e r e d a t 5577 A and 3893 A where prominent a i r g l o w e m i s s i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y due t o atomic oxygen and sodium o c c u r . F i l t e r combinations w i t h b r o a d e r s p e c t r a l coverage were a l s o u s e d . Exposure t i m e s were between 2 and 50 seconds. F i n e p o i n t i n g of t h e camera w a s done d u r i n g exposure w i t h an i l l u m i n a t e d camera s i g h t and an a d j u s t a b l e camera mount. The r e s u l t s r e p r e s e n t a s u c c e s s f u l c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e SO11 Experiment which w a s f i r s t performed during t h e Gemini I X m i s s i o n . Photographs from b o t h f l i g h t s show v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t e n s i t y and a l t i t u d e o f t h e a i r glow e m i s s i o n s . Data r e d u c t i o n i s s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s and w i l l i n c l u d e photographs o b t a i n e d from t h i s experiment scheduled f o r Gemini X I I .
OBJECTIVE

Experiment S O U , Airglow Horizon Photography, w a s designed t o s t u d y t h e n i g h t a i r g l o w which l i e s i n a t h i n l a y e r 70 t o 1 0 0 km ( 4 0 t o 60 m i l e s ) above t h e e a r t h . Although t h e s u r f a c e b r i g h t n e s s i s low when viewed t h r o u g h t h i s l a y e r from below, i t s b r i g h t n e s s i s enhanced by a f a c t o r o f approximately 35 when viewed ' t a n g e n t i a l l y from t h e Gemini o r b i t . T h i s enhancement phenomenon p l u s t h e worldwide coverage provided by o r b i t i n g v e h i c l e s o f f e r s a h i g h l y a t t r a c t i v e means f o r s y n o p t i c a i r g l o w s t u d y . The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s experiment f o r t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n w a s t o extend and r e f i n e t h e Mercury-Atlas-9 m i s s i o n photographic method ( r e f s . 1 and 2) as f o l l o w s :

94
(1) The camera was f i l i e r e d t o photograph t h e two prominent l i n e emissions a t 5577 E and 5893 A which are due t o atomic oxygen and sodium, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Another f i l t g r combination w a s provided t o photograph t h e r e d oxygen doublet a t 6300 A and 6364 8, which i s e m i t t e d a t a l e v e l more t h a n t h r e e times h i g h e r t h a n t h e main a i r g l o w l a y e r and may b e d e t e c t a b l e from a h i g h o r b i t .
( 2 ) An i l l u m i n a t e d camera s i g h t and an aiming camera mount w e r e provided t o reduce t h e number of b l u r r e d photographs which o c c u r r e d duri n g t h e l o n g e r exposures.

( 3 ) The number o f photographs t a k e n and t h e e a r t h coverage were made as l a r g e as p o s s i b l e . The experiment i s scheduled t o be r e p e a t e d on t h e Gemini X I 1 m i s s i o n t o c o l l e c t more d a t a .
EQmPMENT DESCRIPTION

The following equipment w a s used:

(1) Camera - The experiment used t h e Maurer 70-mm g e n e r a l purpose camera w i t h a f/0.95, 50-mm l e n s and a f o c a l p l a n e f i l t e r . The l e n s and f i l t e r were designed e s p e c i a l l y f o r a i r g l o w and o t h e r dim-light photography.
The Eastman so166 f i l m yas used because of i t s h i g h e r (2) Film s e n s i t i v i t y i n t h e s p e c t r a l r e g i o n s 5577 A through 6300 A . camera l e n s f i l t e r and a f o c a l p l a n e f i l t e r were provided t o perform t h e f u n c t i o n shown s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n f i g u r e 8-1. The l e n s f i l t e r w a s of t h e multi,layer.interfer$nce t y p e and had a s t e e p s i d e d bandpass which a d m i t t e d 5577 A and 5893 A , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a t s h o r t and l o n g wavelength ends of t h e band. The f o c a l p l a n e f i l t e r s , mounted side-by-zide over tQe f i l m , d i v i d e d t h i s band i n t o two bands c e n t e r e d o a t 5577 and 5893 A. Band h a l f - w i d t h s (HW) were, r e s p e c t i v e l y , 250 A and 300 A. Thus, l i g h t i n t h e s e two wavelength bands w a s photographed side-by-side i n t h e p i c t u r e p l a n e i n a s p l i t - f i e l d arrangement w i t h a v e r t i c a l d i v i d i n g l i n e . The extreme edges o f t h e f o c a l p l a n e f i l t e r were of c l e a r g l a s s t o admit t h e e n t i r e band of t h e l e n s f i l t e r . The system r e p r e s e n t e d an a t t e m p t t o d e t e c t s m a l l a l t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a i r glow emission wavelengths.

-

( 3 ) Camera F i l t e r s - A

4

c

It may be ment-ioned t h a t t h e f i l t e r bands were r a t h e r wide and adm i t t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e contamination i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e wanted l i n e s . The c o n d i t i o n was most u n f a v o r a b l e f o r t h e sodium f i l t e r which a d m i t t e d a l a r g e amount of OH r a d i a t i o n . However, it w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e photographs could y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s and a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n

95
of r e f i n e m e n t s f o r l a t e r m i s s i o n s . The f i l t e r system h a s a d d i t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h a t s h o r t exposures can b e t a k e n w i t h t h e l e n s f i l t e r removed t o r e c o r d t h e r e d and orange wavelengths on one s i d e o f t h e c e n t e r d i v i d i n g l i n e w h i l e t h e didymium glass on t h e o t h e r s i d e of t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e admits v i r t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e v i s i b l e spectrum except sodium yellow.

For t h e planned h i g h o r b i t o a n i n t e r f e r e n c e - t y p e l e n s f i l t e r w i t h a 150 A Hw band c e n t e r e d a t 6330 A was provided t o photograph t h e r e d oxygen d o u b l e t . The f o c a l p l a n e f i l t e r s were l e f t i n p l a c e s i n c e t h e y had a high transmittance red leak.

(4) Camera S i g h t - The camerashad a newly designed r e f l e x s i g h t w i t h b e t t e r o p t i c a l performance than t h e Maurer s i g h t used i n Gemini I X . Aiming marks were two s m a l l p o i n t s o f l i g h t on a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e which c o u l d be superimposed upon t h e horizon. B r i g h t n e s s of t h e l i g h t s w a s adjustable. F i g u r e 8-2 shows t h e camera w i t h r e f l e x s i g h t and l e n s f i l t e r i n place.
r e l a t i v e l y l o n g exposure t i m e s were ( 5 ) Camera Bracket -Because r e q u i r e d , t h e camera could n o t b e handheld. A b r a c k e t , a d j u s t a b l e i n p i t c h , h e l d t h e ' c a m e r a t o t h e right-hand s p a c e c r a f t window. F i g u r e 4-3 shows t h e b r a c k e t w i t h camera a t t a c h e d . The two f l u t e d knobs f a s t e n e d t h e b r a c k e t t o t h e lower p a r t o f t h e window frame. Turning t h e l a r g e knob a d j u s t e d t h e camera i n t h e e l e v a t i o n ( p i t c h ) d i r e c t i o n ; t h e l i m i t s of motion were somewhat more t h a n 6 O i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from i t s c e n t e r p o s i t i o n . T h i s c e n t e r p o s i t i o n was marked w i t h a viTible groove i n t h e knob s h a f t , and t h e groove could a l s o be f e l t w i t h t h e f i n g e r s when t h e c a b i n w a s dark. When n o t i n u s e , t h e b r a c k e t c o u l d b e c o l l a p s e d f o r storage.

PROCEDURE

Camera components, i n c l u d i n g t h e window b r a c k e t , were s t o r e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t c a b i n and assembled on t h e r i g h t - h a n d window when needed. The camera a x i s w a s e s s e n t i a l l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t window and w a s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t b o r e s i g h t e d t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t . To a c q u i r e t h e h o r i zon, t h e e n t i r e s p a c e c r a f t w a s a d j u s t e d i n a t t i t u d e u n t i l t h e h o r i z o n l a y c o r r e c t l y i n t h e camera s i g h t . T h i s r e q u i r e d a c t i v i t y by b o t h t h e command p i l o t and p i l o t . S p a c e c r a f t d r i f t rates were t h e n damped as much as p o s s i b l e and t h e exposure w a s begun. The p i l o t compensated f o r d r i f t s i n p i t c h d u r i n g exposure by f i n e - p o i n t i n g t h e camera a t t h e h o r i z o n w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e camera s i g h t and a d j u s t a b l e b r a c k e t .
During t h i s m i s s i o n a l l exposures were made w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t docked t o t h e Agena v e h i c l e . Events proved t h a t t h i s w a s a d e s i r a b l e conf i g u r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r long e x p o s u r e s , because of t h e enhanced stab i l i t y and improved a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l .

Night photographs were t a k e n i n two sequences. The f i r s t o c c u r r e d i n r e v o l u t i o n 1 when s e t s of h o r i z o n exposures were t a k e n s u c c e s s i v e l y 1 i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s n o r t h , s o u t h , s o u t h , n o r t h . The s e t s w e r e 4 minutes a p a r t and each c o n s i s t e d of a 10-second exposure w i t h l e n s f i l t e r s i n p l a c e , p l u s a 2- and a 5-second exposure w i t h l e n s f i l t e r removed. The second sequence o c c u r r e d i n r e v o l u t i o n 19 and c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r s i m i l a r sets of exposures, spaced 4 minutes a p a r t , b u t a l l t a k e n i n an e a s t w a r d d i r e c t i o n . The two sequences were a crude a t t e m p t , w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e mission, t o observe r e s p e c t i v e l y t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of l a t i t u d e and of l o c a l t i m e . The eastward-looking photographs are t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o t a k e , s i n c e t h e horizon undergoes a maximum amount of b l u r r i n g d u r i n g a t i m e exposure f r o m a n i n e r t i a l l y s t a b i l i z e d v e h i c l e . The p i t c h - a d j u s t a b l e camera b r a c k e t and s i g h t were provided t o compensate f o r t h e a p p a r e n t h o r i z o n motion. However, t h e f l i g h t crew found t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e p i t c h rate c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o make adjustment o f t h e b r a c k e t n e a r l y unnecessary.

-

.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Twelve good photographs of t h e n i g h t a i r g l o w l a y e r were o b t a i n e d i n r e v o l u t i o n 1 o v e r t h e South P a c i f i c . Twelve more were t a k e n i n revolu1 t i o n 19 over t h e South A t l a n t i c and South A f r i c a . Before t h e s e photographs were t a k e n , t h e r e d f i l t e r w a s used i n a high o r b i t . No u s a b l e photographs were o b t a i n e d because of a camera s h u t t e r m a l f u n c t i o n . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s shows r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l geographic v a r i a t i o n i n a i r g l o w a l t i t u d e . No v a r i a t i o n s as l a r g e as t h o s e observed from Mercury 9 have as y e t been d e t e c t e d . However, t h e r e were e a s i l y o b s e r v a b l e changes o f i n t e n s i t y as i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e s 8-4 and 8-5 which are, r e s p e c t i v e l y , n o r t h and south-looking photographs t a k e n from t h e South P a c i f i c . Each shows t h e a i r g l o w l a y e r w i t h dark e a r t h ;elow and s t a r f i e l d above. The green wavelengths i n t h e r e g i o n 5577 A a r e r e g i s t e r e d on t h e l e f t h a l f of t h e p i c t u r e , and t h e y e l l o w wavelengths spanning t h e sodium emission are r e g i s t e r e d t o t h e r i g h t . Extreme r i g h t and l e f t edges r e c o r d a s p e c t r a l band i n c l u d i n g b o t h . I t i s obvious t h a t t o t h e n o r t h t h e yellow wavelengths a r e s l i g h t l y more i n t e n s e t h a n t h e g r e e n w h i l e t o t h e s o u t h t h e yellow r a d i a t i o n s a r e v e r y f a i n t . Another conspicuous f e a t u r e i s t h a t t h e g r e e n and y e l l o w r a d i a t i o n s a r i s e a t t h e same a l t i t u d e . Rocket measurements ( r e f . 3) from White Sands ( 0 ' W , 33' N ) 16 u s u a l l y l o c a t e t h e yellow wavelengths (sodium D-line: %nd OH b a n d s ) a t a measurable lower a l t i t u d e t h a n t h e g r e e n (oxygen.5577 A and continuum). Photographs from Gemini I X a l s o show b o t h c o n d i t i o n s .

97
F i g u r e 8-6 shows an eastward-looking photograph of South A f r i c a , t a k e n from a p o i n t i n t h e South A t l a n t i c w i t h t h e camera l e n s f i l t e r removed. The s t r i p t o t h e r i g h t of c e n t e r r e c o r d s t r a n s m i 5 s i o n t h r o u g h an orange f i l t e r (Corning No. 3480) of wavelengths a t 5893 A and l o n g e r , w h i l e t h e s t r i p t o t h e l e f t records t r a n s m i s s i b n t h r o u g h didymium g l a s s and i n c l u d e s most o f t h e v i s i b l e spectrum except t h e N a D l i n e . Areas a t t h e extreme r i g h t and l e f t are exposed w i t h no f i l t e r . The r i c h s t a r f i e l d i n Taurus, w i t h t h e P l e i a d e s i n t h e a i r g l o w l a y e r at t h e l e f t , i s r i s i n g because of s p a c e c r a f t o r b i t a l motion. Study of t h e s t a r t r a i l s shows no evidence of atmospheric a t t e n u a t i o n above approximately 25 km. There i s t h e r e f o r e no evidence of a h i g h absorbing l a y e r a t t h e 100 - 150 km which Link ( r e f . 4 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e anomaly i n t h e s i z e o f t h e e a r t h ' s shadow during e c l i p s e s . A l l photographs were t a k e n a t t h e time o f t h e new moon, and, t h e r e f o r e , do n o t show t h e e a r t h limb. The p o s i t i o n of t h e e a r t h limb (and an a c c u r a t e l a y e r a l t i t u d e ) must, t h e r e f o r e , b e deduced from t h e s t a r f i e l d and t h e t i m e and o r b i t a l p o s i t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

Data r e d u c t i o n and a n a l y s e s w i l l c o n t i n u e for s e v e r a l more months.

REFERENCES

1. Mercury P r o j e c t Summary. N S SP-45, N a t i o n a l Aeronautics and Space AA Administration, Washington, D . C . , October 1963.

2.

G i l l e t t , F. C . ; Huch, W. F . ; Ney, E. P . ; and Cooper, G . : Photographic Observations of t h e Airglow Layer. J. Geophys. Res. , 69, No. 13, 1964 , pp. 2827-2834.
Packer, Donald M.: A l t i t u d e s o f t h e Night Airglow R a d i a t i o n s . Geophys. 17, 1961, pp. 67-75.. Link, F.: Theorie Photometrique des E c l i p s e s de Lune. 196, Jan. 23, 1933, pp. 251-253. Ann.

-

3.

.

4.

Comp. Rend.

8 5Oo /
TRANSMITTANCE OF LENS FILTER-

-n
5577A
5893A

LENS FILTER

1

\\\

\\

f I 0 . 9 5 LENS

/ /

a
TRANSMITTANCE

1

90 O/O 1

T

NSMIT D I DY MIUM

y

/
A.
- I -

5577A 5893A C L e R

/

/

CORN1NG 3480

76
I

I
I

1
I

-

5577A

5893

I

Figure 8 -1.

- Individual and combined

transmittances of lens filter and focal plane filters.

100

Figure 8-2.

- Maurer camera in f/O.
with reflex sight.

95 configuration

101

Figure 8-3.

- Camera attached to window bracket.

102

Horizon is at approximately 15's and 170'W. 5577 A filter is to left of center, 5893 filter to right. Parts of Constellations Draco, Cepheus, and Cassiopeia are from left to right. Figure 8-4.

- Ten-second

exposure looking North.

103

Horizon is at approximately 40" S and 130"W. Constellation Vela is near horizon, Carina above. y Velorum is at left near airglow layer. Figure 8-5. - Ten-second exposure looking South.

104

Horizon is at approximately 25" S 23" E. Constellation Taurus is left of center; Pleiades far left. Figure 8-6. - Four-second exposure without lens filter, looking eastward over South Africa.

105

9.

EXPERIMENT S013, ULTRAVIOLET ASTRONOMICAL CAMERA

By

K a r l G. Henize and Lloyd R . Wackerling Dearborn Observatory Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y

SUMMARY
On September 1 4 , 1966, t h e crew opened t h e h a t c h o f t h e Gemini X I s p a c e c r a f t and s p e n t t h e n i g h t p o r t i o n s o f r e v o l u t i o n s 29 and 30 i n obt a i n i n g u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r s p e c t r a i n s i x star f i e l d s . Moderate d i s p e r s i o n o b j e c t i v e - g r a t i n g s p e c t r a were o b t a i n e d i n r e g i o n s c e n t e r e d on X S c o r p i i , Canopus, and E O r i o n i s . Low d i s p e r s i o n o b j e c t i v e - p r i s m spect r a were o b t a i n e d i n r e g i o n s c e n t e r e d on A n t a r e s , X S c o r p i i , and I O r i o n i s . The SO13 experiment photography w a s used t o s t u d y t h e l i n e spectTa and t h e energy d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n (2200 to 3000 A ) of e a r l y ( 0 , B y and A ) stars.

OBJECTIVE

The fundamental o b j e c t i v e of t h e SO13 U l t r a v i o l e t Astronomical Camera experiment w a s t o r e c o r d u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n o f stars i n t h e wavelength r e g i o n s from 2000 t o 4000 A. The o b j e c t i v e w a s t o be accomplished by r e c o r d i n g r a d i a t i o n s p e c t r a , u s i n g t h e 70-mm g e n e r a l purpose camera and an o b j e c t i v e prism or an o b j e c t i v e g r a t i n g . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e s e , s t a r s , of t h e a b s o r p t i o n e f f e c t s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e i r atmospheres, and of t h e a b s o r p t i o n e f f e c t s o f t h e i n t e r s t e l l a r d u s t w i l l be made of t h e photographic d a t a o b t a i n e d . The h i g h r e s o l u t i o n photographs a r e expected t o show t h e a b s o r p t i o n and emission l i n e s , making p o s s i b l e t h e s t u d y of atomic e x c i t a t i o n and ioni z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n t h e s e wavelength r e g i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of b a s i c a s t r o n o m i c a l d a t a , t e c h n i q u e s by which o b j e c t i v e prism s p e c t r a may b e b e s t o b t a i n e d were d e t e r mined. The p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e gained w i l l be u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g s i m i l a r a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h l a r g e r t e l e s c o p e s on f u t u r e m i s sions.

106 EQUIPMENT The Maurer 70-mm camera w a s used t o o b t a i n t h e s p e c t r a . The came r a ' s u l t r a v i o l e t l e n s has a 22-mm a p e r t u r e , a 73-mm f o c a l l e n g t h , and a f i e l d 30' i n diameter. The f i l m magazine c a r r i e s 50 frames of Kodak s p e c t r o s c o p i c IoO emulsion on an Estar b a s e . G r a t i n g s p e c t r a w i t h a d i s p e r s i o n of 180 A/mm a r e pgoduced by a 600-line/mm o b j e c t i v e g r a t i n g whichowas blazed a 2000 A. Prism s p e c t r a w i t h a d i s p e r s i o n of : 1400 A/mm a t 2500 A a r e produced by a q u a r t z o b j e c t i v e p r i s m w i t h a 10" p r i s m angle. PROCEDURE

The o b s e r v a t i o n s were c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e right-hand h a t c h open and w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t docked t o t h e Agena. The camera w a s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t frame by a b r a c k e t which p o s i t i o n e d t h e f i e l d c e n t e r 5' above t h e s p a c e c r a f t roll axis. To o p e r a t e t h e camera t h e p i l o t s t o o d up i n t h e open h a t c h w h i l e t h e command p i l o t remained i n h i s s e a t t o c o n t r o l t h e p o i n t i n g of t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t o t i m e t h e l e n g t h of expos u r e s . Each f i e l d w a s v i s u a l l y l o c a t e d by t h e a s t r o n a u t s and t h e Gemini a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system w a s used t o p o i n t t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t h e r e g i o n . The Agena's automatic s t a b i l i z i n g system w a s t h e n a c t i v a t e d i n f l i g h t c o n t r o l mode 2 a f t e r which s i x . e x p o s u r e s were t a k e n on each f i e l d w i t h l e n g t h s ranging from 20 seconds t o 2 minutes.

RESULTS

There were a p p a r e n t l y no problems i n t h e assembly and o p e r a t i o n of t h e camera equipment d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t . The u s e of a carbon d i o x i d e c a r t r i d g e e l i m i n a t e d a l l t r a c e s of s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y markings on t h e f i l m , a c o n d i t i o n t h a t had been n o t i c e d on t h e f i l m from t h e Gemini X m i s s i o n . Fogged s t r e a k s appear on s e v e r a l frames because of l i g h t l e a k s i n t h e f i l m magazine. There i s no evidence of a l i g h t l e a k from t h e v e n t h o l e which was d r i l l e d i n t h e f i l m magazine j u s t p r i o r t o launch. The s t a b i l i z a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e GATV w a s somewhat e r r a t i c . Onet h i r d of t h e exposures show e x c e l l e n t s t a b i l i z a t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e smooth image motion i n t h e yaw d i r e c t i o n . The remaining exposures show motion i n both yaw and p i t c h , t h u s degrading wavelength r e s o l u t i o n . A s e r i e s of jumps i n yaw may have t a k e n p l a c e g i v i n g m u l t i p l e narrow spect r a which degraded t h e f i n e d e t a i l . The jumps were i n e x c e s s of t h e w i d t h of t h e GATV yaw c o n t r o l deadband.

A frame-by-frame l o g of t h e f l i g h t f i l m i s p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e 9-1. The o n l y d e v i a t i o n from t h e f l i g h t p l a n w a s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n of Canopus, an F s u p e r g i a n t , r a t h e r t h a n Achernar, a B5 s t a r . T h i s d e p a r t u r e w a s O f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t t h e spectrum of Canopus between 2000 a n d 3000 A shows more d e t a i l t h a n had been expected o f t h e Achernar spectrum.

.
1 .

E x c e l l e n t s p e c t r a were produced b o t h w i t h t h e g r a t i n g and w i t h t h e prism. For t h e g r a t i n g s p e c t r a a l i m i t i n g magnitude i n t h e 2200 t o 2600 d r e g i o n of e a r l y B-type s t a r s on unwidened 2-minute exposures i s I n p r i s m s p e c t r a w i t h a widening of 0.5 mm t h e c o r r e about V = 4.5. sponding l i m i t i n g magnitude i s about V = 6.0. G r a t i n g s p e c t r a show r e s o l v e d a b s o r p t i o n l i n e s i n t h e middle ultrav i o l e t s p e c t r a of Ca.nopus and S i r i u s , marking t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t l i n e s have been observed i n t h i s wavelength r e g i o n i n stars o t h e r t h a n t h e Sun. The spectrum of' Canopus ( f i g . 9-1) shows t h e v e r y s t r o n g M5 I1 resonance d o u b l e t a t 2799 d, t h e weaker M I r e s o n a n c e l i n e a t 2852 A, t h e g 2882 l i n e of S i I , and s e v e r a l broad features w h i c h - a r e mostly i d e n t i f i a b l e as blende$ f e a t u r e s of Fe I and Fe 11. The u l t i m a t e l i n e s of Fe I1 nearo2400 A are e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g . The b r o a d a b s o r p t i o n f e a t u r e ; n e a r 2530 A i s probably a b l e n d o t h e u l t i m a t e l i n e s of S i I and Fe I. The a b s o r p t i o n f e a t u r e n e a r 2620 A p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n s t h e u l t i m a t e l i n e s o f M I1 as w e l l as s t r o n g m u l t i p l e x of Fe 11. V a r i a t i o n s i n focus t o n g e t h e r w i t Q f i e l d d i s t o r t i o n and only moderate wavelength r e s o l u t i o n (about 15 A ) make p r e c i s e wavelength measurement d i f f i c u l t . However , t h e above i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y confirmed by t h e c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e Canopus u l t r a v i o l e t spectrum w i t h t h a t of t h e Sun. The spectrum of S i r i u s shows t h e Mg I1 d o u b l e t as w e l l as t h e l i n e s o f t h e hydrogen Balmer s e r i e s . A s e x p e c t e d , no l i n e s are r e s o l v e d i n t h e middle u l t r a v i o l e t s p e c t r a of t h e B s t a r s observed i n S c o r p i u s and Orion. Comparison s p e c t r a of Canopus and S i r i u s a r e shown i n f i g u r e 9-2. G r a t i n g s p e c t r a of 99 stars a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e i n t h e t h r e e r e g i o n s photographed. The f i l m h a s a photometric c a l i b r a t i o n and it i s expected t h a t energy c u r v e s can be d e r i v e d f o r about 50 s t a r s . These d a t a w i l l b e supplemented by energy curves c u r r e n t l y b e i n g measured of 20 stars obs e r v e d d u r i n g t h e Gemini X f l i g h t . This work p a r t i a l l y o v e r l a p s and p a r t i a l l y extends p r e v i o u s UV energy d i s t r i b u t i o n measures by o t h e r investigators. The prism s p e c t r a ( f i g . 9-3) show two s p e c t r a l f e a t u r e s of i n t e r e s t i n s p i t e of t h e i r v e r y l o w d i s p e r s i o n . The hydrogen Balmer d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s v e r y prominent i n A s t a r s , and i n F s t a r s t h e metal m u l t i p l e t s s e e n i n t h e g r a t i n g spectrum of Canopusoblend i n t o two broad a b s o r p t i o n feat u r e s v i s i b l e i n t h e 2400 t o 2800 A r e g i o n . A b r e a k i n t h e prism s p e c t r a a t about 2800 which w a s i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as p o s s i b l y due t o t h e

108

3 H e 2 S continuum h a s f i n a l l y been i d e n t i f i e d as a b r e a k i n emulsion s e n s i t i v i t y a t t h a t wavelength.
Three s t a r s show f e a t u r e s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . I n t h e Wolf-Rayet star HD 156385 ( s p e c t r a l glass WC7) an emission l i n e i s v i s i b l e a t a wavelength of about 2300 A. T h i s l i n e i s t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as t h e 10 In the 2297 A l i n e of C I11 due t o t h e 2p2 D - 2p P t r a n s i t i o n . ' B-type s h e l l s t a r 48 L i b r a , t h e a b s o r p t i o n l i n e s due t o i r o n m u l t i p l e t s appear even though t h e s e f e a t u r e s are not expected i n t h e s p e c t r a of B stars. It i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e bands must b e f e a t u r e s a r i s i n g i n t h e s h e l l of t h e s t a r . The spectrum of t h e M-type s u p e r g i a n t star Antares shows an u l t r a v i o l e t e x t e n s i o n of g r e a t e r t h a n expected s t r e n g t h . It seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n a r i s e s from t h e B-type companion t o Antares and t h a t measures of t h e i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e spectrum w i l l g i v e an improved v a l u e of t h e v i s u a l magnitude and s p e c t r a l type of t h e companion s t a r .
A 2-minute prism exposure i n t h e r e g i o n of Orion ( f i g . 9-4) shows t h e r e g i o n c e n t e r e d on t h e Orion Nebula t o b e surrounded by a n u l t r a v i o l e t haze. The s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s n e b u l o s i t y i n u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e s t r u c t u r e seen i n v i s i b l e l i g h t and it i s concluded t h a t it a r i s e s from s t a r l i g h t s c a t t e r e d from d u s t p a r t i c l e s i n t h i s r e g i o n . A j o i n t s t u d y i s c u r r e n t l y underway between C.. R. O'Dell of Yerkes Observatory and K. G. Henize and L. R. Wackerling of Dearborn Observatory i n which measurements of t h e u l t r a v i o l e t i n t e n s i t y of t h i s n e b u l o s i t y a r e used t o g i v e a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e r s t e l l a r matter i n t h e Orion A s s o c i a t i o n .

.

TABLE

9-1.- EXPERIMENT s o l 3 INFLIGHT EXPOSURES

t
~ 6 653091 -

~~

~

Grating c o n d i t i o n Field Vehicle ttitude control Remarks

' a s t e d frame

-Poor

Lightstruck

corpius

S p e c t r a wide, s t r e a k e d no l i n e s

-

Fair

S p e c t r a double - Balmer l i n e s i n Shaula S p e c t r a wide, s t r e a k e d no l i n e s

Poor

-

Poor

S p e c t r a wide, s t r e a k e d l i n e s i n S h a u l a , 8 Sco S p e c t r a wide, s t r e a k e d l i n e s i n S h a u l a , Sco, 8 Sco, A r a Lines r a t h e r wide w e l l - expo sed Lines r a t h e r wide b i t weak

Poor

:anopus

Good

- UV - UV
a

Excellent

.

Excellent Excellent

L i n e s , UV well-exposed L i n e s , UV well-exposed spectrum s t r e a k e d L i n e s , spectrum double L i n e s , spectrum double

-

Good

Excellent

110
TABLE

9-1.- EXPERIMENT SO13 INFLIGHT EXPOSURES - Continued

Grating condition Vehicle i t t i t u d e control Bad

Frame

Field

Remarks

366-53103

Or i o n

j p e c t r a e x t r e m e l y wide no l i n e s

-

104
105

Fair

3727 A emission (011) i n Nebula - l i n e s i n S i r i u s
s p e c t r a wide, s t r e a k e d p r o b a b l y no l i n e s 3 r o s s l y underexposed no s p e c t r a

Poor

-

106
107

-Good

-

3727 A S t r o n g l y exposed i n Nebula, l i n e s i n S i r i u s
Lightstruck, ruined

-

108
366-53109
110
Wasted frame S c o r p i u s head

--Poor
Good

Light s t r u c k Spectra streaked poor no l i n e s

-

- focus

11 1
112

S p e c t r a smooth visible

- lines

Poor

Spectra streaked - focus poor - no l i n e s S p e c t r a double, smooth lines visible Spectra streaked poor - no l i n e s

113

Good

-

114
115

Poor

- focus

Poor

S p e c t r a s t r e a k e d - focus poor some l i n e s

-

111
TABLE

9-1.- EXPERIMENT SO13 INFLIGHT EXPOSURES - Continued

Grating condition Field Vehicle tttitude control Fair Remarks

korpius tail

S p e c t r a v e r y wide, streakec -lines visible S p e c t r a wide, s t r e a k e d lines visible S p e c t r a wide, smooth f o c u s poor lines visible

Fair

-

Good

-

-

Poor

Motion mainly i n p i t c h no l i n e s

Fair

Spectra streaked - focus poor - some l i n e s Spectra streaked - focus poor - some l i n e s S p e c t r a v e r y wide - f o c u s poor no l i n e s

Poor

Bad

-

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Fair

Spectra streaked lines Spectra streaked lines S p e c t r a smooth visible

- some

.

Fair

- some

Excellent

- lines - no
line:

Poor

Motion i n p i t c h

112
TABLE

9-1.- EXPERIMENT SO13 INFLIGHT EXPOSURES - Concluded

I
Frame Field

Grating condition Vehicle ktitude control Remarks

127

S p e c t r a smooth - f o c u s poor - some f e a t u r e s Poor Spectra streaked no l i n e s Spectra streaked no l i n e s

128
129
Wasted frame

-

--

113

I
I I

-

The objective-grating spectrum extends from 2300 (top) to 4800 A (bottom). The lines of Fe I, Fe 11, and Mg 1 ap1 pearing near the top a r e not transmitted by the earth's atmosphere and a r e recorded here f o r the first time in the spectrum of a star. The streak of light to the right is the airglow layer above the horizon. The docked Agena blocks out star images at the lower center. Figure 9 -1. - Middle -ultraviolet spectrum of Canopus.

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II -

The docked Agena and the Gemini spacecraft nose are superimposed on starfield. Elongation of star images is caused by the dispersion in wavelength caused by a thin prism of quartz in front of the lens. The intensity break near the right end is due to the hydrogen Balmer continuum. Break n e a r center of several spectra is due to instrumental effects. Figure 9-3.

- Ultraviolet

spectra of hot stars in constellation Scorpius.

116

The docked Agena and the Gemini spacecraft nose a r e superimposed on the starfields and starlight is seen glitteringooff the Agena hull, The spectral range extends from 5000 A (top) to 2200 A(bottom) for each spectrum. Figure 9-4.

- Ultraviolet objective-prism

spectra of the stars in constellation Orion.

10.

EXPERIMENT 5026, ION-WAKE MEASUREMENT

By D r . David B. Medved E l e c t r o - O p t i c a l Systems, I n c . and B a l l a r d E. Troy, Jr. N S Goddard Space F l i g h t Center AA

SUMMARY
The i o n and e l e c t r o n wake s t r u c t u r e and p e r t u r b a t i o n s o f t h e ambient medium produced by t h e o r b i t i n g Gemini s p a c e c r a f t were measured by e l e c t r o n and i o n d e t e c t o r s l o c a t e d on t h e Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) T a r g e t Docking Adapter (TDA). The s e n s o r s o p e r a t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g t h e experiment. The inboard i o n d e t e c t o r provided d a t a whenever t h e GATV moved TDA-forward w i t h i t s a x i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e o r b i t a l p a t h ; t h e outboard d e t e c t o r w a s o p e r a t i v e whenever t h e GATV yawed a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e o r b i t a l p a t h . T h r u s t e r f i r i n g s i n t h e TDA-south c o n f i g u r a t i o n appear t o produce a d e c r e a s e i n t h e observed i o n flux t o t h e outboard i o n s e n s o r , an apparent i n c r e a s e i n t h e i o n f l u x t o t h e inboard i o n s e n s o r , and an enhanced e l e c t r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o t h e outboard s e n s o r .

OBJECTIVE

The o b j e c t i v e of t h e so26 Ion-Wake Measurement experiment w a s t o measure and confirm t h e i o n and e l e c t r o n wake s t r u c t u r e and p e r t u r b a t i o n o f t h e ambient medium produced by t h e o r b i t i n g Gemini s p a c e c r a f t . The experiment w a s designed t o o b t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g :

( a ) A mapping o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t i o n - d e n s i t y wake as a f u n c t i o n o f p o s i t i o n c o o r d i n a t e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e f e r e n c e frame o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t
( b ) A contour mapping of t h e s p a c e c r a f t e l e c t r o n - d e n s i t y wake as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e same p o s i t i o n c o o r d i n a t e s ( c ) Determination of e l e c t r o n t e m p e r a t u r e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p o s i t ion coordinates ( d ) D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on ambient i o n and e l e c t r o n d e n s i t i e s and e l e c t r o n t e m p e r a t u r e as a f u n c t i o n o f a l t i t u d e and d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n s form t h e GATV

(e)

I o n i z a t i o n t r a n s i e n t s caused by s p a c e c r a f t t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s

118
BACKGROUND INFORMATION

During f l i g h t , t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t moves t h r o u g h t h e i o n o s p h e r i c medium w i t h a v e l o c i t y t h a t i s h i g h when compared w i t h t h e random t h e r m a l v e l o c i t i e s of t h e i o n s , b u t s m a l l when compared w i t h t h e random t h e r m a l motions of t h e e l e c t r o n s . The v e h i c l e motion i s s u p e r s o n i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i o n s and s u b s o n i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e l e c t r o n s . E l e c t r o n s , t h e r e f o r e , approach t h e v e h i c l e from a l l d i r e c t i o n s as i f it were s t a n d i n g s t i l l , whereas t h e i o n s are swept up by t h e v e h i c l e motion.

To an o b s e r v e r on t h e s p a c e c r a f t , t h e r e i s a ram i o n f l u x t o t h e v e h i c l e along t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e v e h i c l e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r ( f i g . 10-1) o f t h e v e h i c l e results i n a sweeping out o f t h e i o n s and n e u t r a l p a r t i c l e s i n i t s p a t h . If t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e i o n o s p h e r e were completely a t r e s t , a shadow zone would e x t e n d an i n d e f i n i t e d i s t a n c e b e h i n d t h e space c r a f t .
A s a r e s u l t o f t h e random t h e r m a l motions, t h e shadow or h o l e r e g i o n i s f i l l e d i n by a sequence o f i n t e r a c t i n g mechanisms, w i t h t h e r e g i o n behind t h e o r b i t i n g v e h i c l e a c t u a l l y b e i n g a plasma r a t h e r t h a n an i o n wake. Because t h e e l e c t r o n s approach t h e s p a c e c r a f t from a l l d i r e c t i o n s , it would be expected t h a t t h e s e would r a p i d l y f i l l t h e shadow r e g i o n . The e l e c t r o s t a t i c f o r c e s between t h e s e charged p a r t i c l e s p r e v e n t subs t a n t i a l imbalances i n t h e l o c a l space charge from o c c u r r i n g . F i g u r e 10-2 shows a t y p i c a l i o n w a k e p r o f i l e as p r e d i c t e d by t h e t h e o r y o f Gurevich e t a l . ( r e f s . 1 and 2 ) .

EQUIPMENT

For t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n , t h e e l e c t r o n d e t e c t o r w a s l o c a t e d on t h e GATV T a r g e t Docking Adapter (TDA) and o p e r a t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g t h e experiment. Operation o f t h e i n b o a r d i o n d e t e c t o r s depended upon t h e a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e GATV w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y v e c t o r . The i n b o a r d i o n d e t e c t o r p r o v i d e d u s e f u l d a t a whenever t h e GATV moved TDA-forward w i t h i t s axis p a r a l l e l t o t h e o r b i t a l p a t h ; t h e o u t board d e t e c t o r w a s o p e r a t i v e whenever t h e GATV yawed a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e o r b i t a l p a t h . The l o c a t i o n of t h e equipment on t h e TDA w a s shown i n f i g u r e 10-3.
The sensors were five-element r e t a r d i n g p o t e n t i a l a n a l y z e r s w i t h a c modulation f o r low-threshold o p e r a t i o n . They were d e s i g n e d t o meas-

w e i o n and e l e c t r o n c u r r e n t over a range from 5 x 10-l’ t o 5 x 1 0-6 amperes, with e l e c t r o n t e m p e r a t u r e measurements i n a r a n g e from 3
e l e c t r o n v o l t s down t o zero. I o n d e n s i t i e s as low as 50 i o n s p e r cm were considered d e t e c t a b l e f o r t h i s experiment. For c o n t o u r mapping,

3

p o s i t i o n r e s o l u t i o n t o approximately 1 f o o t i n accuracy was o b t a i n e d general-purpose sequence camera. from a 16-DIT, The s e n s o r - e l e c t r o m e t e r systems each c o l l e c t e d and modulated plasma c u r r e n t i n a Faraday cup c o n t a i n i n g f o u r g r i d s followed by a c o l l e c t o r p l a t e . The v o l t a g e bias p l a c e d on t h e f r o n t g r i d of t h e e l e c t r o n s e n s o r l i m i t e d t h e minimum energy e l e c t r o n which can e n t e r t h e s e n s o r . T h i s bias was swept from a + 9 t o -3 v o l t s r e l a t i v e t o s p a c e c r a f t p o t e n t i a l . The second g r i d a c c e l e r a t e d t h e p r o p e r l y charged p a r t i c l e s which p a s s e d t h e f i r s t g r i d . On both s e n s o r s , t h e second g r i d p r e v e n t e d unwanted p a r t i c l e s from e n t e r i n g t h e system.

A t h i r d g r i d w a s d r i v e n by a 3840-cps s q u a r e wave which modulated t h e plasma c u r r e n t by a l t e r n a t e l y blocking and a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e p a r t i c l e s p a s s i n g through t h e second g r i d . A f o u r t h g r i d a c t u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e s c r e e n s connected t o g e t h e r t o a c t as a c a p a c i t i v e s h i e l d between t h e modulation g r i d ( g r i d t h r e e ) and t h e f i n a l c o l l e c t o r . The t h i r d s c r e e n i n t h e f i n a l g r i d a l s o served as a c o l l e c t o r f o r secondary photo e l e c t r o n s produced i n t h e s e n s o r .
The s e n s o r o u t p u t c u r r e n t was designed t o swing from z e r o t o t h e dc v a l u e of t h e i n p u t plasma c u r r e n t and back w i t h i n 1 microsecond, w i t h a 50-percent d u t y c y c l e a t a frequency of 3840 c p s . T h i s squarewave c u r r e n t was a m p l i f i e d by a n ac e l e c t r o m e t e r l o c a t e d behind t h e s e n s o r . E l e c t r o m e t e r s i g n a l s were synchronously demodulated and averaged by a n analog s i g n a l p r o c e s s o r c a r r i e d aboard t h e GATV. A r e s u l t i n g v o l t a g e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e l o g a r i t h m i c average was g e n e r a t e d and buff e r e d , t h e n i n p u t e d t o t h e a n a l o g - t o - d i g i t a l c o n v e r t e r i n t h e GATV teleme t r y system f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e network t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s .

PROCEDURES
The f l i g h t p l a n c o n t a i n e d t h r e e modes f o r t h e ion-wake experiment. Mode A w a s a l i n e a r d e p a r t u r e maneuver. Mode B had t h r e e sequences which i n c l u d e d two o u t - o f - p l a n e maneuvers, one a t n i g h t and one i n d a y l i g h t , and one n i g h t t i m e i n - p l a n e mapping. These f o u r phases of modes A and B were planned and executed between 2 hours 10 minutes and 3 hours 50'minUtes g . e . t . Real-time t e l e m e t r y and delayed-time t e l e m e t r y r e c e i v e d over t h e high-speed d a t a l i n e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l s e n s o r s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Mode C of t h e experiment c o n s i s t e d of a 360" r o l l a t t h e apogee of t h e f i r s t r e v o l u t i o n of t h e h i g h l y e l l i p t i c a l 740- by 160-nautical-mile o r b i t .

A DIT, general-purpose sequence camera w i t h a 18-KU~I s w a s a c t u len a t e d f o r modes A and B t o provide p o s i t i o n and range information t o be used for d a t a c o r r e l a t i o n .

120
RESULTS

Data c o r r e l a t i o n and r e d u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o r r e l a t i n g t h e GATV t e l e m e t r y d a t a w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e two v e h i c l e s , has r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t . The r a d a r system, which w a s t o b e employed f o r backup r a n g e i n f o r m a t i o n , w a s n o t f’unctioning d u r i n g t h e experiment. The onboard v o i c e t a p e r e c o r d e r a p p a r e n t l y w a s a l s o i n o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g p e r i o d s when t h e crew w a s t o r e c o r d s t a r t - a n d - s t o p times o f t h e 16-KUII o r e s i g h t e d sequence camera. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a u x i l i a r y r e c e p t a c l e b which w a s t o p r o v i d e t i m e markers w a s n o t f’unctioning. Some of t h e phot o g r a p h i c d a t a appear t o b e o f u s a b l e q u a l i t y f o r e v e n t u a l c o r r e l a t i o n o f experiment d a t a w i t h p o s i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e p o s i t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n and t i m e r e g i s t r a t i o n are b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t by u s i n g t h r u s t e r f i r i n g d u r a t i o n s and on-off t i m e s .
Real-time t e l e m e t r y d a t a t a k e n d u r i n g t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t and GATV t e t h e r e d f l i g h t are shown i n f i g u r e 10-4. Only approximate c u r r e n t s could be obtained from t h e t e l e m e t r y d a t a . During t h e t e t h e r e d f l i g h t , t h e two v e h i c l e s were r e v o l v i n g abGut t h e i r c e n t e r of mass w h i l e s e p a r a t e d by a 100-foot t e t h e r . By o b s e r v i n g t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e s e n s o r res p o n s e s , t h e P r i n c i p a l I n v e s t i g a t o r w a s a b l e t o p r o v i d e a real-time e s t i mate of t h e r o t a t i o n p e r i o d . T h i s r o t a t i o n r a t e w a s e s t i m a t e d t o b e approximately 7 minutes. The u s e of t h e aeromedical h i g h speed d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s made t h i s p o s s i b l e d u r i n g real-time. Telemetry d a t a from modes A and B are shown i n f i g u r e s 10-5 t o 10-8. The outboard i o n s e n s o r v o l t a g e shown on t h e t e l e m e t r y d a t a i n p a r t ( b ) Of each of t h e s e f i g u r e s can b e compared w i t h t h e mode p r o c e d u r a l diagrams shown i n p a r t ( a ) of t h e same f i g u r e . Data l o s s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g sequence 1 of mode B and i s i n d i c a t e d i n figure l O - 5 ( b ) . Dips i n outboard i o n s e n s o r output v o l t a g e are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s . The p o s i t i o n - i n d i c a t i o n number o f t h e t h r u s t e r which was f i r e d i s shown i n f i g u r e 10-8(b) n e a r i t s a s s o c i a t e d i o n s e n s o r o u t p u t v o l t a g e d i p . The following e f f e c t s were observed i n real-time and from delayedt i m e t e l e m e t r y d u r i n g t h e mission:

-

( a ) The s p a c e c r a f t w a k e shadow produced i o n d e p l e t i o n s a t l e a s t an o r d e r of magnitude below t h e ambient l e v e l s .
( b ) The bow shock f o r t h e enhanced ion-count phenomenon, p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d d u r i n g t h e Gemini X m i s s i o n , w a s r e p e a t e d d u r i n g t h e t e r minal rendezvous-and-docking phases i n t h e TDA-north c o n f i g u r a t i o n .

121

( c ) R e f l e c t i o n o f i o n s from t h e p i l o t d u r i n g h i s e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y w a s observed. ( d ) S t r i p - c h a r t .real-time d a t a from Cape Kennedy and delayed-time t e l e m e t r y from t h e Rose Knot V i c t o r t r a c k i n g s h i p were used t o determine t h e r o t a t i o n rate o f t h e t e t h e r e d spacecraft/GATV c o n f i g u r a t i o n . n t i a l of t h ( e ) A change i n p o t e+ - /e docked c o n f i g u r a t i o n under GATV primary p r o p u l s i o n system]fTrings w a s observed. The same e f f e c t had been observed p r e v i o u s l y d u r i n g t h e Gemini X m i s s i o n .
( f ) The e f f e c t s o f t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s a p p a r e n t d u r i n g t h e Gemini X m i s s i o n were a l s o apparent i n t h i s m i s s i o n . These e f f e c t s appeared t o b e r e a d i l y s e p a r a b l e from t h e wake measurements. T h i s w a s not p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e Gemini X d a t a .

i f

CONCLUSIONS

It i s p o s s i b l e t o make c e r t a i n t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s : T h r u s t e r f i r i n g s i n t h e TDA-south c o n f i g u r a t i o n produce a d e c r e a s e i n t h e observed i o n f l u x t o t h e outboard i o n s e n s o r , an a p p a r e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e i o n f l u x t o t h e i n b o a r d i o n s e n s o r , and an enhanced e l e c t r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o t h e outboard e l e c t r o n sensor.
Visual inspection o f strip-chart cone a n g l e s can b e determined. It i s t h e e l e c t r o n d i s t r i b u t i o n follows t h e t h a t t h e wake i s a plasma r a t h e r t h a n d a t a shows t h a t d e f i n i t i v e wakea l s o a p p a r e n t f o r many c a s e s t h a t ion depletion effects, indicating an i o n wake.

D e t a i l e d s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t s on a l l d a t a p r o c e s s i n g and a n a l y s i s w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e by December 1 5 , 1967, under a s e p a r a t e NASA C o n t r a c t No. NAS 9-6921 t i t l e d , "Processing , Analyzing , R e p o r t i n g , and P u b l i s h i n g t h e Results o f Experiment s026, Gemini Ion-Wake Experiment."

122
REFERENCES

1. Gurevich, A. V.; A l ' P e r t , Y a . L . ; and P i t a e v s k i i , L. P.: Effects Produced by an A r t i f i c i a l S a t e l l i t e Rapidly Moving i n t h e Ionosphere o r i n an I n t e r p l a n e t a r y Medium. Sov. P h y s i c s Uspekhi (Eng. t r a n s l . ) - 13, 1963. 6, 2.

Gurevich, A. V.; A l ' P e r t , Ya. L.; and P i t a e v s k i i , L. P.: Space Physics w i t h A r t i f i c i a l S a t e l l i t e s . H. H. N i c k l e , t r a n s . , 1965.

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Figure 10- 5. - Ion-wake measurement during night out-of-orbital plane maneuver.

128
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Ground elapsed time from lift-off hours: minutes (b) Telemetry data.

Figure 10-6.

- Ion-wake measurement during night in-orbital
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130

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Figure 10-8.

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measurement during linear departure maneuver.

131

1 . EXPERIMENT S 0 3 0 , DIM SKY PHOTOGWHS/ORTHICON 1

By Dr. Edward P. Ney Institute of Technology University of Minnesota
and Dr. Curtis L. Hemenway Dudley Observatory

SUMMARY

The SO30 Dim Sky Photographs/Orthicon experiment used the image orthicon system of the DO15 Night Image Intensification experiment to obtain photographic data on faint diffuse astronomical phenomena. The flight crew carried out the entire observing program. However, film was only obtained of the gegenschein just after sunset and of a partially completed scan of the horizon because the recording camera was not functioning during the airglow sequence. The photographs are useful for determining the airglow geometry. The system, although it has an impressive sensitivity, is unsuitable in its present form for the study of dim diffuse astronomical sources of light. OBJECTIVE The objective of the SO30 Dim Sky Photographs/Orthicon experiment was to use the image orthicon system of the DO15 Night Image Intensification experiment to obtain photographic data on faint diffuse astronomical phenomena. The astronomical phenomena of interest were the Milky Way, the airglow layer viewed in profile, the zodiacal light, the gegenschein, and the stable Lagrangian libration points. The noise threshold sensitivity of the DO15 experiment was estimated at foot-lamberts of object brightness.' The brightness of the astronomical objects of interest are: Airglow layer, ft-L

................ Brightest Milky Way, ft-L . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

x x

3

132

............... Gegenschein, ft-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lagrangian points, ft-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zodiacal light, ft-L

1

x

1 x 10-7

It is evident that the airglow layer should have been easily observed by the DO15 equipment, while the Lagrangian libration points, if they actually exist, approach the noise level of the system. The gegenschein is considered of paramount importance, but, because of its low brightness, evaluation techniques other than visual observance of photographs are required. Photographic negatives are being examined with a microdensitometer to extract the maximum of astronomical information and to derive absolute values of the surface brightness of the objects in question.
EQUIPMENT

The equipment consisted of the D O 1 5 apparatus which produces 16-IUII photographs of a television display of an image orthicon output. Photographs were taken with an exposure time of 1/30 second.
PROCEDURES

The procedures for the SO30 experiment were similar to those of the
D O 1 5 experiment, except for the observed and recorded objects of inter-

est. The flight plan schedules 12 operational sequences for this experiment. They were performed during the night phase of revolution 41 at 65 hours 35 minutes g.e.t. The sequence of events requiring crew participation was as follows: Sequence 1 -Activate
DO15 equipment before suhset.

Sequence 2 -After sunset, acquire the gegenschein area from ground instructions, then drift in the general star area for 10 seconds. Observe the TV monitor screen and activate the .photo-record button as required. Sequence 3 -Acquire the earth horizon and make a 3 6 0 O sweep of the earth airglow and photographically record observations. Sequence

4 -Reacquire

gegenschein and repeat sequence 2.

133
Sequence 5 - A c q u i r e t h e dark a r e a 1' east o f t h e star Canopus. 5 D r i f t t h r o u g h t h i s area f o r 30 seconds and p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y r e c o r d observations. Sequence 6 - P o s i t i o n s p a c e c r a f t t o a c q u i r e Magellenic c l o u d s l o c a t e d 1' s o u t h o f Canopus. D r i f t w i t h i n t h i s area f o r 15 seconds and 5 photographically record observations. Sequence 7 - R e p e a t sequence

4.

1 5 seconds.

Sequence 8 - A c q u i r e and o c c u l t moon w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t nose f o r Observe and r e c o r d o b s e r v a t i o n s . Sequence 9

- Repeat

sequence

4.

Sequence 1 0 - A c q u i r e t h e e a s t e r n h o r i z o n b e f o r e s u n r i s e and obs e r v e and r e c o r d z o d i a c a l a r e a s . Sequence 1 - Acquire, observe, and p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y r e c o r d l i b r a 1 t i o n r e g i o n s f o r a 30-second p e r i o d i n accordance w i t h ground i n s t r u c tions. Sequence 1 2 - A c q u i r e and observe o t h e r a s t r o n o m i c a l phenomena as recommended from ground m i s s i o n c o n t r o l .

RESULTS

The crew i n d i c a t e d d u r i n g t h e p o s t f l i g h t experiments d e b r i e f i n g t h a t sequences 1, 2 , 3, 5 , and 7 were performed w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . The 16-IMI photographic f i l m d a t a c o n s i s t of 400 frames, showing t h a t p a r t of sequence 2 and most of sequence 3 were t h e o n l y sequences photographic a l l y recorded. E v a l u a t i o n of t h e complete f i l m r e c o r d s has shown t h a t 30 p e r c e n t of t h e a v a i l a b l e f i l m f o r experiments DO15 and SO30 w a s n o t exposed. Apparently t h e recording camera w a s n o t f u n c t i o n i n g d u r i n g t h e t i m e of crew p a r t i c i p a t i o n , except f o r t h e a i r g l o w sequence. This c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from f a i l u r e of t h e p i l o t t o p r e s s t h e photo-record b u t t o n o r through m a l f u n c t i o n of t h e camera r e c o r d i n g system. The camera w a s checked f o r system f a i l u r e and p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h e camera r e c o r d i n g cathode r a y t u b e s h o r t e d o u t and f a i l e d d u r i n g t h e f i n a l sequence. Photographic d a t a o f t h e 360' sweep of e a r t h ' s h o r i z o n show stars down t o t h e f i f t h aud s i x t h magnitude. F i g u r e 1 - shows one frame o f 11 t h e 3-frame-per-secondY 1/30-second exposure coverage.

The airglow photographs show t h e a i r g l o w s h a r p l y d e l i n e a t e d on t o p and t h e y w i l l b e u s e f u l i n determining t h e h e i g h t of t h e a i r g l o w l a y e r a t a l l p o i n t s around t h e h o r i z o n . The photographs t o t h e northwest seem t o show a s p l i t t i n g of t h e a i r g l o w l a y e r . To determine t h e r e a l i t y of t h i s e f f e c t t h e o r i g i n a l film w i l l have t o be s t u d i e d w i t h an i s o d e n s i tracer. I n about 20 exposures t o t h e w e s t t h e h o r i z o n becomes v e r y d i s t o r t e d by some phenomena l o c a l t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t . I n a l l of t h e p i c t u r e s a d i f f u s e slow a p p e a r s i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e It i s presumably due t o an e l e c t r o n i c e f f e c t i n t h e image i n t e n frame. s i f i e r b u t makes it v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s e a r c h f o r d i f f u s e s o u r c e s o f a s t r o n o m i c a l i n t e r e s t . Also a b r i g h t band, which a p p e a r s t o b e a ref l e c t i o n o r ghost produced by t h e b r i g h t a i r g l o w l a y e r , f r e q u e n t l y a p p e a r s i n t h e sky p o r t i o n of t h e photographs. The airglow seen i n p r o f 5 l e i s w e l l exposed i n t h e s e 1/30-second photographs. The a i r g l o w viewed from above i s a l s o w i t h i n t h e exposure c a p a b i l i t y . This i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e equipment i s s e n s i t i v e t o i l l u m i n a t i o n of about f i f t y 1 0 t h magnitude s t a r s / 0 2 or about 5 x lo-’ s t i l b . I n view o f t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y it i s incomprehensible t h a t n e i t h e r t h e z o d i a c a l l i g h t nor t h e Milky Way can be i d e n t i f i e d . It i s perhaps bec a u s e of t h e r a t h e r b r i g h t and p e r s i s t e n t g h o s t images i n t h e system.
c

CONCLUSIONS

The photographs w i l l b e u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i r g l o w geometry. The system i n i t s p r e s e n t form i s u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s t u d y of dim d i f f u s e a s t r o n o m i c a l s o u r c e s of l i g h t , a l t h o u g h t h e system has an i m p r e s s i v e sens i t i v i t y . A t t h e same f number it produces a n exposure i n 1 / 3 0 second which i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e exposure o b t a i n e d i n 30 seconds w i t h T r i - X f i l m i n t h e SO01 camera used on Gemini I X . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , approxim a t e l y 1000 times f a s t e r t h a n photographic t e c h n i q u e s .

This photograph was taken at night at 65:51:27 g.e.t. using the DO15 Night Image intensification tube as a sensor. It was photographed at a 1 / 3 0 of a second exposure with a 16-mm camera. The earth horizon and airglow are clearly visible. Several stars between the airglow and earth are easily distinguishable as are stars above the airglow layer. The photograph was taken of the constellation Cepheus. The visual magnitude of 0 Cepheus is 4.76 and B Cepheus is 3.23.

Figure 11-1.

- Airglow and star fields.

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D r . Sherman P. Vinograd, MM N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Washington, D.C. 20546
D r . John R. Whinnery Department of E l e c t r i c a l Engineering Copy Hall U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Berkley, C a l i f o r n i a

2

DISTRIBUTION LIST

-

Continued

Numbers of copies 2

Addressees Dr. George P. Woolard Director, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Mr. Charles T. D'Aiutolo, RV-1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D.C. 20546
c

2

MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER: 2 AA/Dr. Robert R. Gilruth @/Paul @3/ Haney

3
1 1
1

Matt Story

BL/Mr. J. R. Brinkmann BL/Mr. Richard Underwood BM5/Mr. E. F. Meade BM6/MSC Library CA/Mr. Donald K. Slayton CB2/Mr. John Peterson CF/Mr . Helmut Kuehnel EA/Mr. Warren Gillespie EC7/Mr. W. J. Young EC/Mr. R. S. Johnston EG26/Mr. C. Manry FA3/Mr. R. G. Rose

5
40
1 10

2 2
1

1 1
2

147
DISTRIBUTION LIST

-

Concluded

Number of copies

Address e es FC/John D. Hodge FC/Mr. C h r i s t o p h e r Kraft

GM/Mr.
2

W. Nesbitt
R. F. Thompson

KA/Mr.

1 1

PA/Mr. George M. Low PC/Mr. R. Cox PK/Mr. V i c t o r Neshyba RL/Mr.
W. E. Davidson

5
10

1 1 1
1

TA/Wilmot N. Hess TA/Robert 0. P i l a n d TA/Paul R. Penrod
TG/Mr.

J. Modisette

1
1

THh/R.
TG/Mr.

L. J o n e s P. B. Burbank

1
1

TGh/Mr. J . L i n t o t t

TGh/Mr. J . S h a f e r TGh/Mr. R . Stokes
TE/Mr. Bruce Jackson TF/Mr. N. G. F o s t e r ZRl/AFSC F i e l d O f f i c e TF2/James W. Campbell

1

3

5
10
Balance

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