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Total Quality
Management in


Total Quality Management was developed and expanded

by Dr. Edwards Deming (199-1993). He contributed to the
innovation of production in business and manufacturing
companies, especially in Japan.

Japanese followed his philosophy and applied it especially

in economical and industry fields. TQM is oriented in the
fulfillment of standardized priorities; strategies
conformed into an environment of development of levels
of compromise and circle cycle.

This cycle begins with the basic 4 moments: plan, do,

check, and act; under the rules which define these
moments: control, measurement, definition, and

All this process works in function of the quality

verification and the use of quality tools. The management
of quality orientation also includes production, services,
profits, and general performance.

Many researchers have also formulated a variety of

frameworks for educational matters. The whole process
is an architectural scheme. Some of these investigators
are Johnson 1993; Susan 1995; who mention the so called
Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI), Strategic Quality
Management (SQM) or Total Quality Management (TQM).
Even though there might be some differences among
these approaches, the term TQM is considered to be
more general to capture the essence of quality

14 central points that empower processes of different

Create constancy of purpose
Adopt the new philosophy
Create inspection - require evidence
Improve the quality of supplies
Continuously improve production
Train and educate all employees

Supervisors must help people

Eliminate boudaries

Eliminate the use of slogans

Eliminate numerical standards
Drive out fear
Let people be proud of their work
Encourage self-improvement
Commit to every improving quality


Funda Endors Funda Educati

mental ement mental on as a
change of Philoso system
student phy
Process Needs Funda Service
begins identifi
with mental s,
cation decisio produc
er ns ts
Specific points to be developed inside the
14 central points:

Develop a mission statement as a

corporate purpose or aim.
Develop the skills, attitudes and
motivation in ss.
Quality in everything.
Focus on the product or service process.
Cost business not only in money
Organize, plan, execute.
Institute training
Skills, attitudes, and motivation in
Institute leadership
Balance teachers’ roles and times
Promote opportunities.
Break down barriers.
Avoid obsession with goals and slogans.
Work on priorities.
Drop out barriers between departments.
Everyone in the institution must be
included in the education process.
Define management responsibilities.
Variables are taken in account.
Keep the improvement systems.
Everyone needs to know their job.
Statistical control.
Remove barriers to pride of workmanship.
Curriculum control.
Orient to leadership culture.
Avoid fear. Face and accept challenges.
COMPILED FOR Control, evaluate to plan again paying
EDUCATIVE PURPOSES attention to constraints.
Teach and keep TQM at all levels.