Systems of Government

There are 33 differing forms of government practised around the world. The Economist regularly surveys the states that exercise these forms of government, and groups them into four paradigms according to their practice of democracy: Full Democracies, Flawed Democracies, Hybrid Regimes, and Authoritarian Regimes. Each square below represents an instance of each form of government. Note that not all sub-systems are mutually exclusive. For example, New Zealand practices bicameralism, is a constitutional monarchy, a parliamentary democracy, and a semi-direct democracy.

Authoritarian Regime

Key A A A A A A A A P A A A B M 5 J B O 5 E Q Z T K P Y 6 L J M 7
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Absolute Monarchy The monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and government, without constitutional limitations. Saudi Arabia, for example. Constitutional Monarchy The monarch exercises governance within the bounds of a constitution. New Zealand, for example. Islamic Monarchy A monarchy in an Islamic state. Oman, for example. Federal Republic A federation of partially self-governing states with restricted central government powers, where the head of state is not a monarch. Comoros, for example. Federalism A federation of partially self-governing states with restricted central government powers. India, for example. Islamic Republic A republic in an Islamic state. Iran, for example. Republic A form of government where the head of state and other officials are elected to represent the people. Mexico, for example. Semi-Presidential Republic A republic where the president and prime minister are active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state. Lithuania, for example. Socialist Republic A broad term, used by Socialists to show their preference towards a republican form of government. Socialism is the theory of common ownership, and cooperative production management and resource allocation. North Korea, for example. Constitutional Republic The head of state exercises governance within the bounds of a constitution. United States, for example. Confessionalist Parliament A system of government that distributes political and institutional power proportionally among religious communities. Lebanon, for example. Parliamentary Republic A republic with a parliamentary system of government. Switzerland, for example. Parliamentary Democracy A democracy with a parliament. Australia, for example. Parliamentary System A system of government in which the executive branch (who administer the state) and legislative branch (who set laws) are intertwined, lead by a head of government. Lesotho, for example. Semi-Presidential System A system of government where the president and prime minister are active participants in the day-today administration of the state. France, for example. Presidential System A system of government where an executive branch presides (hence the name), separate from a legislative branch. Costa Rica, for example. Presidential Republic A republic with a presidential system of government. Guatemala, for example. Jamahiriya Is an Arabic term generally translated as ‘state of the masses’. Libya, for example. 4 10 15 1 4 2 12 8 7 5 3 12 5 2

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Military Junta A government led by a committee of military leaders. Fiji, for example. Non-Sovereign Democracy A democracy run by chief executive, not appointed by the people. Hong Kong, for example. Democratic Republic A political system in which the country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature. Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example. Democratic Dictatorship A system of government where the state represents and acts on behalf of the people, but may use dictatorial powers on the basis that dictatorship is a necessary evil, without which, government may collapse and create a situation worse than dictatorship. People’s Republic of China, for example. Constitutional Democracy A democracy that spells out the sovereign power of the people in a constitution. South Africa, for example. Representative Democracy A form of government where elected individuals exercise sovereignty. Dominican Republic, for example. Semi-Direct Democracy A form of government where sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. Canada, for example. Unitary State A sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and administrative divisions exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate. Bangladesh, for example. Consociationalist A form of government involving guaranteed group representation. Often known as power sharing. Zimbabwe, for example. Single-Party Communism Communism aims for a classless and stateless society, structured on common ownership of production, free resource access, and the end of wage labour and private property. Communism is regarded as the fulfilment of Socialism. Single-party communism is a communist system of government with a single political party. Cuba, for example. Songun Regime An official governing policy whereby the military gets first cut on food, clothing, medicine, and other necessities. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, for example. Incomplete Bicameralism In Slovenia, a minor part of the legislative power resides in the National Council, with the major balance held by the National Assembly. Bicameralism The practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers, providing checks and balances against each other. Iceland, for example. Unicameralism The practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Norway, for example. Unelected Executive A system of government run by a chief executive not appointed by the people. Hong Kong, for example. Single-Party State A type of government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. Turkmenistan, for example. Total Count 82 101 47 14 1 4 4 1

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Full Democracies
Democracy is a set of practices and principles that institutionalise and protect freedom. They include government based on majority rule and the consent of the governed, the existence of free and fair elections, the protection of minorities, and respect for basic human rights. Democracy presupposes equality before the law, due process, and political pluralism.

Hybrid Regimes
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52-infographics.blogspot.com Design by Gareth Parry Data from Wikipedia Week #32 20110227

Authoritarian Regime 5 1 1 4 1 1 73

Flawed Democracy

Flawed Democracy

Full Democracy

Full Democracy

Hybrid Regime

Hybrid Regime

Flawed Democracies

Authoritarian Regimes

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