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Personnel Management, HRD, and HRM

Meaning of HRD:

1.HRD is the process of improving, molding and changing the skill knowledge, creative ability ,
attitude, values, commitment etc. based on present and future job and organization requirements.

2.HRD means building three C’s – Capabilities, Commitment and Culture.

 Capability building requires developing the knowledge and skill of the person.

 Capabilities has to be supported by commitment which comes through desire to excel,

positive attitude towards work, co-operation, involvement and concern to one’s own self
and society.

 Culture is the way of life. It involves creating an awareness of what is ideal and desirable.

So , building these three C’s is essential for developing the human resource of an

Definition Of HRD:

1.Leonard Nadler introduced the term HRD in 1969. he defined HRD as “ those learning
experience which are organized for a specific time and design to bring about the personality of
behavior change.

2.Udai Pareek and T.V.Rao,1992, explain “HRD is primarily concerned with the development
of employees through training , feedback and counseling by the senior officers and other
development efforts”.

3.Harris and Desimone, (1998), defined HRD as “a set of systematic and planned activities
designed by an organization to provide its member with the necessary skill to meet current and
future job demand”.

4.Bhaskara Rao,(2000), defined “HRD is the process of improving and developing skill ,
knowledge, aptitude and values of the employees based on present and future organizational

Meaning of HRM:

Human Resources Management means employing people their resources, utilizing,

maintaining, and compensation to the goals of the organization, individual and society

Meaning of Human Resources:

According to Leon C.Megginson , The term human resources “ the total knowledge,
skills, creative abilities , talent and aptitudes of an organization’s workforce , as well as the
value, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved”.

Definition of HRM:(For Further Reference See HRM PPT)

1.HRM defined as effective utilization of employees in order to achieve the goals and strategies
of the organization. in order to achieve this , HRM activities start with proper planning of human
resources requirement and selection of the right candidates, provide them with appropriate
compensation and benefits, maintain proper employee relations and develop them.

2.HRM can be defined as managing (planning, organizing, directing , controlling) the functions
of employing , developing and compensating human resources resulting in the reaction and
development of human relations with a view to contribute proportionately (due to them) to the
organizational, individual and social goals.”

Definition of Personnel Management:

Michael J.Juicius defined personnel management as “ the field of management which has to do
with planning, organizing, directing and controlling the functions of procuring, developing,
maintaining and utilizing a labor force”. such that the:

1. Objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and

2. Objectives of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree, and

3. Objectives of society are duly consider and served.

D iffe re n c e B e
S.N o P e r so n nM
el anag em ent

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2 It r eg a rd in gm o r e re a c tiv
re sp o n d in gto th e d e m a n
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Features of HRD:

1. HRD is systematic and planned approach for the development of individuals in order to
achieve organizational, group and individual goals.

3 W h iletra d itio n aful n ctio nis su

2. HRD is continuous process for the development of technical , managerial, behavioral and
conceptual skills and knowledge.

3. HRD develops the skills and knowledge not only at the individual level, but also at

b e th e ex clu siv er e sp o n s ib
dyadic level, group level and organizational level.

4. HRD is multi disciplinary. It draws input from engineering , technology, psychology,

anthropology, management commerce, economic, and medicine. Etc.

p e r so n n de le p a r tm e. n t
4 P e r so n n efu
l n ctio na n d sc o p
5. HRD is essential not only for manufacturing and service industry but also for information
technology industry.

Scope of HRD:

1.Recruiting the employees within the dimensions and possibilities for development
human resource.

2.Selecting those employees potentialities for development to meet the present and future
organizational needs.

3.Analysising, appraising and developing performance of employees as individual,

members of a group and organizations with a view development them by identifying the
gaps in skills and knowledge.

4.Train all employees in acquire all new technical skill and knowledge.

5.Helps the employees to learn from their superior through performance consultations,
performance counseling and performance interviews.

6.Dvelop the employees in managerial and behavioral skill and knowledge.

7.Planning for employee career and introducing developmental programs.

8.Planning for succession and develop the employees.

9.Change employees behavior through organizational development.

10.Learning through job rotation, job enrichment and empowerment.

HRD Objectives:

1. To prepare the employee to meet the present and future job enrichment.

2. To prevent employee obsolescence.

3. To develop creative ability and talent.

4. To prepare employee for higher level job.

5. To develop the employee potentialities for next level job.

6. To aid total quality management.

7. To ensure smooth and efficient work of the organization.

8. To enhance the organizational capabilities.

9. To create a climate that enables every employees to discover, develop and use his/her
capabilities for organization.

10. To promote individual.

Need for HRD:

1. changes in economic policies.

2. Changing job requirement.

3. Need for multi-skilled human resource.

4. Organizational viability and transformation process.

5. Technological advances.

6. Organizational complexity.

7. Human relations.

HRM (Human Resource Management) –DEFINITIONS

“Human resource or manpower management effectively describe the process of planning

and directing the application. Development and utilization of human resources in employment”-
Dale Yoder.

“HRM is the part of management process which is primarily concerned with human
constituents of an organization”-E.F.L.Breach

“The personnel function is concerned with the procurement, organizing, directing and
controlling, integration and maintenance of the personnel of an organization for the purpose of
controlling towards the accomplishment of the organization’s major goals or objectives”-Flippo


The function of human resource management may classified under;

I. Managerial functions:

a. planning,

b. Organizing

c. Directing

d. Controlling
II. Operative functions.

1. Procurement

2. Development

3. Compensation

4. Integration

5. Maintenance



Planning deciding in advance what should be done. it helps to work in a systematic
manner and eliminates for working at random. Planning involves the determination of objectives,
policies, procedures, rules, strategies, programmes and budgets.

In the context of human resource management planning is necessary to determine the

manpower needs of the enterprise.

B) organizing:
Organizing involves the performance of the following tasks:

 Division of work among the employees( assignment of duties)

 Delegation of authority(transfer of official rights by a superior to his subordinate) and

 Creation of accountability ( the subordinates, to whom work has been assigned and
authority has been delegated, is made answerable for the progress of work)


Directing the human resource does not mean the process of issuing mere orders and
instructions to the subordinate staff. it, is , in fact, the process of supervising, guiding and
motivating the employees in order to get the best out of them.


If the planning looking ahead, controlling is looking back. The object of the control
function is to ensure that what has been planned has been successfully achieved. Planning
without control is useless and control without planning is meaningless.

The process of controlling involves the following stages:

i. Establishing standards.

ii. Measuring actual performance

iii. Comparing the actual performance with the standards laid down already.

iv. Measuring deviations and

v. Taking corrective action.

Controlling , in the context of human resource management, is performance by means of

direct observation, supervision, reports, records and audit.

II. Operative function:

The operative functions of human resource management consist of the following:

a) Procurement



d)Integration and

e) maintenance.
The scope of each of these operative function is given briefly below:

a) procurement:

Procurement of human resource is concerned with the following:

a. Job analysis

b. Human resource planning

c. Selection

d. Placement

e. Transfer

f. Promotion and

g. Recruitment

B) Development:

Development of human resource concerned with the following:

I. Performance appraisal

II. Training

III. Executive development

IV. Career planning and development

V. Organizational development(OD)

c) Compensation:

It deals with the following:

I. Job evaluation

II. Wages and salary administration

III. Incentives

IV. Bonus

V. fringe benefit, and

VI. Social security scheme.

D) Integration:

It concerned with the performance of all those activities of which is to bring about
reconciliation between individual interest and that of the organization. These include:

I. Motivating employees to work better

II. Boosting the morale of the staff

III. Ensuring effective communication

IV. Enhancing leadership qualities.

V. Providing scope for collective bargaining

VI. Redressing grievance

VII. Managing conflict

VIII. Handling disciplinary cases

IX. Providing counseling to get rid of stress

X. Improving quality of work life of employees.

E) Maintenance:

This function deals with the following:

I. Promoting job satisfaction among employees

II. Tackling the problems of labor turnover

III. Human resource accounting , audit and research.


An analysis of the nature of HRM will be bring out its following characteristic:

1. It just universal relevant.

The HRM is not only used in business organization even you can find in government
organization. For that government having separate department like ‘ MINISTRY OF HUMAN

2.It is goal oriented:

The goal of HRM is to make the best use of the available manpower resource of the
3.It adopt a systematic approach in handling the manpower resource:

The systematic manpower handling is done by the following main two HRM function
like managerial and operative function. pervasive in nature:

The HRM is a task performed at different levels. As stated earlier, every family and every
government consider the effective management of its human resource important.

5.It is an ongoing activity:

HRM is not something that is required only at a particular point of time. The manpower
resource will be needed in any place.

6.It is dynamic field of activity:

It is an most challenging task of every manager. Because it is certain peculiar

characteristic. people having feeling and we cannot handle like machine.

7.It is focus on the development of manpower resource:

HRD is the part of HRM. development of manpower resource through training

programmes is as important as its procurement.

8.It is science as well as art:

The subject HRM is both a science and an art. As a social science it relies on
observations and experiments . As an art it calls for certain special skill on the part of the
manager for effective handling of human resource.

9.It is interdisciplinary:

HRM does make use of the concept of subjects such as sociology, psychology,
economics, etc.

10. It is relatively new:

When compare with subject like psychology, sociology, economics and marketing ,
financial management the HRM is relatively new subject.

IMPORTANCE OF HRM( if it is 12 mark you should explain each and every points)

1. it helps the organization to identify correctly its manpower needs.

2. It ensures that the organization does not suffer from either surplus or shortage of
3. It facilitates the selection of the right man for the right job.

4. It focuses attention on the development of skill of every individual in order to make him

5. It recognizes the need for the appraisal of the employees performance .

6. It considers need to provide incentives to the employees performing well.

7. It gives utmost importance to securing a favorable employee attitude.

8. It emphasizes the need for good human relations in every workplace.

9. It provides scope for collective bargaining.


( if it is 12 mark you should explain each and every points)

1. To Make Optimum Utilization Of The Human Resource Of The Organization:

2. To ensure That the organization has the required number staff.

3. To establish and maintain a sound organization structure.

4. To reconcile personal and organizational goal.

5. To provide scope for the development of personnel.

6. To ensure that the employees have higher job satisfaction.

7. To provide scope for participation in decision- making.


( if it is 12 mark you should explain each and every points)

1. To provide counseling

2. To act as link between the different individuals in the organization

3. To ensure that employees get what is due to them.

4. To act as spokesman of the organization.

5. To introduce any change without facing resistance from any side.

6. To advice the line manager.


( if it is 12 mark you should explain each and every points)

1. He should posses good communication skill

2. He should be creative person for solving the complex problem in the organization.

3. He should be able to analysis the problem objectively then only we can give solution in
practical manner.

4. He should be able to inspire, induce and motive employees.

5. He should have the leader ship qualities without this can not lead the team of the
subordinates and guide them properly.

6. He should not be an irritable person.

7. He should be fair and honest in dealings.

8. He should have the ability of decision making independently.

9. He should have good memory to recollect anything.

Functions of HRD


The aim of HRD activities of an organization is oriented towards socializing the new
employees into the organization, providing the required skill and knowledge , helping the
individual and the group to become more effective in the present job and developing them to
handle future jobs in an equally efficient manner.

 The term HRD has been used to both micro and macro level.

 At the micro level, in the context improving the quality of human life, it takes wealth,
capabilities, skill, attitude of the people which are more useful to the development of
nation’s overall development as well.

 At the macro level, HRD presents the improvement in quality of employees so as to

achieve higher level of productivity. The objective is to develop certain new capabilities
in people to help them perform present job in a better way and accept future job

I. Primary Functions:

1.Training and development:

 training involves the process of providing the knowledge, skill and abilities required for
an individual to perform a specific job or task.

 Development deals with preparing the individual to perform the current job in a better
way and also to handle future responsibility.

2.Career development:

 Career planning involves activities performed by an individual to assess his skills and

 Career management involves all the steps taken to achieve this career plan.

 Career development consist of both career planning and career management. It is a

process by which individuals progresses through a series of stages each of which is
characterized by a relatively unique set of issues themes and tasks.

3.Organization development(OD):

 It can defined as applying behavioral science concepts to bring about planning change in
the organization.

 The aim of OD is to bring about organizational effectiveness by indulging in micro and

macro level changes.
 Micro level changes : Team-building , conflict resolution etc.

 Macro level changes: structural organization, cultural transformation etc.

 II. Secondary functions:

 1.Role analysis and development:

 Role analysis are very important to the development , training, and

professionalization of HRD. they are may be used to defined a role more clearly so as to
avoid ambiguity in the expectation from that role.

 This helps:

 1.Clarify the role for the role occupant.

 2.In preparing the role description and

 3.Reduce role ambiguity.

2.Performance appraisal:

 Performance appraisal is a process that provides an analysis of a person’s overall

capabilities and potential, allowing informed decision to be made for particular purpose
which includes:

 Clarifying expectations and reducing ambiguity about the performance:

 Improving individual performance.

 Determination of rewards.

 Improving motivation and morale.

 Identifying training and development opportunities.

 Selecting people for promotion.

 Managing careers.

 Counseling

 Discipline.

 Planning remedial actions.

 Setting goals and targets.

3.Potential appraisal:

Potential appraisal is another powerful tool of employee development . Every time a

manager recommends or fails to recommend an employee for a promotion, a potential
assessment has , in fact been made.

The process of assessing the managerial of employees deals with the question of whether
or not they are ability to handle position in the future which involve considerably more
responsibility than what they have the right now.

It may defines as a process of determining an employees strength and weakness with a

view to use this as a predictor of his future performance.

4.Perfromance counseling:

It refers to the help provided by a manager t his subordinates in analyzing their

performance and other job behavior in order to increase their effectiveness in the job.

PA can be made development oriented only when it is followed by proper performance

counseling. So the focus of performance counseling is to identify the development needs of the
employees based on his or her performance appraisal.

5.Employee orientation:

Employee orientation develops the new employees to contribute more quickly to the
business. It is also essential to help the employees to meet the challenges when the organization
go for restructure organization and new pattern of work and radical change.

Effective orientation is concerned with motivating people to become productive in the

shortest time to stay with the organization.

6.Succession planning :

succession planning is a systematic methodology for ensuring that the company has the
leadership and management talent to sustain growth and profitability into the next decade.

succession plans identifies the company’s future organizational needs in terms of the
skills, knowledge and abilities of its leaders, key managers and associates.

Succession planning helps organizations to build their capabilities by acquiring and

developing their human resources.

The benefit that organization derive due to succession planning include:

1.Succession planning engages the senior management in a disciplined review of leadership

2.It guides development activities.

3.It bring selection system, reward systems, and management development into alignment with
the process of leadership renewal.

4.Assures continuity of leadership.

5.Aviods transition problems.

7.Participatory devices and quality of work life:

In order to bring about the overall development of employees, good physical conditions
have to be developed.

Not only this, they should also be motivated at work. Quality circles, information sharing,
participative forms will bring about the better quality of work life for the employees.

8.Human Resource Information System and Research:

One the another important secondary functions of HRD is proper and systematic
maintenance of information about every employee. This may be used for counseling, training
and development, career planning, promotion etc.

This information also be used as a base for research on employee performance.

Role of HRD Professional in Organizations

Role of HRD Professional in Organizations:

In order to succeed in the fast changing competitive environment, organizations need to

 Anticipate

 Innovate

 Adapt.

In this HRD has the central role to play in promoting and supporting the development of
a learning environment to create and nature knowledge.

Knowledge is the key source of competitive advantage, and this is brought out through
the employees.

So the role and functions of HRD are directed towards the release of the human potential
in individual in individuals, groups and organizations through learning experience that result
from planned and organized training, education and development activities.
There are three major sub roles for the HRD practitioner in an organization. They are
learning specialist, administrator and consultant.

I. Role as a learning specialist:

HRD must provide the required learning and growth experiences to both individuals and
groups to help them resolve organizational problems and use the various opportunities for
organizational change.

This is achieved by:

1.Training activities:

It focuses on learning the skill, knowledge and attitude required to initially perform a task
or to improve upon the performance of the current job.

It focuses on learning new skills, knowledge and attitude that will equip an individual to
assume a new job. The learning to be gained is identified from know prerequisites of the future
job assignment.

3.Development activities:

Development activities are not job related but are more oriented towards personal and
organizational growth. The purpose of the development activity is to help the individual by
providing learning opportunities to broaden one’s conceptual and perceptual base in the area not
previously experienced by the individual.

II. Role as an Administrator:

As an administrator, HRD practitioners or managers have to perform the following role in an


 HRD short and long range planning.

 Organizing the HRD unit

 Controlling the HRD staff.

 Budgeting for HRD department.

 Staffing the HRD function.

 Facilitating the professional growth of the HRD staff.

 Managing facilitate and equipment.

 Building supportive and internal and external relations.

 Supervising programs and staff.

III. Role as a Consultant:

The HRD manager is first a line manager of an organizational unit or department that
perform a staff function. Secondly, the HRD manager also serves as a consultant to the
organization’s chief executives officers and helps the line management team to resolve its
personnel, productivity and organizational problems.

the line managers with the assistant of the HRD staff, who are the in-in-house consultants
of the organization, can carry out the following activities effectively:

1.To do everything possible to ensure that the on-the-job application of learning will take place.

2. To identify the difference that has occurred to the organization by way of cost reduction,
quality or quantity improvement or any others. If on-the-job application of the learning takes

3.To asses the training , education and development needs of their employees to help them
determine the causes for the performance gap within their staff units.

Characteristics of an effective HRD professional &Emerging issues facing the HRD


Characteristics of an effective HRD professional:

some of the qualities which an HRD manager or professional should possess, in order to
be effective in his filed, include:

1.The ability to plan for the HRD activities of the organization: this include identifying
the training and development needs of the employees, designing, implementing and evaluating
such programs, etc. all these HRD activities should be based upon the HRD policy which should
be in line with the organizations mission and strategy.

2.He should be able to establish goal priorities of the HRD activities for the current and
future period which may be for next five years.

3. He should be able to seek the most appropriate organizational structure and location
for the HRD unit in the overall organization chart.

4.He should be able to develop HRD MIS to provide good internal and external data
sources thereby ensuring overall HRD efficiency.
5.Mission oriented position description has to developed for the staff and supporting
personnel of the HRD unit.

6.Highly participative style can be followed by the manager in his planning and directing

7.Respect and confidence can be gained from line managers and peers by being
technologically competent in the design and delivery of the HRD activities as well as practical
and more realistic approach when situation demand.

8.Develop confidence in the HRD staff by delegating thought it involves an element of


overall an HRD manager should be able to provide opportunities to each employee for
personal and organizational and organizational growth as well as treat them dignity they deserve.

Emerging issues facing the HRD Professionals:

As any other function HRD professionals also have face various challenges and issues in
the dynamic competitive environment. Some of the issues are:

1.Change environment:

today the Indian organization undergoing drastic transformation especially after

globalization. Changes in strategy and structure of the organization in this HRD will play a key
role in such transformations.

2.Technological impact:

The technological advancement will brought about the changes in the life style of individuals and
organization. The impact of internet, E-Mail, video conferencing is grater on people.

3.Low commitment from management:

HRD effort not succeed unless the commitment of the top management. Normally the
line manager are not serious in e HRD efforts because HRD is seen as a non productivity
expenditure for organization.


The globalization cakes or compels the organization to increase their ability to learn and
collaborate and manage diversity, complexity and uncertainty. So , HR professional will have to
create models and process for attaining global competitiveness and effectiveness.

5. Learning organization:
Have been given greater importance for learning in organization. individuals are
encourage and engage in life long learning.

6. Organizational strategy:

Organizational strategy will helps the organization to face the global competitive
environment. Organizational strategy will be effective only if the HR strategy are held in its and
other strategies are evolved around it.

7. Employee orientation:

Employee orientation develops the new employees to contribute more quickly to the
business. It is also essential to help the employees to meet the challenges when the organization
go for restructure organization and new pattern of work and radical change.

Effective orientation is concerned with motivating people to become productive in the

shortest time to stay with the organization.

8.HR outsourcing:

There is a latest trend called HR outsourcing which pickup in the business scenario.
Today there are no. of HR outsourcing consulting are growing rapidly because of this its threat to
internal HR professional over a period of time.


HRD Culture:

 HRD culture is derived from the overall organization culture. Based on how the
organizations treat, believes and handle the employees, their HRD culture is identified.

 The stand taken importance given by the organization towards people development,
encouragement, training, career development and for innovation, etc. brings out the traits
or characteristics of the organization.

Components of organizational culture:

 Individual autonomy:

The degree to which employees feel free to manage themselves and are not accountable
to others.

 Position structure:

The extent of formalities, centralization and supervision in the organization.

 Reward orientation:

The extent to which reward are related to performance and the required system of
behavior in the organization.

 Consideration:

To extent to which people in the organization offer social –emotional support to each
other and work as a team.

 Conflict management:

The extent of differences present between individuals and departments and the way in
which they are resolve.

 Growth and development.

the scope for self-development and growth in the organization.

 Risk taking:

The degree of freedom to experiment with new ideas, take risk and commit honest
mistakes without fear of punishment.

 Control:

The extent to which people are formally controlled whether the organization is rule
oriented, the extent of informal groups functioning in the organization.

 HRD culture in an organization is the perception about the developmental environment

prevalent in the organization.

 The prevailing HRD culture of the organization can be measured by analysis certain
factors which bring out the way employees are handled and encouraged to in the

 Thus, the culture pertaining to how the employees are encouraged develop and take
initiate is bring out through the following practices collectively called as OCTAPACE
culture of an organization.

 O-Openness: the extent of willingness to share and receive information, ideas and
suggestions from employees.

 C-Confrontation: the willingness to face and solve the problems rather than to avoid
them until they grow bigger issues.
 T-Trust : extent of faith which people have for one another.

 A-Autonomy: the degree of freedom enjoyed by workers.

 P-Pro-activity : the tendency of the organization to think ahead of the problems.

 A-Authenticity: the extent to which people say what they mean and mean what they say.

 C- :Collaboration : people’s tendency to live and work together.

 E-Experimentation: the extent to which support and encouragement from the

management to the individuals to take risk and innovative.

HRD Climate:

HRD Climate is perception of the employees about the prevailing HRD culture in the
organization which is mostly brought surveys, covering the entire or a sample of employees.

Mapping such HRD climate helps the organization to know the exiting climate and take
necessary steps to modify or change certain practice if they feel there remains a gap between
what they want and what is prevalent.

Map your HRD practices-profile instrument, developed by Rao T.V(1991). It contain the
95 activities under 9 different dimensions:

1. HRD philosophy and liaison with top management.

2. Creating development motivation in line managers.

3. Strengthening HRD Climate through HRD systems.

4. Directing HRD efforts to goal and strategies of the organization.

5. Monitoring HRD implementation.

6. Human process research.

7. Influencing HR policies.

8. Creating business linkage.

9. Networking and benchmarking.

Three important factors for the organization:





 The elements of HRD climate can be grouped Into three broad categories

1. General climate

2. OCTAPAC culture and

3. HRD mechanisms

The factors required for good HRD climate:

1. Top to bottom effort

2. Motivator role of manager and supervisor

3. Faith upon employees

4. Freedom of expression of feelings

5. Feedback

6. Discouraging stereotypes and favoritism

7. Team spirit

8. helpful nature of employees

9. supportive personnel management

10. encouraging and risk taking

11. experimentation

Components of HRD Climate

1.Organizational Structure

 An organization’s structure is actually a “snapshot” of a work process ,frozen in time so

that it can be viewed.

 If the structure and the role is not clear, people will not know what the work process is,
who is responsible for what, whom to go for help and decision, and who can assist in
problems that may arise.

2.Organizational Culture
 Organizational culture is the pattern of ,beliefs ,knowledge attitudes and customs that
exists within an Organization.

 Organizational culture can be supportive ,or unsupportive, positive or negative.

3.HR Processes

 The HR system of an organization should be comprehensive enough to take care of

employees from the time they join till.

the time they leave HR.

 From recruitment to retirement whole process should be according to employees .

expectation and ability of employer

Importance of looking at HRD climate

 Environmental factors of HR are prime influencing elements of change in HR . Strategy

 It gives HR professionals time to anticipate opportunities in HR area.

 It forms a basis of aligning the organization strengths to the

Changes in the Environment.

Impact of Climate:

1.Climate has been linked to :


2.Stress and


4.Poor performance:

5. error rating,

6. wastage and accident.

2.Climate has been linked to desirable outcomes such as:

1.job satisfaction,

2.confidence in management, commitment, in organizational performance.

5.Risk taking(strategic) and 6.Open communication trust.

Measuring HRD Climate

 Measurement of climate seeks to identify the , components of both bad and good climate
both in absolute terms and perceptual terms

*Generally, the areas of interact to measure : are

 External environment-organizational interface with it

 Organizational leadership/mission

 Organizational structure /systems.

 Organization and you

 Management practices

 Working- coworkers /teams/ supervisor

 Self -at work your -role development, opportunities motivation ,commitment, stress

 Self -outside work-how work affects your life (good/ bad) vice- vers

We can assess the measurement in terms of

 Economic Condition

 Leadership Style

 Managerial assumption about Human Nature

 Organization Size

 Managerial Values & Ethos

Competencies required for HRD people

The following qualities are essential for a HRD Manager to be successful:

 Person of positive thinking with positive attitudes to people

 A high desire to learn

 Interested in people
 Helpful attitude

 Initiative taking or proactive

 Practice and perseverance

 Communication skills

 Objectivity in approach

 Personal example and sense of decline

A Framework for the HRD Process HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or

1. Needs assessment

2. Design

3. Implementation

4. Evaluation

1.Needs Assessment Phase

 Establishing HRD priorities

 Defining specific training and objectives

 Establishing evaluation criteria

2.Design Phase

 Selecting who delivers program

 Selecting and developing program content

 Scheduling the training program

3.Implementation Phase

 Implementing or delivering the program

4.Evaluation Phase

Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,

1. Keep or change providers?

2. Offer it again?

3. What are the true costs?

4. Can we do it another way?


 HRD is too important to be left to amateurs

 HRD should be a revenue producer, not a revenue user

 HRD should be a central part of company

 You need to be able to talk MONEY