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Chaim Zins Knowledge Mapping Research, 26 Hahaganah Street, Jerusalem 97852, Israel. E-mail: email@example.com
The ﬁeld of Information Science is constantly changing. Therefore, information scientists are required to regularly review—and if necessary—redeﬁne its fundamental building blocks. This article is one of a group of four articles, which resulted from a Critical Delphi study conducted in 2003–2005 (Zins, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c). The study, “Knowledge Map of Information Science,” was aimed at exploring the foundations of information science. The international panel was composed of 57 leading scholars from 16 countries who represent nearly all the major subﬁelds and important aspects of the ﬁeld. This particular article documents 28 classiﬁcation schemes of Information Science that were compiled by leading scholars in the academic community. This unique collection of 28 classiﬁcation schemes portrays and documents the proﬁle of contemporary Information Science at the beginning of the 21st century.
focused on exploring how leading scholars and practitioners in the academic milieu map the ﬁeld. This exploration is an important step on the road to understanding the essence of contemporary information science and to ground the mapping of the ﬁeld on empirical data. Knowledge Mapping Knowledge mapping plays an essential role in the construction, learning, and dissemination of knowledge (Zins, 2004). How do information scientists structure the ﬁeld of Information Science? The literature provides thousands of knowledge maps; not all of them are comprehensive and systematic. In fact, most of them are partial, incomplete, and inconsistent. Knowledge maps of the ﬁeld can be found in library classiﬁcation schemes (e.g., Library of Congress Classiﬁcation [LCC], Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation [DDC], and Universal Decimal Classiﬁcation [UDC]), classiﬁcation schemes in bibliographic resources, information services and databases (e.g., Information Science Abstract [ISA] and Library and Information Science Abstract [LISA]), thesauri (e.g., ASIS Thesaurus of Information Science and Librarianship; Milstead, 1998), conferences’ programs (e.g., American Society for Information Science and Technology [ASIST] Annual Meeting), course syllabi, introductory texts, and encyclopedia entries. Nearly every book on information science explicitly or implicitly presents a knowledge map of the relevant body of knowledge in its table of contents. Still the structuring has to be systematic. Formulating a systematic knowledge map should be based on a systematic conception of the ﬁeld. Formulating a systematic conception of Information Science should be grounded on systematic conceptions of the constitutive concepts data, information, and knowledge (see Zins, 2007b). This article documents 28 classiﬁcation schemes that portray the diversiﬁed aspects of the ﬁeld. All of them are based on reﬂective thinking. Methodology The scientiﬁc methodology is Critical Delphi. Critical Delphi is a qualitative research methodology aimed at facilitating critical and moderated discussions among experts
Context The ﬁeld of Information Science (IS) is constantly changing. Therefore, information scientists are required to regularly review—and if necessary—redeﬁne its fundamental building blocks. This article is part of a group of four articles, which resulted from a Critical Delphi study conducted in 2003–2005. The study, Knowledge Map of Information Science, explores the theoretical foundations of information science. It maps the conceptual approaches for deﬁning data, information, and knowledge (Zins, 2007b), as well as the major conceptions of Information Science (Zins, 2007a). It portrays the proﬁle of contemporary Information Science by documenting 28 classiﬁcation schemes compiled by leading scholars over the course of the study, which are presented here; and culminates in developing a scientiﬁcally based and theoretically grounded knowledge map (Zins, 2007c). Formulating a knowledge map—which is equivalent here to a subject classiﬁcation scheme—means to set the boundaries of the ﬁeld and deﬁne its main parts. This article is
Received November 15, 2005; revised March 13, 2006; accepted March 13, 2006 © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online 6 February 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/asi.20506
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 58(5):645–672, 2007
(the panel). The international and intercultural panel is composed of 57 participants from 16 countries. The panel is unique and exceptional; it is comprised of leading scholars who represent nearly all the major subﬁelds and important aspects of the ﬁeld (see Appendix A). The indirect discussions were anonymous and were conducted in three successive rounds of structured questionnaires. The ﬁrst questionnaire contained 24 detailed and open-ended questions covering 16 pages. The second questionnaire contained 18 questions in 16 pages. The third questionnaire contained 13 questions in 28 pages (see relevant excerpts from the three questionnaires in Appendix B). The return rates were relatively high: 57 scholars (100%) returned the ﬁrst round, 39 (68.4%) returned the second round, and 39 (68.4%) returned the third round. Forty-three panelists (75.4%) participated in two rounds (i.e., R1 and either R2 or R3), and 35 panelists (61.4%) participated in all three rounds. In addition, each participant received his or her responses that I initially intended to cite in future publications. The responses were sent to each panel member with relevant critical reﬂections. Forty-seven (82.4%) participants responded and approved their responses. Twenty-three of them, which is 48.9% (23 out of 47), and 40.3% of the entire panel (23 out of 57) revised their original responses. Therefore,
one can say that actually the critical process (the study) was composed of four rounds. Formulating the Schemes To be speciﬁc, the process of formulating the schemes was exhaustive (see Appendix B). It consisted of three steps. First, in the second round each panel member was asked to compile a knowledge map of the ﬁeld, or rather a classiﬁcation scheme, which represented his or her conception of Information Science. Next, in the third round, the investigator presented the panel’s schemes, and each participant was asked to comment on the various schemes, select the one that best represented his or her position, and revise the scheme that he or she had developed in the second round. Finally, the investigator sent personal letters to the authors of the schemes. Each letter included the panel’s relevant reﬂections, and if applicable, critical comments. Once again, each author was asked to revise his or her scheme. The Panel’s Schemes Twenty-eight panel members contributed their schemes and reﬂections, which follow:
Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Information Production and Organization Information Nature, qualities & value Production of stocks of information Information management & control Technologies & practices of information Information Distribution Users & information communities Communication of information Information sources Channels of information & its ﬂow Information consumption and use Information availability & access Information Uses & Applications Cognition Aspects of Information Assimilation of information The production of knowledge History, Philosophy, Legal, Ethics, and Ancillary Aspects of Information Legal Structure of Information (e.g., Copyright) Ethics of Information Policy & Politics Globalization aspects History, Philosophy, Environment
“Reﬂections. In my view, information science is a set of ﬂows, processes and actions that starts in a generator’s (author’s) mind and ends in a space where users (receptors) appropriates that information to be knowledge. As it is a dynamic model I cannot see it in a static table where headers do not match the whole idea.”  (Aldo Barreto)
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.1002/asi
Information Technology 4.5 7.6 Taxonomies 5.3 Digital Libraries 6.4 Programming languages 4.6 The social information scientist 10.13 Net works technologies 4.6 Information retrieval Systems 4.4 Scientiﬁc Communication 3.2 Sociology of Knowledge 3.8 Ontology 5.information scientist-interaction 9.2 Document Delivery Systems 4.7 Thesauri 5.6 7.1 9.5 Information Industry Market 6.Shifra Baruchson–Arbib 1.9 Human Computer Interaction 4.4 Domain Analysis 2.12 websites construction 4.5 Knowledge organization 5.3 Indexing 5.5 Multimedia 4. 6.1 7.9 Vocabulary Control 5.8 Information diffusion in multi cultural societies 10.3 1. 9.11 digital security systems 4.15 search tools 5.7 Community Information.1 Competitive Intelligence 6.6 Information Management 6.5 E-learning 3.11 Electronic comers 7.3 Social information Banks 10.1 Human Information Behavior 8.11 Reference work 5.14 Knowledge Representation 4. Power & ethics 10. Information/Learning Society 3.6 Information Literacy 3.5 Webometrics 3.1 Classiﬁcation Schemes 5.2 7.10 Collection management 6.4 7.5 IS Epistemology 2.3 Social Communication 3.7 Information Manipulation 6.4 Electronic publishing 6.7 IS Education 3.9 Health information centres  (Shifra Baruchson–Arbib) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.2 Databases 6. 10.1002/asi 647 .2 Information Education.2 Information seeking Behavior 8.8 Knowledge Management 6.10 Information Architecture 4.1 Information needs of Different cultures 10. Methodology 2. Print & digital 1.1 Quantitative & qualitative research 2.1 Social & cultural aspects in the information society 3.5 Self help sources-printed Electronic 10.4 Abstracting 5.12 The semantic web 6. Social information Science 10.3 7. Data organization & Retrieval 5.10 Online Searching techniques 5.7 Information Ethic and Law Copyright Digital Security Digital divide Censorship Internet crime Free Access to Information Information Policies 8.2 9.4 Reference interview 8.3 Information Needs 8.4 Diffusion studies Information Dissemination Communication Theory Message Theory Information centres & Libraries 10.3 9.4 Social information sections in school & public Libraries 10.2 Bibliometrics. 4.7 Systems Analysis 4.2 1.3 Bibliology 2.2 Metadata 5.9 Information centers & Libraries management.8 Artiﬁcial Intelligence 4.8 Lifelong Learning 4. 7. User studies 8.1 1.1 Communication & Computer networks.5 User.4 Foundations of IS History of IS History of Librarianship Archival Science History of knowledge Formats: Manuscripts. Information industry Economic & Management 6. Informatics 2.3 Structure of Computerized Systems 4. 1.
4 By methodology: Qualitative Quantitative 3.) 648 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.g.. People 1. It allows complex statements to be made using inter. It is based on the most recent theoretical research in classiﬁcation. Systems.2 By conceptual foundation: Epistemology History Philosophy Practice(s) Theory 2. It would need further conceptual development for subfacets and foci. It’s interesting that no one has produced a faceted (analytico-synthetic) system.1 By group: Community Culture Domain User group 1. Space. Systems 3.2 By individual: Researcher User 2.. These are subdivided into sub-facets and foci at a general level.Clare Beghtol 1. Space [by Universal Decimal Classiﬁcation] 5. and a synthetic notation that would allow both inter. Like other faceted systems. It is adequate and systematic.and intra-facet synthesis (e. Object of Study 2.“qualitative historical research on information organization in 19th century France compared to 14th century China” or “quantitative research on information practice by user groups in electronic systems for speciﬁc discipline areas”). The Universal Decimal Classiﬁcation has been chosen for subdividing Space and Time because it is more highly developed in those areas than other general systems. Object of Study.2 By technology: Electronic Manual Mechanical 4.  (Clare Beghtol. it is hospitable by nature and therefore potentially comprehensive.and intra-facet synthesis.1 By cultural factor: Economic aspects Education Ethical aspects Legal aspects Professions Societal aspects 3. The fundamental facets are People. so I’ve provided the basis for one.1 By element: Data Information Knowledge Message 2.3 By purpose: Communication Creation Discipline area Dissemination Evaluation Management Organization Representation Retrieval Search Storage 2. and Time.1002/asi . Time [by Universal Decimal Classiﬁcation] “Rationale..
4 Webometrics 4. Library Science relates to theories of mediating human knowledge and elaborating methodologies in order to connect external memories (books and documents) with human cognitive ability.8 Online searching 2. 4) Social aspects.2. This section relates to Information Science as well as Library Science.3 Scientiﬁc Communication 4.6 Information Retrieval 2.Maria Teresa Biagetti 1.”  (Maria Teresa Biagetti) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.2.1 Theoretical foundations 2. since Information Science has its own foundations in the concept of “information” that needs reference to a cognitive system or a knowing subject.5 Information Processing 2.4 Research Evaluation “Rationale and structure. This section accommodates the procedures elaborated to measure the realization and the use of bibliographical entities.4 Subject Analysis 2.9 Search Engines 3.1.1 Information use and user 4. Knowledge Organization 184.108.40.206 1.2.2 Categorization & Classiﬁcation 2. characteristics of the scientiﬁc communication. the other subsection concerns the tools created in the ﬁeld of Information and Library Science in order to organize the knowledge.2. without hierarchical structure. One subsection is concerned with theoretical foundations and methodological problems.1 Classiﬁcation Systems 2. 3) Measuring and Evaluation.4 Foundations of Information & Library Science Information Science Epistemology Information Theory Cognition Theory Semantics 2.5 Indexing 2.7 Information Science Technology 2. Similarly.3 Thesauri 2.1002/asi 649 .2 Ontologies 2.4 Vocabulary Control 2. electronic resources in the WEB.2 Readership Studies 4. 1.2.3 Informetrics 3.1.1 1. Measuring & Evaluation 3. The scheme is divided into four sections: 1) Foundations.2 1. It has two subsections.2 Bibliometrics 3.2 Tools for Knowledge Organization and Library Science 2.2. This section is concerned with the social side of the Knowledge Organization: research strategies of the users.1 Knowledge Representation 2.1. This section is the core of the scheme.1. “Information” starts when signs are in connection with an interpreter.1 Information Quality Evaluation 3.3 Classiﬁcation Theory 2. and to evaluate them.2. Social aspects 4. 2) Knowledge Organization. and so on.1.
3.8 4. 6.3 4.13 7.1 Data bases 5. Information System Implementation 5.5 3.7 3.19 7.8 1. 2.2 4.22 Taxonomies 2.3 6.12 4.9 1.12 1. Information project management 8.20 7.9 3.4 6.14 7. & ethical aspects of information 1.1002/asi .21 7.18 7.17 7. 4.5 7.25 Quality assurance of Information Information Quality Information Science Education Research evaluation Testing of Software Quality assurance of Software Applications Access systems Archival Science Aviation informatics Bibliometrics Community Informatics Diffusion of info studies Digital libraries Distributed networked environments Document Delivery Systems Economics of information Electronic Information Industry E-journals E-learning Health/Biomedical Informatics Information industry Information technology Internet Labor in information systems Music-information-retrieval Philosophy of Librarianship Public Information Policies Social information/Social Informatics Information in traditional & User Web Webometrics 8.23 7.11 4. 1.2 7.2 1.18 1.11 1.4 History Foundations of information science History of information science Indexing Information System development Domain Analysis Evaluation Information need Evaluation Knowledge representation Knowledge structures Organization of Information Readership studies Subject analysis Systems analysis Thesauri Vocabulary control Estimation of Info Tech projects Sizing of Software Information Processing High-Density Book Storage Systems Information manipulation Information processing Information retrieval 4.5 4.4 7.16 1. legal.2 2.14 1.13 1.24 7.3 3.3 7.10 3.10 1.4 1.4 3.2 3.6 4.12 Information storing Information structures Information use and user Knowledge management Metadata Online searching Publishing Scientiﬁc Communication 5.16 7.3 1.7 7.7 4.15 7.7 1.5 1.21 Concepts Abstracting Artiﬁcial intelligence Categorization & classiﬁcation Classiﬁcation theory Cognition Communication Competitive Intelligence Digital preservation Digital security Human information behavior Information Architecture Information ethics Information Science Epistemology Informetrics Library Science Memetics Message theory Ontology Operations Research Philosophy of Information science Semiotics.2 Management  (Manfred Bundschuh) 650 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.3 3.1 4.1 7.15 1.9 4.2 6.11 3.10 7. 7.19 1.2 Information dissémination.5 7. Social.1 Information management 8.11 7.10 4. 6.8 7.Manfred Bundschuh 1.22 7.8 3.1 1.6 7.1 2.6 1.1 6.20 1.12 7.6 3.1 3.17 1.9 7.
1002/asi 651 .5 Sound Retrieval 5. Thematic information Biomedical information. Legal Aspects 11.5 Information Societies Information Cultures Information Behavior Information Needs Social Informatics Scientiﬁc Communication 6. Training Information skills. Copyright.1 E-Learning 13.2 9.3 4. User satisfaction. Organization of Information.2 8.3 1.7 Coaching “Delimitations.16 Archival Systems 5.4 8. Ethical aspects of information. 4. Professional competences.3 9.6 Foundations of Information Science* Philosophy of Information The Concept of Information (Information Theory) The Concept of Media (Media Theory) The Concept of Message (Message Theory) The Concept of Sign (Semiotics) The Concept of Communication (Communication Theory) 1. Training courses. Legal information.7 Ubiquitous Computing 5.4 1. e-government. 1. History of Information Science 3. Health & safety information.1 4.3 Codes of Practice 10.4 Subject Analysis Domain Analysis Taxonomy Theory Ontologies Content Management Knowledge Organization Community Informatics Competitive Intelligence Computer mediated communication Information Measurement Informetrics Bibliometrics Webometrics Scientometrics Indicators for Research Evaluation Economics of Information Information Industry Information & Media Products E-Economy Labor and Information 5.1 8. Information Systems 5.3 Multimedia Systems 5.2 7.2 Information Science Education 13. Social information 2. Terminology.2 6. e-learning  (Paola Capitani) Rafael Capurro 1.1 Information Architecture 5.10 System Analysis 5.2 E-Democracy 13. Education and Training 13.15 Mass Media 5. Note that the order of this scheme does not imply any kind of practical or didactic order and importance. Information Policies 12.1 Theories of Information Ethics 10.4 Continuing professional education 13.4 Image Retrieval 5.6 Consultancy 13. Working group 3. Methodology Knowledge representation. User needs.3 Access 12.2 4.3 User Education 13. 9. 6.18 Evaluation of Information Systems 5.2 Information Design 5. Standards.2 1.11 System Evaluation 5.10 Interpretation Theory (Hermeneutics) 2.”  (Rafael Capurro) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.1 1. Information Ethics.8 System Theory 1.5 9.3 7.3 7.2 Censorship 11.4 8.2 Ethical Dilemmas in Information Society 10.1 9.6 Mobile Computing 5. Translation.1 6.5 1.Paola Capitani 1.9 Cognition Theory (Social Epistemology) 1.12 Library Systems 5. Team work.7 Second-Order Cybernetics 1. History of Media 4.19 Search Engines 10.13 Public Media Repositories 5.3 8. 8. 7. Economic information. Media Ethics 10. Search methods.1 Copyright 11.4 Intercultural Information Ethics 11.8 Distributed Networks 5. Social Informatics.17 Document Delivery Systems 5.9 Information Retrieval 5.1 E-Government 12. Publishing.1 7.14 Streaming Media 5.5 Corporate Universities 13. methods.4 4. Media information.
Information structures. Childers) Charles H. Information industry. Operations Research. Ethics 10. Communication 6. Digital libraries. Evaluation of information systems Group 10: Information theory. Information dissemination. Cognition (subsuming artiﬁcial intelligence and the like) 5. Indexing (subsuming other terms implying in-depth content analysis) 4.1002/asi . Information ethics. Information retrieval. Information need. Legal aspects 14. Information processing Group 8: Economics of information. Childers Group 1: Abstracting. Web & Internet studies  (Charles H. Information use & users Group 3: Competitive Intelligence. Database creation. taxonomy. Knowledge representation. Davis) 652 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. Davis 1. Operations research 16. Distributed networked environments. Semiotics 18. Human-computer interaction. Information diffusion. Abstracting (subsuming extracting) 2. Knowledge management Group 4: Copyright. Information management. Information technology. History & foundations 12. Publishing Group 5: Information systems analysis. Library science 15. Artiﬁcial intelligence Group 6: Information storage. Library Science  (Thomas A. information policy Group 9: Management of Information Organizations. Document delivery 8. Information theory 13. Indexing. Classiﬁcation and categorization (subsuming ontology. Online searching. Metadata. Education & training 9. Publishing 17. Human information behavior. Semiotics Group 2: Bibliometrics. Media use & users. Informatics Group 7: Document Delivery Systems. Evaluation 11. Database management 7.Thomas A. domain analysis and similar terms) 3.
”  (Anthony Debons) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.1 5. 1988). (Englebart.3 2. Categorization (of events) Indexing (of events.2 2.6 6. ethical aspects of information Transfer (communication) Computer related communication Librarianship Document delivery system E Journals Metalibrarianship Scientiﬁc communication Readership studies Social.. all organisms are data.8 5.1 Event Subject Analysis (e. The knowledge component of the augmented data information knowledge (ADIK) systems has reference to the formulation of judgment (i.4 3.e. They could not deal with the external world without them.3 3. 1. information is a cognitive/affective process and the products of that process (Miller. Decision incorporates an application of understanding.5 5.3 6. storms. such systems augment human processes.3 5.9 4. namely.. information. social entities) responding to various states of an event.. weather. Radar. and evaluation of ADIK systems and wherein the basic premise. The focus is on the product and management of these processes (Drucker. ontology of human organisms cam provide a map of the various relationships between an event (i.7 4.2 6..2 3.11 4.14 5.10 Operations research Programization of Information Philosophy of computers Webmetrics Abstracting Electronic information industry Utilization Artiﬁcial intelligence Cognition E learning Human Information Behavior Information ethics Information management Information need Information use & user Aviation Informatics Social. design. awareness). the sensory mechanism that receive energy from the outside world.6 4. medical diagnostics. First. 3. 1962).) Acquisition Sensor systems (Optics. Second.9 5. decision/action) (Newell.1 4. Information science establishes the law and principles that govern the relationships in the analysis. Thus.8 “Rationale.6 4.10 6. 1972) that follows the processing of data-information. The rationale of the model is based on three basic premises. 6.12 4. technology augments the human capacities and the products there from. Based on these premises.1 2.e. the movement (transmission) of these sensory impulses (transmission) to the brain (processors). Third. state of the world). 1956).3 4. ethical aspects of information Archival science Community informatics 2.9 6.4 3. 5. 4.5 6. prevails (Debons et al.2 5.e.4 6. crime.4 4. person.4 5.5 4. synthesis and evaluation (Bloom.7 6. legal.13 4.1 3.4 4.1 6. cells.7 5. information is a state of consciousness (i.1002/asi 653 . 2.6 5.e. 1978).g.2 4. 2001). The main role of the ADIK system is to respond to various states of the event world. communicated) to others (e.5 3.10 4.. analysis. the products of these processes are transferred (i.. and Hearing aids could also be included under processing) Classiﬁcation. examples: clouds. knowledge systems.Anthony Debons 1. etc. etc) Access system Transmission Electronics Cable Wireless telephony Electronic information industry transmission Distributed Networks Processing Biblimetrics Data bases Digital libraries Domain analysis High density book storage systems Information manipulation Information Processing Information storage Information structures 4.8 6. legal.g. market ﬂuctuations.
Information Use Process Bibliometrics. General Economics of information. institutions. Decision making. share. processing. store. according to this view. IS Epistemology. legal. Social information/Social Informatics. Information ethics. Information processing. information Methods The moments or strategies that actors use when they engage in the above practices (some of which are already known and well-understood in science and elsewhere. but also nonhumans such as. 3. IS Education. digital hardware. distribution. Information retrieval. and others of which will arise through the emerging practices and technologies) Technologies The reiﬁed objects that actors utilize in carrying out their activities (including. citations. Taxonomies 4. power. and technologies in the following map should therefore be understood as a simpliﬁcation. Storing & Communication Processes Abstracting. professional organizations. Practices The activities that actors engage in when they use. inscriptions. storage and use .” Science. Subject analysis. web pages (and any similar medium that may emerge).”  (Hamid Ekbia) 654 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. and so on. Thesauri. Informetrics. The rationale behind my proposal derives from the lessons learned in the last few decades by the students of science studies. These processes are related to information as immaterial product and are representing the information cycle (within a research system). Webometrics “Rationale. references. 1999)”  (Nicolae Dragulanescu) Hamid Ekbia Actors People. Information Quality Management. communication. A major premise of this view is that actors are not only human beings. technologies. History of IS. Cognition. It is similar to the well known product cycle (within an economic system) with its three basic processes: production. computer software. Information management. Artiﬁcial intelligence.1002/asi . Information structures. digital libraries. Information dissemination. and so on. Indexing. Information storing. among others. which are linked together in networks. Information systems. documents. Problem Solving. Information use & user. My separation of actors. Information Architecture. but not limited to. inscriptions. Social. it studies the information and its ﬁve basic sub-processes – generation. “Rationale. and so on) Inscriptions: all kinds of representations that mediate among actors – e. especially what has come to be known as “actor-network theory. Communication.in order to optimize them. information. categorize. money.. mobilize. This is a managerial and pragmatic approach (Dragulanescu.g. Information technology. Foundations of IS. Philosophy of Information science.Nicolae Dragulanescu 1. funding agencies. Information Processing. Knowledge management. research groups. The scheme represents the conception of information science as the science of information society (focusing on information systems). is the outcome or performance of a heterogeneous set of actors. Organization of Information. & ethical aspects of information 2. and consumption. Categorization & classiﬁcation. Information Generation Process Databases.
7 Metrics.4 3.5.6 6.7 4.3 8.3 3.1 7.1 3.1 220.127.116.11.1 4.3 6.3 7.1 6.1.3 7.1 9.1 7.6 7.6 3.6 7.2 7.2 7. 7.2 3.6 1.3.4 7.2 4.4 2.2 6.2 6.9 7.7 7.1.5. 2.2 Application areas Information industry Electronic Publishing Libraries Digital libraries Primary Information Services Secondary Information Services Tertiary Information services Intellectual capital Business intelligence Geospatial Systems (GIS) Patent analysis Market research Discipline-oriented systems Chemical informatics Medical informatics Music information retrieval Function-oriented systems Marketing Finance & accounting Educational systems Health informatics Legal information systems e-Government Citizen’s information systems Media-based Text-based systems Pattern recognition Content-Based Image Retrieval Video systems Audio systems World Wide Web Portals and gateways Legal.3 6.3.1 6. 4. 8.3.4 3.2 7.3 3.4 6.3 3.1 3.5. Ethical & Social issues Intellectual property Information ethics Freedom of Information Data privacy.4 5.1 2. Censorship National information policy Social exclusion Third World problems IS Education Training e-Learning  (Alan Gilchrist) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.3.1. 7.4 4.9 2.6 7.2 7.7 8.1 6.5.5 4.2 7.2.4 8.5 5.1 3.3.7 3.1.4 7.5 6.4 2.4. intranets.2.2.2 2.5.5 8.1.1002/asi 655 .5.12 7.4 6.6.6 2. 5.3 2.8 7.1 18.104.22.168 3.3. 6.11 Foundations of IS Classiﬁcation theory Cognition science Communication theory Foundations & history of IS IS epistemology Library science Philosophy of information Museology Archive science Technology Buildings & equipment Multimedia Internet.1 6.1.1 7.7 1.1.6 6.2 3.10 4.8 3.1. SNA Economics of information Evaluation of information quality Biblio-. extranets “High tech” ICT Information processing tools Classiﬁcation schemes Structured vocabularies Metadata & schema Information & data models Information workers Activities Systems analysis & design Information (& knowledge) architecture Information (& knowledge) audit Website design Typology & graphic design Standardisation Knowledge management Information management Library management Records & archives management Document management Museum documentation Information processing Information analysis Writing and journalism Collection management Indexing Abstracting Cataloguing Classiﬁcation & categorisation Information storage Information curation Information retrieval Information dissemination 4.3 5.1.3 7.6.7 7.3. 3.10 3.2 1.9 4.11 7.6.2 3.1.7 22.214.171.124.1.3 6.1.4 126.96.36.199.7 3.1.5 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 1.10 7.5 6.4.6 220.127.116.11.2 18.104.22.168.11 5. Infor-.4 3.5 6.1.1 8. 1.1.1 1.5. 7.7 6.3 4.5 3.6 4.5 22.214.171.124 6.1.1 2.8 1.3 2.3.3 6.4 6.6 8.5.5 126.96.36.199. 9. Sciento-metrics Webometrics Research methods Evaluation of research Information use & users Information needs & use User typologies Information behaviour Group psychology Information usability Info & IT literacy Supporting disciplines Management Strategy & planning Financial management Human resource mgmt Facilities management Operations research Decision support systems Management information Mathematics & logic Bayesian probability Vector space analysis Information theory Bradford-Zipf analysis Linguistics & logic NLP Computational linguistics Semiotics Semantics Speech recognition Artiﬁcial intelligence Psychology Information politics Communication 7.8 4.2 8.4 1.9 3.3 1. Evaluation & Research Evaluation of information systems Evaluation of retrieval User needs studies Usability studies Diffusion studies.4.5 7.3.4 6.2 6.6.2 3.Alan Gilchrist 1.2 2.3 7.5 3.1 3.
channel & net. channel and net. decoder. decider. Information at the supra-national level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. channel & net. internal transducer. memory. Each level has an associated subsystem level that processes information (other complementary subsystems at the different levels process matter and energy). output transducer 3. Information at the quantum level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. Information at the cellular level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. Information at the organism level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. channel & net. decider. encoder. associator. encoder. memory. encoder. memory. Information at the organization level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. output transducer 9.1002/asi . decider. internal transducer. associator. output transducer 4. decoder. associator. encoder. decider. and thus neural functioning and cognition (See Penrose. associator. Information at the group level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. quantum coherence can occur and can stimulate such things as neural microtubule receptors. internal transducer. channel and net. internal transducer. The information processing subsystems for each level are these: input transducer. decoder. decider. output transducer. associator. encoder. channel & net. decoder. internal transducer. Miller’s brilliant synthesis of general systems theory (1995). Information at the organ level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. and possibly traveling or communicating at super-luminous speed (faster that the speed of light). internal transducer. decoder. decider. output transducer 2. output transducer 6. sub-atomic particles that function not according to most prevailing notions of classical physics (which are based on classical or Newtonian models of three dimensions of space and one of time). channel & net. decider.Glynn Harmon Information Phenomena at the various systems levels: 1. Information at the cosmological level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. output transducer 7. decider. but with the addition of a quantum level and a cosmological level. decider. Information at the quantum level relates to the properties of very small. memory. encoder. encoder. but according to n-dimensional models of space-time. decoder. associator. being in two positions simultaneously. channel & net. encoder. output transducer 8. memory. associator. G. output transducer 5. memory. associator. 1994). Quantum models generally portray very small particles as having the capability of moving backward or forward through linear time. associator. encoder. associator. encoder. memory. decoder. memory.”  (Glynn Harmon) 656 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. memory. internal transducer. Information at the society level Information processing subsystems: input transducer. decider. internal transducer. output transducer “Rationale and structure. decoder. decoder. internal transducer. memory. Quantum level. When quanta collectively form patterns. channel & net. channel & net. The general systems levels and components stated above are adapted from J. decoder. internal transducer.
lifelong learning The Information Society (Universal access & accessibility.7 7.Donald Hawkins 1.1 Intellectual property protection (Copyright issues & implications.4 7. Open URL.6 1.3 7. economics.6 9. fuzzy. scientometrics. history. topic maps. State & National libraries.1002/asi 657 . 4. companies) Law. 5.9 1. academic.directories. and value of information Statistics.2 Legislation. portable document format (PDF) The Information Professions Information professionals (Intermediaries. Open Archives Initiative (OAI). technology forecasts. 8. future of the profession professional ethics. biosciences. archives.2 7.2 4. intellectual property. e-books) Secondary publishing (Abstracting & indexing services. bibliographic instruction library schools. humanities. Libraries & Library Services 10. linking & electronic cross referencing. gateways. &image databases.5 7. Dublin Core.10 2. privacy.4 6. trademarks. metatags. encryption. Search agents and robots) Telecommunications (Networks. LANs & WANs) Security. text retrieval. 3. mentoring. patent law) 11.3 8. coalitions. operating systems. Listservs. DOIs.3 Contracts & licensing 11. information brokers. futures scenarios. algorithms. Planning & Personnel 10.1 4. current awareness Document delivery systems & services (Interlibrary loan.4 Library consortia & networks. deﬁnitions. alerting. database structures) User behaviour & uses of information systems (Searcher tactics.4 1. earth sciences.9 3. quality. Deep Web. government Patents & trademarks. cataloging processes & theories) Abstracting.6 2. plagiarism. inverted ﬁles. Palm Pilots & other PDAs.5 9. user surveys. reviewing Automatic indexing & abstracting Standards & protocols (NISO. AACR2. ready reference Other/multidisciplinary (Biography & genealogy databases.1 7. search engines. methodologies & applications Properties. digitization. 2. technological & socioeconomic impacts of information. 9. descriptions of online services) Customized information systems. agriculture. information ﬂows. future of journals. XML.1 6. Invisible Web. updating. censorship. SGML. measurement (Bibliometrics. digital rights management) AI. visualization and mapping.3 2. natural language). pathﬁnders) Intranets (private).7 Systems & infrastructure (Technology transfer) 7. government. usability studies) Human-computer interface (Human factors. linguistics Business (Management. authority lists (Taxonomies. systems analysis. Government & Legal Information & Issues 11.2 6.5 Sources of public information 11. bookmarking.1 The Information Industry Information & knowledge management (Knowledge transfer in organizations.2 9. indexing. access control. energy. Web conferencing Software (Programming languages. hypertext systems.3 5. library & information science. translators.5 1. encryption (Digital watermarking) Other Electronic Information Systems & Services Information searching & retrieval systems & services (Bibliographic. laws. writing. mathematics) Life sciences (Medicine. platforms) Hardware Multimedia Document management (Imaging. bulletin boards.7 2. grey literature Information Technologies Internet (World Wide Web. Encoded Archival Description (EAD).3 Information Science Research Concepts.2 5. value chain) Marketing. wireless & satellite information delivery. searchers. e-commerce Publishing & Distribution Print Electronic (E-journals.7 Library Management. career outlook.2 7.1 3. data mining. needs. credibility Information literacy. biographies Information genres Knowledge Organization Thesauri. theories. environment) Social sciences. courses & curricula) 10. ranking/recall. authentication.7 9. hypermedia.5.1 Subject-Speciﬁc Sources and Applications Physical sciences (Chemistry. political science. searching models.8 1. trends) Economics & pricing (Business models.3 8.2 Library services 10. librarians and librarianship. dissertations.10 8. coding.3 6. freedom of information. citation analysis. design issues) Communication (Editing. terminologies. privacy) 11. compression) History of information science. continuing education. & public libraries. skills & competencies) Organizations & societies Societal Issues Information ethics. physics.2 4. query formulation.9 1.4  (Donald Hawkins) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. precision/ relevance. preservation technologies. resource sharing) Geographic information systems 9.4 10.5 Digital & virtual libraries. museums. 1. educators. storage. & regulations (except copyright) 11. MARC.6 Information policies & studies (Security. ergonomics.1 Library descriptions & types: Special. browsers.3 9.8 Library facilities 11. preservation) 5.3 Library automation & operations 10. reference librarians. case law) News Education.6 Education & training (Distance learning. business strategies) Markets & players (Vendor proﬁles & interviews. pattern and character recognition. Internet authoring & design principles) Operations research/mathematics (Modeling. depository libraries 10. hybrid libraries 10. Z39. records management. directories) Scholarly communication (Peer review process. databases of theses & dissertations) Countries & geographic areas 5.1 7. digitization. (Cybernetics. Boolean logic.4 9.1 9.2 1. 6.8 1. expert systems. encyclopedias.1 1. numeric. scanning. vocabularies) Cataloging & classiﬁcation (Tagging. information overload. OPACs. national & other information policies) 11.4 9. 7. portals. cooperatives 10. informetrics) Information retrieval research (Searching techniques (Boolean. semantic networks. censoring. linguistics. ontologies. intelligent agents. fair use.4 Liability issues (Filtering.8 7. the search process. HTML. engineering. computer science.2 8. nomenclatures.
2 9.3 Organizations Electronic information industry Information industry Publishing 8.1 3.3 6.12 1.Ken Herold 1.5 9.10 6.6 3. 7.2 2.1 10.19 1.8 1.4 5.9 9. 5.8 3. 6.7 9.9 2.9 6.7 1.3 Distributed networked environments 8. 9.1 5.5 6. 2.4 2.13 9.10 2.13 2.1 4.1 9.14 10.5 6.11 9.5 3.12 9.6 1.4 6.16 1.22 1. 4.3 5.2 7.2 6.20 1.1 1.4 1.1 7. Technologies 8.3 3. 10.11 1.1002/asi .8 9. legal ðics aspects Subject analysis Systems analysis Disciplines Archival Science Economics of Information Human information behavior Information architecture Information retrieval Knowledge management Librarianship Library Science Metalibrarianship Operations research Philosophy of computation Philosophy of information Philosophy of information science Philosophy of librarianship Semiotics 3.10 1.7 6.15 Conceptions Artiﬁcial Intelligence Categorization & Classiﬁcation Classiﬁcation theory Cognition Communication Copyright Domain analysis Information ethics Information science epistemology Information structures Information theory Knowledge organization Knowledge representation Knowledge structures Memetics Message theory Metadata Ontology Organization of information Scientiﬁc communication Social.7 Information processing 8.9 1.3 2.13 1.14 1.17 1.5 1.5 2.10 9.2 5.3 1.7 2. 3.4 4.8 6.6 9.7 3.2 Digital security 8.2 1. 1.1 6.8 2.3 9.11 Research & Evaluation Bibliometrics Computer-mediated communication Diffusion studies Evaluation Evaluation of information Systems Information quality evaluation Readership studies Research evaluation Webometrics Education & History Education & training E-learning Information science education Foundations of information science History of information science Resources Access systems Databases Internet Online searching Web Environments/Cultures/Contents Chemical Documentation Educational information Health/Biomedical informatics Labor in information systems Music information retrieval Social information/social informatics Information in traditional & transitional societies Technological information Aviation Informatics Community Informatics Public information policies 7.12 2.4 9.6 High-density book storage systems 8.9 4.2 10.4 3.1 2.3 Operations & Processes Abstracting Classiﬁcation schemes Classiﬁcation systems Competitive Intelligence Digital preservation Indexing Information dissemination Information management Information manipulation Informetrics Management Taxonomies Thesauri Vocabulary control Users Information need Information use User  (Ken Herold) 658 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.6 2.14 2.6 6.2 3.5 5.2 4.21 1.15 1.8 Information storing 9.11 2.1 Digital libraries 8.23 2.18 1.5 E-journals 8.3 4.4 Document delivery systems 8.
entities & Institutions in Information Work Communication Computer mediated communicationn Databases Archieves.8 6.22 6.Birger Hjorland 1.6 Librarianship/Library Science 1.18 3.3 4.22 3.4 Informetrics 1. tertiary etc) 3.9 2.5 Information management 1.9 3.35 6. ontologies etc) Subject analysis Subject access points Taxonomies Thesauri Vocabulary control Words Domains Chemical Documentation Culture Health/Biomedical Informatics Geographical information Medical information Social science Information Arts & humanities information Legal information Music-information-retrieval Scientiﬁc Communication Technological information Meta-issues Foundations of IS History of IS IS Education IS Epistemology Philosophy of information Philosophy of IS Philosophy of Librarianship 6. secondary.19 6.21 6.17 6. 6.16 6. libraries.9 4.8 3.34 6.7 4. Disciplines & Sub-disciplines 1.11 6.6 6.32 6.33 6.26 6.24 3.4 3.5 2.4 2.4 6.g.28 6.1 Archival Science 1.8 3.20 6.5 6.7 3. 3.2 4. 2.1002/asi 659 .13 3.8 2.8 4.1 2. A research into such issues is an ongoing process.21 3.23 6.10 6.10 3.6 4.17 3.10 4.2 2.2 Bibliography 1. will be expanded and revised in future research publications.27 6.13 6. which reﬂects my theoretical orientation.3 Bibliometrics 1.5 5.5 3.2 5.1 6. thesauri. My scheme. Bradfords law) User Web Webometrics “Delimitations.25 3.24 6. 5.6 3.1 5.29 6.14 6.16 3. classiﬁcation schemes.19 3.3 2.15 6.12 3.4 5. dissemination & consumption Knowledge representation Literatures (primary.15 3.5 4.26 4.2 3.”  (Birger Hjorland) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.6 2.4 4.3 5. Museeums Digital libraries Digital preservation Distributed networked environments Documents Document Delivery Systems E-journals Evaluation of information systems Full-text databases Information dissemination Information ethics Information need Information processing Information Quality Evaluation Information retrieval Information sources Information storing Information use & user Internet Online searching Public Information Policies Publishing Readership studies Reference work Reference works Research evaluation Social information/Social Informatics Information in traditional & transitional societies Social legal & ethical aspects of information Subjects (e.23 3.7 Museology 2.6 5.36 Processes.7 2.20 3.11 3.9 6.31 6. 4.1 4.11 5.7 6.3 6.1 3.7 Metadata Ontology Organization of Information Paradigms Semantics & semantic relations Semantic tools dictionaries.25 6.2 6.30 6.3 3.14 Related ﬁelds Cognition Economics of information (Information management) Information theory Knowledge management Semantics Semiotics Literature studies Sociology of science /sociology of knowledge Science studies Systems analysis Knowledge Organization Abstracting Categorization & classiﬁcation Classiﬁcation systems Concepts Disciplines Domain Analysis Genres Indexing Information Architecture/Information structures Knowledge Knowledge Organizing Systems Knowledge production.18 6.12 6.
6 User studies Human Information Behavior Information Needs Information Seeking Knowledge Structures Information Literacy & Education IS Education Information Literacy Computer Literacy Educational Information E-learning Lifelong Learning Applied Information Science Librarianship Bioinformatics Chemical Documentation Health/Biomedical Informatics Legal Informatics Aviation Informatics 9.4 1.1 13. 12.3 4. 10.4 Publishing 12. 1.5 7.2 7.8 6.1 8.2 1.2 4. 3.1 12.11 8.5 14.5 13.1 1.3 12.4 13.10 7.5 5.6 14.10 Foundations of IS Philosophy of Information Information Theory IS Epistemology Philosophy of Computation Information Ethics Metalibrarianship Library Science Semiotics History of IS Information/Learning Society Information Cultures Sociology of Knowledge Social Communication Scientiﬁc Communication Information Systems Information Architecture Information Design Information Storing Access Systems Document Delivery Systems High-Density Book Storage Systems Distributed Networked Environments Systems Analysis Evaluation of Information Systems Information technology Technological Information Information Processing Knowledge representation Human Computer Interaction Computer Mediated Communication Artiﬁcial Intelligence Ontologies Databases Internet Community Informatics 6.7 6.3 1.4 4.5 4.9 7.2 6.2 Copyright 11. Quantitative analysis in IS 9.3 13.1 7.2 Informetrics 9.2 8.7 5.4 7.1 5.4 13.1 Free Access to information (Intellectual Freedom) 11.1 6.4 14.4 5.1 3.3 6. 13.3 Digital Security 11. 8.11 6. 14.5 6.9 5.7 1.10 6.3 Webometrics 9. 6.6 5.12 7.3 3.3 10.4 Domain Analysis  (Michal Lorenz) 660 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. 5.Michal Lorenz 1.8 5.3 14.1 10.6 6.1 4.1 Bibliometrics 9. 7.3 Knowledge organization Categorization & Classiﬁcation Taxonomies Classiﬁcation Systems Classiﬁcation Schemes Retireval Languages Subject Analysis Vocabulary Control Indexing Thesauri Abstracting Metadata Librarianship Standards Information industry Digital Libraries Competitive Intelligence Knowledge Management Information Management Content Management Economics of Information Information Manipulation Information Quality Evaluation Readership Studies E-journals Operations Research Information retrieval Electronic Information Sources Online Searching Music-Information-Retrieval 10.2 10.4 4.9 6.6 1.8 7.2 12.4 6.7 7.2 3.1 14.7 4. Public Information Policies 11.2 13.8 4.8 2.5 1.2 5.3 7. 4.6 4.9 5. 3.1002/asi .3 5.2 14.4 Diffusion studies Information Dissemination Communication Theory Message Theory Memetics 11.6 7.
Ia McIlwaine Group 1: History of information science Foundations of information science Philosophy of information science Group 2: Information science epistemology Artiﬁcial intelligence Information structures Information technology Information theory Informetrics Knowledge structures Ontologies Group 3: Librarianship Philosophy of librarianship Public information policies Publishing Group 4: Information retrieval Databases Categorization and classiﬁcation Classiﬁcation systems Subject analysis Indexing Metadata Thesauri Abstracting Vocabulary control Online searching Group 5: Management Evaluation of information systems Information management Group 6: Communication Cognition Human information behavior Information dissemination Readership studies Group 7: Copyright Group 8: Digital preservation & conservation Group 9: Archival Science  (Ia McIlwaine) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.1002/asi 661 .
1 In traditional & transitional societies 7.7 2.3 Media industries (Newspapers.6 1.3 3.8.10 Economics of information 7.7 8.12 4.2 Informetrics 7.2 3.6 2.9.4 8.2 6.2.7 Competitive Intelligence 7.7 Meta-IS Disciplines & professions Archival Science Library Science (or Librarianship) Documentation Labor in information systems IS Education Foundations of IS Information theory Classiﬁcation theory Information ethics Philosophy of information IS Epistemology Philosophy of Computation Philosophy of IS Philosophy of Librarianship History of IS Primary Information Forms Data Documents Images Tacit knowledge Formal knowledge Formal information Informal information Indigenous knowledge Stories Genres Information Processing Contents representation Abstracting Indexing Domain Analysis Information structures Knowledge organization Knowledge representation Knowledge structures Categorization & classiﬁcation Organization of information Subject analysis Information Architecture Representation tools Classiﬁcation schemes & systems Ontologies Taxonomies Thesauri Vocabulary control Metadata Information storage Information retrieval (IR) 3.1 3.2 Chemical Documentation 7.4 3.10 Information & Communication Technologies Analog technologies Digital technologies Internet technologies Distributed networked environments Digital preservation Digital security Media integration Mobile information technologies Human Information Behavior Information users Information uses Information needs Information seeking Information production Information utilization Computer-mediated communication Information support to learning By type of learning / learner E-learning Readership studies Diffusion studies  (Michel Menou) 662 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. 3.1.6 3. 188.8.131.52 5.11 Information Law 7.5.7 Bio-informatics 7.2 2.3 3.2 8. Societal Dimensions 7.2 In technology intensive societies 7.10 1.5 1.5 1.4 5.5 2.3.2 Publishing 7. 6.8 6.8 2.11.g.6 Digital libraries 4.11 3.4.4 Scientometrics 8.3 6.8 Research evaluation 7.4 2.2 5. Copyright 7.2 1.3 2.4 Access systems 4.9 Evaluation of information systems 5.5 3. TV) 7.11.1 Social Informatics 7.1.9 2.2 3.5 Scientiﬁc information 7.5 Document Delivery Systems 4.2 Corporate information policies 7.4 184.108.40.206 3.2 1.1002/asi .3 Electronic Information Industry 7.3.1 2.1.9 Information policy 7.1.3 3. Wiki.5 Knowledge management 7.8.8 Related Disciplines & Tools Artiﬁcial intelligence Cognitive sciences Communication Evaluation Management Operations Research Semiotics Systems analysis Systems & Products Information generation systems (e.6 Information management 7.11.3 1.4.2 Information storage & retrieval systems 4.7 1.3 Information industries 7. 8.5 6.6 Technological information 7.3.1 Online searching Information dissemination Information visualization Information Quality Evaluation Information consolidation 7.2 3.4 3.4 6.4.6 Information access rights 220.127.116.11 Educational information 7.4 Industry applications of IS 18.104.22.168.1 5.10 3.5. 2.1 22.214.171.124.1 3.4.4 1.12.4 6.4.3 1. 4.9.1 Aviation informatics.12.1 Bibliometrics 7.1.1 1.1.5 Freedom of information 7.12 Measurements of information 7.11 2.3 Data protection 7. 1.9 1.1 3.10 3.3 Documents management systems 4.1 8.6 8.2.5 8.1.9 6.1 3. blogs.2 6.3 8.4 Privacy 126.96.36.199 5.6 6.7 6.1 3.5.7 Databases 4.1 Web based products 4.8 1.8 E-journals & books 4.Michel Menou 188.8.131.52 3.5 3.1. radio.1 Public Information Policies 7.12.1 6.6 3. publishing) 4.3 3.8 3.5.3 5.2 Community Informatics 7.9 3.1 1.3 Health/Biomedical Informatics 7. 5.4.2 Intellectual property rights 7.3 5.3 Webometrics 7.
5. 2.2 6.3 Systems. intake and retention by both practitioners & users.2 4. philosophy.1 Tools.Haidar Moukdad 1.1 4.2 3. 4.3 6.1 6.”  (Haidar Moukdad.7 Impact. 1.3 5. hardcopy forms etc.7 7.1 Identiﬁcation.2 2. and also manipulation & processing) Group 3 3.2 5. 1.1 5. 7.3 4.3 Transmission. and technologies. 3.1 1.4 5.6 6.4 Utilisation (includes information management aspects of comprehension.4 Architectures.3 1. The seven theme areas represent my understanding of how IS encompasses different areas of scholarships. electronic interactive.1 2.5 6. 1.2 Behavior.2 1. Group 4 4.electronic data. research. 3. 2.1002/asi 663 .3 3.2 Control (includes storage.  (Dennis Nicholson) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. 1. 1.6 6. 3. 1.4 Information studies Theories & methodologies of IS Statistical analysis Information Retrieval User studies Organization of Information Indexing & abstracting Cataloging & Classiﬁcation Meta data Information & society Information acquisition Continuing education Communities The Information Market Publishers Consumers Publication media marketing & advertising 5. Group 2 2.1 Every form that can be identiﬁed in the data – information – knowledge – message continuum Group 5 5. 2. information futures).5 Information Technology Online databases Artiﬁcial intelligence Hardware & software Programming languages Internet technologies Data mining Information professionals & services Libraries & librarians Digital libraries OPACs Information brokers Professional schools Trade publications Professional associations Legislations Copyright laws Free speech Court decisions Digital forensics Law enforcement “Reﬂections.1 Assessment and evaluation.3 7. 2.5 5. 1.2 7.4 6.4 2. 3.8 Study methods (includes education.1 3.4 7.5 Use.3 Characteristics. 1.4 Environmental context.) Dennis Nicholson Group 1 1.2 Processes.3 4.1 All possible instantiations of each form . metadata etc). preservation. 6. human & machine mediated.1 7.6 Management (includes description). professional activities.
5 Digital preservation 4.13 Internet/Web technologies Group 5: Socio – Cultural disciplines 5.14 Subject analysis 2.4 Information management 3.5 Inter & transdisciplinarity studies 1.4 Information in Art 6.3 Information dissemination (information products and services: bibliographies.6 Taxonomy 2. e.g.6 Social information/Information in traditional & transitional societies (division by culture.7 Document delivery systems 4. Webometrics/Netometrics (methodologies) Group 2: Instrumental Disciplines 2.9 Bibliometrics.8 Vocabulary control 2.3 Abstracting 2.3 Information need & use 5. classiﬁcation systems.1 Domain analysis 1. Africa).9 Information processing 2.2 Databases 4.12 Metadata 2.10 Information storing 2. publishing) 3.4 Digital/Virtual libraries 4. intellectual property rights.3 Information Science Education & training (including E-learning) 1. Informetrics. evaluation for information systems.5 Library information 6.9 Information Literacy 5.11 Information retrieval systems (on line search) 4.1002/asi .8 E-journals 4. system analysis) 4.6 Digital security 4.3 Data Mining 4. privacy etc.11 Information structures 2.15 Automatic processing of language Group 3: Management Disciplines 3.5 Information quality evaluation 3.1 E-Learning 5.7 Information policy (copyright.6 Knowledge management 3.2 Knowledge organization (or information representation) 2.1 Scientiﬁc information (all ﬁelds of knowledge) 6.6 Information Theory 1.9 Information Networks 4.7 Thesauri 2.7 Philosophy of Information Science 1.8 History of Information Science 1.12 Information technology 4.10 Digital inclusion Group 6: Information Applications 6.2 Foundations of Information Science 1.4 Archives information 6.10 Information Systems (access system.8 Public information policies 5.1 Computer mediating communication 4. legal.6 Museums information  (Lena Vania Pinherio) 664 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. classiﬁcation theory) 2.) 5. & ethical aspects of information 5.5 Scientiﬁc communication 5.13 Ontology 2.4 Information Science Epistemology 1.1 Information architecture 2.4 Cataloguing 2.7 Marketing Information Group 4: Technological Disciplines 4.2 Economics of information 3.1 Competitive intelligence 3.Lena Vania Pinherio Group 1: Structural or Basic Disciplines 1.2 Information ethics 5.4 User Studies 5.3 Industrial information 6.5 Classiﬁcation (classiﬁcation schemes.2 Technological information 6. catalogs.
1 1.3.1. Digital Libraries. 2.1 1. Information Industry. Information retrieval.2.3. 6. Philosophy).5. because Information Science. Epistemology.Maria Pinto 1.2 4.5 3. Systems Analysis. It is almost impossible to elaborate an Information Science tree with clearly deﬁned branches.1002/asi 665 . Information Science Theory (Foundations. Information Policies. dependencies and overlapping are an essential constituent of this multi-paradigmatic domain.4 4.4. 3. Epistemological Archival Science.4.1 1. as many others ﬁelds.3 4. Classiﬁcations (Ontology.5 1.4 1. Psychological Economics of Information. Abstracting.3 4. Thesauri). Librarianship. Indexing. Taxonomies.2 4. Internet. Technological Artiﬁcial Intelligence.3 1.1 3. 5. Cognitive Domain Analysis. Classiﬁcation Theory.4. Education.6 Information (UF ‘Information Science’) Information use & user Memetics Social informatics Information need Applied informatics Information architecture Information structures Philosophy of information Ontology Epistemology Information policy Ethics Information theory 2.1 1. Publishing. Information Quality. 4.1 1.e. “Reﬂections.3. Metadata. but rather a network structure.1 4.1 4.2 2. does not have a tree structure.4 2. Databases.1 2. 2. Information Management.1.2 1. History. Web. Systemic Information Systems. 1. Therefore. message) Information processing Document delivery Information management Competitive intelligence Information dissemination Economics of information Publishing Librarianship Information industry Information technology  (Richard Smiraglia) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.2 1. Evaluation of Information Systems. Communicative Communication. Digital Security. Copyright.2 1. 4.1 1. Knowledge Management. Message Theory. Information Dissemination.3.1 Knowledge organization Knowledge representation Metadata Knowledge structures Ontology: classiﬁcation Taxonomy: epistemology Information retrieval (i.”  (Maria Pinto) Richard Smiraglia 1. 3. Human information Behaviour.3 2.
6.1002/asi .14 Organization of Information & Knowledge Abstracting Categorization & classiﬁcation Classiﬁcation schemes & systems Classiﬁcation theory Indexing Information Architecture Information processing Information structures Knowledge representation Knowledge structures Metadata Ontology Organization of Information Subject analysis Systems analysis Taxonomies Thesauri Vocabulary control Retrieval and use of Information & Knowledge Access systems Artiﬁcial intelligence Domain Analysis E-learning Evaluation of information systems Information dissemination Information manipulation Information needs Information Quality Evaluation Information retrieval Online searching Readership studies Understanding users of information & knowledge Bibliometrics Cognition Communication Community Informatics Competitive Intelligence Computer-mediated communication Diffusion studies Human information behavior Information use & user Informetrics Scientiﬁc Communication Semiotics Social information/Social Informatics User Webometrics 4.13 1.8 1.2 3.14 1.2 7. 2.12 1.8 3.5 3.18 2.6 3.2 5.11 2.5 2.5 4.12 3.5 6.14 6.10 1.8 5.9 1.1 7.12 6. & ethical aspects of information Managing information Organizations Information management Knowledge management Knowledge organizations Librarianship Library Science Management Operations Research  (Carol Tenopir) 666 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.6 7.2 2.9 2.1 6. 4. legal.3 6.6 6. 1.10 2.16 7.2 4.6 4.17 1.16 1.2 6. 3.7 4.7 6.15 1.15 6.11 3.3 3.1 2.1 1.13 6.3 5.4 2.5 5.1 4.3 1.3 2.3 4.4 5.8 6.6 5.9 3.10 6.4 4. 7.10 3.12 3.7 3.8 2.11 6.2 1.4 1.7 6.3 7.4 7.9 6.1 3.6 2. 5.4 6.5 1.1 5.4 3.11 1.13 3.5 7.7 2.6 1.7 1.7 Storage of information & knowledge Archives Copyright Digital preservation Digital security Distributed networked environments Document Delivery Systems Information storage Preservation Information content & publishing Databases Digital libraries Economics of information Electronic Information Industry E-journals Information industry Publishing History & philosophy of IS Foundations of information science History of information science Information ethics Information Science Education Information Science Epistemology Information technology Information theory Philosophy of Computation Philosophy of information Philosophy of Information science Philosophy of Librarianship Public Information Policies Message theory Research evaluation Information in traditional & transitional Societies Social.Carol Tenopir 1.
1 2.8 5. Subject & domain analysis. Classiﬁcation schemes.2 3.2 4. .8 4. Categorization & classiﬁcation. Philosophy of: Information Science Knowledge Librarianship Library Science Human Aspects Cognition Communication Transfer Education Training Uses Behaviors Information Architecture & Design Documentation & Publishing Preservation & Archiving Organization & Representation Abstracting & Indexing Categorization & classiﬁcation Storage & Retrieval Management Systems & Networks Knowledge Architecture & Design Documentation & Publishing Preservation & Archiving Organization & Representation Abstracting & Indexing Categorization & classiﬁcation Storage & Retrieval Management Systems & Networks 6. Information Analysis Quantitative analysis of information.6 5. Indexing.6 3. Scientiﬁc Communication.3 5. 5.2 2.9 Education for Library Information Science Metalibrarianship Foundations. (Databases). Informetrics.3 4. theoretical. Trend analysis.  (Irene Wormell) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10.5 5. Subject analysis. Citation analysis. Publication analysis. Organization of Information. & technological processes & aspects of: 1.2 5. Research evaluation. economic.9 5.5 3. political. social.5 3.3 2.7 4. Taxonomies. History.2 Informatics 6. methodological. legal. Systems analysis.1 Bibliometrics 6. Classiﬁcation systems.4 3. Webometrics.7 5. Research & evaluation 6. Information dissemination. Diffusion studies.1 5. Knowledge representation.3 Informetrics  (Joanne Twining) Irene Wormell 1. 4. 3. Bibliometrics. Theory. Innovation studies.4 4. Knowledge structures. 2. 2. Knowledge Organization Abstracting. Ontology. Classiﬁcation theory. Access systems. Domain Analysis.3 3. Vocabulary control.Joanne Twining Cultural. ethical. 2.5 4.1002/asi 667 .4 5.6 4.7 4.1 3. Information manipulation.1 4. Thesauri. philosophical. Information structures.4 2.
namely. . .. Scheme  is a two-level hierarchical classiﬁcation. and ). Knowledge Science. or facets. It is expected that a systematic mapping should be adequate. Apparently. Most of the schemes are taxonomies. Delimitations. scheme . which means that Information Science is the study of the mediating aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena—mutatis mutandis—as they are implemented in the cultural (i. the suggestion to change the focus of the ﬁeld— as well as its name—from information to knowledge is supported by a growing number of scholars. . Most of the schemes are subject classiﬁcation schemes designed for practical purposes. . and systematic. The collection is composed of different types of classiﬁcation schemes. the culture model (Information Science is the study of the mediating aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena as they are implemented in the cultural domain.g. Many of the 28 schemes are adequate. For example.1002/asi . of Information Science. . and . . Conclusions..e. One scheme. it should represent all the key characteristics of the ﬁeld (at least in the eye of the contributor). I have suggested changing the name of the ﬁeld from Information Science to Knowledge Science (Zins. knowledge. The six models are the hi-tech model (Information Science is the study of the mediating aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena as they 668 are implemented in the hi-tech domain. they are based on conceptual analysis of the constitutive concepts (e.). . that is. One scheme. . More than 20 schemes include the concept “knowledge” as a main category or a subcategory of the ﬁeld. Clare Beghtol’s faceted classiﬁcation (see scheme ) is an ontology. they establish six different ﬁelds of knowledge. I (Zins. . the technology model. . . . A few are typologies. if one asserts that IS explores all the aspects of the data.. 2006).. comprehensive.Discussion and Conclusion Anthropological Document Twenty-eight scholars compiled classiﬁcation schemes. they are meant to divide the relevant phenomenon into its key attributes. each scheme should be systematic. A few classiﬁcations are “ontologies”.  represents the living & physical worlds model.e. This might help the reader to achieve better understanding of the issues and the considerations involved in establishing a solid. all the categories at each level are mutually exclusive (i. These are schemes . and coherency of the panel’s diversiﬁed deﬁnitions. Item 4 for deﬁnitions of the foregoing terms. For the beneﬁt of readers who are not familiar with the terminology. This conclusion gets additional and unequivocal substantiation while analyzing the panel 28 classiﬁcation scheme. human and nonhuman. they are grounded on empirical data (e. human and nonhuman. This study substantiates the suggestion. comprehensiveness. . and comprehensive conception and knowledge map of the ﬁeld. inconsistent. To summarize. let us specify the various types. . and are based on solid theoretical and philosophical foundations. A Concluding Remark This study documents 28 schemes of Information Science. Information Science. the human world model (Information Science is the study of all the aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena as they are implemented in the human realm. namely.e. . Additionally. a few are incomplete. all types of technologies. is too general. . rather than on evaluating the accuracy. I would expect his or her scheme to include all the aspects of the D-I-K-M phenomena. . scheme  was designed by Donald Hawkins. all carry the same name. systematic. Note that the various types are not mutually exclusive. namely. The second level of each category is taxonomy.g. schemes . and systematic (see Appendix B. and ). based on the panel diversiﬁed schemes it is evident that the culture model represents the mainstream of contemporary Information Science. cover all the various aspects of the ﬁeld). Twenty-six schemes reﬂect the culture model. and logically faulty.). the study is focused on an overall analysis. . 2007a) formulated six conceptions. Evidently. characteristics. the culture model represents the mainstream of contemporary Information Science.). However. however. namely. the living world model (Information Science is the study of all the aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena as they are implemented in the living world. message (D-I-K-M) phenomena. . comprehensive. without overlaps) and collectively exhaustive (i. Consequently. This unique collection portrays and documents the proﬁle of contemporary Information Science at the beginning of the 21st century.). This means that it is assumed that each scheme should adequately and coherently represent the conception of the ﬁeld. Each scheme should be up-to-date and comprehensive.. Meaning. For this reason. The ﬁrst level is a six-category typology. However. the editor of ISA. and the living & physical worlds (Information Science is the study of all the aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena as they are implemented in all types of biological organisms. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. The six models imply six different bodies of knowledge. . for example. and can represent any model. . and all are represented by the panel. by no means does it replace the personal quest to ground one’s positions on solid theoretical foundations. social) domain. it is assumed that every one of the 28 schemes demonstrates a distinct conception of IS. In a previous study. Types of classiﬁcations. . and all types of physical objects). adequacy. . . The mainstream information sciences.). (Information Science is the study of the mediating aspects of D-I-K-M phenomena as they are implemented in the technological domain in general. the vast majority of the panel adopts the culture model.). as it is understood by the contributor. information. namely. or models. Six conceptions. Theses models were identiﬁed and formulated based on analysis of 50 deﬁnitions of Information Science. .
Engelbart. The living organism. Denmark. 58(3). Mr. Sweden. Anthony Debons. NY. Michal Lorenz. A. PA. Prof. Medford. Baton Rouge. Portland. Prof. E. Austin. GA. NY. Raya Fidel. IL. Prof. Oregon Health & Science University. Zins. Human problem solving. a virtual information consultancy. Menou. (1988). 526–535. Hanne Albrechtsen. Dr. Clinton. Cologne. Zins. Henri Dou. University of Rome 1. (1999). PA. Cura Consortium and TFPL. what made the difference were my 57 colleagues who participated in this exhausting and time-consuming study as panel members. D. Brazil. Prof. Knowledge Organization. (1972). Hamid Ekbia.L. Mr. CA. Drexel University. USA. University of Toronto. Prof. Israel. H. Richard Smiraglia. Isle of Man.M. Anna da Soledade Vieira. Italy.* University of Colorado. Mälardalen University. Prof. Special thanks go to Prof. (Ed. Knowledge map of information science. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib. ASIS thesaurus of information science and librarianship (2nd ed. 335–350. Silvia SchenkolewskiKroll. Information science and technology. UK. Valdosta. Aberdeen. New York: Harper Collins. C. (1994). information. Intertwining. and I am truly grateful. Debons. Conceptions of information science. Prof. Niwot. Englewood Cliffs. TN. 62(4). (2004). Ms.Acknowledgments I would like to thank the Israel Science Foundation for a research grant that made the study possible (2003–2005). Prof. J. Alan Gilchrist. Lena Vania Pinheiro. Froehlich. New York: McGraw-Hill. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology.K. UK. Paul Sturges. The essential Drucker. Germany. NJ. Living systems (pp. University of California. University of Tennessee. Kent. Dr. Nicolae Dragulanescu. Institute of Knowledge Sharing. University of Redlands. B. UK. Prof. Canada. Springﬁeld. J. Prof. Prof. McDonald. Kent State University. UK. Brookville. Drury University. Glynn Harmon. Royal School of Library and Information Science. Medford. Urbana. Zins. Prof. University of Applied Sciences. Italy. Handbook 2: Affective domain. Loughborough University. Michael Buckland. and University of Antwerp. Caroline Haythornthwaite. Israel. Louisiana State University. Minas Gerais. Manfred Bundschuh. The study was conducted at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Paola Capitani. China * An observer (i. Ramat-Gan. Anthony Debons and Prof. Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology. OH. Burrell. Prof. Genesis and evolution. Isle of Man International Business School. J. USA. (1962). LO. Argentina. OR. University College. Charles Oppenheim. Information Today. Dr. R. Institute of Scientiﬁc and Technical Information of China (ISTIC). France. Prof. Prof. Berkeley. University of Pittsburgh. Belo Horizonte. Ia McIlwaine. References Bloom. Prof. Prof.G. Yishan Wu. Spain. Ronald Rousseau. UK. NJ: Prentice-Hall.* the Robert Gordon University. Prof. Redlands. University of Trento. Donald Kraft. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. Knoxville. Michel J. France. Brazil. Mr. Prof. Luciana Duranti. France. Dalhousie University. Jo Link-Pezet. Copenhagen. University of Washington. Beijing. Polytechnics University of Bucharest. Masaryk University in Brno. Ian Johnson. 31(1). Rafael Capurro. Dr. (2001). WA. Shadows of the mind: A search for the missing science of consciousness. Charles Ess. Conceptual approaches for deﬁning data. However. William Hersh. (1978). Belgium.* the Publishing Project.). HMG Consulting. Ramat-Gan. Prof. Drexel University. Prof. Philadelphia. Irene Wormell. Stanford. (1956). Pittsburgh. Brazil. Joanne Twining. Ken Herold. Their invaluable contributions have made this study important. Federal University of Minas Gerais. Leicestershire.). France. Charles H. xiii–xxv). University of Aix-Marseille III. Bar Ilan University. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto. Bucharest. Mr. Seattle. Scott Seaman. Miller. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Knowledge and ICT management consultant. Italy. Prof.e. (1995). University of British Columbia. University of Applied Sciences. Childers. Sarah Holmes. NJ: Information Today. Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti. Carol Tenopir. C. Donald Hawkins. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Prof. Romania. Nova Scotia. Prof. Mr. C. Germany. Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology. Czech Republic. Prof. Long Island University. CO. Birger Hjorland..1002/asi 669 . Prof. Dr. Gladney. Queen’s University of Belfast. Valdosta State University. 58(4). Mr.. CA. Working Group Semantic Web. (2006). and knowledge. Newell. Roberto Poli. Prof. Maria Pinto. Dr. London. Dennis Nicholson. PA. Prof. KHBO. London. 479–493. Västerås/Eskilstuna. Indiana University. S. Knowledge mapping: An epistemological perspective. (2007a).org. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Leicestershire.F. those panel members who did not strictly meet the criteria for the panel selection and terms of participation). TX. C. Hamilton College. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Horne. Inc. Bar Ilan University. 447–461. Hall. National Technical University. Taxonomy of educational objectives. Stuttgart. Halifax. 58(4). Strathclyde University. Urﬁst. Davis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. (1998). Augmenting human intellect: A conceptual framework (Summary report AFOSR-3223). and University of Social Sciences. Penrose. Dr. Prof. Prof. Thomas A. CA: Stanford Research Institute. Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs. (2007c). New York: David McKay Company. Canada. Sweden. UK. (2007b). Dr. Prof. Prof. CO: University Press of Colorado.G. Carl Drott. S. Prof. Boulder. Zins. Zins. Yves François Le Coadic. University of Granada. Lyon. Canada.. Prof. Appendix A The Panel Dr. Redeﬁning information science: From Information science to knowledge science. Quentin L. Philadelphia. Prof. Information science: An integrated view. Glynn Harmon for their deep reﬂections throughout the study. Prof. C. Prof. University of Texas at Austin. UK. Loughborough University. Dragulanescu. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. & Cronenworth. Denmark. University of Buenos Aires. Romania: AGIR Publishing House. Thomas J. Haidar Moukdad. N. Prof. Milstead. Boston: G. Miller. Prof. Drucker. Journal of Documentation. P. Elsa Barber. Wallace Koehler. 49–54. Prof. Copenhagen. PA. Clare Beghtol. Julian Warner. MO.
Domain analysis.g. For example. Chemical documentation. Philosophy of information science. Note that the result must be coherent with your conception of IS. Formulate the rationale here: Question 4. K. Bibliometrics. Information management.Appendix B Excerpts From the Three Questionnaires on Developing Subject Classiﬁcation Schemes Knowledge Map of Information Science: Issues. Classiﬁcation systems. Thanks. add missing subﬁelds. Each scheme should be up-to-date and comprehensive. Information science Epistemology. Thanks. High-density book storage systems. Information quality evaluation. Classiﬁcation theory. History of information science.. Each scheme should be systematic. Thesauri. Research evaluation. Subject analysis. (b) list the major subﬁelds.1002/asi . I. Principles.e. Information in traditional and transitional societies (division by culture. Classiﬁcation schemes. Information science education.. or M. Each scheme should adequately and coherently represent the conception of the ﬁeld.2 670 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. Implications (Second Round. and (c) set a systematic classiﬁcation of the ﬁeld. Education and training. Educational information. List the major subﬁelds of IS: Copy your answer to A. Implications (Third Round. 2004) 4: Classiﬁcation Schemes of Information Science Requirements. Diffusion studies. (2) Comprehensiveness. Aviation informatics. legal. and if necessary rephrase the terminology. [Note that if you prefer. Your list: Abstracting. Information processing. so you will be able to revise it before the ﬁnal report. Please explain the rationale of your scheme. Evaluation. you can skip B and move directly from A to C. Philosophy of information. Public information policies. Information industry. B. Technological information. Archival science. Philosophy of computation. 2. Note that I will send you (upon request) the panel’s feedback regarding your scheme. Taxonomies. Indexing. Metalibrarianship. Competitive intelligence. It is assumed that every one of the 29 schemes demonstrates a distinct conception of IS. cover all the various aspects of the ﬁeld). Music information retrieval. Digital preservation. Information theory. that is. E-learning. Economics of information.1 1. Knowledge structures librarianship. Semiotics. Memetics. Please copy your answer to B. Knowledge organization.] Your list: C. readership studies. Health/biomedical informatics. that is. Information manipulation. Africa). Internet. Cognition. Digital libraries. Scientiﬁc communication. erase duplications. Foundations of information science. erase duplications.. and (c) is systematic. erase duplications. Informetrics. Access systems. Knowledge representation. Document delivery systems. Digital security. Each scheme is required to meet the following necessary requirements: (1) Adequacy. Vocabulary control. Copy your revised/new classiﬁcation scheme here: 2. April 15. Information architecture. Information dissemination. add missing subﬁelds. I would expect your scheme to include all the aspects of D. Thanks. Evaluation of information systems.1 1. Management. Operations research. Thanks. Systems analysis. Question 4. Information need. add missing concepts.2 If you have any comment or critical reﬂections. Social information/social Informatics. or M. Distributed networked environments. and ethical aspects of information. Please make sure that your scheme (a) adequately represents your conception of the ﬁeld. Information structures. Knowledge management. Organization of information. please let me know. represent all the key characteristics of the ﬁeld (at least in the eye of the contributor). Thanks. Information storing. Metadata. List the (100) most basic IS concepts: Please check the following list (which was provided by the panel). October 8. Your systematic list: Knowledge Map of Information Science: Issues. (b) is comprehensive. Message theory. A. Categorization and classiﬁcation. Publishing. Electronic information industry. Web. Principles. Social.e. Information technology. Human information behavior. Labor in information systems. Databases. and if necessary rephrase the terminology. I. e. Artiﬁcial intelligence. Computer-mediated communication. K. Information retrieval. 2004) 2: Information Science Major Subﬁelds and Key Concepts Question 2. Please revise your preferred scheme or formulate a new scheme. Library science. Communication. Answer 4. as it is understood by the contributor. Community informatics. Ontology. Copyright. The list must be coherent with your conception of IS. Information use and user. Philosophy of librarianship. if you claim that IS explores all the aspects of D. User. Online searching. and rephrase the terminology (if necessary). Answer 4. without overlaps) and collectively exhaustive (i. (3) Systematic. Webometrics.1 In this three-part assignment you will (a) list the most basic concepts. The list must be coherent with your conception of IS. all the categories at each level are mutually exclusive (i. Organize the major subﬁelds of IS in a systematic order. E-journals. Information ethics.
who replaced it with scheme  above. legal and ethical aspects of information NT Technological information 3. Information 1. Please elaborate section 7 (Philosophy). Foundations of NT information science.Scheme 41 NT Internet UF Web NT Music-information-retrieval NT Online searching NT Labor in information systems 4. We are looking forward to see how you will turn your thesaurus into a classiﬁcation scheme. Computer-mediated RT Message theory NT Human information behavior RT Cognition NT Information Architecture NT Information dissemination NT Publishing NT Copyright NT Librarianship NT Metalibrarianship NT Economics of information NT Information ethics NT Information industry NT Information management NT Information Quality Evaluation NT Information need NT Information Policies NT Information storing NT Information structures NT Information technology NT Information theory NT Information use and user UF User NT Information in traditional and transitional societies NT Social. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. Thanks. 1 The scheme was compiled by Richard Smiraglia. Informatics NT Aviation informatics NT Community Informatics NT Health/Biomedical Informatics NT Memetics NT Social information/Social Informatics 2. Knowledge organization NT Knowledge representation UF Subject analysis NT Metadata NT Abstracting NT Indexing [NT Cataloging] NT Knowledge structures NT Ontology [?] Classiﬁcation UF Categorization and classiﬁcation NT Classiﬁcation systems NT Classiﬁcation schemes NT Epistemology NT Taxonomies NT Thesauri UF Vocabulary control 6. Librarianship. History of NT Information Science Education NT Informetrics NT Bibliometrics NT Webometrics NT Scientiﬁc Communication NT Domain Analysis 5. Information retrieval NT Information processing NT Artiﬁcial intelligence NT Information manipulation UF Programming NT Access systems NT Databases NT Systems analysis NT Operations Research NT Distributed networked environments NT Document Delivery Systems NT Evaluation NT Evaluation of information systems Researcher’s comments: The author of the scheme noted that this is a thesaurus rather than a classiﬁcation scheme. Philosophy NT Ontology NT Semiotics NT Epistemology Applications: Computation.1002/asi 671 . Management RT Knowledge management UF Competitive Intelligence RT Information dissemination NT Publishing NT Copyright NT Librarianship NT Metalibrarianship 7. Information RT Communication NT communication. Information Science NT Information science.
. etc Information and knowledge professions and theory Including archival science.g. 2 3 The scheme was compiled by Clare Beghtol. which lead to three different information sciences. These are three different conceptions. in general and of all subcategories. creation.e.g. etc. Scheme 123 Information Phenomena at the various systems levels: 1. organ. abstracting and indexing. epistemology. use. community health information systems (CHINs) 7 Society level. e.Scheme 112 1.. organ. If this is the case. NASA lunar information system Each level would have associated input.. 8. e. If this is the case. 5. metadata. thesauri. the information system). Human information and knowledge behavior and theory including communication. then “Information Science” is a generic name. philosophy. Researcher’s comments: An information system is a human artifact.g. for example.1002/asi . knowledge structures and representation. Social. The scheme was compiled by Glynn Harmon. which includes. 672 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY—March 2007 DOI: 10. for example. Organization level. theory.g. What does information science explore? Is it the organism. output. then “Information Science” is a generic name. and biology (at the cellular. which includes. Bioinformatics 2. biodiversity informatics.. information systems). there are three options: (1) IS explores the object/organism. information system domain. e. If this is the case then you can further structure your scheme by dividing each level into two sub-categories: organism domain vs. Group level e. management information systems 6.. 3. Community level. Supranational level. and organism levels). of access systems. etc. users.. e. e. 4.. research.. legal and ethical theory and practices of all of the above 2. Foundations of knowledge and information science including history. management.g. which includes information on the organism? Logically. dissemination. e. etc Evaluation methods and theories including evaluation of information systems. search and retrieval. memory. the NASA lunar information system (at the cosmological level).. etc. Information and knowledge representation and organization systems and theory including categorization and classiﬁcation systems. medical or nursing informatics 3. cognitive science.g. If this is the case.e. of research. national defense information network . 6. library science. who replaced it with scheme  above. which includes biology as well as Bioinformatics and medical information. (2) IS explores human artifacts (i.g... or is it the human artifacts (i. who replaced it with scheme  above. and organism levels). which contains knowledge on the organism.g. subject analysis and vocabulary control. astronomy (at the cosmological level). and Bioinformatics (at the cellular. Cosmological level. Organ level e. social informatics 5. Organism level e. than “Information Science” is a generic name. global news network 9.g. (3) Information science explores both. Cellular level. the object/organism and the information system. It seems that you follow the broadest (third) conception. manipulation. individual users 4. in general and of all subcategories etc. internal processing.
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