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Database and
Database Users

What a database
Simple UNIVERSITY database
Chracteristics of database system
Personeel involve
Capabilities of database

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1. Databases & Database Users
Databases & database technology: major impact on the growing use of
Database: a collection of related data; what is data?
Database properties:
represent of miniworld / Universe of Discource (UoD) representation
logically coherent collection of data with inherent meaning
designed, built, dan popolated wiht data for a specific purpose
Imagine database for DKI people; how big?
Database Mangement System (DBMS): a collection of program that enables
users to create and maintain a database
general purpose software
constructing, and
manipulating a database

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1. Databases & Database Users
Database as a Model
Three main categories of models:
User Models
Logical Models
Physical Models

Database System (DBS) contains:

The Database +
The DBMS +
Application Programs

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1. Databases & Database Users
A simplified database system environment


SYSTEM Application Programs/Queries

SOFTWARE Software to Process

Software to Access
Stored Data

Stored Database
Definition Stored Database
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1. Databases & Database Users
System Structure

BN: Database Course Material 5

1. Databases & Database Users
An Example
STUDENT Name StudentNumber Class Major
Smith 17 1 COSC
Brown 18 2 COSC

COURSE CourseName CourseNumber Credit-Hours Department

Intro to Computer Sicence COSC1310 4 COSC
Data Structures COSC3320 4 COSC
Discrete Mathematics MATH2410 3 MATH
Database COSC3380 3 COSC

SECTION SectionIdentifier CourseNumber Semester Year Instructor

85 MATH2410 Fall 91 King
92 COSC1310 Fall 91 Anderson
102 COSC3320 Spring 92 Knuth
112 MATH2410 Fall 92 Chang
119 COSC1310 Fall 92 Anderson
135 COSC3380 Fall 92 Stone

GRADE_REPORT StudentNumber SectionIdentifier Grade PREREQUISITE CourseNumber PrerequisiteNumber

17 112 B COSC3380 COSC3320
17 119 C COSC3380 MATH2410
8 85 A COSC3320 COSC1310
8 92 A
8 102 B
8 135 A
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1. Databases & Database Users
An example (cont.)
To define the database
specify the structure of the records of each file
specifying the different types of data elements to be stored in each
To construct
store data to represent each student, course, section, grade report,
dan prerequisite as a record in the appropriate file
Database manipulation
involve querying and updating
"retrieve the transcript of Smith"
"what are the prerequisites of the Database course?"

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1. Databases & Database Users
Characteristics of the Database Approach
Different with the traditional approach; file processing
Database approach: a single repository of data is maintained
(defined once and then is accessed by various users)
1. Self-descibing Nature of a Database System:
2. Insulation Between Programs and Data, and Data Abstraction
program-data independence
program-operation independence
3. Support Multiple Views of the Data
4. Sharring of Data and Multiuser Transaction Processing

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1. Databases & Database Users
Example storage format for a STUDENT record

Data Item Name Starting Position in Record Length in Characters (bytes)

Name 1 30
StudentNumber 31 4
Class 35 4
Major 39 4

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1. Databases & Database Users
View (Derive data)
CourseNumber Grade Semester Year SectionId
COSC1310 C Fall 92 119
MATH2410 B Fall 92 112
MATH2410 A Fall 91 85
COSC1310 A Fall 91 92
COSC3320 B Spring 92 102

PREREQUISITES CorseName CourseNumber Prerequisites

Database 3380
Data Structures 3320 COSC1310

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1. Databases & Database Users

A. Controlled redundancy
GRADE_REPORT StudentNumber StudentName SectionIdentifier CourseNumber Grade
17 Smith 112 MATH2410 B
17 Smith 119 COSC1310 C
8 Brown 85 MATH2410 A
8 Brown 92 COSC1310 A
8 Brown 102 COSC3320 B
8 Brown 135 COSC3380 A

B. Uncontrolled redundancy

GRADE_REPORT StudentNumber StudentName SectionIdentifier CourseNumber Grade

17 Brown 112 MATH2410 B

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1. Databases & Database Users
Actors on the Scene
Database Administrators
resources: database and DBMS w/ related software
responsibility: administering resources, authoring access to the
database, coordinating and monitoring its use, acquiring s/w and
h/w resources as needed.
Database Designers
End Users
Casual end users
Naive or parametric end users
Sophisticated end users
Stand-alone users
System Analysts and Application Programmers

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1. Databases & Database Users
Workers Behind the Scene
DBMS Designers and Implementers
Tool Developers
Operators and Maintenance Personnel

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1. Databases & Database Users
Intended Uses of a DBMS
Controlling Redundancy
Restricting Unauthorized Access
Persistent Storage for Program Objects and Data
Database Inferencing Using Deduction Rules
Providing Multiple Users Interfaces
Representing Complex Relationship among Data
Enforcing Integrity Constraints
Providing Backup and Recovery

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Implications of the Database Approach
Potential for Enforcing Standards
Reduced Application Development Time
Availability of Up-to-Date Information
Economies of Scale

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1. Databases & Database Users
When Not to Use a DBMS
High overhead cost, icl.:
High initial investment in h/w, s/w and training
Generality that a DMBS provides for defining and processing data
Overhead for providing security, concurency control, recovery, and
integrity functions

More desirable to use regular files under the following

The database and application are simple, well define, and not to
real-time requirements; not met with DBMS overhead
concurrent multiple-user access to data is not required

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1. Databases & Database Users