Business Communication Assignment On Presentation Skills

Submitted To :
Ms Eeshani Sarswat

By: Taru Taneja AO102309110 MBA-HR


The term µpresentation¶ is capable of giving butterflies-in-the-stomach even to veteran managers. which specialize in conducting capsule courses on presentation skills. There are many training organization and institutions. The professional of today will not be happy with the ordinary run-of-the-mill styles. Many times the right style of presentation can clinch the deal or reject it. Hence. and to be frank neither will the audiences. While experience and command over the subject can make a great deal of improvement to a presentation. Whether you are student or an executive or the Chairman of a big name organization. you will have to make a presentation at one time or other. This is why it is important to be prepared not only in the subject of your presentation. There are a number of presentations skills resources available online for the reference of the busy manager which can add verve to the delivery and style of the presentation. but also the style and method of delivery. As a constantly improving professional it will be good if you keep updated information on the evolving techniques and styles by reading the current material and/or undergoing periodical courses on this aspect. A great deal of information is available in the form of books and e-books readily available for sale on the Internet and offline. In order to deliver captivating presentations a lot of input and work is needed. a quick reference to the right presentation skills resources can make a great difference. is actually time well invested. This is because while making a presentation you are exposed to your audience¶s judgment and this is a frightening thought for most. The emerging trends in presentations skills As the demand grows so the will the supply grow. 2 .Presentation Skill Today presentation skills are required in every field. There are many styles and many ways to make a presentation. the time invested in perfecting the art of presenting and adding the right technique and innovations to it. Many times the manager fails to make the right impact because he/she adopted the wrong approach or the most common style.

List and prioritize the top three goals that you want to accomplish with your audience. Overall the performance and self-esteem get a big time boost Presentation skills Guide for students The presentation skills can be cultivated quite early in one¶s career. This will help you clarify your invitation list and design your invitation to them. The effort of judging. that students who have to make presentation in the class become more assertive and focused in their studies. your goals may be for them to appreciate the accomplishments of your organization. it is very easy . learn how to use your services. 3. When you're done making that list. Be really clear about who your audience is and about why is it important for them to be in the meeting. HR and other similar back-end departments. Be sure that your presentation makes this clear to them right away. measuring and delivering a message across can really build the character of a student into making a complete person and professional. You may think you know what you want to accomplish in your presentation. Again. but if you're not clear with yourself and others. Basic Guidelines For Designing Your Presentation 1. etc. For example. Members of your audience will want to know right away why they were the ones chosen to be in your presentation. It has been observed that when the presentation skills are developed the employee becomes more focused and goal oriented then before. "If everyone in the audience understands all of those 3 . 2. They also learn the art of motivation and passive and active communication skills. then ask yourself. It's not enough just to talk at them.for your audience to completely miss the point of your presentation. but for all other departments including the accounts. It has been found with the help of focused studies. personal lives and later on in their careers. This is because they learn to control their audiences and sell their ideas across. List the major points of information that you want to convey to your audience.too easy . Colleges and other schools are incorporating this method of dissemination both at teacher and student levels.The big names in the corporate world are realizing the importance of the presentation skills of their managers and now many have incorporated this aspect in their in-house training programs not only for their sales and marketing personnel. the goals should be in terms of what you want to accomplish with your audience.

teamwork. 3. then will I have achieved the goal that I set for this meeting?" 4. along with making your presentation. Or. or organization of colors and images. then allocate one slide for every 3-5 minutes of your presentation. Basic Guidelines About Presentation Materials You might be handing out supplemental materials. c. then be sure to check out the computer system before people come into the meeting room. 8. rather than listening to you. Prepare the body of your presentation (about 70-80% of your presentation time). celebration. etc. reports. then your audience will very likely read that information during your presentation. on your materials. Consciously identifying the tone to yourself can help you cultivate that mood to your audience. hand it out at the beginning of your presentation and ask them not to read it until you have completed your presentation. 6. Include 5-8 lines of bulleted phrases on each slide. hand out this information after you have completed your presentation. if at all possible. 4 . Explains the overall layout of your presentation. articles. handing out copies of your slides that you will be referencing during your presentation. etc. Design time for questions and answers (about 10% of the time of your presentation). If you plan to project your slides from a computer onto a projection screen. Design a brief opening (about 5-10% of your total time presentation time) that: a. You might be using transparency slides or showing slides from a personal computer onto a project screen. Clarifies the benefits of the presentation to the audience. for example. reports. If you provide the supplemental information during your presentation. etc. 1. for example. hopefulness. Therefore. articles. b. Be clear about the tone that you want to set for your presentation. 5. for example.points. You might also be handing out copies of your presentation. Design a brief closing (about 5-10% of your presentation time) that summarizes the key points from your presentation. 4. warning. Presents your goals for the presentation. Use a consistent layout. If you use transparencies on an overhead projector. 2. 7. along You might be handing out supplemental materials. for example.

there are several key areas that you need to become skilled in. This is a very important area and its also one that many people should consider improving their skills in. Basic Guidelines About Your Delivery 1. 2-15 people). 5. A monotone voice is absolutely toxic to keeping the attention of an audience. 2. Vary the volume and rate of your speech. If you're speaking to a small group (for example. If you hand out copies of your slides. you¶ll be able to create a presentation with a clear message and deliver it with confidence. Keep your hands relatively still. To really succeed at presenting and build up effective presentation skills. Stand with your feet at shoulder-length apart. to look into the audience. Look up from your materials. every 5-10 seconds. Speak a little bit louder and a little bit slower than you normally would do with a friend. 4. be sure that the text on the slides is large enough that your audience can read the text on the table in front of them without having to hold the handouts up to their faces. And once you¶ve mastered these skills. 3. Be sure to leave space on the handouts for the audience to make notes on them. or notes.5. then try to accomplish eye contact with each person for a few seconds throughout your delivery. These key skills areas are:y y y y y Planning and writing the presentation Using visual aids effectively Overcoming presentation nerves Delivering the presentation confidently Answering questions competently Skills for Planning & writing the presentation Planning the presentation involves much of the work that you¶re going to do before you actually deliver the presentation. A good way to practice these guidelines is to speak along with a news anchor when you're watching television. 6. 5 .

A key part of this planning is to research your presentation audience. since the more you know your audience. (aka Powerpoint slides or PowerPoint skills!) Think about what you want to do here ± why you actually need the visual aids in your presentation and what are they going to be used for. (This is a skill in itself. Using visual aids effectively Once you¶ve done your planning. Often they are fairly redundant ± people put them in for the sake of it. middle and end. Skills for Overcoming presentation nerves We¶re then going to look at You Yourself! To start considering your personal presentation skills. You also need to get to grips with the purpose of the presentation ± so that you are very clear about what you are trying to achieve from it. When most people when they hear the word presentation ± previously built ³presentation skills´ are often forgotten about and nerves kick in. the more you can understand them and what their preconceptions might be. you need to consider what visual aids you¶re going to be using. So some key presentation skills we¶ll be looking at are associated with reducing your slides to the minimum you need to support your message. So we are going to look at how to make visual aids effective and what types of visual aids are going to help you with your presentation.) Then its down brainstorming what you¶re actually going to say and then structuring this into ³digestable´ chunks within the beginning. So we¶re going to help you overcome your nerves and become more confident in your personal presentation skills. 6 . There are lots of techniques and things you can do to help you to control your nerves and build your confidence even before you actually start your presentation as well as while you¶re speaking and delivering it.

Your staff need to see evidence of decisive planning and leadership so that they are confident in your position as their manager.Skills for Delivering the presentation confidently After that. Senior management should be impressed by your skill and ability so that they provide the resources so that you and your team can get the job done. it puts you on display. Secondly. In managing any project. So we¶ll give you techniques to help you deal with the difficult questions ± the different scenarios that you might face when you are actually having to interact with the audience Management is the art of getting things done. its important to think about how you¶re actually going to deliver your presentation. keep the audience¶s interest. It may not be suitable within the presentation formats of your company to hold a discussion during the presentation itself but it 7 . monitor and review its progress. They need to be motivated and inspired to undertaking the tasks which you are presenting. Project leaders from other sections need to be persuaded of the merits of your project and to provide any necessary support. really engage with them and create the presence that want to have in front of your audience. We will look at some of the key techniques and skills you can call on to help you speak confidently. presentations are used as a formal method for bringing people together to plan. But let us look at this another way: what can a presentation do for you? Firstly. So your personal resources are very important when you come to deliver your presentation. Answering questions competently Finally its important that you have the confidence to interact with your audience and deal with any questions that your audience might throw at you. it allows you to ask questions and to initiate discussion. A Presentation is a fast and potentially effective method of getting things done through other people.

the audience is bound by good manners to sit still and watch the performance. While you hold the stage. where do you start? 8 . They are your chance to speak your mind. The main problem with this objective is. to strut your stuff and to tell the people what the world is really like. A customers' tour is a waste of time if they leave without realising the full worth of your product. Your job in the presentation is to reach through this mental fog and to hold the attention long enough to make your point. present the problems and at least to establish who amongst the audience could provide valuable input to your decision making. The whole preparation. tone and ultimately tactics which should be used. the presenter must concentrate not only upon the facts being presented but upon the style. The average human being has a very short attention span and a million other things to think about. The Objectives of Communication The single most important observation is that the objective of communication is not the transimission but the reception. Suppose you have a talk to give.does allow you to raise the issues. Finally. Five minutes on the floor in front of senior management could decide the acceptance of a proposal of several months duration for the manager and the whole team. pace. The Plan It is difficult to over estimate the importance of careful preparation. presentation and content of a speech must therefore be geared not to the speaker but to the audience. no less than 1 hour should be spent in preparation for 5 minutes of talking. As a rule of thumb for an average presentation. presentations can be fun. of course. the people to whom you are talking. The presentation of a perfect project plan is a failure if the audience do not understand or are not persuaded of its merits. With so much potentially at stake. The objective of communication is to make your message understood and remembered.

If your opening remarks imply that you understand their problem and that you have a is the simplest and most effective manner of obtaining their attention at the beginning.and the answer: not many. it is unlikely that the audience will. 30 minutes . Focus is key. if they are fearful about product diversification you would then emphasise how well your new product fits within the existing catalogue. The best approach is to isolate the essential objective and to list at most two others which can be addressed providing they do not distract from the main one. to evaluate a proposal. If they are currently worried that their product range is out of date and old fashioned. concise statement of intent. in say. however. Essentially this is done by identifying their aims and objectives while attending your presentation. For instance. if you are seeking approval for a new product plan from senior management it is useful to know and understand their main objectives. This should take the form of a simple. the purpose of your speech may be to obtain funds. If you do not focus upon your objective. or to motivate your team. One question is: how many different objectives can you achieve. you will find a helpful and receptive audience. If you can somehow convince them they are achieving those aims while at the same time achieving your own. This principal of matching the audience aims. and if you are not sure at the onset what you are trying to do. it is unlikely that your plan will achieve it. No two objectives will be served equally well by the same presentation. Identify the Audience The next task is to consider the audience to determine how best to achieve your objectives in the context of these people. then they will be flattered at your attention and attentive to your every word. you would emphasise the innovative aspects of your new product. 9 . In the end it is far more productive to achieve one goal than to blunder over several. goes beyond the simple salesmanship of an idea . For example.Formulate your Objectives The starting point in planning any speech is to formulate a precise objective.

Structure All speeches should have a definite structure or format. and then to outline the various 10 . In these cases. the structure must not get in the way of the main message. If a section is unnecessary to the achievement of your fundamental objectives. this simplicity can only be achieved by careful and deliberate delineation between each section. Hierarchical Decomposition In hierarchical decomposition the main topic is broken down into sub-topics and each sub-topics into smaller topics until eventually everything is broken down into very small basic units. If it is too complex. Sequential Argument One of the simplest structures is that of sequential argument which consists of a series of linked statements ultimately leading to a conclusion. the audience will not be able to follow them. In written communication this is a very powerful technique because it allows the reader to re-order the presentation at will. a talk without a structure is a woolly mess. In verbal communication the audience is restricted to the order of the presenter and the hierarchy should be kept simple reinforced. and to return to omitted topics at a later date. Having established the aim of your presentation you should choose the most appropriate structure to achieve it. However. pluck it out. The format is to introduce the problem and any relevant background. However. Question Orientated The aim of many presentations given by managers is to either explain a previous decision or to seek approval for a plan of action. One technique is the use of frequent reminders to the audience of the main point which have proceeded and explicit explanation of how the next topic will lead on from this. the format can be question orientated. If you do not order your thoughts into a structured manner. too convoluted or simply too noticeable the audience will be distracted. As with sequential argument it is useful to summarise each section at its conclusion and to introduce each major new section with a statement of how it lies in the hierarchical order.

it can indeed form the entirity of the presentation. Firstly. the story is introduced in its entirety in a catchy first to that problem listing the advantages and disadvantages of each solution in turn. The second advantage is that the duration of the talk can be easily altered by cutting the talk in exactly the same way as the newspaper editor might have done to the news story. The next section repeats the entire story again. Pyramid In a newspaper. The Meaty Sandwich The simplest and most direct format remains the meaty sandwich. This is really the appropriate format for all small sub-sections in all the previous structures. The editor then simply decides upon the newsworthiness of the report and cuts from the bottom to the appropriate number of column inches. This is the simple beginningmiddle-end format in which the main meat of the exposition is contained in the middle and is proceeded by an introduction and followed by a summary and conclusion. this alone should allow you to obtain your desired outcome. This is repeated until the reporter runs out of story. This degree of flexibility may be useful if the same presentation is to be used several times in different situations. or the topic simple enough. Since at every stage of the pyramid they have all ready become familiar with the ideas and indeed know what to expect next. but developing certain themes within each of the sub-points and again adding more information. If the talk is short enough. 11 . all possible options are summarised in terms of their pro's and con's. Finally. The next few paragraphs repeat the same information only giving further details to each point. One trick for obtaining the desired outcome is to establish during the presentation the criteria by which the various options are to be judged. and either the preferred solution is presented for endorsement by the audience or a discussion is initiated leading to the decision. There are two main advantages to this style for presentations. it can increase the audiences receptiveness to the main ideas. This sense of deja vu can falsely give the impression that what they are hearing are their own ideas.

Ultimately. unless for some reason you wish to keep it hidden. Present a structure If you explain briefly at the beginning of a talk how it is to proceed. They will each have some experience or opinions on this and at the beginning you must make them bring that experience into their own minds. but whatever role you choose you must establish it at the very beginning. You may be presenting yourself as their friend. from the beginning. Create a rapport If you can win the audience over in the first minute. drift in with coffee and finish the conversation they were having with the person next to them. You should plan exactly how you wish to appear to them and use the beginning to establish that relationship. the first few minutes of the presentation are lost while people adjust their coats. then the audience will know what to expect. you need to start the audience thinking about the subject matter of your presentation. it provides a sense of security in the promise that this speech too will end. perhaps even as a judge. This can help to establish the theme and also provide something concrete to hold their attention.The Beginning It is imperative to plan your beginning carefully. You only have a limited time and every minute is precious to you so. as an expert. This can be done by a statement of your main objective. 12 . Establish a theme Basically. make sure they pay attention. there are five main elements: Get their attention Too often in a speech. you will keep them for the remainder.

For instance. if you are describing the four functions of a project manager then display the four "hats" he/she must wear. for two reasons: firstly. if you are introducing the techniques of brainstorming then brandish a fishing rod to "fish for" ideas. a slide show. Visual Aids Most people expect visual reinforcement for any verbal message being delivered. or even a video presentation. Alternatively the ending can be a flourish. One of the greatest mistakes is to tell the audience that this is going to be a summary because at that moment they simply switch off. a new visual aid or perhaps the introduction of one final culminating idea. which will have wandered. This requires a change of pace. Thus it is worth planning your last few sentences with extreme care.Administration When planning your speech you should make a note to find out if there are any administrative details which need to be announced at the beginning of your speech. In some formats the ending will be a summary of the main points of the talk. if you depart from the framework of a square picture flashed before their eyes. While it would be unfair to blame television entirely for this. This is not simply to make yourself popular with the people organising the session but also because if these details are over looked the audience may become distracted as they wonder what is going to happen next. The Ending The final impression you make on the audience is the one they will remember. secondly. you can meet their expectations using the overhead projector. 13 . it is necessary first to get their attention. it is useful to understand what the audience is accustomed to. As with the beginning. Indeed it is best that the ending comes unexpectedly with that final vital phrase left hanging in the air and ringing round their memories. with the pace and voice leading the audience through the final crescendo to the inevitable conclusion. and use a different format. then that novelty will be most arresting.

Do not simply photocopy information if there is more data on the page than you wish to present. but here is how to convey it. Your job as a manager is to use the potential of the presentation to ensure that the audience is motivated and inspired rather than disconcerted or distracted. the data should be extracted before being displayed. Do not clutter a viewfoil or it will confuse rather than assist.Anon Whatever you say and whatever you show. There are five key facets of the human body which deserve attention in presentation skills: the eyes. yourself which will remain the focus of the audience's attention. Make sure that your writing can be read from the back of the room. others are used to explain information which can be more easily displayed than discussed: and some viewfoils are designed simply for entertainment and thus to pace the presentation. each different viewfoil should have a distinct purpose . there are a few rules which should be followed to ensure they are used effectively.With traditional visual aids however.and if it has no purpose it should be removed. As with all elements of a speech. the voice. The Delivery "The human body is truly fascinating . the appearance. and most are commonly ignored. not the visual aid. no-one will remember what you said. 14 . and not what is written upon it. in these cases. Some viewfoils are there to reinforce the verbal message and so to assist in recall. Talk to the audience. With that purpose firmly in mind you should design the viewfoil for that purpose. The Eyes The eyes are said to be the key to the soul and are therefore the first and most effective weapon in convincing the audience of your honesty. If you but strut and fret your hour upon the stage and then are gone. it is you. openness and confidence in the objectives of your presentation. and how you stand. The presenter has the power both to kill the message and to enhance it a hundred times beyond its worth. If your viewfoil is scruffy then your audience will notice that. the expression. Most are common sense. This impression may of course be totally false.there are some I could watch all day" .

In front of an audience you have to make sure that this never happens. a slight smile will convince each person in that direction that you have seen and acknowledged them. your feelings of friendship and intimacy can be evaluated by the intensity and duration of eye contact. perhaps a subtle movement of the eye. each new sub-section should be proceeded by a pause and a change in tone to emphasise the delineation. The main difference comes in the degree of feedback which you can expect from the person to whom you are talking. A safe style is to be slightly louder and slightly slower than a fire-side chat with slightly deaf aunt. when a word or phrase has been missed or misunderstood. In ordinary conversation you can see from the expression. since most British accents rise naturally at the end of a question. A monotone speech is both boring and soporific. As you get used to the sound. Remember the audience is constrained by good manners not to interrupt you so there is no need to maintain a constant flow of sound. The Voice After the eyes comes the voice. 15 . so it is important to try to vary the pitch and speed of your presentation. you can adjust it by watching the audience. At the very least. It is important to realise from the onset that few people can take their ordinary conversation voice and put it on stage.Even when in casual conversation. Shortly after each change in position. If you can. If tonal variation does not come to you naturally try making use of rhetorical questions throughout your speech. For small groups this is clearly possible but it can also be achieved in large auditoriums since the further the audience is away from the presenter the harder it is to tell precisely where he or she is looking. Thus by simply staring at a group of people at the back of a lecture theatre it is possible to convince each of them individually that he or she is the object of your attention. and the two most important aspects of the voice for the public speaker are projection and variation. try to hold your gaze fixed in specific directions for five or six seconds at a time. During presentations. During the presentation you should use this to enhance your rapport with the audience by establishing eye contact with each and every member of the audience as often as possible. The simple advice is to slow down and to take your time. then perhaps you should move to Hollywood.

and that in many organisations this tends to set the engineer apart. 16 .Expression The audience watch your face. only more so. not for yourself. he or she will instinctively adopt a distinct posture or stance to convey that character. That choice should however be deliberately made. or fiddle constantly with a pen. and aim to return them there when any gesture is completed. especially from management. or (worst of all visually) juggle change in your trouser pockets. In normal conversation your meaning is enhanced by facial reinforcement. When you are giving a presentation you must dress for the audience. they will be wondering why and listen to find out. it is my personal opinion that there exists a code of conduct among engineers which emphasizes the scruffy look. if you are smiling. if they think you look out of place. It conveys the subliminal message that the engineer and the manager are not part of the same group and so hinders communication. then you are. If you are looking listless or distracted then they will be listless and distracted. The perennial problem is what to do with your hands. your stance and posture will convey a great deal about you. Thus in a speech you must compensate both for stage nerves and for the distance between yourself and the audience. at best. you can use your whole body as a dynamic tool to reinforce your rapport with the audience. It follows therefore that while you are on stage. Stance When an actor initially learns a new character part. except when used in unison with your speech. These must not wave aimlessly through the air. The key is to keep your hands still. Appearance There are many guides to management and presentation styles which lay heavy emphasis upon the way you dress and in the last analysis this is a matter of personal choice. find a safe resting place which is comfortable for you. To train them initially. As an aside. The least you must do is make sure your stance does not convey boredom. The message is quite simply: make sure that your facial expressions are natural.

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