Baseline Survey

Export Okra Production in Thailand
A report of the baseline survey on export okra production in Thailand

By: Tattanakorn Moekchantuk & Prabhat Kumar

Inter-country Programme for Vegetable IPM in South & SE Asia Phase II
(FNPP/GLO/002/NET & GCP/RAS/191/AUL)

Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
June 2004

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of content List of tables, maps, figures and annexes Chapter I : Background 1 Background 1.1 Okra Production on world basis at a glance 1.2 Okra production in Thailand 1.3 Export okra production in Thailand Chapter II: Survey Rationale, Methods and Data Analysis 2.1 Rationale of the Survey 2.2 Method of Survey 2.3 Data Analysis Chapter III: Major Survey Findings 3.1 General findings 3.2 Field Preparation 3.3 Issues with seeds 3.4 Irrigation, Weeding, Fertilization and after care issues 3.5 Issues with Insect-pest and diseases in okra 3.6 Plant Protection issues in export okra production 3.7 Harvesting, Grading and Packaging of export okra production 3.8 Economics of export okra production 3.9 Gender issues in okra cultivation 3.10 Other issues Chapter IV: Conclusions and Recommendations 4.1: Conclusions 4.2: Recommendations Acknowledgement References

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Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand

LIST OF, TABLES, MAPS, FIGURES & ANNEXES
Page no. List of tables
Table 1: Total growing area (rai) and yield (tons) of Okra Table 2: Quantity and Value of Okra export (1998 – 2002) Table 3: List of commonly occurring insect-pests on okra Table 4: List of commonly occurring natural enemies in okra Table 5: List of commonly occurring diseases on okra Table 6: Commonly used insecticide (Chemical & Biological) against okra insect-pests Table: 7: Labour distribution in okra production (% responses)

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List of maps
Map 1: Major Okra growing provinces in Thailand

List of figures
Fig 1: Major Okra growing countries in world (FAOSTAT, 2001) Fig 2.: Okra area harvested worldwide (FAOSTAT, 2001) Fig 3: Productivity (Kg./ha) of major okra growing countries in world (FAOSTAT, 2001) Fig 4: Major okra growing provinces in Thailand (tons), DoAE, 2002 Fig 5: Major consumptions channels of okra in Thailand, DoAE, 2002 Fig 6: % market share of fresh Thai Okra; DoAE, 2002 Fig 7: % market share of frozen Thai okra Fig 8: % of male and female okra growers Fig 9: Education level of farmers Fig 10: Okra farm type Fig 11: Irrigation source Fig 12: % Lime-user farmers Fig 13: Choice of Crops other then Okra Fig 14: Reasons of growing other crop in Okra field Fig 15: % Farmers doing seed-germination test Fig 16: % Farmers Fungicide seed treatment Fig 17: Pesticide source for okra farmers Fig 18: Frequency of pesticide spray Fig 19: Average cost and benefits from a rai of export okra production Fig 20: Farmer’s perception of major production constraints Fig 21: % respondent keeping farm-records Fig 22: Areas of interest of okra farmers in receiving more knowledge

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Annexes
Annex 1: Survey Questionnaire Annex 2: Cropping calendars of export okra production of Ratchaburi Annex 3: Cropping calendars of export okra production of Kanchanburi Annex 4: Cropping calendars of export okra production of Nonthaburi Annex 5: Cropping calendars of export okra production of Nakhon Pathom Annex 6: Common insect-pest and diseases of okra in Thailand Annex 7: Common natural enemies of the okra crop in Thailand Annex 8: Grading and sorting of fresh okra for export Annex 9: Different production systems of okra

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Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand

CHAPTER I

BACKGROUND

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area harvested (fig 2) and productivity (fig 3). are major okra growing countries in the world (fig 1). India. Pakistan.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 1. 2001) Page 5 . Iraq etc.1 Okra Production in the world Okra is believed to have originated from Africa and is currently being grown in most subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Background 1. 2001) Fig 2: Okra area harvested worldwide (FAOSTAT. Fig 1: Major Okra growing countries in the world (FAOSTAT.

central and western provinces of Thailand. who in close collaboration with the government extension agencies provide technical expertise to the farmers.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Fig 3: Productivity (Kg /ha) of major okra growing countries in the world (FAOSTAT. a total of 14. 2001) 1. During 2001-02.031 tons of okra.) and buy back the fresh produce from farmers. It is mostly grown in western and central provinces of the country (Map 1). The export companies largely provide inputs (like seed. pesticides etc.2 Okra production in Thailand Okra or Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) is an important export vegetable crop grown in northern. Export okra production is facing serious problem related to high levels of pesticide residues leading to rejection of the okra from some key export markets. Table 1: Total growing area (rai) and yield (tons) of Okra Items 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 Area (rai) 3887 8522 10342 Yield (tons) 6755 12211 9552 Source: Vegetable group. 2002 2001-02 14236 12031 Page 6 . Local Thai export companies have developed a network of contract growers in the western and central parts of the country to meet the surging demand from the Japanese market. Lately. small portions of the products started entering into the European and other markets as well.236 rai was planted with Okra in Thailand with a total produce of 12. The area under cultivation of Okra has steadily increased during the 1998-2002 period (see Table 1).3 Export Okra production in Thailand Okra has been one of the important export vegetables cultivated in Thailand for the last decade. DoAE. Majority of okra growers in Thailand are contract farmers for the export companies. 1.

7).0 34.8 (million Baht) Source: Vegetable group. export of okra from Thailand started facing problems of high chemical residues and consequently rejection of the exported produce by the key importing markets in Japan. Nakhon Pathom. The export volume of Okra has slightly increased from the 1998 level of 3. Korea etc. Kanchnaburi. Jordan.598 tons to 3.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Okra is exported in two forms: fresh and frozen. over half of the quantity of 8. Nakhon Ratchasima and Lopburi are major export okra growing provinces in Thailand (see Fig 4).2 2002 3991 350. Out of the total produced Okra. DoAE. Quantity of the frozen okra export has steadily increased almost 10 fold during this period from 188 tons to 1069 tons (Table 2) generating a revenue of 78 million baht. 2002 Page 7 . DOAE (2002) 2001 3328 253.3 201 148.459 tons are locally consumed and the rest is either exported as fresh or frozen (fig 5). Other provinces that produce almost half of the total production cater chiefly to the domestic market for local consumptions. Frozen okra is exported to other countries as well like Australia. During recent years. Table 2: Quantity and Value of Okra export (1998 – 2002) Year 1998 1999 2000 Quantity 3598 3000 2496 Fresh (Tons) Value 317. Japan is a major importer of fresh (98.0 The Central provinces of Ratchaburi. Total Production (tons) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Ra tc ha Na bu kh ri on Pa th Ka om rn ch an ab ur No i nt ha bu ri Na Lo kh on pb ur Ra i tc ha s im a O th er s Fig 4: Major okra growing provinces in Thailand (tons).0 892 60 1069 78.3 (million Baht) Quantity 188 581 462 Frozen (Tons) Value 13.991 tons during 2002 after a decrease during the year 2000. Nonthaburi. and USA in smaller quantities (fig.5%) of the total exported Okra from Thailand (fig 6) as well as of the frozen okra (94%).0 34.

2002 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % Share of fresh okra export Japan Others Fig 6: percentage market share of fresh Thai Okra. 2002 100 % Share of Frozen Okra export 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Japan Australia Jordan USA Others Fig 7: Percentage market share of frozen Thai okra Page 8 . DoAE.5: Major consumptions channels of okra in Thailand.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 9000 8000 7000 Quantity (tons) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Fresh Export Frozen for export Local Consumption Fig. DoAE.

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand N Thailand W S E KANCHANABURI NAKHON RATCHASIMA RATCHABURI NONTHABURI PATHUM THANI NAKHON PATHOM Map 1: Major Export Okra growing Provinces in Thailand Page 9 .

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand CHAPTER II Survey Rationale. Methods & Data Analysis Page 10 .

Given the recent substantial growth in international trade of vegetables and ‘contract growing’ becoming the most dominant export production system. Such rejection of exported okra produce has had serious economic and social implications to the export okra growers in Thailand. The system of export okra production (contract farming) is radically different from okra production for the domestic market. A baseline survey on current production methods with details on each aspects of okra production was conducted among contract farmers within several central provinces in Thailand.2 Method of survey and sources of information A total of twenty-two (22) export okra growing farmers from four western and central provinces (Nakhon Pathom. it is important for FAO and the Thai Government to better understand production and protection problems in export contract farming situations. 11. In addition.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 2. Page 11 . The extension staff and managers of the export companies. who are engaged in procuring and promoting export okra cultivation in these provinces. Trends were obtained for major farm practices related to export okra production for further interpretation of the data. their marketing practices and other related issues. were then used as basis for the write up of this survey. where each farm activity e. soil preparation to final harvesting was listed on a time-axis for each surveyed province (annex 2. 2. Finally. Appropriate references on vegetables in Thailand were checked and relevant portions were incorporated in this document. The information so obtained was recorded for analysis and interpretation. The export okra production system largely depends on the inputs and technical backstopping provided by the export companies. these survey findings could help to develop and plan for any future extension or farmer education intervention to provide ecological compatible production and plant protection options to the export okra farmers in Thailand. group discussions were organised with farmer groups to re-validate the collected data and learn about any emerging issues and problems related to okra cultivation. Ratchaburi and Nonthaburi) were surveyed using a set questionnaire (Annex -1). were consulted during the pre-survey phase. Kanchnaburi. an informal survey of the export companies was carried out to better understand their perspective of export okra production. Based on the collected information. combined with field verification and follow-up intensive discussions with farmers. In addition. of Agricultural Extension) in Bangkok.0). 4 & 5).1 Rationale of the Survey The export okra production has witnessed the rejection of the produce from key Japanese and other export markets because of pesticide residue levels exceeding the Maximum Residue Levels (MRL). the information was entered into the SPSS software (SPSS ver. cropping calendars were developed.g. mean and standard deviation of quantitative data were calculated and expressed in terms of percentage for the purpose of plotting graphs for this document. 2.3 Data Analysis The quantitative information gathered through the interviews was entered (on province-level) into a data-base. Frequency. This process of consultation started in the July 2003 and continued until January 2004. Other relevant information was collected from the Vegetable section. The trends that so emerged. 3. Consequently. This helped to design inputs for the baseline survey. DoAE (Dept.

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Chapter III Findings from the Survey Page 12 .

More then 60% of the farmers had a primary school education and some (4%) had a university education (fig 9). 11).60 rai).1 General findings Export okra is by and large grown by members of a family unit with an average family size of 5 members. please see attached annex – 8.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 3. The rest of the farmers use their own well and public well for irrigation purposes (fig. For more details on different production systems. Sixty-eight (68) % of the interviewed farmers were male (fig 8) in the age group of 24-66 years and they own 2-3 rai of land (range: 1. A majority of farmers were under 45 years of age. Page 13 . For these small land holders. Canal irrigation is the major source of irrigation for okra cultivation (80%). 80 70 60 70 60 50 50 40 30 20 10 0 Female Male 40 30 20 Percent (%) Percent 10 0 Primary School Elementary High School College University Sex Fig8: Percentage of male & female okra growers Fig 9: Education level of farmers 60 100 50 Fig 10: Okra farm type 80 Fig 11: Irrigation source 40 60 30 40 20 20 Percent (%) Percent 10 0 Low Land (Leveling) Low land (Ditch & Dike) Flat land 0 Irrigation Public well Y our own well Water sources Fig 10: Okra farm types Fig 11: Irrigation sources An equal percentage of the flat-levelled low land and low land with ditch and dikes are the major okra growing land types used by export growers (fig 10). okra production occupied more than 70% of the owned land.

okra farmers plough the land at the average depth of 25 cm. After harvesting farmers carry the okra to a DoAE sub-district technology transfer centre or house of the farmer leader for further grading the products. Similarly.200 Baht/rai with an average cost of 550 Baht /rai. once or twice depending on soil types. Two-weeks before the seed sowing fields are ploughed and harrowed. The cost of ploughing varies from 250-1. corn. Okra is harvested daily in the morning.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Over 50% of the interviewed farmers had 2-5 years experience in growing okra. 3. These other crops include basil. 13). The distance from the okra farm to such a common place varied from 0.2 Field Preparation Okra for export is grown year-round with slightly less acreage during the May to July period. asparagus etc. (fig 14). Chinese kale. 70 60 50 60 40 50 30 40 20 Percent Percent 30 10 0 No Yes 20 No Yes grow other crop in the same land Use of lime Fig 12: % Lime-user farmers Fig 1 3: Choice of Crops other than Okra As many as 50 % of the farmers grow okra as a mono-crop. Soil amendments like lime applications are practiced by 70% of the farmers (fig 12). yard long bean. Normally. The farmers’ perception of growing other crops varies and many of them believe that growing other crops improves the soil and facilitates disease management etc. while the other 50% of farmers choose to grow other crops in the same field (Fig. 40 30 20 P rce (% e nt ) 10 0 Contorl disease f ast grow th short lif e cycle Soil Improvement Fig 14: Reasons of growing other crop in Okra field Page 14 . the average cost of harrowing was also in the range of 250-450 Baht/rai.5-16 km with average distance of 3-4 km. bean. It is a common practice among farmers to provide pre-sowing irrigation for better facilitation of the seed-germination.

Generally. VO 99047. Few (less than 3% of interviewed farmers) used more then 1. Indian. whereas other seed treatment methods e.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 3.0 kg of seed. Others however test the seed germination capacity by wrapping test seeds in a water-soaked cloth overnight. The identities of seed varieties and their origins were not very clear in some provinces and it seems that some companies treat it as a trade secret. It was also observed that selection of a variety depends on the market demand (number of ridges on fruit (5 or 7). in the dry season). Seed-germination generally is not perceived a problem. Five varieties of okra are widely grown in Thailand: HIT 9701. As mentioned earlier. Fertilization and after care issues The germination of seed is facilitated with a pre-sowing irrigation and afterwards a majority of the farmers irrigate the crop based on the situation of field moisture regime (almost every other day during the dry season). A majority (over 70%) of farmers in all provinces do not practice a seed-germination test (Fig15) prior to seed sowing. shape. 100 80 70 80 60 60 50 40 40 30 20 Percent Percent 20 10 No Yes 0 No Yes Seed germination test Fig 15: % Farmers doing seed-germination test Fig 16: % Farmers using fungicide seed treatment Seed treatments are not commonly practiced by farmers and only 20% of interviewed farmers treat the seeds with fungicides like Thiram 80. warm-water treatment were generally not practiced. tenderness and its mucilaginous (stickiness) rather then some other important production qualities like its ability to tolerate and resist insect-pests and diseases etc.800-2.3 Issues with seed Choice of seed is an important cultivation issue for the export okra farmers in all four provinces. The seeds are sown at a plant-plant distance of 50-70 cm with a row-row distance of 50-100 cm (avr. Star Right and Early Five.4 Irrigation.8-1. crops are irrigated almost every day (esp. the practice of pre-sowing irrigation ensures better germination. Okra seeds are sown manually by the ‘dibbling’ method with one-four seeds/hole. Weeding. 3. colour of the fruit.0 kg seed since they prefer more plants/rai. farmers use different water sources Page 15 . The cost of seeds ranges from 1. beds are 400-700 cm wide and average 50 cm height and are placed at a distance of 120 (avr. It is the usual practice in contract farming that the company provides them the seed either as incentive (free of cost) or at costs.)cm. After flowering and fruit setting.000 Baht per kg and a rai of land needs 0. 70 cm) and in case of bed and furrow system.g.

harvesting. Over 80% of the farmers applying herbicides use pre-emergence herbicides either Alachlor or Gamaxone. Please refer to annex 2. It seems from various discussions and use patterns that farmers’ knowledge on manure and fertilizer use in relation to yield is not up to the mark. these are mixed well with the soil at the time of land preparation by the farmers. A pictorial guide of common insect-pests of okra is attached in Page 16 . 3.000 kg okra/rai but a more realistic average yield generally realised was 2. Similar trends were observed with the farmers using the home-made fermented fertilizers. Either of one of two major balanced fertilizer compounds (16:16:16/15:15:15) is used by okra farmers. farmers generally follow the advice from the export company. Once the crop establishes and closes. Okra begins bearing fruits after 45 days of sowing and the harvesting continues on a daily basis for another 2 – 2 ½ months. Removing of one leaf adjacent to the fruit minimises chances of discoloration as well.000 kg per rai. farmers’ experiences and individual financial situations. and 5 (cropping calendars) for details on the type. okra export farmers make independent decisions regarding dosages and types based on soil type. where pruning and rationing is a very common practice. Like any other after-care activities.5 Issues with Insect-pest and diseases in okra Okra is an annual malvaceous crop and is susceptible to a large range of insect-pests and diseases. 3. However. Weeds are only problems during the first 2-3 weeks of okra crop growth and development. For other management operations like plant protection. in the case of organic manures. dose and timing of fertilizer application for various provinces. actual nutrient content of these home-made fermented ferilizers was also not clear. The incidence pattern of insect-pests and diseases are more or less common to all growing areas. However. picking of one leaf after every fruit harvest is a common practice among farmers to reduce the possibility of any blemish on the tender okra fruit. 4 &5). Fertilization of the export okra also is an important issue for the quality of the produce. Unlike some other okra growing countries. Fertilizers are generally applied in a circle near the base of the plants. fertilizer application is also generally done by the family members themselves. whitefly and other phloem feeders are common during vegetative stage (see Table 3. organic manures to home-made fermented fertilizers and in some cases micro-nutrients. For fertilization. Various growth stages of the crops are susceptible to the different insect-pests and diseases. It was very difficult to judge why there exists a wide variation in quantity of use. Weedcontrol is practiced by 60% of the respondents from all four provinces either by using herbicide or by manual weeding. weeds no longer pose a production problem. Only in the case of large farm sizes (like in those observed in Ratchaburi). Thai okra growers do not prune their crops. labourers were hired to do the job. The weed species vary from area to area and most often nut sedges and other broad-leaves weeds were commonly observed by farmers.000-4.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand for irrigation ranging from tapping water from their own wells to use of community wells and canals. Insect-pests like Crickets can be a problem during germination/seedling stage of the crop while the thrips. The okra growers in Thailand produce in the range of 2. At the same time. Farmers use different kinds and doses of fertilizers ranging from inorganic fertilizers. 4.

reduces available leaf area for photosynthesis resulting into serious yield and quality loss. other species Chrysoperla sp. Several species Several species Euborellia sp. despite the fact that many farmers know that such varieties do exist. Table 5: List of commonly occurring diseases on okra in Thailand Diseases Virus (Yellow Vein Mosaic) Damping-off Powdery mildew Anthracnose Pod spot Leaf Spot Scientific names Geminivirus group Pythium vexans de Bary Erysiphe sp. This jassid-transmitted virus disease seriously stunts plant growth. & Encarsia sp. Yellow Vein Mosaic (YVM) is the most pressing plant-protection problem universally faced by all okra growers in Thailand. & Ev. The viruleferous population of vectors has potential to turn a large tract of healthy okra crop into an unproductive one in a short span of time. which is often also the source of seeds used by farmers in Thailand.ipmthailand.org/en/IPMDANIDA/ipmdanida. Bemisia tabaci Thrips palmi karny Spodoptera exigua Vegetative .Fruiting Vegetative Vegetative Early Vegetative Susceptible Crop Stage Seedling Early vegetative .Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand annex. We could not find any satisfactory reasons for why farmers do not use a virus tolerant/resistant variety.harvest Vegetative Vegetative Table 4: List of commonly occurring natural enemies in Okra fields in Thailand Natural Enemies Lady Bird beetles Green lacewing Spider Eretmocerus sp.htm 1 Page 17 . Colletotrichum spp. Anaxipha longipennis Amarasca biguttula Ishida Maconellicoccus hirsutus Aphis gossypii Heliothis armigera Hubner.) Deighton Susceptible Crop stage Early vegetative harvest Seedling – early vegetative Vegetative Flowering/Fruiting Fruiting Vegetative Some natural enemies pictures are taken from IPM DANIDA Thailand Web page http://www.6 and a similar guide of natural enemies1 is attached in annex-7. The vein and veinlets of affected plants turn yellow and even the fruit produced by such plants turn yellow in colour. Virus resistant and tolerant commercial varieties (hybrid F1 and Open Pollinated) are available for management of this disease in countries like India. Table 3: List of commonly occurring insect-pests on okra in Thailand Insect-Pest Cricket Green leaf hopper Mealy bug Aphids Cotton boll worm Cotton leaf worm Whitefly Thrips Army worm Scientific names Metioche vittaticollis. (a whitefly parasitoid) Dragon fly Damsel fly Ear wig * Personnel observation Scientific names Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus. Spodoptera litura E. Oxyopes sp Eretmocerus sp. Pseudocercospora abelmoschi (Ell. Encarsia sp. Alternaria sp.

However. Table 6: Commonly used pesticides (Chemical & Biological) against okra insect-pests Trade Name Dinitrofuran Parathion-methyl Active Ingredient Carbofuran Organophosphates Permethrin Abamectin Emamectin benzoate) Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Mineral oil /whiteoil/Petroleum oil Fermented herbal (home-made) Paraquat-dichloride Against what? Cotton leaf Hopper (Jassids) Cotton leaf Hopper (Jassids) Cotton leaf Hopper (Jassids) Thrips/Whiteflies Thrips/Whiteflies All defoliator Cotton leaf Hopper (Jassids) All insect-pests Weeds II WHO class II Ia II EPA IV II Proclaim (Syngenta) Home-made herbal Paraquat Use of fungicides is often limited to seed treatment only and in general farmers did not use any major fungicides during the cropping season. misuse and over-use of pesticides were not a major issue for the export okra cultivation during the period that the survey was carried out. generally to an extent necessary to keep residues below the MRLs set by the major importing companies. Page 18 . A collaborative effort by okra export companies and the DoAE (Department of Agril. when several consignments of the fresh okra were rejected from the Japanese market because of high levels of pesticide residues. it was found that the brews were largely ineffective in reducing pest populations. following visits to the okra fields and discussions with several farmers. Pesticides are directly supplied by companies to the farmers (50% cases) and in some case farmers are told to buy a certain kind of pesticides from the market (Fig 17). Under this same campaign. Diseases occur occasionally on the crop especially during hot and humid periods of the year.6 Plant Protection issues in export okra production In general. Extension) created considerable awareness among farmers and also introduced methods under the “Safe Vegetables” campaign to reduce the use of pesticides. Currently. Failing to do so could lead to rejection of the exported okra. clearly indicates a major dip in export during year 2000. the export data (table 2). chemical insecticides along with Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and locally-fermented herbal pesticides are extensively used by farmers to manage insect-pests problems. These pesticide frequencies include the use of home-made fermented pesticides (Fig 18). However. The export companies select the type and doses of agro-chemical inputs. A majority of the farmers used pesticides at a weekly interval and a small proportion of the interviewed farmers even use pesticides at 3-day. home-made pesticide brews were promoted to further replace the dependency of the okra farmers on chemical pesticides.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 3. 5-day and even at 15-days intervals.

8 Economics of export okra production The okra growers in Thailand produce 2.500-12. 3. the company (Miracle Grand Co. The ratio of daily harvested okra to export grade is roughly 1.) involved with farmers at Ratchaburi.000-40. “medium” and “low grade”. In other provinces. Total return from a rai of okra ranges from 18.) per rai.7: Harvesting. Final grading and sorting and packaging takes place at company facilities near Bangkok. Page 19 .0 kg harvest. Some companies buy all produce from the farmers. A preliminary sorting of fruits is done by farmers themselves before they carry their produce by car to a pre-assigned common place for further sorting. Grading and Packaging of export okra cultivation Okra farmers harvest fruits everyday in the early morning with the help of a sharp knife.000-Baht/rai for a 4 month growing season of okra. Two distinct categories for okra fruits grading are generally used by Thai okra export companies.000 Baht/rai (10. For instance.000 Baht) where the cost of cultivation varies from 7.000 Baht average). established their own grading facility in the vicinity of the field. On an average a farmer roughly makes 20.70 kg for every 2.000-4. Farmers are paid for their produce on a weekly or fortnightly basis. In one category fruits are graded either as “in grade” and “low grade”. Ltd. While other company grade fruits either as “top”.000 kg okra pods (2.000 kg avr. grading and weighing by the affiliated companies. On an average companies buy the top/ingrade produce at a price of 19-22 Baht/kg.000 Thai Baht (average 30.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 60 60 50 50 40 40 Percent (%) 30 30 20 20 10 10 Percent 0 0 Company Market Ow n made 3-day 3-5 day 5-day 7-day 10-day 15-day Fig 17: Pesticide source for okra farmers Fig 18: Frequency of pesticide spray 3. where as some only buy the exportable grades. companies only do a preliminary sorting of okra on site. where as other grades are sold to the local markets for a price range of 3-7 Bhat.

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 30. Table 7: Labour distribution in okra production (% responses) Sl.000 10.000 20. where labour is divided among the family members except for the pesticide applications. Some jobs like weeding and irrigation are done by both male and female family members together.9 Gender issues in okra cultivation As discussed earlier.000 Gross income Cost of production Net income Fig 19: Average cost and benefits from a rai of export okra production (1 US $ = 40 Thai Baht) 3.000 30. the majority of export okra farmers are male.000 5.000 0 10. Activity Both Man & Only Man Women 1 Land Preparation 50 28 2 Sowing 82 3 Fertilizer application 55 27 4 Weeding 86 5 Pesticide spray 90 6 Irrigation 60 18 7 Harvesting 78 12 8 Transportation 50 12 9 Selling 32 40 10 Holding family income 18 11 Major decisions on 55 10 expenditure Only woman 22 18 18 24 10 22 10 8 28 82 35 Page 20 . However.000 Thai Baht 15.000 20. it is a family affair. where as activities like pesticide sprays are mostly done by the man of the family (Table 7).000 25.

00 0.9 Other issues During the survey.00 Insect Pest Disease Market seeds Money Fig 20: Farmer’s perception of major production constraints Most farmers maintained a record of inputs used for the okra production for various reasons (fig 20) like for access to credit purposes from the agriculture bank etc.00 10. through leading questions. 100 80 60 40 20 Percent 0 No Yes Fig 21: % respondent keeping farm-records When the farmers were asked for one major area where they think they need more support.00 5. whereas others wanted to learn more about composting. (Fig 21). Page 21 .00 25.00 35. They were also asked to list the major production constraints with 70% of them rating insect-pests and diseases (including YVM) as major problems. a majority (48%) of them wanted to learn more about insect-pest management and seeds. marketing etc.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 3.00 20.00 15. knowledge levels of the farmers were tested for identification skills and 100% of them could identify the virus symptoms of YVM. 45.00 % re sponde nt 30.00 40.

prices .Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Export 5% Irrigation 5% Pricing 5% Variety & Seed 37% Insect-pest & diseases 48% Fig 22: Areas of interest of okra farmers Other issues like export. irrigation management also featured as areas that farmers identified in need of more knowledge support. FFS on Export Okra Production in Thailand: The efforts to provide technical support to the okra farmers started last year (2003) in form of the implementation of 2 FFS (Farmer’s Field School) as a collaborative effort between contract farming companies and the DoAE. Page 22 .

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Chapter IV Conclusions and Recommendations Page 23 .

the export companies. the companies rigidly determine the types and quantities of pesticides that a farmer can use to control pests. But none of these strategies are effective enough as is evident from the ever-increasing pest populations. more emphasis on plant protection practices is needed in terms of labour cost and input cost to minimize the plant protection problems.1 Conclusions Most export okra farmers are smallholders. are some of the interesting topics for research and ecological learning that would be well received by all stake holders. In search of better and less whitefly/jassids infested production areas. When the farming for export began a decade ago. But other models for farmer training with an emphasis on discovery-based ecological research and learning should certainly be explored given the enormous potential for improved crop production and pesticide reduction. the levels of control on quantity and types of chemicals were not rigid but in recent times. Seeds are often procured from known and unknown channels from countries like India with sometimes little or no information on its genetic properties etc. Since okra farming is rather labour-intensive farming. these companies do not restrict use of chemical fertilizers neither do they provide any prescriptions on this to the farmers. A good and resistant variety along with ecological understanding of the okra crop ecosystem obviously is vital for sustained export production. the companies move production from one area to another. The decision making by farmers and contract extension workers with regard to plant protection measures are often non-informed vis-à-vis crop ecosystem and pest population dynamics. but some hire the land at the rate of 100-500 Baht/ rai/ season (depending on the quality of land).judgements on how to obtain a good yield as well as on the companies’ requirements to keep the pesticide residue levels below the MRLs.g. At certain places the companies pay for the cost of seed and in some case Page 24 . YVM (yellow vein mosaic). Smallholder okra growers are at the loosing end of these moves. In some villages mealy bug populations also regularly reach very high and damaging levels. Such decisions are rather based on farmers’ -and in some occasions extension workers’. Contract companies generally provide pesticide products to farmers. it will be difficult for farmers to attend some kind of season-long IPM training.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 4. Over the years the insect-pest population became virus-carrier (year round cultivation and availability of host species) and virus problems kept spreading at ever increasing rates. Yellow Vein Mosaic and other viruses) are major threats to the production. Participatory action research initiatives to learn about newer varieties and their tolerance to insect-pest. owing 1-2 rai of land. However. Previously. Seeds are another expensive input in this production system. Okra cultivation is a labourintensive farming process and most of the labour needs are full-filled by the family members. diseases etc. Claims with regard to the effectiveness of home-made fertilizers and pesticides are highly questionable and most-often it is very difficult to ascertain the actual quantity of nutrient and pesticidal properties of such formulations. increasing costs of plant protection inputs and frequently occurring virus outbreaks in key okra growing areas in Thailand Whitefly and jassids transmitted viruses (e. farmers and DoAE. Consequently. Knowledge levels on micro-nutrients and their effect on okra productivity are hardly known to any growers and only in some cases do farmers use Boron and Zinc. without being able to properly explain what good this would do to their crops. farmers and companies took advantage of the low insect-pest population and grew and exported okra without much plant protection problems. Some farmers don’t use synthetic pesticides and use only home-produced fermented pesticides to minimize the risk of any chemical residues. Most farmers grow okra on their own land.

000 Baht /kg. Given the rather labour-intensive and contract farming oriented nature of export okra production. extension.research. these visits are reduced and limited to visits at harvesting time etc. farmers are allowed to use only selected pesticides. protection. Companies usually do not provide any training to the farmer. Economic and ecological sustainability of the entire export okra production has become rather questionable. According to a conservative estimate. safer Page 25 . and export. Such a workshop could also identify topics. However. the export companies could play a much more stimulating role in encouraging – and providing the necessary financial resources for. Farmers do not have any control on this process neither are they familiar with the potential genetic ability of some varieties to better tolerate diseases and insect-pests etc. Afterwards. It is also recommended that such workshop should be repeated on a regular basis to examine the developments and progress made and to develop strategies for future -and more relevant. On an average. DOAE and farmers) Given the enormous potential for improved crop production and pesticide reduction. Additionally. 2. Company-employed extension agents visit farmers at the start of the season often to provide seeds. Farmers hardly receive any information on other issues related to okra cultivation from these export companies other then the prescribed names of pesticides that they could use for the first 3-4 weeks of plant age. such intensive farmer training approaches might currently not seem feasible. Obviously. on which more research is needed and help to sensitize local research institutions to prioritize and undertake more relevant research. Due to MRL restrictions. export market will undoubtedly become much harder to enter and maintain. extension agencies.800-2. a more ecological approach to okra production would benefit the export companies as well in terms of a higher quality. contract farmers would participate in season-long Farmer Field Schools which would enable them to better appreciate the okra ecosystem and allow farmers to make better informed-decisions with regards to crop production and protection management. The outcomes and recommendations from these workshops could also help fill the currently existing knowledge gaps at the level of production. learning and innovation to ensure long-term profitability for export okra farmers and ecological sustainability. • A robust farmer education effort for pesticide reduction and more stable and higher quality production (Relevant to contract farming companies. there is great scope for on-farm experimentation.Recommendations • A national workshop to take stock of the current situation and plan strategies (Relevant to all stakeholders) It is recommended that a national workshop is organised to take stock of the available information and experiences vis-à-vis current export okra production and protection involving all major stakeholders in the okra export industry. insect-pest population build up also makes export okra cultivation more chemical-pesticide intensive. Especially for a crop like Okra. 4. Ideally. 70% of total harvested pods are good export grade produce (on a daily harvest basis) and it fetches good returns to farmers compared to other crops. With stricter-employed MRLs by importing countries.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand farmers have to buy seeds @ 1. which has not been grown traditionally in Thailand.its contract farmers to undergo season-long training and allowing farmers to develop ecological production skills. the okra export industry stands to gain much from a more ecological approach to production. Such a forum would enable a better dialogue among stakeholders in terms of developing a more sustainable and profitable okra production industry. the level of profits sank to almost half in the last 6-7 years due to higher crop protection input costs.

• Research and development priorities: Farmer access and experimentation with better disease-resistant varieties (Relevant to contract farming companies. Such organizations would allow farmers to have a better say in the nature of okra production in contract farming situations. enable farmer to work on a more sustainable production environment and guarantees better and more sustainable rural livelihoods and enable farmers to negotiate for a better price for higher quality and safer produce. Resistance management for key insect-pests. extension agencies and farmers) Unavailability of reliable virus-resistant varieties at farmers’ level has been identified as a major production constraint. Such experimentation should result into the development of a list of OP (open pollinated) and hybrid YVM resistant/tolerant varieties to be made available to farmers in Thailand. Most okra farmers are currently organized within the scope and coverage of the individual contracting firms. Page 26 . can screen and experiment with a wider set of varieties suitable for production in their own localities and with good market potential. farmers could stand much to gain from increased interactions with farmers beyond their own contract farming units through exchange of information and sharing ideas and experiences. c. However. Non-chemical management options of whitefly and Jassids. It is highly recommended that access to better disease resistant varieties be provided to farmers so that they.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand and more stable and sustainable supply of okra produce for the increasingly demanding export markets. Selection and availability of such varieties to the export okra farmers in Thailand would be very important. b. in consultation with the export firms. Such farmer organizations help to plan for production and to negotiate fair prices for okra produce with the export firms. Long term research priorities (Relevant to DoA/ research organisation) Several long–term research initiatives would be needed to sustain the export okra production in Thailand.varieties of Okra. Some of the priority initiatives would include: a.. • Development of an Export Okra Growers Association (Relevant to okra contract farmers) Okra farmers should consider organizing themselves nationally into an Export Okra Growers Association. Breeding of better -and more Yellow Vein Mosaic (YVM) tolerant/resistant.

Regional FAO Vegetable IPM Program Phase II . Ketelaar. Team Leader. Bang Len and Don Toom District.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Acknowledgement The authors would like to extend deepest thanks and appreciation to farmers and DoAE staff of Tha Mouang and Dan Makham Tia and Moung district. W.. Ratchaburi. for their kind help that enabled them to complete this baseline survey work.J. Page 27 . for his intellectual inputs during the design of the survey and for excellent editorial help during the final write-up of the document. FAO IPM Programme Development Officer. Nakhon Pathom. Randy Arnst. Karnchnaburi. We would like to sincerely thank Mr . for providing space and intellectual support during the period of survey and write-ups. Royal Government of Thailand. Sai Noi District. DoAE. Bang Pae District. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. Nonthaburi and the staff of Miracle Grand Company and Tanyama Company Ltd. Sincere thanks and appreciation are due to the Division of Pest Management and Division of Horticulture. A special vote of thanks goes to Mr.

ipmthailand. The Vegetable Sector in Thailand – A review (http://www. Department of Agriculture Extension.fao.htm) FAO-RAP Publication no.org/DOCREP/004/AC145E/AC145E04. 1999/38.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand References Bernd Hardeweg (2002). University of Hannover.htm) Page 28 . Germany (Unpublished) DoAE (2002): Vegetable group.fao.org/default. Royal Thai Government. Thailand DANIDA-IPM Program (URL: www. Institute of Economics in Horticulture.htm) FAOSTAT (2001) statistics database (2001) (URL: http://apps. Bangkok.org/en/IPMDANIDA/ipmdanida. Economics of Vegetable Production in Thailand.

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand ANNEXES Page 29 .

ไร rai ๊ 2.ป years 2.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 1: Questionnaire used in survey แบบสัมภาษณ เรื่อง การสํารวจขอมูลพื้นฐานในการปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวเพื่อการสงออก ชื่อ-นามสกุล ผูใหสัมภาษณ Name………………………………………………………………………………. ชาย Male ( ) 2.5 จํานวนสมาชิกในครอบครัวที่เปนแรงงานในการผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียวNo. น้ําชลประทาน Irrigation ( ) 2.. สระน้ําของตัวเอง Your own well ( ) 4.3 ลักษณะฟารม Farm Type ( ) ยกรอง Low land (leveling) ( ) รองสวน Low land (Ditch and dike) 2. 2.6 ประสบการณเกี่ยวกับการปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวเพื่อการสงออก Experience in growing okra…………….คน person ตอนที่ 2 สภาพทางการผลิต คําชี้แจง กรุณาทําเครื่องหมาย / ลงใน ( ) หนาขอความที่ตองการ หรือกรอกขอความลงในชองวาง ที่กําหนดให 2.4 แหลงน้ําที่ใชในการปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียว Water Source ( ) 1. Page 30 .1 ทานมีพนที่ทําการเกษตรทั้งหมด Total Agriculture land area……………ไร rai ื้ 2.ป (ตั้งแต 6 เดือนขึ้นไปนับเปน 1 ป) สถานภาพ Status ( ) 1. แตงงาน Married การศึกษา Education ( ) ไมเคยเรียนหนังสือ None ( ) ประถมศึกษา Primary School ( ) มัธยมศึกษาตอนตน Elementary ( ) มัธยมศึกษาตอนปลาย High School ( ) อนุปริญญา Collage ( ) ปริญญาตรี University จํานวนสมาชิกในครัวเรือนทั้งหมด No.………………………หมูที่ Moo………………………. Of family’s labor growing okra………………คน person 2.. หญิง Female อายุ Age………………. Address อำเภอ District………………………….7 ระยะทางจากแหลงปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวถึงจุดรวบรวมผลผลิตหรือแหลงรับซื้อ Distance from your okra plots to selling center ………………กม Km.. โสด Single ( ) 2. of family member………….ตำบล Tambon…………………………….2 พื้นที่ที่ใชในการปลูกกระเจียบเขียวทั้งหมด Total okra growing area……………. อื่น ๆ ระบุ Others………………….จังหวัด Province………………………รหัส Zip Code………………………… ตอนที่ 1 สภาพสวนบุคคลของเกษตรกรผูปลูกกระเจียบเขียวเพื่อการสงออก  ๊ คําชี้แจง กรุณาทําเครื่องหมาย / ลงใน ( ) หนาขอความที่ตองการ หรือกรอกขอความลงในชองวาง ที่กําหนดให เพศ Sex ( ) 1. ที่อยู บานเลขที่ House No. น้ําบอบาดาล Public well ( ) 3.

. อัตราการใชเมล็ดพันธุ Quantity of seeds………………………………กก. Pl explain………………………………………………………………………………… ……. กอนปลูกทานคลุกเมล็ดดวยสารเคมีเพื่อปองกันโรคหรือไม ( ) คลุก ( ) ไมคลุก Did you mix fungicide with seeds before sowing? ( ) Yes ( ) No ถาคลุก คลุกยาอะไร If yes.บาท/กก..ซ. กอนปลูกทานนําเมล็ดแชในน้ําอุนหรือไม  ( ) แช ( ) ไมแช Did you put the seeds in warm water before sowing? ( ) Yes ( ) No ถาแชโปรดอธิบาย If yes. Page 31 .2 การจัดการฟารม Farm Management คําชี้แจง กรุณาทําเครื่องหมาย / ลงใน ( ) หนาขอความที่ตองการ  หรือกรอกขอความลงในชองวาง ที่กําหนดให 3.1 การเตรียมดิน Land Preparation ไถตากดิน Plowing……..1 ปฎิทนการปลูกกระเจียบเขียวเพื่อการสงออก Cropping Calendar ิ ๊ ทานเริ่มปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวจากเดือนอะไรจนถึงเดือนอะไร What month did you start growing okra? พื้นที่ (ไร) Area (rai) เดือน Month 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 3.% ราคาเมล็ดพันธุ Cost of seeds……………………………………. ทําไม Why………………………………………… พันธุที่ใชปลูก Variety name……………………………………………..ม. แหลงที่มาของเมล็ดพันธุ Source of Variety………………………………….. what fungicide?………………………………………………………………………………. c.. What crop?…………………….…ครั้ง แตละครั้งหางกัน Interval…………วัน คาไถตากดิน Cost of plowing………บาท/ไร ไถพรวนดิน Harrowing……ครั้ง แตละครั้งหางกัน Interval………วัน คาไถพรวนดิน Cost of Harrowing…………บาท/ไร ความลึกของการไถ Depth of plowing ……………. Pl explain………………………………………………………………………………… …….2./ไร Kg/rai เปอรเซนตความงอกของเมล็ดพันธุ Percentage of germination……………………….Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand ตอนที่ 3 การผลิต Part 3 Crop Management 3.m. Baht/Kg ทานเคยทดสอบความงอกของเมล็ดพันธุหรือไม ( ) เคย ( )ไมเคย Do you ever practice germination test of seed? ( ) Yes ( ) No ถาเคยโปรดอธิบาย If Yes. ปรับสภาพความเปนกรดดางของดินโดยใสปูนขาว Did you apply lime? ( ) ใส Yes ( ) ไมใส No ปลูกพืชสลับในพื้นที่ปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวหรือไม ( ) ปลูก ( ) ไมปลูก Did you grow other crop in the same land? ( ) Yes ( ) No ถาปลูกปลูกพืชอะไร If Yes.

2. c.m.7 การเด็ดใบ (Leaf picking) ( ) เด็ดใบทิ้งทีละใบพรอมๆกับการตัดฝกทุกครั้ง Pick one leaf after each harvest ( ) เด็ดใบทิ้งบางครั้ง pick leaf sometimes ( ) อื่น (others)…………………………………………………………………………………….6 การใหปุย Fertilizer Application หมายเหตุ วิธีใส ราคา ทำเอง/จาง ชนิดของปุย ปริมาณ(ก. c.4 การใหน้ําหลังหยอดเมล็ด Watering ( ) ใหน้ําทุกวันหลังหยอดเมล็ด ( ) ใหน้ําวันเวนวันหลังหยอดเมล็ด ( ) ใหน้ําทุกวันชวงกระเจี๊ยบเขียวออกดอก ( ) Everyday after sowing ( ) Every other day after sowing ( ) Everyday after flowering stage ( ) อื่น ๆ ระบุ Others…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. ๆ Page 32 . ระยะหางระหวางแปลง Bed interval…………………….m.m.2. c.ครั้ง/ฤดู ( ) ทําเอง ( ) จาง The number of hand weeding/ tillage…………………………time/season ( ) Family ( ) Hired 3.c.3 วิธีปลูก Sowing Methods ระยะหางระหวางตน Between Plant…………………….5 การปองกันกําจัดวัชพืช Weeds Control ( ) ฉีดยาคุม/ฆาหญากอนปลูก ระบุชื่อยา………………………อัตราที่ฉีด………………….ซ.ซ. จํานวนเมล็ดตอหลุม amount of seeds per hole……………………….. ความสูงของแปลง Bed Height…………………………ซ. ความกวางของแปลง Bed Width………………………ซ.m.2.ม.ก.2.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 3./ไ ครั้งที่ Remarks Methods Price Name of ร) No. fertilizer Family/Hire Quantity d (kg/rai) 3.2..ม.ซ.m. ( ) ฉีดเอง ( ) จาง ( ) Apply herbicide before sowing. c.ม. ระยะหางระหวางแถว Between row……………………. name of herbicide……………………Rate………………( ) Family ( ) Hired ดายหญา/พรวนดิน……………………………….ม.ม.เมล็ด seeds วิธีหยอด Sowing method ( ) ใชมือ Hand ( ) ใชเครื่องจักร Machine 3. 3.

10 โรคพืชที่ทําลายกระเจี๊ยบเขียวของทานในฤดูที่ผานมา (เรียงจากตนฤดูจนถึงเก็บเกี่ยว) Disease (From the beginning of the season till harvesting) โรคพืช ระยะการเจริญเติบโ อากาศ วิธีจัดการ Disease ต Climate Control Methods Crop Stage - โรคพืชที่เปนปญหาสําคัญที่สุดคือ What is disease?……………………………………………………… the major 3.2.8 การตัดตน (Pruning) ( ) ตัด Yes ( ) ไมตัด No ( ) ถาตัด ตัดเมื่อไร If prune.9 แมลงศัตรูพืชที่ทําลายกระเจี๊ยบเขียวของทานในฤดูที่ผานมา (เรียงจากตนฤดูจนถึงเก็บเกี่ยว) Insect Pests (From the beginning of the season till harvesting) แมลงศัตรูพืช ระยะการเจริญเติบโต อากาศ วิธีจัดการ Insect Pest Crop Stage Climate Control Methods - แมลงศัตรูพืชที่เปนปญหาสําคัญที่สุดคือ…………………………………………………… …………………………………… What are major insect pest problems?………………………………………………………………………………… ……….11 วัชพืชพืชที่ทําลายกระเจียบเขียวของทานในฤดูที่ผานมา (เรียงจากตนฤดูจนถึงเก็บเกียว) ๊ ่ Weeds (From the beginning of the season till harvesting) วัชพืช ระยะการเจริญเติบโ อากาศ วิธีจัดการ Weeds ต Climate Control Methods Crop Stage Page 33 .2.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand 3.2. 3.. 3. when………………………………………………………………………………………….2.

2.การกําจัดวัชพืช Weeding ( ) ผูชาย  M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .การขาย Selling ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both Page 34 . of applicati on 4.การใสปุย Fertilizer application ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .12 ชื่อสารเคมีและสารสกัดจากธรรมชาติที่ทานใชในการปองกันกําจัดศัตรูพืช Chemical and Bio pesticide uses ชื่อสารเคมีและ แหลงที่ สารสกัดจากธ มา Source รรมชาติ Name ราคา Price ปริมาณที่ใชต อครั้งตอไร Quantity/time /rai ความถี่ในกา จํานวน ฉีดเอง/จาง ฉีดเพื่อปอ รฉีดพน ครั้งที่ฉี Family/Hi งกันอะไร red Frequency of ดพน Purpose spraying No.การเตรียมดิน Land Preparation ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .เก็บเกี่ยว Harvesting ( ) ผูชาย  M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .ฉีดสารเคมี Pesticide spray ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .การใหน้ํา Irrigation ( ) ผูชาย  M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand - วัชพืชที่เปนปญหาสําคัญที่สุดคือ What is weed?……………………………………………………… the major 3.การหวาน Sowing ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F  ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .การขนสง Transportation ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both . บทบาทของสมาชิกในครอบครัวในการผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียวเพื่อการสงออก Gender distribution in okra Production คําชี้แจง กรุณาทําเครื่องหมาย / ลงใน ( ) หนาขอความที่ตองการ ขั้นตอนในการผลิต .

ใครเปนผูดแล เก็บเงินรายไดของครอบครัว Who control the family’s income? ู ( ) ผูชาย M ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both .ใครเปนผูตัดสินใจในการใชจายภายในครอบครัว Who decides on family’s expenditure? ( ) ผูชาย M ทั้งผูหญิงและผูชาย Both ( ) ผูหญิง F ( ) 5.วัน หลังหยอดเมล็ด DAS .บาท/กก.( ) คัดเกรดผลผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียวกอนสงใหบริษัท ( ) สงผลผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียวทั้งหมดใหบริษัทโดยไมคัดเกรด Grading before sending to company Send all okra yields without grading .เริ่มเก็บเกี่ยวตั้งแตเดือนอะไรจนกระทั่งถึงเดือนอะไร When did the harvesting start and finish? เดือน Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 .Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand .การจางแรงงานในการเก็บผลผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียว Labor in harvesting ( ) จาง Hire…………………คน person จางประจํา Permanent Labor………………คน person จางชั่วคราว Temporary labor……………….บาท/กก Baht/Kg ตกเกรด Low grade ราคา Price………………. Baht/Kg .คน person ( ) ไมจาง (ระบุ) No hiring………………………………………………………….รายไดจากการปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวในปที่ผานมาIncome from growing okra…………บาท Bt(ประมาณใกลเคียงกับความจริง) .บาท/กก. การเก็บเกี่ยว/การตลาด Harvesting/Marketing คําชี้แจง กรุณากรอกขอความลงในชองวางที่กําหนดให . Baht/Kg เกรด B ราคา Price……………….จํานวนผลผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียวที่ไดรบในปที่ผานมาประมาณ Total Yield of okra (last ั year)………………กิโลกรัม/ไร Kg/rai เขาเกรด (มีคุณภาพตามที่บริษัทตองการ) In grade (qualify by company)……………….กระเจียบเขียวเริ่มเก็บเกี่ยวไดเมื่อมีอายุได The first day of ๊ harvesting…………………….การลงทุนทั้งหมดในการปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวในปที่ผานมา The cost of investment of growing okra (last year) …………………. .บาท Baht (ประมาณใกลเคียงกับความจริง) Page 35 .กิโลกรัม Kg ตกเกรด (ไมมีคุณภาพ) Low grade………………………………….กิโลกรัม Kg ..เก็บเกี่ยวกระเจี๊ยบเขียวกี่ครั้งใน 1 ฤดูThe number of harvesting in 1 season………………ครั้ง times .ราคาผลผลิตกระเจี๊ยบเขียวที่ทานสามารถจําหนายได Price of okra เขาเกรด In grade เกรด A ราคา Price……………….

.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand .. Page 36 ............ คําถามสําหรับทดสอบความรู Some general tests คำชี้แจง กรุณาทําเครื่องหมาย / ลงใน ( ) หนาขอความที่ตองการ นําตัวอยางกระเจี๊ยบเขียวที่ถูกทําลายโดยเชื้อไวรัสและถามเกษตรกรวาพืชถูกทําลายโดย How do you recognize the following leaf sample? (Here we could collect some plant virus specimen) ( ) แมลง Insect ( ) ขาดธาตุอาหาร Nutrient deficiency ( ) เชื้อไวรัส Virus ( ) ผิดทุกขอ None of these ..........………………………………………………………… 6............... ความตองการ Needs ทานมีความประสงคที่จะเรียนรูเรื่องอะไรบางเพื่อพัฒนาคุณภาพและปริมาณของกระเจียบเขียว ๊ What do you want to know more in order to improve your okra production?.........…………………………………………………………………………… ………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………....………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………...ขายกระเจียบเขียวใหกบบริษัท What company did you sell okra ๊ ั to?……………………………………………………… อะไรที่ทานคิดวาเปนปญหาที่สําคัญที่สุดในการปลูกกระเจี๊ยบเขียวเพื่อการสงออก What is the most important constraints in okra production farmers? ( ) แมลงศัตรูพืช Insect Pest ( ) โรคพืช Disease ( ) ขาดความรูดานการผลิต Lack of technique ( ) ตลาด Market ( ) การใหน้ํา Irrigation ( ) เมล็ดพันธุ Seeds ( ) การขนสง Transportation ( ) เงินทุน Money อื่นๆ(โปรดอธิบาย):Others………………………………………………………………… ………………. วันที: Date…………………………………………… ่ เวลา: Time…………………………………………………………………...... ……………………………ทําไม Why………………………………………………… 7......แมลงชนิดนี้จดอยูในแมลงจําพวกไหน How do you classify the insects presented to you? ั ( ) กินใบ Leaf feeder ( ) กินใบและเจาะลําตน Leaf & stem borer ( ) ศัตรูธรรมชาติ Natural Enemies ( ) เจาะลําตน Stem Borer ( ) เจาะฝก Fruit Borer ( ) ไมใชศัตรูพืช Not Pest ผูสัมภาษณ: Interviewer……………………………………………………. การจดบันทึกขอมูลการผลิต Record Keeping ทานไดจดบันทึกขอมูล (การใชสารปองกันกําจัดศัตรูพืช การใหปุย) หรือไม Did you ever record (Chemical use and fertilizer use)? ( ) จด Yes ( ) ไมจด No ถาจด ใครเปนผูจด If yes.............. 8.......

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 2: Baseline survey on export okra production. Ratchaburi Page 37 .

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 3: Baseline survey on export okra production. Kanchnaburi Page 38 .

Nonthaburi Page 39 .Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 4: baseline survey on export okra production.

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 5: Baseline survey on export okra production. Nakhon Pathom Page 40 .

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 6: Common Insect-pests and diseases of okra in Thailand Fig 6.1: Yellow Vein Mosaic Fig 6.2: Leaf spot of okra (Pseudocercospora sp.3: Green leaf hopper (Amarasca biguttula) Fig: 6.6: Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Page 41 .4 Cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera litura) Fig 6.) Fig 6.5: Thrips (Thrips palmi) Fig 6.

8: Heliothis armigera Fig 6. CABI for the purpose of information only.3 to 6. Page 42 .9 are taken form the CABI Crop Protection Compendium.9: Spodoptera exigua Source: Picture no.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Fig 6. 6. 2002.7: Aphid (Aphis gossypii) Fig 6.

Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 7: Common natural enemies of okra insect-pests in Thailand Fig 7.4: Lynx Spider Fig 7. 2: Encarsia sp.1: Grub of lady bird beetle Fig 7.5: Damsel fly Fig 7. (whitefly parasitoids) Fig 7.3: Adult ear wig Fig 7.6: Dragon fly Page 43 .

9: Larva of lacewing Fig 7.org/en/IPMDANIDA/ipmdanida.7: Adult lacewing Fig 7.htm).ipmthailand.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Fig 7. Page 44 .6 are reproduced from the IPM DANIDA Thailand website (URL: www.8: Egg of lacewing Fig 7.3 – 7.10: Pupa of lacewing Source: Picture 7.

1: Fresh okra brought by car from farmers’ field Fig 8.4: “Ingrade” or Top export grade okra Page 45 .2: Process of okra grading Fig 8.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 8: Grading and Sorting of fresh okra for export Fig 8.

5 Final packaging for Japanese market Fig 8.7: “Medium” and “low” grade okra (sold in local market) Page 46 .6 Final packaging for Japanese market Fig 8.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Fig 8.

Kanchanburi Fig 9.3 Flower and dry pod with seeds of okra Page 47 .Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Annex 9: Okra production system/interview process Fig 9.2: 40-45 days old crop of okra planted on raised –bed (ditch & dike) Ratchaburi Fig 9.1: Twenty-five days old crop of okra planted in furrows.

5: Interaction with manager of Okra Export Company. Ratchaburi Page 48 .4: Interaction with okra export farmers Kanchaburi Fig 9.Baseline Survey on export okra production in Thailand Fig 9.

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