Capacitor Power Supply

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file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.htm (1 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM

Capacitor Power Supply q q q q q q Mobile Phones r Oscillator r Pll Transmitters r Radio Amplifiers r Receiver r Transmitter Reviews r Audio amplifier r Digital Tv Box r Radio Frequency Service r Cell phone service r Console service r LCD TV Service r Plasma TV service Useful r Datasheets r How to r Programs. Software r Theory Various r Alarm r Cars r Games r Indicators r Infrared r Lights r Motors r Sensors r Testers Video Wiki r Search << Find more projects Capacitor Power Supply file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.htm (2 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM .

The conventional method is the use of a step-down transformer to reduce the 230 V AC to a desired level of low voltage AC. Selection of the dropping capacitor and the circuit design requires some technical knowledge and practical experience to get the desired voltage and current.000) } = 14475. An ordinary capacitor will not do the job since the device will be destroyed by the rushing current from the mains.22 uF is calculated as X=1/2Pi. Higher voltage versions are also available. The most simple.000.Mohankumar 32 comments One of the major problems that is to be solved in an electronic circuit design is the production of low voltage DC power supply from Mains to power the circuit. The X rated capacitor is designed for 250.4 Kilo ohms.976 Ohms 0r 14.22 x( 1 / 1.Capacitor Power Supply May 9. space saving and low cost method is the use of a Voltage Dropping Capacitor in series with the phase line. it is necessary to understand the working principle and the operation of the dropping capacitor. Rectance ( X ) and the mains frequency ( 50 – 60 Hz ) are the important parameters to be considered while selecting the capacitor.f. The Effective Impedance ( Z ). Mains spikes will create holes in the dielectric and the capacitor will fail to work.C file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.htm (3 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . X-rated capacitor specified for the use in AC mains is required for reducing AC voltage. 600 VAC.22 uF capacitor running in the mains frequency 50Hz will be X = 1 / {2 ¶ x 50 x 0. 2010 D. 400. X Rated capacitor 400 Volt Before selecting the dropping capacitor. Rectance of the capacitor 0. The reactance(X ) of the capacitor ( C )in the mains frequency ( f ) can be calculated using the formula X = 1 / (2 ¶ fC ) For example the reactance of a 0.

Therefore the rectance of the capacitor appears as 14475. 4 = 15.22 x 1 / 1.htm (4 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . 400V. Therefore it is recommended to use a 470 nF capacitor rated for 400 V for such circuits to give required current.Hence 0. But this is not sufficient for many circuits.That is 230 / 14. 680V AC Table showing the X rated capacitor types and the output voltage and current without load file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. X Rated AC capacitors – 250V.4 K Ohms. it can deliver around 15 mA current to the circuit.4 = 15.000.Capacitor Power Supply Where f is the 50 Hz frequency of mains and C is the value of capacitor in Farads. Therefore if a 0.000. Effective impedance (Z) of the capacitor is determined by taking the load resistance ( R ) as an important parameter.To get current I divide mains Volt by the rectance in kilo ohm.22 microfarad is 0.97 Ohms or 14. Impedance can be calculated using the formula Z=√R+X Suppose the current in the circuit is I and Mains voltage is V then the equation appears like I=V/X The final equation thus becomes I = 230 V / 14.9 mA.000 farads.9 mA.000 farads.22 uF capacitor rated for 230 V is used. That is 1 microfarad is 1 / 1.

So a suitable option is a rectifier diode 1N4007. The peak inverse voltage is the maximum voltage a diode can withstand when it is reverse biased. DC Smoothing A Smoothing Capacitor is used to generate ripple free DC.htm (5 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . The important characteristics of general purpose rectifier diodes are given in the table.6 V.Capacitor Power Supply Rectification Diodes used for rectification should have sufficient Peak inverse voltage (PIV). Usually a silicon diode has a Forward voltage drop of 0. Smoothing capacitor is also called Filter file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. The current rating (Forward current) of rectifier diodes also vary. 1N 4001 diode can withstand up to 50 Volts and 1N 4007 has a toleration of 1000 Volts. Most of the general purpose rectifier diodes in the 1N series have 1 ampere current rating.

So a high value capacitor (1000 uF or 2200 uF) rated 25 volts or more must be used to get a ripple free DC output. If ripple is excess it will affect the functioning of the circuit especially RF and IR circuits. a point reached where its reverse current suddenly increases. Voltage Regulation Zener diode is used to generate a regulated DC output. So the maximum power dissipation that can be allowed in a Zener is the Zener voltage multiplied by the current flowing through it. Zener diodes are specially made to exploit the avalanche effect for use in ‘Reference voltage ‘regulators. without which the Zener diode will be destroyed. For example. R will take up any excess voltage. According to the formula P = IV. The ripple that appears in the capacitor is directly proportional to the load current and is inversely proportional to the capacitance value. The Zener output voltage is not seriously affected by R and the output remains as a stable reference voltage. then R will pass the maximum desired output current plus 5 mA .3W should be used. The value of R can be calculated using the formula R = Vin – Vz / Iz Where Vin is the input voltage. a full wave rectified DC output obtained from 50Hz AC mains operating a circuit that is drawing 100 mA current will have a ripple of 700 mV peak-to-peak in the filter capacitor rated 1000 uF. It is better to keep the ripple below 1. A significant voltage drop (about 2 volts) occurs across file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. if a 12V Zener passes 12 V DC and 100 mA current.Capacitor Power Supply capacitor and its function is to convert half wave / full wave output of the rectifier into smooth DC. LED Indicator LED indicator is used as power on indicator. But the limiting resistor R is important. A Zener diode can be used to generate a fixed voltage by passing a limited current through it using the series resistor (R). The voltage at which this occurs is known as “Avalanche or Zener “value of the diode. Iz is kept as low as 5mA. So a Zener diode rated 1. If a silicon diode is reverse biased.htm (6 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . The power rating and the capacitance are two important aspects to be considered while selecting the smoothing capacitor. I current in Amps and V.5 V peak-to-peaks under full load condition. The power rating must be greater than the off load output voltage of the power supply. A Zener diode is designed to operate in the reverse breakdown region. the voltage. The capacitance value determines the amount of ripples that appear in the DC output when the load takes current. So the value of R appears as R = 18 – 12 / 105 mA = 6 / 105 x 1000 = 57 ohms Power rating of the Zener is also an important factor to be considered while selecting the Zener diode.2 Watts. the voltage that is to be dropped across R to get 12V output is 6volts. P is the power in watts. For example. its power dissipation will be 1. If the supply voltage is 18V. Even if the supply voltage varies. If the maximum Zener current allowed is 100 mA. Vz output voltage and Iz current through the Zener In most circuits.

8 volts. But is advisable to use 1 K resistor to increase the life of the LED even though there will be a slight reduction in the brightness.htm (7 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . But this may be 40 mA for Blue and White LEDs. Table given below is a ready reckoner for selecting limiting resistor for various versions of LEDs at different voltages. the voltage drop is 1. the output voltage will be 2 volts less than the value of Zener.8 V (Vf) and the allowable current is 20 mA (If) then the value of the series resistor will be Vs – Vf / If = 12 – 1. So if the supply voltage is 12 V (Vs). V is the supply voltage and I is the allowable current in Amps. Without R2. it is necessary to increase the value of Zener to 15 volts. A suitable available value of resistor is 470 Ohms.8 / 20 mA = 10. Since the LED takes 1.02 A = 510 Ohms. Circuit Diagram The diagram shown below is a simple transformer less power supply. A current limiting resistor is necessary to protect LED from excess current that is flowing through it. For a typical Red LED.2uF) 400 volts X rated capacitor is used to drop 230 volt AC. The value of this series resistor should be carefully selected to prevent damage to LED and also to get sufficient brightness at 20 mA current. The forward voltage drops of various LEDs are shown in Table.Capacitor Power Supply the LED when it passes forward current. voltage drop across the LED is 1. A typical LED can pass 30 –40 mA current without destroying the device. So if the circuit requires 12 volts.8 volts.2 / 0. Resistor R2 is the bleeder resistor that remove the stored current from the capacitor when the circuit is unplugged. The current limiting resistor can be selected using the formula R=V/I Where R is the value of resistor in ohms. Normal current that gives sufficient brightness to a standard Red LED is 20 mA. there is chance for fatal shock if file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. Here 225 K(2.

Capacitor Power supply Circuit Caution: Construction of this form of power supply is recommended only to those persons experienced or competent in handling AC mains. 2. A full wave rectifier comprising D1 through D4 is used to rectify the low voltage AC from the capacitor C1 and C2 removes ripples from the DC.No galvanic isolation from Mains. The drawback of the Capacitor power supply includes 1.Low current output. It is better to add a safety fuse in the phase line and an MOV across the phase and neutral lines as safety measure if there is voltage spike or short circuit in the mains. With a Capacitor power supply.htm (8 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM .Capacitor Power Supply the circuit is touched. it can harm the gadget. Resistor R1 protects the circuit from inrush current at power on.This 24 volt DC can be regulated to required output voltage using a suitable 1 watt Zener. around 24 volts at 100 mA current will be available at the output. Maximum output current available will be 100 mA or less. With this design. file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.So it is not ideal to run heavy current inductive loads.So if the power supply section fails. So do not try this circuit if you are not experienced in handling High voltages.

Output voltage and current will not be stable if the AC input varies. Even after switching off the circuit. X rated Capacitor Search << Find more projects Comments Leave a comment q Written by hb on May 13. 2010. Caution Great care must be taken while testing the power supply using a dropping resistor. The high value smoothing capacitor will explode.polarized so that it can be connected either way round.. D. I must say i have never understood any transformerless supply circuits ever…but in this post the whole concept got clear and now i may make one by the guidance of this post… Thank you for such a deep and proper explanation which is in simple language q Written by D. The metal case should be properly earthed. Do not touch at any points in the PCB since some points are at mains potential.htm (9 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . Reply Was just surfing the net for circuits and got on to this post. Extreme care should be taken to construct the circuit to avoid short circuits and fire. The circuit should be housed in metal case without touching any part of the PCB in the metal case. Sufficient spacing must be given between the components. The dropping capacitor is non. if is connected in the reverse polarity. The power supply unit must be isolated from the remaining part of the circuit using insulators.Mohankumar on May 13. 2010. Reply file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.Mohankumar Power supply Power supply. avoid touching the points around the dropping capacitor to prevent electric shock.Capacitor Power Supply 3.

please reply how to change the circuit to get the 400mA current file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.I will post more articles in easy to understand way so that even a new comer can make use of it q Written by V GOPALAKRISHNA on May 21.htm (10 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . 2010.98 ohms. V. Hyderabad.22 x 1 / 1.f.C Where f is the 50 Hz frequency of mains and C is the value of capacitor in Farads. I have not understood how the reactance for 0.000. r Written by D.Capacitor Power Supply Thanks for the feedback. To get current I divide mains Volt by the rectance in kilo ohm That is 230 / 14.9 mA. 2010. q Written by muthurajmuthali on June 24. Reply this circuit is OK. mains is coming to 14.Hence 0. Reply Dear sir. That is 1 microfarad is 1 / 1. I am getting by the formula X = 14462. I am a non technical person but verymuch interested in electronics. Reply Thank you Sir.22 uF is calculated as X=1/2Pi.000 farads. The detailed explanation is added in the writeup s Written by gopala on May 22.000 farads. for your kind prompt reply.000.97 Ohms or 14.4 ohms. Reply Rectance of the capacitor 0.Mohankumar on May 22.4 K Ohms.22 uF capacitor under 50 hz. Thanks in advance. Kindly explain.But how to increase the current for up to 400mA.because in this circuit is giving only 100mA.C.22 microfarad is 0. Therefore the rectance of the capacitor appears as 14475. 2010.A.G.4 = 15.Krishna. 2010.

2010..Letter K is usually used in High voltage capacitors and it means + / – 10% tolerance CAP TOLERANCE C = +/. q Written by atir on July 7.Capacitor Power Supply r Written by ElectroSchematics.000005 UF.5% K +/. Reply Hi.1% G +/.com on June 24. 2010. 5 PF is 0.details of components…… . 2010.2% J +/. Could you please let me know the value of 5k capacitor in uf? I’ll be very thankful to you.htm (11 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM .25PF D = +/.5PF F = +/. q Written by muthurajmuthali on June 24. Reply Dear Sir..Mohankumar on July 7. 2010.is there any other circuit…….0.10% M +/-20% Z +80% / -20% file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. Reply I think you are asking for 5 PF capacitor. Regards Atir q Written by D.0.. Reply thanks…guys…please send the details of the circuit . here is a transformerless power supply with 30 volts and 1000 mA output.

2010. thanks a lot. q Written by D. 2010. will it work for the same purpose. q Written by D. Please elaborate the significance of capacitor C1. The function of capacitor C1 is to only provide series reactance to step down AC mains. Reply Thanks for the feedback q Written by Navidad on August 6. 2010. Reply hi there. 2010. I have some confusion. 2010.Mohankumar on July 9. well written and very clear. if i simply put one high watt resistor. current will be reduced but huge quantity of heat will be generated and energy will be lost due to heat. what a great article! covers just about everything.Mohankumar on July 16.Capacitor Power Supply q Written by Lovejeet on July 9. Reply sir. Reply If we use a high watt resistor in series with AC.htm (12 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . until the dielectric of the capacitor breaks due to short circuit or high voltage. dee. it is nothing to do with energy storage. q Written by dee on July 15. Reply file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. Capacitor power supply eliminates the chance of heat generation and it gives some isolation from mains.

Is it true? But I don’t know what affects the size of the output voltage. 2010. Reply Thank you… s Written by ElectroSchematics.com/5224/ metal-oxide-varistor/ q Written by Navidad on August 10.com on August 7. 2010.Mohankumar on August 7. r Written by Navidad on August 10. 2010. I think. What affects the size of the current in this circuit.htm (13 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM .Capacitor Power Supply What is the device of the MOV? r Written by D. Reply MOV is Metal Oxide Varister. What affects the size of the output voltage 2. 2010. it will short circuit and break the fuse s Written by Navidad on August 7. 2010. Reply 1. If the input AC increases above the limit. Reply Here you can read more about the MOV http://electroschematics. file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. a kind of component used to protect circuits from AC spikes. Reply size of the curent should be given reactance of capacitor.

Reply sir.2 uF will give around 100 milli ampere current and 50 volts AC.Yuvaraj on September 30. Reply file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. If high volt DC is used as input. Usually a 220-470 K 1 watt resistor is used for the purpose. Thanks. in one of my experiments with capacitive power supply.Higher value capacitor like 2.Mohankumar on September 12. i found that bleeder resistor R2 across capacitor C1 is very useful.This depends on the input AC voltage r Written by Navidad on August 10.htm (14 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . 2010. 2010. Please suggest will it (R2) have any adverse effect on performance of power supply with AC input or high voltage DC input if its value and power rating properly selected? q Written by D. the bleeder resistor is included to remove the stored current quickly when the circuit is unplugged. Reply In capacitor power supply. increase the value of the bleeder resistor to 1 M or 2. 2010. to have 4V DC output with DC input instead of AC. It provides path to DC to be injected. I think it. 2010. :-) q Written by Lovejeet on September 12.Mohankumar on August 10. Reply OK. Reply Output voltage and current depends on the Capacitive Rectance of the capacitor used.Capacitor Power Supply q Written by D.2 M so that it will not affect much to the output q Written by A. 2010.

Reply Use 470K to 1M bleeder resistor for the AC capacitor to remove stored current quickly when the unit is unplugged. 2010. Resulting current is in Milli amps file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply. r Written by D.Mohankumar on October 24. Reply nice idea q Written by k.1/4W bleeder resistor for . Low value resistor may heat up. 2010. The reactance of the capacitor is 40 ohms. See the table showing output current and voltage of common capacitors given in the article. Convert the rectance into Kilo ohms by dividing it with 1000. 2010.Mohankumar on October 19.. Reply can i use 1M.Capacitor Power Supply I have 2 Amps Load in DC Supply. Reply A capacitor is in series with resistance of 30 ohms and connected to a 220 volt ac line. What is the current in the circuit ? Help me with the answer r Written by D.22uF ? plz suggest me……. 2010. Reply What is the value of the AC capacitor.raghvban on October 19. Then the current is supply voltage / rectance in Kilo ohms.Ideal value is 470K or 560K 1W q Written by Godwill on October 23. 2010. and how much Capacitor range i want to connect for protection purpose? q Written by Palitha Alahakoon on October 3.htm (15 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM .

htm (16 of 17)2/3/2011 10:41:42 PM . current etc in practical conditions. The AC capacitor is rated 400V. is it essencial to use bleeder resistor except for safety purpose…. 2010. This can give a lethal shock. 2010. voltage. If you add a bleeder resistor.what r the basic difference whenever we use bleeder resistor or not for . The capacitor charges fully up to this high voltage. if the pins of the AC cord is touched. Leave a Comment Your name Your email Your website Subscribe to commentsLeave comment Notify me of followup comments via e-mail Previous Post Next Post file:///C|/Users/Rohan/Desktop/Capacitor%20Power%20Supply.raghvban on October 26. this stored current will be removed immediately when the cord is un plugged.Adding a high value bleeder resistor like 470K or IM will not affect the properties of the capacitor.please advice me….22uF ? is any variation in voltage and current. and keep this high voltage for many days even if the unit is not connected to AC lines.600V or up to 2 KV. Reply sir. Reply Dear Raghvban The bleeder resistor parallel to the AC capacitor is a must in capacitor power supply.Mohankumar on October 26.Capacitor Power Supply q Written by k. r Written by D.

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