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kf6L{ , g] k fn sDo' l g:6 kf6L{ - :yfkgf gx'Gh]n;Dd casf] ;‹if{ ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] cGTo u/L j}1flgs b]zeQm /fi6«jfbLx¿ Psh'6 eP/
qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_, ljZjeQm lg/Gt/ cufl8 a9\g] bfaL u/] . pgn] ;dfhjfb :yfkgf ug{ /0fg}lts ;+oQ' m nfUg'kg]{ pgsf] egfO{ lyof] . cfk"mnfO{
b'nfn cfx'lt g]t[Tjsf] j}1flgs ca clGtd k6s alnbfg ug{k' g]{ df]rf{ lgdf{0f u/]/ ;+3if{df cfPsf] /fi6«jfbL eGg] s]kL cf]nL ;/sf/n]
;dfhjfbL sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / Clif a]nf cfPsf] ;d]t atfP . pgn] eg]– atfP . jt{dfg s]kL ;/sf/ s/f]8f}s F f Pd;L;Lsf] gfddf cd]l/sL ;]gf
s§]n g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 oL hgtf s;}nfO{ ;/sf/df r9fpg e|i6frf/sf sf08df ;+nUg /x]sf] leq\ofpg vf]h]sf] eGb} To;sf]
kf6L{sf] /0fg}lts ;+o'Qm df]rf{n] / 9nfpg cfPsf xf]Ogg\ oL hgtf atfpFb} e|i6frf/LnfO{ sf/jfxL ug{ vf/]hLsf lglDt klg /0fg}lts df]rf{n]
z'qmaf/ wgu9Ldf ljzfn hg;ef cfˆgf] clwsf/sf nflu cfPsf x'g\ . dfu u/] . ;f] hg;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ;+3if{ ug]{ atfP . s]kL cf]nLn] ef/tLo
;DkGg u/]sf] xf] . pQm hg;efsf ;/sf/n] e| i 6frf/L / ;+ / If0f ub}{ /fli6«o hfu/0f d~rsf ;+of]hs v' l kmof Ph] G ;L …/cÚ k| d ' v nfO{
k|foM ;a} jQmfx?n] b]zsf] at{dfg ul//x]sf] dfq 5}g, Pd;L;Lsf] gfddf u'0f/fh nf]xgLn] ;/sf/n] ljKnj dWo/ftdf afn'jf6f/df :jfut u/]/
;+s6sf] lgsf; a}1flgs ;dfhjfb /fi6«3ft;d]t ul//x]sf] pgsf] egfO g]t[Tjsf] g]skfnfO{ k|ltaGw nufP/ cfˆgf] bnfn rl/q k|bz{g u/]sf]
g} pQd lasNk ePsf] atfPsf 5g\ . lyof] . lnk' n ] s , lnlDkofw' / f / kmf;LjfbL rl/q k| b z{ g u/] s f] pgsf] egfO{ lyof] .
;f] hg;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub]{ g]skf - sfnfkfgLsf] gS;f k|sfzg u/]/ atfP . k|ltaGw nufP/ ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;dfhjfbL d~rsf s]Gb|Lo
qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_ sf :yfoL /fi6«jfbL b]lvg vf]h]sf] ;/sf/n] cfkm}Fn] agfPsf] ;+ljwfgnfO{ RofTg] cWoIf l8=8L= kf08]on] rf/ bnLo
sld6L ;b:o /fdl;+x >L;n] b]zdf lnk'n]ssf] gS;f k|sflzt k':ts dfq xf]Og, kmf;LjfbL rl/q k|bz{g ;+o'Qm df]rf{ casf] ljsNk zlQmsf
;+;b\ lj36g ug]{ / km]l/ k'g:yf{kgf /f]s/] bnfn rl/q k|bz{g u/]sf] pgsf] u/]sf] 5 . b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ ¿kdf cufl8 a9]sf] atfP . pgn]
ug]{h:tf gf6s eO/x]sf] atfP . egfO lyof] . dflyNnf] s0ff{nL, c¿0f e|i6frf/df r'nD'{ d 8'as] f] pgsf] egfO{ of] s]jn ;'?jft ePsf] atfP .
pgn] jt{dfg ;/sf/ bnfn, e|i6 / t];|f] ef/tnfO{ ;'lDkg] …/cÚ k|d'v lyof] . ;+;f/ sf]/f]gf efO/;n] cfqmfGt casf] qmflGt s] j n jf:tljs
sldzgvf]/L ePsf] cf/f]k nufP . ;fd' nDk;f/ kg]{ ;/sf/ s;/L ePsf a]nf ;/sf/ sf]/f]gf lgoGq0fdf ls;fg, dhb'/, lk5l8Psf ju{sf]
ca g]kfnL hgtfn] bnfnx¿sf] cGTo /fi6«jfbL < pgn] k|Zg u/] . dxFuL, /fi6«3ft / e|i6frf/sf] lj/f]w ubf{ ;f]xL hg;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ geP/ e|i6frf/ ug{ pBt ePsf] pgsf] pTyfgsf lglDt ePsf] pgn] bfaL
ug{k' g]{ / To;sf] g]tT[ j ug{ cfk"mx¿ s[lqd cefj, sfnf]ahf/Ln] hgtfsf] g]skfnfO{ k|ltaGw nufPsf] eGb} g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf cWoIf Clif egfO{ lyof] . pgn] ;/sf/n] e|i6frf/ u/] . h;sf nfuL rf/ bnLo ;+o'Qm
rf/ bn Ps eP/ cufl8 a9]sf] hLjg si6s/ aGb} uO/x]sf] eGb} hgtfnfO{ /fi6«3ftL / e|i6frf/LnfO{ s§]nn] ;/sf/n] ;+ljwfg ljk/Lt ug{s} nflu ;]l6ªdf cf]DgL u|k' nfO{ df]rf{ clu al9;s]sf] pgn] hgfP .
atfP . pgn] casf] ljsNk ;/sf/ sfnf]ahf/LnfO{ sf/jfxL xf]Og, alxisf/ ug{ cg'/f]w u/] . /fi6«3ft ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skfnfO{ k|ltaGw dxËf]df 7]Ssf lbPsf] bfaL u/] . To:t} /0fgLlts ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf
hgu0ftGq g} ePsf] atfpFb} ;a} ;+/If0f ul//x]sf] pgn] 7f]s'jf u/] . / hg3ftlj?4 /0fg}lts df]rf{dfkm{t\ nufPsf] eGb} k|ltaGw x6fpg dfu o;}u/L, ;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ g]tf s'j]/ l;+xn] ljut cf7 bzs

ldn]/ cufl8 a9\g'kg]{ a]nf cfPsf] hg;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ j}1flgs ;zQm cfGbf]ngsf] cfFwLj]x/L ;[hgf u/] . of] ;/sf/n] k~rfotsf] emNsf] /0fg}lts ;+oQ' m df]rf{sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o nfdf] Oltxf; x]bf{ g]kfnL hgtfdfly
atfP . ;‹Lotfn] cfTdlg0f{osf] ;dfhjfbL sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf cWoIf ug]{ pgsf] egfO{ lyof] . ;+;b\ lbg] u/L hgtfsf] af] N g kfpg] k"0f{axfb'/ l;+xn] ;Dk"0f{ b]zeQm, s'7f/f3ft x'Fb} cfO/x]sf] atfpFb}
clwsf/ glbOPsf] atfpFb} s]jn ljZjeQm b'nfn -cfx'lt_ n] jt{dfg k'g:yf{kgf jf lj36gn] hgtfsf] clwsf/dfly aGb]h nufPsf] eGb} k|ultzLn tyf ;dfhjfbL zlQm pgn] ca g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ wf]sf gx'g]
hgtfn] cGofo ;xg'kg]{ cj:yf ;/sf/ bnfn k'h
F LjfbLx¿sf] ;/sf/ ;d:of ;dfwfg gug]{ eGb} j}1flgs pgn] cfqmf]z JoQm u/] . pgn] eg]– Psh'6 x'gk' g]{ atfP . pgn] jt{dfg -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
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eO;s] s f] 7f] s ' j f u/] s f 5g\ . x'g;Sg] atfP . pgn] To;sf nflu != JolQmut ;Qf xTofpg] ;'lgof] s]kL cf]nL afx]s c? ;a}nfO{ aGg] lr¶f kg{] ;Defjgf k|jn aGb} ;Defjgf k|jn 5 .
dfS;{jfbL Pstf cleofg g]kfnn] ;a} qmflGtsf/L zlQmx? Psh'6 eP/ k|j[lQsf] lzsf/ M @)&& kmfNu'g kf6L{df kmls{g / k'/fg} lhDd]jf/L axg 5 . ptf k|wfgdGqL s]kL zdf{ cf]nL !=! ;+ ; b\ lj36gn] gofF
!! ut] s f] ;jf{ ] R r cbfntsf] ug{ cg'/f]w ul/of] . clxn] k|wfgdGqL ;+;bLo bndf cfk"m ax'dtdf k'Ug] 7fpFdf hfg] af6f] vf]Ng'kYof{] M
km};nfkl5 ;+;b\sf] k'g:yf{kgf eof] . s]kL cf]nLn] g}ltstfsf cfwf/df of]hgfdf hf]8an nufO/x]sf 5g\ . ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5, ;+;b\ lj36g s'g}
;+;b\sf] k'g:yf{kgfkl5 bfxfn–g]kfn /fhLgfdf lbg] jf glbg] b'Oy{ l/ dtx? ;+;bLo bndf ax'dt l;h{gf ug{ ;s] cu|udgsf nflu ul/Psf] lyPg a?
;d"xn] b]ze/ ljhof]T;j / ¥ofnL aflx/ cfPsf 5g\ . pgn] ;+;b\ km]l/ klg cfk"m ;Qfdf /lx/xg ;Sg] oyfl:yltd} gofF dWofjlw r'gfjsf
lgsfNof] . pgLx?n] n8\8' v'jfPsf k'g:yf{kgfkl5 klg cfkm\gf] cl:tTj cfFsng pgn] u/]sf 5g\ . b]zdf nflu / cfkm\gf] u'Dg} nfu]sf] ;Qfsf]
t:jL/x? efO/n eO/x]sf 5g\ . w]/} arfp ug{] hLjgd/0fsf] n8fOF hf/L k]ml/ klg kmf]xf]/L /fhgLlt / ;f+;b\ cfo' nDAofpgsf nflu ul/Psf] lyof] .
k"jP{ dfn]nfO{ nfu]sf] 5, cfˆg} 3/df /fVg]5g\ . lsgls ToxfF pgL, pgsf] lsga]rsf] k|lqmof ;'? ePsf] 5 . t/, ;+;b\ lj36gn] Pp6f af6f] eg]
cfuf] nufP/ ljho ¥ofnL lgsfNg] ;d"x / /fi6«kltsf] ;d]t cl:tTjsf] ca ;f+;b\ ckx/0f;Dd hfg ;Sg] v'Nnf ug{ ;SYof] . ;+;b\ljxLgtf jf
d'v{x? Û ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgfkl5 s]xL k|Zg ufFl;Psf] 5 . /fi6«klt aGg l/Sttfn] gofF 7fpFdf hfg] af6f] vf]Ng
/x:ox? k|i6 ePsf 5g\ . w]/} gofF tof/ 5' eg]/ emngfy vgfnsf] ;xh x'g ;SYof] . zfob ;+o'Qm
tYo / /x:ox? k|:km'l6t ePsf 5g\ cleJolQm cfO;s]sf] 5 . ptf /0fg}lts df]rf{sf] 3f]if0ff tyf ljKnj
/ /x:osf] klxnf] s8L xf]– cf]nL / k| w fgdGqLaf6 /fhLgfdf glbP g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dflysf]
;jf{R] r cbfntaLr ;]l6ª 5 eGg] hgtfn] l3;f/]/ ;8sdf Nofpg] k|ltaGwsf] km's'jf ug{] ahf/ xNnf
z'qmaf/ ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] ;Gbe{df nfUg' kg]{df ;d]t hf]8 lbP . xNnf lg/fwf/, skf]slNkt / k|fof]lht r]tfjgL k|wfgdGqL cf]nLdfly cfPs} h:tf b'O{ dxTjk"0f{ kl/36gfn] ljb]zL
…;lxb, hgo'4 / jt{dfg /fhgLlts sfo{ q mddf k" j { ; efd' v b]lvof] . a? ;]l6ª t pN6f] kf] lyof] 5g\ . of] lgs[i6, lgif]w / zq'tfk"[0f{ zlQmx? ;lqmo ag] . ;/sf/ / ljKnj
cj:yfÚ laifos cGt/lqmofTds s[i0faxfb'/ dx/fn] !@ a'Fb] ;Demf}tf ls eGg] cfz+sf a9\of] . bf];|f] tYo, n8fOFn] ;Qf?9 g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ g]tT[ jsf] g]skfaLr x'g] elgPsf] jftf{
sfo{qmddf af]Nb} dxf;lrj ls/0fn] ubf{bl] v g} ePsf if8\oGqx?sf] rrf{ of] n8fO{F JolQmut ;Qf xTofpg] v]n ljeflht aGg] kSsf 5 . Tof] ca klg ;DejtM oxL sf/0f lanDj eof] .
;lxbx?sf ;kgf ;fsf/ kfg{ ;+;bLo ub}{ ;lxbx?sf ;kgf ;fsf/ kfg]{ lyof] eGg] k'li6 eof] . clxn] klg j} w flgs jf sfg' g L ljefhgsf] k|ltaGw x6fpg ;sf/fTds elgPsf
u0ftGq c;kmn e};s]sf] wf/0ff AoQm cleofgnfO{ wf]sf lbOPsf] atfP eg] s]kL cf]nLn] k|wfgdGqLaf6 /fhLgfdf af6f] t km{ cu| ; / x' F b } 5 . clxn] k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLn] lanDj ug's { f]
ub} { hgu0ftGq :yfkgf ug{ ' k g] { g]kfnL sfFu|];sf g]tf rGb| e08f/Ln] lbP/ k|r08nfO{ k|wfgdGqLdf ;dy{g ;Qf?9 bnleqsf] of] k|ltzf]wk"0f{ k5fl8 klg d'Vo u/L ljb]zL bafa
atfPsf x'g\ . g]tf ls/0fn] ;lxbx?sf] ;lxbsf] v]tL ug{ aGb u/f}+ eGb} b]z u/]sf kf6L{ Pstf hLljt /xG5 eGg] n8fOFn] g]kfnL sfFu|];sf ;efklt d'Vo x'g ;S5 ls eg]/ ;f]Rg' kb{5 .
/ut v]/ hfg glbOg] eGb} qmflGtnfO{ -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ 3f]if0ff ul/of] . csf{] klg k|:tfj z]/axfb'/ b]pjfnfO{ km]l/ k|wfgdGqL lji0f' kGt -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
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kqsf/x?sf] 5ftf ;+u7g cyf{t Jofkf/ rqm eGg] ub{5g . of] k|0ffnL h]n / lx/f;tdf k'¥ofpg] tyf ljleGg t /fhgLlts bneGbf cl3 ;/]/
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tTsfnLg g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ -dfcf]jfbL_ sf] rf}yf] 5 . clwj] z gsf] aGb;qsf] /f]8df NofOlbg] ePsfn] o;af6 kqsf/ dxf;+3n] ca k|; ] lj14lKt dflysf] c;+j}wflgs k|ltaGw /
lj:tfl/t a}7sn] kmfu'g !$ b]lv kmfu'g @! ut];Dd ;lxb ;dfkg;Fu} gofF g]tT[ jsf] lgjf{rg ug]{ cNksflng / bL3{sfnLg ?kdf dfq} n]lvlbP/ cfˆgf] wd{ k"/f ug]{ k|wfgdGqL jnLåf/f ;+;b\ lj36gkl5
k|of]hgsf nflu Ps lgjf{rg ;ldlt ;'/lIft /xg dxf;+3n] 7f]; /0fgLlt xf]Og ls gful/s clwsf/sf] /Iff / of] sbdaf/] cu|udg / k|ltudgsf]
;Ktfx dgfpg] lg0f{o u/];uF } x/]s jif{ kmfu'g !$ b]lv kmfu'g ;d]t u7g ePsf] 5 / ;Dejt cjnDag ug{' kb{5 . lgle{s jftfj/0fdf kqsfl/tf ug{ ;jfndf hgdt ljeflht x' g
@! ut];Dd ;lxb ;Ktfx dgfpg] ul/Psf] 5 . tTsfnLg cfufdL s]xL lbg leq dxf;+3sf] s]Gb|, t];f| ] M kqsfl/tf cfkm}Fdf vf]h, kfpg], ;+ul7t x'g kfpg], j}rfl/s vf]lh/x]sf] ;Gbe{df oL b'O{ /fhgLlts
k| b ] z / lhNnf ;ldltx?sf] cg';Gwfg, JolQmTj ljsf; / 1fg kl/36gdf dxf;+3n] :ki6, lhDd]jf/
dfcf]jfbLn] ;~rfng u/]sf] hgo'4df sl/a !@ xhf/n] lgjf{rgåf/f gofF g]tT[ jsf] lgdf{0f x'g] pkfh{gsf] /fd|f] If]q xf] . of] If]qdf / ;+:yfut wf/0ff agfpg'sf] ;§f
;xfbt k|fKt u/], ;of}F 3fOt], ckfË / a]kQf 5g\ . hgo'4sf] 5 . o;/L gofF g]tT[ jsf] rog;Fu} o; /fd|f] k]zfut bIftf, ;Lk / cg'ejLx? ls+dst{Joljd'b b]lvg' lrGtfsf] ljifo
;femf ;+:yfsf] ul/df, dof{bf / gePsf xf]Ogg\ t/ kqsf/x?sf] xf] . cf] n Lsf] sbdnfO{ z' ? df
andf @$) jif]{ lg/+sz' /fhtGqsf] cGTo eof] . t/, hgo'4sf] cg'zfl;t Pj+ pQ/bfoL e"ldsfsf nflu ;+VofTds j[l4;Fu} Ifdtf, bIftf / dxf;+3n] unt eg] klg To lj?4
nIo k"/f x'g ;s]g . hgo'4sf] g]tT[ j u/]sf g]tfx? ;+;bLo xfdLn] Wofg lbg} kg]{ s]xL ;jfnx?af/] u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ x'g' lgs} h?/L 5 . 7f]; gLlt to gx'g', clxn] cfP/
5f]6f] 5nkmn ul/Psf] 5 . s}of}F dfG5]x?df kqsfl/tfsf gfddf ;jf]R{ rsf] km};nfnfO{ k|tLIff ug]{ s'/f
/fhgLltdf efl;g k'u] . b]zdf Pp6f lg/+sz ' /fhtGqsf] t klxnf] M xfd|f] g]kfnL ;dfhsf] cfu|x k"jf{ux| x? klg ;txdf b]lvPsf ug{' cfkm}dF f sdhf]/ kIf xf] . ;jf]R{ rn]
cGTo eof] t/ /fhtGqnfO{ la;f{pg] u/L /fhgLlts bn / ;fdflhs agfj6 / cGt/;DaGw 5g\ . /fhgLlts k|ltzf]w / cfly{s t s'g kf6L{ sfg'g adf]lhd j}w /
P]ltxfl;s sfnb]lv g} ljljwtfx? nfesf lglDt h] klg ug],{ lgZkIftf, s'g cj}w eGnf t/ cu|udg /
g]tfsf] vf]ndf bh{gf}F /fhfx? v8f eP / b]znfO{ a|Xdn'6 aLrsf] Pstfdf cfwfl/t /xFb} cfPsf] dof{bf / kqsf/x?sf nflu agfOPsf] z] / axfb' / ljZjsdf{ kZrudgsf] ljifo /fhg} l ts
ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ eg] b]z / hgtfsf] kIfdf ;lt;fn eP/ 5 . ljleGg efiffefifL, ;+:s[lt, cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf gx'g] / vf]h :t/af6 ;f]Rg' kg]{ ljifo xf]Og / <
d" N odfGotf / ljrf/wf/fTds cg';Gwfgdf cfwfl/t x'ge ] Gbf klg cf:yf /fVg kfpg] / ;fd" l xs cf7f}F M ;"rgf–;~rf/ k|ljlw /
;+3if{df plqPsf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw nufOPsf] b[ l i6sf] 0 faLr kf/:kl/s Pstf, k};f / j}ejzfnL hLjgsf] nflu dfq} ;f}bfafhL ug{ kfpg] jftfj/0fsf sfg'gL Pj+ ;+j}wflgs clwsf/x?sf]
5 . hgtfsf] df}lns xs, clwsf/ s'l07t ePsf 5g\ . d]nldnfk / ;xcl:tTjsf] l:ylt klg kqsfl/tf x'g] h:tf ;d:ofx? klg nflu bafa / cfGbf] n gsf k|of]u / ljsf; eGg] s'/f ;fk]If
cfh ko{Gt oyfjt\ g} 5 . t/ d'ns ' sf kof{Kt} 5g\ . oL ;d:ofx?nfO{ ?kfGt/0f sfo{qmdåf/f cufl8 a9\g h?/L 5 . s'/fx? x'g\ . ;dfh / /fhg}lts
dxFuL, e|i6frf/, sfnf]ahf/Ln] ;Ldf gf3]sf] 5 . hghLljsf c? gful/ssf] hLjgdf k|efj kfg]{ ug{ kqsf/x?sf] Ifdtf j[l4 ljsf;sf 5}7f}+ M kqsfl/tf cfkm}df ;"rgf ljsf;qmd;Fu} oL s'/fx?sf] klg
rf}k6 ePsf] 5˜ . t/, ;Qfl;g / ;+;b\jfbL bnx? eg] ;Qf /fHo / o;cGtu{ t sf ljleGg nflu sfo{qmd to ug{' dxf;+3sf] efjL / hfgsf/L kof{Kt ePsf] If]q xf] . ljsf; x'Fb} hfg] s'/f xf] . hlta]nf
k|zf;lgs ;+/rgfx?sf] lgdf{0f Pp6f g]tT[ jsf] sfo{ef/ x'g' kb{5 . kqsf/x?sf nflu k] z fut d'ns ' df lgb{nLo / lg/Í'z Joj:yfx?
/ ;/sf/sf] l5gfemD6Ldf tlNng 5g\ . s] o;}sf] nflu hgo'4 lglZrt hft, ju{, wd{ / dfGotfdf rf}yf} M s'g} klg ;+:yfx? lglZrt clwsf/sf ;fy} ;TotYo ;"rgf k|jfx lyP– :jefljs ?kdf k|]; tyf
cfwfl/t x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . ;Qf / d"No / p2]Zodf cfwfl/t x'G5g\ / ub} { ;dfhnfO{ ;' ; lHht ug{ ' cleJolQm :jtGqtfsf nflu n8\g'
ePsf] lyof] < s] xhf/f}F g]kfnL cfdfsf ;k'tn] o;}s} nflu zlQmsf] s]Gb| cem} klg e'Otxsf x'g} kb{5 . h'g p2]Zo / cf}lrTosf pgLx?sf] bfloTj xf] . pgLx? ;dfhs} kqsf/x?sf] o'lug sfo{ef/ lyof] .
alnbfgL lbPsf lyP t < kSs} xf]Og, :jtGq b]z / ;fj{ef}d >dhLlj d]xgts; hgtfsf nflu nflu o:tf ;+ : yfx? agfOG5g\ c+u / ;r]t gful/s klg ePsfn] ca ;do ablnPsf] 5, d'2fx?
Pp6f alh{t kmn h:tf] ePsf] 5 . ;doqmddf s] x L v/faL cfpg' ;dfhnfO{ ;sf/fTds / cu|ufdL ablnPsf 5g\ . g]kfnL ;dfh ;ft
g]kfnL aGg tL dxfg\ ;lxbx?n] cfˆgf alnbfgL u/]sf lyP . kqsf/ dxf;+3 ljut nfdf] ;dob]lv :jefljs klg x'g hfG5 t/ log} lbzfdf 8f]¥ofpg 1fgsf] pTkfbg, ;fn / @)$^ ;fn jl/kl/ 5}g .
t/, hgo'4sf g]tT[ jstf{n] To;sf] b'?kof]u u/] . h;sf nf] s tflGqs clwsf/ :yfkgfsf] v/faLnfO{ cfˆgf] cfbz{sf] ;Ldf/]vf ;+Zn]if0f / k|rf/ Ps dxTjk"0f{ gofF cfsf+Iff;Fu} gofF ;jfnx? ;txdf
cfGbf]ngdf ;l/s x'bF } cfPsf] Pp6f gf£g glbg'df g} ;+:yfx?sf] cfo' lge{/ lhDd]jf/L klg xf] . ckm;f]r ljleGg b]vfk/]sf 5g\ . ;+ljwfgn] g} k|; ] tyf
sf/0f clxn] klg ;lxbsf] ;kgf ;kgfdf g} ;Lldt 5 . lhDd]jf/ gful/s ;+:yf x'gs ' f gftfn] x' g hfG5 . x' g tM cfh xfdLn] ;~rf/ u[xåf/f j}b]lzs nufgLsf cleJolQm :jtGqtfnfO{ l;4fGttM
;lxbsf] alnbfgLsf] pkxf; eO/x]sf]5 . pgLx?sf] kl/jf/ xfd|f] g]kfnL ;dfhdf ljBdfg ljljwtf cjnDag ul//x] s f] nf] s tGqsf] gfddf xfd|f d"No dfGotf, efiff :jLsf/ ul/;s]sf] 5 . oBlk o;sf]
/ ax'ntfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L tL ljljwtf :j?kdf g} clxn] ljZjJofkL ;+s6 ;+:s[lt / /fli6«otfx? lj:yflkt x'Fb} sfof{ G jogdf kof{ K t ;d:ofx?
larNnLdf 5g\ . t/, /fHonfO{ rf;f] 5}g . o:tf] cj:yfdf / hl6n ;fdflhs cGt/lj/f]wnfO{ x]g{] b]vf kl//x]sf 5g\ . sfo{kflnsf, uPsf 5g\ . :jb]zLeGbf tyfslyt gePsf xf] O gg\ . e| i 6frf/,
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] b]zdf ;lxb ;Ktfx dgfO/x]sf] 5 . km/s–km/s j}rfl/s b[li6sf]0f /x]sfn] Joj:yflksf / Gofokflnsf aLrsf] ljb]zL nufgLsf ;~rf/u[xx? xfjL a] / f] h uf/L, cfly{ s zf] i f0f gofF
dxf;+3sf] cfufdL gLlt / g]tT[ jdf zlQm k[ysLs/0fsf] l;4fGt ;Qf x'Fb} uPsf 5g\ h;nfO{ skf]{/]6 sn]j/df b]vfkb{5g\ . ;+ljwfgn] g}
p;n] PsLs[t hgqmflGtdfkm{t\ ;lxbsf] ;kgf k"/f u/]/} 5f8\g] ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts ;dfj]zLs/0fsf ;+s6sf] vf; ;dodf gsfd l;4 ldl8ofx? klg eGg ;lsG5 . 1fg d'ns ' sf] cfly{s l;4fGtnfO{ ;dfhjfb
k|lta4tf hfx]/ u/]sf] 5 . of] cfd:jfledfgL g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;fy} d"nt j}rfl/s k|ltlglwTjdf Wofg x'Fb} uPsf] k|tLt klg x'Fb}5 . /fHosf pTkfbg, ;+Zn]if0f / ;Dk|]if0fåf/f pGd' v eg] / dfg] s f] 5 . o:tf]
lbg h?/L 5 . pkl/;+ / rgfdf vf;u/L h+ u L gful/snfO{ ;';lHht ug]{ eGbf gfkmf kl/l:yltdf xfdLn] eg]sf] ;dfhjfb
nflu uj{sf] ljifo xf] . bf];|f] M g]kfndf kqsfl/tfnfO{ k|zf;lgsb]lv ;+jw} flgs c+ux?k|lt / Jofkf/sf lglDt h] klg ub}{ hfg] / s] xf] < of] s;/L Jojxf/df cg'lbt
t;y{, ;lxbsf] alnbfgL v]/ hfg glbg, b]znfO{ :jtGq k]zf / eljio agfP/ hLjgsf] r/d cljZjf; g} of] Joj:yfsf] b[Zo cGttM 7"nf / zlQmzfnL b]zx?sf] x'G5 < lsg xfd|f] ;fdflhs Joj:yf
phf{zLn / pTkfbgzLn ;do of] ;+s6sf] pbfx/0f klg xf] . o;/L g} OR5fcg';f/ ;dfhsf] P8\h:6d]G6 ub}{ sfd ug{ c;dy{ b]lvFb} 5 oL /
/ hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d agfpg g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{nfO{ If]qdf vr]s { f xhf/f}+ kqsf/x? 5g\ . kqsf/ dxf;+3sf] ;b:otf ljt/0fdf hfg] tyf d'ns ' sf] ;fj{ef}ldstf sdhf]/ o:tf cg]s k|Zgx?nfO{ l7s 9Ën]
cfdhgtfn] ;fy lbO{ PsLs[t hgqmflGtnfO{ ;kmn kfb}{ t/, dfgl;s Pj+ af}l4s >d ljqmL kf6L{ut / cfly{s k|efj kg],{ r'gfjL aGb} hfg] cj:yf 5 . of] l:yltnfO{ lg?k0f ug{ ca kqsf/ / kqsf/
u/]/ hLljsf]kfh{g ul//x]sf oL tdfd k| l qmof dx+ u f] x' F b } hfg] , lgodg ug{ ldl8ofx?df x'g] j}bl] zs dxf;+3sf nflu k|]; tyf cleJolQm
j}1flgs ;dfhjfb :yfkgf ug{s ' f] ljsNk 5}g . To;}n] g]kfn kqsf/x?sf nflu d' n ' s sf] u}/kqsf/x?nfO{ ;b:otf ljt/0f ul/g] nufgL;DaGwL gLltnfO{ k|i6 ub}{ :jod\ :jtGqtfsf] gf/fn] lsdfy{ k'Ub}g ca
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] kxndf lgdf{0f ePsf] /0fg}lts ;+oQ' m cy{tGqdf cfpg] pQ/r9fj hLjgsf] h:tf u'gf;fx? klg dxf;+3sf nflu dxf;+3n] lnFb} cfPsf] USAID, NDI o;sf cltl/Qm ;dosf] kbrfk;Fu}
clglZrttf lgs} 8/nfUbf] x'g] /x]5 . lgs} dfggLo / hLjGt ;'emfjx? x'g\ . h:tf lgsfosf] cfly{s ;xof]uaf/] klg dxf;+3sf gofF / ljsl;t P]ltxfl;s
df]rf{df cfdqmflGtsf/L /fhgLlts bn, g]tf / ;Dk"0f{ tx / xfn} cfPsf] sf]le8 !( sf] dxfdf/Lsf] o;nfO{ ;Rofpg ;dodf g} z'4Ls/0f k|:6 x'g h?/L 5 . sfo{ef/x?af/] ;f]Rg] ls <
tKsfsf hg;d'bfo uf]na4 eP/ ;+s6sf] sf/s jt{dfg ;dodf s}of}+ >dhLlj kqsf/x?nfO{ cleofg yfngL ug{' ;+:yfsf] bL3{sflng ;ftf}F M g]kfndf nf]stflGqs gjf} F M k| ] ; sfplG;nåf/f
kfl/>lds glbPsf], a]tnjL labfdf k|lti7fsf nflu dxTjk"0f{ x'g5 ] . cfGbf]ngsf] n8fOF hlQs} k'/fgf] ldl8ofx?sf] juL{s/0f ubf{ kx'Frsf]
;;bLo Joj:yfnfO{ h/}bl] v pvn]/ kmfNg' clgafo{ ePsf] a:g afWo kfl/Psf] / tna s6f}tL kfFrf}F M g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg / Oltxf; 5 kqsfl/tf cfGbf]ngsf] cfwf/df sfd eO/x] s f] h:tf
5 . cGoyf zlxbsf] ;kgf rsgfr'/ t x'G5 g} b]z / hgtfsf] ug]{ h:tf ;d:ofx? b]lvg' of] If]qsf] k|rlnt sfg'gn] k|; ] tyf cleJolQm klg . o;df xfdLn] v';L x'g} k5{ . ;d:ofx?af/] u'gf;f]nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{
Pp6f HjnGt pbfx/0fx? x'g\ . :jtGqtfnfO{ cg'n+3gLo / df}lns hxfFlgof /f0ffzf;g, lgb{nLo k~rfot / ;dfg'kflts lj1fkg k|0ffnLnfO{
elaZo klg rf}k6 x'g] lglZrt 5, r]tgf eof . dflg;nfO{ nfUg ;S5 ca sf]le8 clwsf/sf] ?kdf :jLsf/ u/]sf] / / tTsfnLg lg/Í'z /fhf 1fg]Gb|sf sfof{ G jog ug{ oyfzL3| kxn
!( sf] k| e fj;F u } o; k| s f/sf nf]stGqsf ljZjJofkL cfwf/x?e"t lj?4 / k|hftGq, ax'bn / u0ftGq x'gk' b{5 . ;fgf tyf :j/f]huf/d"ns
;d:ofx? ca bf]xf]l/g] 5}gg\ . t/ dfGotfk|lt k|lta4tf JoQm u/]sf] :yfkgfsf] cfGbf]ngdf hgdtsf] ldl8ofx?sf] j[l4 ljsf; / :yfloTjsf]
kz'kltdf ‘So'cf/ sf]8’ k|0ffnLdfkm{t e]6L bfg ug{ ;lsg] Û xfdLn] s] Vofn /fVg' dgfl;s x'G5
eg] gfkmfsf nflu k'gp{Tkfbg ul/g]
eP tfklg ;fdflhs c;'/Iff /
k]zfut Pj+ ef}lts ;'/Iffsf] ;jfn
lgdf{0f dfq} xf]Og sltko ;Gbe{df
kqsf/x?n] g} tL /fhg} l ts
nflu k|fT] ;fxgd"ns sfo{qmd ;~rfng
ug{ yk hf]8 lbOg' cfjZos 5 .
sf7df8f}F . kz'klt If]q ljsf; ;Demf}tf;d]t ePsf] 5 . g]kfn /fi6«
sf]ifn] kz'kltgfydf ca …So"cf/ a}+ssf ueg{/ dxfk|;fb clwsf/Ln] k'h
F LjfbL pTkfbg ;DaGwx? /x];Dd lgs} uDeL/ aGb} uPsf] 5 . ;dfrf/ cfGbf] n gdf dxTjk" 0 f{ of] u bfg -n] v sM hgkqsf/ ;+ u 7g
sf]8Ú k|0ffnLdfkm{t e]6L bfg ug{ ;f] sfo{sf] z'ef/De ub}{ b]ze/ of] k' F h Ljfbdf cfjlws ;+ s 6x? n]v]sf] / j}rfl/s cf:yf /fv]s} k'¥ofPsf 5g\ . cem u0ftGqsf nflu g]kfnsf ;+of]hs x'g_\
;lsg] hgfPsf] 5 . kz'kltgfy
dlGb/sf] blIf0f k|jz
] åf/, h'Qf rKkn
sIf, dxf:gfg3/ cl3 / d"n dlGb/
k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ul/g'kg]{ atfP .
b] z e/ of] r] t gf a9fpg ;a}
nfUg'kg]{df pgn] hf]8 lbP . sf]ifsf
rZdf nufpg]nfO{ sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0f Hofb} Go"g df6f]sf] l8lh6n gS;f tof/ Û
sf7df8f}F . ef/tdf ul/Psf] Pp6f pd]/ !) aif{bl] v *) jif{ aLr lyof] /
kl/;/df /flvPsf] …So"cf/ sf]8Ú ;b:o ;lrj 8f k|bLk 9sfnn] ;fdfg cWoogcg';f/ rZdf nufpg] dflg; oL ;a} JolQmx¿df sf]le8 nIf0fx¿ sf7df8f}F . g]kfn ;/sf/n] df6f]sf] l8lh6n gS;f tof/ u/]sf] 5 .
dfkm{t\ e]6L bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;sf lsgd]n ubf{ k};f lbg] k|0ffnL x'bF f sf]/f]gfefO/;af6 ;+qmldt x'g] ;Defjgf lyP . cWoogdf ;+nUg !( k|ltzt df6f]df /x]sf] ljleGg tTj jf u'0fx? b]vfpgsf nflu lh=lk=Pd=sf
nflu tL :yfgdf oGq;d]t /flvPsf] sltko cj:yfdf k};f lkmtf{ lng tLg u'0ff sd x'G5 . lsgls k|foM h;f] dflg;x? o:tf lyP h;n] k|foM h;f] dfWodaf6 sDKo'6/ k|ljlwsf] k|of]u u/L tof/ kfl/Psf] gS;f g} df6f]sf]
5 . tL :yfgdf /flvPsf sf] 8 dg gnfUg] cj:yfaf6 k|ljlwn] d'lQm JolQmn] efO/; ;+qmldt xftn] cfFvf, rZdf nufpFy] . cWoogdf ;+nUg l8lh6n gS;f xf] . pQm gS;fsf] a'waf/ s[lif tyf kz'k+IfL ljsf;
df]afOn pkof]u u/L cgnfOg …k] lbPsf] atfP . Ps k6s ? @)) gfs / d'vnfO{ 5'G5, ta of] efO/; cg';Gwfgstf{x¿sf cg';f/ cf};tdf dGqfnon] cfof]hgf u/]sf] Ps ;df/f]xsf aLr k|wfgdGqL s]kL zdf{
l;:6dÚ af6 a}+sdf /x]sf] kz'klt sf] ;fdfg lsGbf k;n]n] ? #)) z/L/df k|jz ] ub{5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf, Ps hgfn] cg'xf/df k|lt306f @# k6s cf]nLn] df6f]sf] l8lh6n gS;fsf] ;d'¢f6g u/]sf 5g\ . dGqfnosf cg';f/
If]q ljsf; sf]ifsf vftfdf bfg ug{ lkmtf{ lbg'kg]d{ f pgL;Fu v'bf| k};f ha d'v / gfsdf df:s 5 / cfFvfdf / cfFvfdf k|lt306f cf};t tLg k6s b]z}e/sf] df6f]sf] l8lh6n gS;f tof/ ug]{ g]kfn blIf0f Plzofs} klxnf]
;lsg] 5 . ;f] k|0ffnLaf6 e]6L bfg geP/ df;' k;ndf ;f6\g uPkl5 rZdf x'G5, ta rZdf nufPsf xftn] 5'g] ub{5g\ . b]z xf] .
dflg;x¿n] ltgLx¿sf] cfFvf sd :kz{ o; cWoogn] of] kQf nufof] ls blIf0f Plzofsf cGo b]zx?df klg of] k|ljlwsf] df6f]sf] gS;f tof/
lbFbf b'?kof]u x'g] ;Defjgf gx'g] cfk"m lkmtf{ glnO{ lxF8s
] f] 36gf pgn] u5{g\ / To;}n] sf]le8 !( ;+qmldt x'g] lgoldt ¿kdf rZdf nufpg]x¿nfO{
hgfOPsf] 5 . o;af6 kz'kltgfysf ;'gfP . ul/Psf] 5 . tL s]xL lhNnf, k|b]z jf If]qdf dfq l;ldt 5g\ . To;cg';f/
vt/f sd x'G5 . d]8l/S:e ljZjsf] k|l;4 sf]le8 !( sf] ;+qmd0f @ b]lv # u'gf b]z}e/sf] df6f]sf] gS;f tof/ ug{ g]kfn klxnf] ag]sf] xf] . b]ze/af6 s'n
gfddf k|fKt x'g] bfg, blIf0ff klg a}+s ckm sf7df8f}F lnld6]8sf :jf:Yo lj1fg j]a;fO{6 xf] h;df of] sd x'G5 . cWoogn] b]vfPsf] cg';f/ b"lift
kf/bzL{ x'g] ljZjf; ul/Psf] 5 . cWoIf k|sfz >]i7n] b]zsf cGo @# xhf/ b'O{ ;o &# j6f df6f]sf] gd"gf kl/If0f u/L tof/ ul/Psf] of]
cWoog k|sflzt ePsf] 5 . of] cWoog xftn] cfFvf 5'bF f ;+qmd0f x'g] vt/f x'G5
sf]if / a}s
+ ckm sf7df8f}F lnld6]8sf] d7dlGb/df klg of] ;]jf k'¥ofOg] pQ/ ef/tsf] sfgk' / sf] Pp6f eg] rZdf nufpFbf cfFvf 5'g] / cfFvf gS;f+sgn] s[ifsnfO{ ;DalGwt ;fO6df uP/ cfˆgf] hUufsf] df6f]sf
;xsfo{df kz'kltgfy dlGb/ If]qsf hfgsf/L lbP . a}+sn] afnfh'l:yt c:ktfndf ul/Psf] lyof] h;df # ;o ldRg] ;Defjgf sd x'G5 . @)@) df ePsf] /;folgs kIfaf/] lj:t[t hfgsf/L kfpg ;S5g\ . gS;f+sg sfo{n]
rf/ :yfgdf …So"cf/ sf]8Ú dfkm{t\ df5fkf]v/Lsf] t/sf/L ahf/df oxL $ hgfnfO{ cg';Gwfgstf{x¿n] ;dfj]z Ps cWoogcg';f/ hf] JolQmx? sG6\ofS6 ls;fgdfq geO{ gLlt lgdf{tf, cg';Gwfg stf{, s[lif k|fljlws lghL If]qsf
cgnfOgaf6 e]6L bfg ug{ ;lsg] k|0ffnLaf6 e'QmfgLsf] Joj:yf ug{ u/]sf lyP . o;dWo] @@# k'?if / *! n]G;sf] k|of]u u5{g\pgLx?nfO{ rZdf nufpg ;]jfk|bfos ;+3 ;+:yf, dn cfoftstf{ nfO{;d]t df6f] ;DaGwL k"0f{
k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug]{;DaGwL cfh nfu]sf] 5 . dlxnf ;xefuL lyP . oL ;a} JolQmx¿sf] lrlsT;sn] ;'emfj lbPsf 5g\ . hfgsf/L lbg]5 .
@)&& ;fn kmfu'g !^ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

;lxbx?sf] ;Ddfgaf/] Û
b]zsf pTkLl8t ju{, hflt, ;d'bfo
/ /fi6«sf] d'lQmsf] nflu ;'? ePsf] dxfg\
hgo'4sf] yfngLsf] k|yd r/0fdf
qmd oBlk hf/L 5 / xfn;Dd b;f}+
xhf/ jL/–jL/fËgfx?sf] alnbfg ePsf]
5.
dgfpg' Gofok"0f{ x'g] b]lvG5 .
h]xf];,\ hxflgofF x'sd' L /f0ffzf;g,
lgb{nLo lg/+sz ' k~r] zf;g, hglj/f]wL
Tofu, tk:of / alnbfgsf]
of]ukmn:j?k k|fKt nf]stflGqs
u0ftGqdf klg g b]z / hgtfsf
l:yltaf6 u'lh|/x]sf] 5 . b]z clxn]
Psflt/ Pp6f eLif0f / eofjx
rqmJo"xdf k;]/ To;af6 glg:sg ;Sg]
jf nIosf ?kdf hgu0ftGqnfO{
cl3;f/]sf] 5 . xfn hgu0ftGq ;Dej
gx'g] l:yltdf Tof]eGbf d'lgsf] c:yfoL
zxfbtsf] k|yd k|s/0f ;jf{lws oBlk o;cl3 klg @)@* ;fndf / /fi6« l j/f] w L ax' b nLo ;+ ; bLo /fli6«otf, hgtGq / hghLljsf;Fu u/L km:b}5 5 eg] csf{lt/ ;Qfwf/L Joj:yfsf] gf/f glbFbf ;+3if{ lg0ff{os
pTkLl8t ju{, hflt / ;d'bfosf Ps emfkfaf6 tTsfnLg g]skf sf]cl8{g; ] g zf;gx?sf lj?4sf ;+3if{, cfGbf]ng, ;DalGwt Go"gtd cfwf/e"t xs– sDo'lg:6 gfdsf] 7"nf] kf6L{ / To;sf x'g] b]lvGg .
blnt afns lbnaxfb'/ /Dt]naf6 ;'? s]Gb| -sf]s_] sf] g]tT[ jdf sDo'lg:6 ljb|fx] / o'4sf qmddf of]hgfa4 jf clwsf/sf k|Zgx? xn ePsf 5g\ g d'Vo g]tfx? g} j}bl] zs zlQms]Gb|sf] ptf jfdkGyLx?sf] sfo{ut Pstf
ePsf] xf] . Gofo, ;dfgtf / :jtGqtfsf] qmflGtsf/Lx?åf/f ;'? ul/Psf] klxnf] :jt:k"mt{ ¿kdf qmflGt / d'lQm;Fu t ;lxb, a]kQf, 3fOt]–ckfË, h]naGbL, pS;fx6df k/]/ km'6 / n'6sf] hfnem]n ;'if'Kt 5 / sl/a–sl/a of] lj36g
k|flKtsf] nflu rnfOPsf] of] d'lQmo'4sf] ;r]t / ;+ul7t?kdf emfkfljb|fx] ePsf] ;DalGwt g]kfnL hgljb|fx] sf ljljw e"ldut, lgjf{l;t, oftgfkLl8t cflb / rnv]ndf Jo:t 5g\ . o;/L ;Rrf (defunct) sf] ;‹f/df 5 eg]
xf] . To;}sf qmddf lu/ˆtf/ k/]sfnfO{ cfofdx? cfP / cfh;Dd cfpFbf b;f}+ g]tf, sfo{stf{ / hgtfsf ;kgf, hkgf OdfGbf/ qmflGtsf/L hg;d'bfox?sf ljeflhtx?nfO{ Pstfa4 u/fpg] 7"nf]
h]n ;fg]{ axfgfdf ;'vfgLsf] hËndf xhf/ ;jf]Q{ d ;GttLx?sf] uf}/jk"0f{ / WofpGgf g} ;fsf/ ePsf 5g\ . nflu of] b]z, b]zsf /fhgLlts kf6L{ nIf lnPsf] Pstf cleofgn] klg cfˆg}
nu]/ g]q l3ld/], s[i0f s'Os F{ n
] , /fdgfy zxfbt ;d]t x'bF } cfPsf] 5 . zxfbtsf] olt dfq xf]Og, o'4 / cfGbf]ngdf / ;Qfsf] jt{dfg cj:yf / Joj:yf Pstf ;'b9[ ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . a?,
bfxfn, jL/]g /fhj+zL / gf/fo0f >]i7nfO{
lgd{dtf / g[z; + tfk"js { k~r] zf;ssf
hNnfbx?åf/f ;fd"lxs xTof ul/Psf]
lyof] . To;f] t /f0ff zf;glj?4 ;r]t
/ ;fd"lxs ljb|fx] sf] klxnf] ;fgf] t/
dxTjk"0f{ ;'?jft uf]/vfdf lj= ;+= !(##
;lxb u]6df nvg yfkfnfO{ /fv
;lxb u]6sf] lz/df /fhf lqe'jgsf] ;flns /fv]sf] k6Ss} ;'xfPsf] 5}g .
g;'xfPsf] dfq xf]Og, xf:of:kb ;d]t ePsf] 5 . Pp6f ljb]zL ko{6sn] oL
/xf];\ ;/sf/, ltd|f] klg s'g} dfg;Ddfg, d"NodfGotf, OHht–k|lti7f, cy{ /
dxTj 5 eg] of] ltd|f] klg 7"nf] ckdfg / a]OHht xf] .
df nvg yfkfåf/f ul/Psf] lyof] . To;}n] zxLbx?af/] kl/ro lng]qmddf lqe'jgsf] ;flnstkm{ ;+s]t ub}{ ‘who tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] P]ltxfl;s emfkf ljb|fx] / dfcf]jfbL hgo'4nfO{
tTsfnLg /f0ffzf;s hËaxfb'/ /f0ffsf] killed him ?’ eg]/ k|Zg ubf{ g]kfnL ufO8 gfhjfkm e} g ‘no one ;d'lrt ;+of]hg, d"Nof+sg, ;Demgf / ;Ddfg ug]{ u/L kmfu'g !$ / @! nfO{
cfb]z / of]hgfdf To;}aif{ kmfu'g @ killed but he is our father of nation.’ eg]/ hjfkm lbFbf pgL ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] ?kdf dgfpg] lgs} b"/ufdL dxTjsf] ;xL / Gofok"0f{ qmflGtsf/L
ut] pgsf] xTof ul/Psf] lyof] / nvg xfF;/] dhf lnPsf lyP eGg] Pp6f ;Tosyfsf] ?kdf of] s'/f lgs} nHhf:kb
yfkf ;du| g]kfnL qmflGt / d'lQm eP/ klg oBlk b]zljb]zdf ;d]t k|rlnt /x]sf] 5 . k|ydtM lqe'jg
gf/fo0f zdf{ cfGbf]ngsf ;a}eGbf klxnf ;lxb aGg /fi6«lktfsf] ?kdf ljjflbt 5g\ . bf];|f], u0ftGq sfndf t pgnfO{ /fi6«lktf
dxfleofgdf alnbfg lbg] Ps dxfTdf k'us] f lyP . tTkZrft ^ bzsotf eGg" csf]{ xf:of:kb s'/f x'g hfG5 . t;y{ lqe'jgsf] ;flns ToxfFaf6
x'g\ /Dt]n . ljBfnodf cfk"mx?nfO{ /f0ffzf;gsf lj?4df ;r]t / ;+ul7t tTsfn x6fpg} k5{ .
k9fpF b } u/] s f cfˆgf u' ? nfO{ ?kdf Jofks, lj:t[t / lg0ff{os ljb|fx] of] b]zdf u0ftGq 5 / ;/sf/ klg u0ftflGqs g} xf] eg] /fhf lqe'jgsf]
ljBfnoaf6} k|x/Ln] cGofok"js { kqm]/ ug]{ qmdd} !((& ;fndf uËfnfn >]i7, Tof] ;flns ;lxbu]6af6 t'?Gt x6fpm Û olb ltdLn] k'/fgf] Oltxf;, P]ltxfl;s
l3;fb}{ n}hfg yfn]kl5 ;Rrf Gofok|d] L z'qm/fh zf:qL, bz/y rGb / wd{eQm ljrf/, ljlw / JolQmnfO{ plrt tl/sfn] ;+/If0f / clen]vLs/0f ug{ rfxG5f}
lzio ePsfn] ljBfyL{x?n] lj/f]w, cj/f]w dfy]dfsf] pRr zxfbt ePsf] lyof] . eg] Tof] ;flnsnfO{ Do'lhoddf nu]/ /fv Û ;Rrf ;lxbsf] 6fpsfdfly r9fP/
/ k|lt/f]w ug{' cToGt :jfefljs / tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] cfˆgf] s[lqd ;lxb cyf{t\ ;lxb g} gePsf, To;df klg /fhf, Tof] klg cfˆgf]
Psbd} Gofok"0f{ sbd xf] . ljBfnosf g]tT[ jdf @)%@ kl5 hgo'4 ub}u{ bf{ u2Lsf] nflu n8\g g;s]/ ljb]zLsf] z/0fdf k'u]kl5 ef/tn] k'g:yf{lkt
afnaflnsfsf] o:tf] Gofok"0f{ /f]bg, To;qmdsf ;lxbx?nfO{ ;Ddfg ug]{ ul/lbPsf /fhf lqe'jgnfO{ ToxfF To;/L /fVg] g} xf]Og, of] t æg zf]eGt]
qmGbg / lrTsf/nfO{ g;'g/] pN6} uf]nL ;Gbe{df @)%* ;fndf dfcf]jfbL ljb|fx] ;efdWo] x+;dWo] jsf] oyfMÆ eg]eGbf klg a9L ef] . lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . hgo'4sf k|yd ;lxb lbnaxfb'/ /Dt]nsf] ;xfbt ePsf]
aiff{pg' / gfafns ljBfyL{ lbnaxfb'/sf] / emfkfljb|fx] b'j} qmflGtsf/L ljb|fx] ePsf] xf]Og, /fhf lqe'jgnfO{ jf hf]s;}nfO{ klg pgsf] s'g} of]ubfgsf] cfwf/df lbg kmfu'g !$ -@)%@_ / emfkf cfGbf]ngsf kfFr ;lxbx?n] ;'vfgLdf
xTof ug{n ' ] tTsfnLg ;+;bLo ;Qfsf] gftfn] b'j} ljb|fx] sf ljrf/ / efjgf ;Ddfg g} ug{ rfxg] eg] s'g} csf]{ ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf k|lt:yfkg ug{k' 5{, u/ jL/ult kfPsf] lbg kmfu'g @! -@)@*_ nfO{ hf]8g\ ' cToGt plrt / cfj:os
r/d\ bdgsf/L rl/q ;xh} k'li6 x'G5 . tyf ltgsf ;lxbx?sf] :jR5, pRr / t/ /fhf lqe'jgsf] ;flnsnfO{ t ;lxbu]6df Pslbg t s] Ps l5g klg sfo{ lyof] Tof] . xf] ToxL ;lxb ;Ktfx clxn] rln/x]sf] 5 . ;S5f} eg] oxL
oxL k'li6n] g} hgo'4sf] cfjZostf / ;To d"NofÍg ub}{ kmfu'g !$ – @! nfO{ g/fv . of] sfd ltdLn] plxNo} ul/;Sg' kYof]{ t/ u/]gf}F lg ;/sf/ Û ltdLnfO{ of] ;lxb ;Ktfxleqdf cyf{t\ oxL @! ut];Dddf /fhf lqe'jgsf] ;flns ;lxb
cf}lrTo klg :jtM k|dfl0ft eof] / ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] ?kdf dgfpg] dxTjk"0f{ 1fg cfPg ls /fhf lqe'jgk|lt ltdL Njfon 5f}–eof}, cyjf Tof] x6fpFbf s]xL u]6af6 x6fP/ Tof] 7fpFdf ;j{dfGo k|yd ;lxb nvg yfkfnfO{ k|lt:yfkg
hgo'4 Ps Gofok"0f{ d'lQmo'4sf] ?kdf lg0f{o u/L b'j} cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;+of]hg cgy{ x'G5 ls egL 8/fof} < Tof] t yfxf ePg . h] eP klg / emfkfnL hgljb|fx] u/ . sy+sbflrt @! kmfu'g;Dd t ;Qm}gf} eg] klg sd;]sd kmfu'g dlxgf
:yflkt / ljsl;t x'g] cfwf/ to u¥of] . u/]sf] lyof] . :d/0fLo 5 ls /f0ffzf;g / dfcf]jfbL hgo'4 x'bF } hgcfGbf]ng u/]/ b]zdf nf]stflGqs u0ftGq NofPsf -!(## kmfu'g @_ g} nvg yfkf klg ;lxb ePsf] dlxgf x'gfn] o;} kmfu'g
tTkZrft\ b]zdf zf]if0f–bdg, cGofo– lj/f]wL cfGbf]ngsf qmddf ePsf eGg]x? ;/sf/df lj/fhdfg klg x'g] clg g]kfnsf ;Rrf / ;j{dfGo k|yd dlxgfleq of] sfd cljnDa ;DkGg u/ . olb o:tf] P]ltxfl;s dxTjsf] /
cTofrf/ / pk]Iff–ckx]ngfdf kfl/Psf pk/f]Qm rf/ ;lxbx?nfO{ dfq ;+;b\jfbL ;lxb nvg yfkfnfO{ Tof] zLif{:yfgdf g/fv]/ ;lxb} gePsf, s;}n] klg gdf/]/ /fli6«o uj{ / uf}/jsf] sfo{ of] ;/sf/n] ug{ ;Qm}g eg] lgs6 eljiodf aGg]
b]zsf ;Dk"0f{ zf]lift–pTkLl8t ju{, / k~r] zf;sx?n] dfGotf lbPsf lyP cfˆg} sfnultn] d/]sf /fhf lqe'jgnfO{ /fVg] < of] t ;lxbsf] xb};Ddsf] ;/sf/n] of] sfd ;s];Dd t oxL kmfu'gd} g;s]–geP csf]{ jif{sf] ;lxb
hflt, If]q, lnË, wd{, ;+:s[ltsf / xfn;Ddsf ;a} zf;sx?n] df3 !)– ckdfg eof] . Psflt/ nvg yfkfnfO{ ToxfF g/fv]/ nvgsf] cToGt} ckdfg ;Ktfx jf nvg yfkfs} ;xfbt ePsf] lbg kmfu'g @ ut] t h;/L klg
hg;d'bfox?sf] hgo'4k|lt cfsif{0f !^ nfO{ dfq ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] ?kdf ePsf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ uËf, z'qm, bz/y / wd{eQmsf] lz/df /fhf lqe'jgnfO{ u/f];\ . cfufdL ;/sf/ hgtfsf] ;/sf/ /x]5 eg] To;n] g} ;Dk"0f{ ;lxb /
a9\of] / tLj| ultdf ;b\efj, ;dy{g, dgfpg] cf}krfl/stf k"/f ub}{ cfPsf /fv]/ oL rf/ ;lxbsf] dfq xf]Og, k"/} ;lxbx?sf] ;d]t 7"nf] ckdfg ePsf] 5 . ;xfbtsf], ljb|f]x / ljb|f]xLsf] clg qmflGt / qmflGtsf/Lx?sf] alnbfg /
;xof]u / ;xeflutfdf cTolws j[l4 klg 5g\ . xfn;Dd hf]–h;n] h]–h:tf] o;/L of] ckdfg nvg yfkf ljb|fx] b]lv otfsf eLdbQ kGtsf] ls;fg ljb|fx] , of]ubfgsf] ;d'lrt ;Ddfg u/f];\ . xf]Og eg], hlxn] jf:tljs hgtfsf]
x'bF } uof] . o;n] ubf{ hgo'4 ;fFlRrs} eg] jf u/] klg ca xfdLn] Oltxf;sf sfdL a'9fsf] ljb|fx] , 8f= s]= cfO{= l;+xsf] ljb|fx] nufot :jo+ emfkfljb|fx] / ;Rrf ;/sf/ cfpg] 5, Tolta]nf g} hgtfsf] ;/sf/n] of] dxfg\ t/ ;lhnf]
hgtfsf] o'4l;4 eof] / of] ;an, ;'b9[ ;a} cfGbf]ng / ljb|fx] x?df ;xfbt dfcf]jfbL ljb|fx] ;d]t ;a} qmflGtsf/L ljb|fx] , tL ljb|fx] ug]{ g]tf, sfo{stf{ / sfd ;DkGg ug]5 { . syd\ To;n] klg v'§f sdfP5 eg] :jo+ hgtfn]
/ ljhoL klg x'bF } uof] . To;}n] @)%@ k|fKt u/]sf ;Dk"0f{ ;lxbx?sf] ;du| / hgtf clg l;Ë} g]kfn /fi6«s} ckdfg / a]OHht klg x'g k'us ] f] 5 . :d/0f x:tIf]k u/]/ of] sfd ;DkGg ul/5f8\g] 5g\ . xf]z eof Û
;fn kmfu'g ! df ;'? ePsf] hgo'4 / ;d'lrt d"Nof+sg, :d/0f / >4f ub}{
o;qmddf kmfu'g !$ df klxnf] ;lxb pxfFx?sf] alnbfg / of]ubfgsf] pRr of] z[v+ nf;Fu} o; k|sf/sf ljb|fx] ?kL kLl8t of] b]z / oxfF lbgk|ltlbg rf]S6f vfg hfFbf emf]ndf 8'a/] d/]sf] cleoGtfx?s} cfk;L lrGtg /
ag]sf afns lbnaxfb'/ /Dt]nsf] ;Ddfg ug{' kb{5 . o; lglDt k|f/De hgo'4 / hgcfGbf]ngx?df j]kQf x'g,] bLgb' v L aGb} – agfOF b } ul/Psf eg]em}+ cyjf gvfpF eg] lbgel/sf] sfo{zn } Ldf b]lvPsf cfu|x / k"jf{ux| ,
zxfbtsf] ljz]if cy{ / dxTj 5 . !(## kmfu'g @ df ePsf] nvg yfkfsf] 3fOt]–ckfË x'g,] h]n–lx/f;t kg],{ hgtfnfO{ Psyl/ bl/b| bdgsf/Lx?n] l;sf/, vfpFeg] sfG5fafpsf] cg'xf/ cx+ / lh2Lh:tf sdLsdhf]/Lsf sf/0f
t;y{ lbnaxfb'/ w]/} dxfg\ 5g\, pgsf] klxnf] ;xfbt / xfn;Ddsf] pRr, e"ldut hfg], lgjf{l;t x'g,] k];f– bof / bfgsf kfqsf] ?kdf b]vfP/ eg]h:tf] k/d kL8fbfoL kl/l:ylt aGg dgf]dflnGo, s'07f, slrËn / k|ltzf]w
hflt sd{7 dfq geP/ >d, ;Lk, zf}o{ ;zQm, c;+Vo / lg0ff{os o'4 / zxfbt Joj;foaf6 xftw'g] / 3/kl/jf/af6 dfuL vfg] efF8f] agfPsf] cj:yf 5 k'us
] f] 5 . ?kL /f]un] 5f]Psf] b'vb cj:yf cfPsf]
/ ;xfbtsf] nflu ;d]t ;x|fgLo 5 . ePsf] lx;fan] lbnaxfb'/sf] ;xfbt lj:yflkt x'gx] ?sf] ;+Vof cgluGtL /x]sf] eg] csf]y{ l/ bdgsf/L bfgjx?n] ltg} o;} hl6n, uDeL/ / kL8fbfoL 5 . o;}u/L sfG5f] t/ ;zQm /
To;}n] pgsf] ;kgf :jLsfo{ / ;fsfo{ ePsf] kmfu'g !$ clg emfkfljb|fx] df 5 . o;/L oL cfGbf]ng / ljb|fx] x?df bLgb'vLx?nfO{ b]v/] b|ljt e} bfg lbO{ kl/l:yltaf6 b]z, hgtf / qmflGtnfO{ bL3{hLjL 7flgPsf] /0fgLlts df]rf{ klg
5 . To; lglDt pgL ;bf ;j{:d/0fLo ;xfbt k|fKt u/]sf] P]ltxfl;s lbg ;r]t, ;+ul7t / :j:k"mt{?kdf ;xefuL bfgL / 1fgL aGg]–agfpg] k|kGr ul//x]sf] ;xL dlt / ult lbg egL s]xL dlxgf o;sf] d"n g]tT[ jk+lQmdf /x]sf] ;+sL0f{
/ :t'To 5g\ . xflb{s >4f~hnL / ;nfd kmfu'g @! x'gfn] of] kmfu'g dlxgfnfO{ x'g,] ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] / ;b\efj–;dy{g b'vb\ cj:yf 5 . o;/L cfh Psflt/ cl3dfq dfS;{jfbL Pstf cleofg / oflGqs clg :jR5, 7"nf] / k'/fgf]
5 lbnaxfb'/ /Dt]nnfO{ . @)%@ kmfu'g ;lxb dlxgf / df3 !)–!^ hxflgofF ug]x{ ? c;+Vo 5g\ / ltgsf] of]ubfg hgtfsf] b}glGbg hLjg emg\–emg\ si6s/ u7g ePsf] 5 . o;n] ;a} g]kfnL ePsf] d f ul/g] uj{ / uf} / jsf]
!$ ut]sf] lbnaxfb'/sf] zxfbt t x'sd' Lzf;g lj?4sf] cfGbf]ngsf ;lxb c;Lldt g} /x]sf] 5 . aGb} uPsf] 5 eg] /fli6«o :jfwLgtf, hgljb|fx] , hgcfGbf]ng / hgo'4sf cltzof] Q mLs/0f ug] { lrGtg /
Pp6f ;'?jft dfq xf] . o;kl5 csf]{ ePsf] ;ftfnfO{ ;lxb ;Ktfx / dbg– t/, lj8Dagf b]z / hgtfsf] d'lQm :jfledfg, cvG8tf / cl:dtf emg\– ;du| ljrf/ / efjgfx?sf] tyf rl/qsf sf/0f u7gsf] k"j; { GWofd}
lbg !% ut] g} hfh/sf]6sf b'O{ cfl>t jf jL/]Gb| cyjf o:t} pRr / k|ultsf] nflu ljut 8]9 ;o jif{sf] emg w/fkdf kb}{ uPsf] 5 . To;qmdsf ;Dk"0f{ ;lxb, j]kQf, 3fOt], pl5gfkfl5g, cfu| x –b' / fu| x /
o'jfx?nfO{ lu/ˆtf/ u/L xTof ug]{ g]tT[ j alnbfg ePsf] s'g} Ps lbgnfO{ nfdf] ;dob] l v cgluGtL x'bF fx'bF f t cfhsf] of] ax'bnLo jGbLnufotsf cfd hgtf, of]4f, lgoGq0f–lgif]wsf] dG;foaf6 d'Qm x'g
k|so[ fnfO{ klg lg/Gt/tf lbOof], h'g /fli6«o ;xdlt u/L ;lxb lbj;sf] ?kdf hg;d'bfox?åf/f x'bF } cfPsf] ;+3if{, nf]stflGqs u0ftGq elgPsf] Joj:yf sfo{stf{ / g]tfx?sf] ;Demgf / g;Sbf xfn;Dd klg g o;sf]
/ cj:yfdf klg cleJolQmsf] >4f:j?k cfh Ps cGt/lqmof lj:tf/sf] nflu s'g} k|of; ePsf] 5,
:jtGqtf, ;+u7g ug]{ / lj/f]w sfo{qmd u/]sf] 5 . cfzf 5 o;n] g t o:n] sfo{qmdx?sf] lg/Gt/tf /
ug]h{ :tf df}lns clwsf/dfly ;d]t cfGbf]ngsf] cf}lrTo / cfjZostf tyf j[l4nfO{ g} WofglbPsf] 5 . o;/L of]
lgoGq0f / lgif]w -k|ltaGw_ g} ul/Psf] dd{ / dxTjaf]w ug]–{ u/fpg] 5 / klg Tolt zlQmzfnL / k|efjsf/L aGg
5 . oxfF;Dd ls b]z / hgtfsf] kIfdf ;DalGwt ;a} ?kfGt/0f x'g–' u/fpg'kg]{ ;s]sf] 5}g . tyflk cfzf u/f}+ ljleGg
qmflGt / d'lQmsf] nflu nfUg] / n8\g] ;Gb]z lbg]5 . sdLsdhf]/Lsf afjh'b klg oL df]rf{
u/]sf / ul//x]sf ;+3;+u7g / zlQm– o;sf cltl/Qm s]xL jfdkGyL / cleofgn] l9nf] rfF8f] s]xL g s]xL
JolQmx?nfO{ bdg, w/ks8 / xTof– ;+3;+:yf / ;+u7gx?n] ut jif{bl] v ;sf/fTds / qmflGtsf/L ;Gb]z kSs}
cftÍ dRrfpg];d]t ul/Psf] b'vb\ sfo{ut Pstfsf] ?kdf Pp6f j[xt\ klg lbg ;Sg] 5g\ .
cj:yf 5 . c:yfoL df]rf{ agfO{ /fli6«otf, hgtGq oxL ;Gb]znfO{ cjnDag, ;+/If0f,
o;} b'vb\ lj8Dagfk"0f{ l:ylt / / hghLljsfsf HjnGt ;jfnx?nfO{ ;Da4{g / sfof{Gjog ug{ ;s]df g}
cj:yfdf ;Qfwf/L kf6L{ g]skfleq / lnP/ ;+3if{ ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . To:t}u/L hgo'4, hgcfGbf]ng, hgljb|f]x /
k]l/km]/Lsf zlQm / JolQmx?sf aLrdf rf/ sDo'lg:6 qmflGtsf/L zlQmx?n] hgqmflGtsf ;Dk"0f{ zxLb, a]kQf,
kb, k|lti7f, kfj/ / k};fsf nflu klg xfn} Ps /0fgLlts ;+oQ ' m df]rf{ 3fOt]–ckfË, aGbL, d'2fkLl8t, of]Uo–
n'5fr'8F L / dl/xQ] g} ug]{ rf;f], lrGtg lgdf{0f u/L b]znfO{ jt{dfg ;+s6af6 cof]Uo agfOPsf of]4f, pk]lIft–
/ rl/q xfjL ePsf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ lgsf; lbgsf] nflu cfˆgf ckx]lnt OdfGbf/ g]tf, sfo{stf{ /
Psflt/ b]z c/fhstf, cGof}ntf, sfo{qmddfkm{t\ Ps};fy sfo{gLlts zf]lift–kLl8t hgtf / /fi6« cflb
cl:y/tf, c;d~h:o / gf/fsf] ?kdf cGtl/d ;dLIff ;ef / ;a}sf] plrt :d/0f, >4f / ;Ddfg
c:tJo:ttfsf] cToGt ;+s6k"0f{ cGtl/d ;/sf/ tyf /0fgLlts gf/f x'g5] Û
4 @)&& ;fn kmfu'g !^ ut] cfOtaf/

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/fhgLltnfO{ t/n cj:yfdf /fv]/ dgdf}hL zf;g
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]| n] hgtf
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h;df z'4 ;'g aUb5 . ;'g aUg] pQm gbLdf ;w}e+ l/ cfuGt'ssf] d]nf nflu/x]sf]
x'G5 . dflg;x? 6f9f6f9faf6 ToxfF cfpF5g\ . pQm gbLaf6 lgl:sg] ;'gn] hf];s
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clwsf/ / dfgjflwsf/k|lt k|lta4 NjfË, ;'sd]n xf] . hlta]nf dg nfUof] x'g\ . /fHo;Qfdf a/fa/Lsf] k"0f{ g] k fndf ljsf; ug] { gug] { ,
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k5f}6k] g, cGwljZjf; tyf ;fdflhs cx+ s f/sf] dfqf dxfef/tsf] sf+u|];sf] j}slNks zlQmsf] hGd g} /fVg], g/fVg], j}wflgs /fhtGq /fVg]
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agfpg], wd{lg/k]If /xg] jf lxGb" /fi6«
pk]Gb| emf agfpg], k|hftGq /fVg] jf nf]stGq,
k/lge{/tf a9fP/ wgnfe ug],{] :jfy{
g]kfnsf] pBf]uwGbf cg';f/ zlQm s]Gb|sf] bnfnL ug]{ cflb
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g]kfnL sf+u|];nfO{ 5 . g]kfnsf oL
w/fzfoL 5 . zf;sju{ ;j{zlQmdfg x'g\ .
hgclwsf/sf nflu p7] s f
Jofkf/3f6f r/dlaGb"df hgcfGbf]ng / To;n] :jfefljs ?kdf
:yflkt u/]sf] /fhgLlts k|0ffnLnfO{ :s'sd lhd d];gn] ;a}eGbf klxn] pQm gbLdf ;'g ePsf] s'/f ;fj{hlgs u/]sf
5 . k/lge{/tf klg cfkm\gf] :jfy{nfe cg';f/ kl/jt{g
ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ oL zf;s ju{;uF
lyP . ha gbLdf ;'g alu/x]sf] va/ ;fj{hlgs eof], ToxfF dflg;x?sf] le8
hDdf eOxfNof] . ;g\ !*(* df pQm ;x/sf] hg;+Vof s]jn !%)) lyof] . t/]:,
d/0ff;Gg cj:yfdf 5 . ljsf;sf] :jfefljs :j?knfO{ klg
cfkm\gf] :jfy{df k|of]u ubf{ ljsf;
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l/kf]6c
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k'¥ofPsf] 5 . ljkGgtfn] zf;sju{ s f] clxn] k| b lz{ t hDdf ub{5g\ . pQm gbLdf ;'g vf]Hg]x? /ftf/ft nvklt x'gx] ? klg 5g\ .

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j} w flgs /fhtGq, k| h ftGq,
#) xhf/ PKkn sDKo'6/df /x:odo efO/;
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agfOlbPsf] 5 . g]kfndf s'g k|0ffnL /fVg] Tof] clwsf/
hgtf;Fu geO{ b]jTj k|fKt u/]sf]
em08} #) xhf/ PKkn sDkgLsf sDKo'6/df /x:odo efO/; cfqmd0f ePsf]
5 . zf]wstf{x?sf cg';f/ pQm efO/;sf] p2]Zo s] xf] eGg]rflxF kQf nufpg
;lsPsf] 5}g . Ps Anukf]i6df sDkgLn] xfn;Dd ;f] efO/;af6 sDKo'6/df
e|i6frf/ dflyb]lv tn;Dd j}wflgs ?k lnPsf] 5 . oL ;a} oL b'O{ bn;Fu 5 . &) jif{sf] cjlwdf
s'g /fhgLLt k|0ffnL /fVg] eGg] 7f];
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zf]wstf{n] pQm efO/;nfO{ l;Ne/ :Kof/f] gfd lbPsf 5g\ . PKknsf] Dofs
;d:of ;/sf/sf] hjfkmb]lxtfleq k/]sf] eP klg oL lg0f{o gu/]/ /fhgLltnfO{ t/n
cj:yfdf /fv]/ dgdf}hL zf;g
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ul/Psf] 5 . hgtfn] lg0f{o ug]{
;Dj]bgzLn s'/fx?k|lt uDeL/ geO{ /fhgLlts v]ndf d:t clwsf/ kfPsf] 5}g .
g]kfnsf] pBf]uwGbf w/fzfoL 5 .
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k/lge{ / tf d/0ff;Gg cj:yfdf
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agfOlbPsf] 5 . e|i6frf/ dflyb]lv
logsf] :jfy{l;4 x'g] h'g;'s} k|0ffnL eP x'g] cflv/ ljwftf tn;Dd j}wflgs ?k lnPsf] 5 . oL
;a} ;d:of ;/sf/sf] hjfkmb]lxtfleq
cfkm} x'g,\ /fHo;QfeGbf aflx/ s;}n] /fVg ;Sb}g . k/] s f] eP klg oL ;Dj] b gzLn
s'/fx?k|lt uDeL/ geO{ /fhgLlts
v]ndf d:t b]lvG5 . l:y/ ;/sf/sf]
;dfhgjfbL / ;fDojfbL rf]nf le/]/ hg;dy{g tyf kfnfdf ug{ g;Sg] ;/sf/n] t/n
km/s b]lvPsf] / cfZro{hgs ?kdf xfn;Dd o;n] l8efO;df s'g} klg c;/
5}g . of] efO/;df ;]Nkm l8:6«S6 d]sflgHd /x]sf] 5 h'g o;cl3 ;fOa/
cj:yfdf uPsf] /fhgLltdf ;Dej cfqmd0fsf/Ln] k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvPsf] lyPg . o;n] sDKo'6/df s:tf] vfn]
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pQm efO/; OG6/g]6 ;r{sf qmddf Dofs sDKo'6/df l5/]sf] x'g;Sg]
logsf] :jfy{l;4 x'g] h'g;'s}
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klg cfkm\gf] ;dfhnfO{ abn] . hgtfsf] ljZjf;nfO{ 7f]s/ df/]sf] /fHo;Qf;Dd k'Ug] Ohfht kfOG5 . ;Sb}g . ;dfhgjfbL / ;fDojfbL ut jif{sf] cGTolt/af6} PKkn sDKo'6/df cfqmd0f ;'? u/]sf] x'g;S5 /
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n]v, /rgf;DaGwL ;"rgf


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cu| u dglt/ guO{ kZrudglt/
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yfkfufp“, sf7df8f},+ kmf]gM (*$!$)#*%!
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com
janakhabar@gmail.com
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
@)&& ;fn kmfu'g !^ ut] cfOtaf/ 5
Pl;ofs} dx“uf] ckf6{d]G6 M & ca{df laqmL Û
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cfˆgf] PG8«f]O8sf] o'6\o'a Pkdf k|of]ustf{nfO{ ;"lrt ug]{ tl/sfdf rflxF lyof] . t/, jf:tljs ?kdf Xjf6\;Pksf] pQm Knf6km{daf6 ul/Psf] lsgd]nsf s/f]8 ?k}ofFdf laqmL u/]sf] 5 . xªsªsf] @! af]/6] /f]8 If]qdf cjl:yt pQm
l/hf]n; ' gnfO{ clwstd agfpgsf km/skgf NofpFb5 } . k|of]ustf{nfO{ Pk gofF gLltkl5 klg km];a's;Fu ul/g] ljj/0frflxF o;cl3 b]lv g} km];a's;Fu ckf6{dG] 6 s;n] vl/b u¥of] eGg]rflxF v'nfOPsf] 5}g . ## ;o &* ju{lkm6df
nflu o'6o\ a' Pkdf lel8of] vf]n/] k|of]usf nflu 8f6f z]o/ ug{k' g]{ ;t{ 8f6f ;]o/sf] dfldnfdf ePsf] kl/jt{g ;]o/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . oBlk km/s lgld{t pQm ckf6{dG] 6sf] d"No Ps nfv #^ xhf/ xªsª 8n/ k/]sf] 5 .
dflyNnf] efudf /x] s f] tLgj6f dfGg}kg]{ gofF gLltnfO{ afWosf/L lgs} sd 5 . jf:tjdf To;cl3 klg uf]kgLotf sfg'g /x]sf] o'/f]kn ] L o'lgog pQm ckf6{dG] 6df kfFrj6f sf]7f, l:jldª k'n, k|fOe]6 5t tyf tLgj6f
yf]Knfjfnf d]Go"df 6\ofk ug]{ / ToxfFsf] agfOPsf] 3f]if0ff ut hgj/Ldf ;a} k|of]ustf{n] Xjf6\;Pksf 8f6f z]o/ ;Da4 d'ns ' x? tyf a]nfotdf rflxF kfls{+ª :k];nufotsf] ;'ljwf 5 . :d/0f/xf];\ nUh/L ckf6{d]G6sf nflu
Kn]Aofs cK;gdf uO{ clwstd Xjf6\;Pkn] u/]sf] lyof] . To;otf bzf}F ug]{ ;t{ kfngf ul/;s]sf x'Gy] . gofF Xjf6\;Pk k|of]ustf{sf o:tf 8f6fx? xªsª ljZje/ rlr{t 5 . o;cl3 ;g\ @)!& df xªsªd} dfpG6
l/hf]n; ' g 5gf]6 ug{k' b{5 . To;cl3 nfv k|of]ustf{n] Xjf6\;Pk 5f8]/ cGo kl/jt{gk|lt k|of]ustf{df b]lvPsf] ;d]t km];a'sdf ;]o/ x'bF g} g\ . lgsn;gl:yt Ps ckf6{dG] 6 ;jf{lws dxFuf]df laqmL ePsf] lyof] .

ufO{sf] d"No $ s/f]8 Û


cgf}7f] r/f M cfwf efn], cfwf kf]yL Û
sf7df8f} F . cd] l /sfsf] afONof6/n ufOGofG8«f]dlkm{hd eP . …3/ k'u]/ cfk"m;Fu s]sf nfxfFr] r/f_ vf]lh/x]sf] lyPF . t/,
sf7df8f}F . Pp6f ufO{sf] d"No $ s/f]8 ?k}ofF kTofpg x'G5 < xf] a]nfotdf
Pp6f ufO{ $ s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf w]/} d"Nodf laqmL ePsf] 5 . Tof];Fu} of] ufO{n]
k]lG;Ne]lgofdf Ps k+IfLljb\n] cfwf kf]yL ePsf r/fdf sfd ug]{ cj:yfs} tl:a/x¿ lyP eg]/ gx]?Gh]n;Dd pgn] 3/k5fl8 kfOg] Pp6f ;fdfGo ;+;f/s} dxFuf] ufO{sf] ?kdf sLlt{dfg /fv]sf] 5 . sfln{:n]df ePsf] lnnfdLsf
/ cfwf efn]h:tf] b]lvg] Pp6f r/fsf] c08fzo / l8Dafzo b'j} x'G5g\ . kmf]6f] lvr]sf] kfFr 306f;Dd d'6' r/fsf] b' n { e cj:yfsf] tl:a/ qmddf pQm ufO{ @ nfv ^@ xhf/ kfp08df laqmL ePsf] 5 . a]nfotsf]
tl:a/ lvr]sf 5g\ . pgsL Pshgf lnO/xFbf pgL sf7kmf]/f e]6] a/fa/ lzkmgn hlGdPsf] kf]z :kfO; gZnsf] pQm ufO{ sLlt{dfgL d"Nodf laqmL
;fyLn] gf]bg{ sfl8{gn elgg] pQm r/f g} pT;flxt lyP . cfwf efn] /
b]vfk/]sf] atfPkl5 k+IfLljb\n] cfˆgf] cfwf kf]yLsf] ¿k ePsf r/fx¿
Sofd/fdf pQm r/fsf] tl:a/ lnPsf e]l6g' lgs} b'ne{ 36gf ePsf] j]:6«g{
lyP . lålnËL jf peolnËL r/fx¿ Ongf]O{ ljZjljBfnosf k|fWofks
b'ne{ x'G5g\ . efn] sfl8{gnx¿ rlDsnf] a| f og kLo/ atfpF 5 g\ . pgn]
/ftf] /Ësf x'G5g\ eg] kf]yLx¿ lkmSsf cd]l/sfsf gf]bg{ sfl8{gn r/fx¿df
v}/f] /Ësf x'G5g\ . oL /Ësf] ld>0fn] …afONof6/n ufOGofgG8«fd] lkm{hdÚ sf]
r/f lålnËL ePsf] ;Í]t ug{ ;Sg] ;j]{If0f u/]sf 5g\ . z'qmsL6n]
kIfLlj1 atfpF5g\ . aLaL;L;Fu s'/f l8DanfO{ lgif]rg u/]kl5 e|'0f aGg
ub}{ cjsfz k|fKt k+IfLlj1 h]dL lxnn] sf]ifx¿ ljefhg x'g] qmddf q'l6 x'bF f
eg], …of] hLjgsfnd} Pp6f / nfvf}F o:tf] cj:yf cfpg] pgL atfpF5g\ .
;fIffTsf/dWo]sf] Pp6f lyof] .Úlxnsf t/, pQm If]qdf ;Defljt o:tf]
;fyLn] pgnfO{ pgn] Pp6f …c:jfefljsÚ lsl;dsf] r/f b]lvPsf] klxnf] k6s
r/f b]vs ] f] atfPsL lyOg\ . ;'?df lxnn] xf]Og . GofZgn lhof]u|flkmssf
pQm r/f …n"l;l:6sÚ xf]nf eG7fg]sf cg';f/ ;g\ @)!( df Ps bDklQn]
lyP . r/fn] cfˆgf] KjfFvdf x'gk' g]{ /Ë glhs}af6 To;} If]qdf o:t} r/f
cyf{t\ lkUd]G6]zg u'dfPsf] cj:yfnfO{ b]v]sf lyP . lxn clxn] b]lvPsf] eP;Fu} ufO{sL dflnSgL lqml:6g ljlnoD; / pgsf klt lk6/ l6k]6;
\ lgs}
…n"l;l;hd\Ú cyf{t\ …kf08Ú elgG5 . r/f klg ToxL x'g ;Sg] cg'dfg v';L 5g\ . pgLx?sf] kz' kmfd{df ! ;o #) ufO{ tyf Ps xhf/ hlt e]8f
pgnfO{ ;'?df pQm r/f cfwf efn] / u5{g\ . k|fWofks kL/sf cg';f/ gf]bg{ 5g\ . tLdWo] s]xL gZnx? lgs} ax'd"No tyf b'n{e gZn;d]t /x]sf 5g\ .
cfwf kf]yL ePsf] h:tf] nfu]sf] lyPg . sfl8{gn pQ/L cd]l/sfdf htfht} :d/0f/xf];\ o;cl3 ;g\ @)!$ df kf]z :kfO; gZns} Ps afR5L ! nfv #!
t/, df]afOndf tl:a/x¿ x]/k] l5 pgn] kfOg] r/f xf] . o;sf] efn] / kf]yLnfO{ xhf/ @%) kfp08df laqmL ePsf] lyof] .
pQm r/fnfO{ …afONof6/n
ufOGofG8«fd] lkm{hdÚ ePsf] x'g ;Sg]
cfzÍf u/]sf lyP .
pgL pQm sfl8{gn r/f b]lvPsf]
:yfgdf uP . Ps 306fleq pgL pQm
c:jfefljs r/fsf] tl:a/ lng ;kmn
9's9's ul//x]sf] cg'ej pgn] ;'gfP .
pgn] sl/a b' O { bzsb] l vl/:
nf]kf]Gd'v xfQLbGt] sf7kmf]/f -Psvfn]
;xh} lrGg ;lsg] ePsfn] peolnËL
r/f lrGg klg ;lhn} ;lsg] pgsf]
egfO 5 . – aLaL;L
xjfOhxfhsf] kfªu|fdf a;]/
% xhf/ dfOn ofqf Û
sfnf] skfn ePsf] eGb} :s'ndf k|jz] lgif]w Û
sf7df8f} F . hfkfgsf] Pp6f cfˆgf] sfnf] skfnnfO{ s[lqd ?kdf cfpgsf nflu rf/ jif{ nfUof] / xfn}
af6f] sf6\bf sf7df8f}F . xjfOhxfhsf] tNnf] efudf Nofl08ª luo/df a;]/ !^ jif{sf
Ps lszf]/n] % xhf/ dfOnsf] ofqf u/]sf 5g\ . n08gaf6 p8]sf] hxfh
g]b/Nof08sf] xf]Nof08 k'uk] l5 dfq} Po/kf]6{ :6fkmn] Nofl08ª luo/df dflg;
:s'nn] v}/f] skfn ePsf] eGb}
Pshgf 5fqfnfO{ :s'ndf lgif]w u/]sf]
/ª bn]/ v}/f] agfPsf] cf/f]k nufof]
h'g :s'nsf] lgod lyof] . To;}n] :s'n
dfq cbfntn] km};nf ;'gfof] . clxn]
pgL @! jif{sL ePsL l5g\ . cbfntn] h]af| ePsf] yfxf kfPsf lyP . sl/a !( xhf/ lkm6sf] prfOdf lgs} lr;f]df
/x]sf sf/0f tL lszf]/ xfOkf]yld{ofsf lzsf/ ePsf lyP t/ cfZro{hgs
5 . skfn sfnf] gagfP;Dd :s'ndf k|zf;gn] tL 5fqfnfO{ k6s–k6s o; d' 2 fdf km} ; nf ;' g fpF b } tL
cfpg gkfpg] eg]/ :s'nn] s8f
lgb]{zg hf/L u/]sf] ljifo lgs}
ljjfbdf k¥of] . hfkfgsf]
skfn sfnf] agfpg lgb]z { g lbof] /
gdfg]df :s'n cfpg glbOg] r]tfjgL
lbof] . cGttM ljBfnon] skfnsf
5fqfnfO{ Ifltk"lt{afkt # nfv #)
xhf/ o]g ltg{ :s'nnfO{ cfb]z lbPsf]
5 . :s'nsf] dfgl;s k|tf8gfsf
qml;ªaf6
cf];fsfl:yt x]lalsgf] k|fGtdf pQm
36gf ePsf] xf] . Sofkm'sg k|fGtLo
xfO:s'ndf k9\g] Ps 5fqfsf] v}/f]
sf/0f tgfj lbPkl5 tL 5fqfn]
cbfntsf] 9f]sf 9s9sfOg\ . Tof]
36gf @)!% sf] lyof] hlta]nf pgL
sf/0f tL 5fqfsf] lzIffdf c;/
k/] s f] 7x/ cbfntsf] 5 .
:d/0f/xf];\ hfkfgsf :s'nx?df
dfq af6f]
skfnsf sf/0f :s' n n] cfklQ !% jif{sL lyOg\ . :s'n k|zf;gsf] lgodx? lgs} s8f agfOPsf x'G5g\ .
hgfPsf] lyof] . jf:tjdf tL 5fqfsf]
skfn k|fs[lts ?kn] g} v}/f] lyof] .
k|tf8gfaf6 lbSs eP/ pgn] ;g\
@)!& df cbfntdf d'2f xflng\ .
h;cg';f/ ljBfyL{x?nfO{ cfˆgf]
skfndf /+u bNg tyf lAnr ug{
sf6f}+ .
t/, :s'n k|zf;gn] eg] tL 5fqfn] tyflk cbfntsf] km} ; nf lgif]w ul/Psf] x'G5 . ?kdf hLljt lyP . OlG8k]G8]G6sf] l/kf]6{cg';f/ lszf]/nfO{ c:ktfndf egf{
ul/Psf] 5 hxfF pgsf] pkrf/ eO/x]sf] 5 . l/kf]6{sf cg';f/ tL lszf]/n]

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+ Nofl08ª luo/df a;]/ sl/a % ;o !) lsnf]ld6/ ofqf u/] . xf]Nof08sf]
dfl:6«R6 Po/kf]6d { f hxfh cjt/0f ug]{ qmddf pgnfO{ ToxfFaf6 lgsflnPsf]
lyof] . l/kf]6{sf cg';f/ tL lszf]/ 6ls{z Po/nfOG;sf] sfuf]{ ljdfgsf]
Nofl08ª luo/df a;]sf lyP . Ps lbg klxn] dfq} of] hxfh s]Gofsf]
g}/f]aLaf6 6sL{sf] O:tfga'n x'Fb} n08g k'u]sf] lyof] . tL lszf]/ s]GofnL

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ gful/s x'g\ / pgL g}/f]aLaf6} Nofl08ª luo/df n08g;Dd k'us
klg ToxL 7fpFdf a;]/ xNof08 k'us
klg pgL To;}u/L k'us
] f] / ToxfFaf6
] f] cfz+sf ul/Psf] 5 . g}/f]aLaf6 n08g;Dd
] f] k'li6 eO;s]sf] 5}g .
36gfsf] v'nf;f ePkl5 :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?n] of] dfgj t:s/Lsf] s]; xf]
jf xf]Og eGg] klg hfFr ug]{ atfPsf 5g\ . dfl:6«R6 ljdfg:ynsf Ps clwsf/Lsf
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 cg';f/ lszf]/ lgs} efUozfnL lyP / o;/L ofqf ubf{ klg afFr] lsgls of]
ljdfg prfOdf x'bF f Nofl08ª luo/df tfkqmd dfOg; tL; l8u|L ;]lN;o;;Dd
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&! em5{ . o;cl3 klg dflg;x? Nofl08ª luo/df a;]/ ofqf u/]sf 36gf kfOPsf
5g\ 3/ w]/h} ;f] 36gfdf o;/L ofqf ug]s { f] Hofg uPsf] 5 .
6 @)&& ;fn kmfu'g !^ ut] cfOtaf/

ljZj k|l;4 k|d] kqx?


!_ rfN;{ 8fla{gsf] k|]d kq
!_ rfN;{ 8fla{g pGGffO;f}F ztfAbLsf
d}n] klxn] g} Pp6f kq Pshfg
k7fPsf] lyPF . t/, ha ToxfFaf6 s'g}
;Qfåf/f y'lgPsf lyP .
sf/fuf/af6 cfˆgf] k|]ldsfnfO{
n]v]sf] kqsf] hjfkmdf cfb/k"j{s
ljjfx k|:tfjnfO{ c:jLsf/ ub{}{
e]8fjfb lhGbfjfb Û
an/fd ltdlN;gf
Ps dxfg\ qmflGtsf/L ljsf;jfbL pQ/ cfPg To;kl5 d}n] csf{] kq Sof:6«f]n] n]v]sf ^ j6f k|]dkq xfn} n]lvPsf] Plnhfj]ysf k|To'Q/ kq tn
j}1flgs x'g\ . h:fsf] ljsf;jfbL lghgL k7fPF, ToxfFaf6 cfh pQ/ Dofl8« 8 sf] Ps ;dfrf/ kqn] k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . dfG5] aGg lgs} ufx|f] 5
l;4fGtn] ;+;f/el/ cfd"n kl/jt{g cfof] ls æqmf:gfof Hj]H8fÆ hxfhn] k|sflzt u/]sf]5 . Sof:6«f]sf] tL tkfO{sL kTgL x'gs ' f] ;'v :jLsf{lbg
ul/lbof] . log} dxfg\ j}1flgsn] cfˆgf] * h'nfO{ ;Dddf Pshfg k'Ug'k5{ / k|l] dsfsf] gfd lyof] Gof6L /]Ej]N6f . d]/f n8{ P8ld/n ;To s'/f eGg lgs} ufx|f] 5
Jo:t ;dosf] afah'b klg cfˆgL ;f] hxfh ToxfF @$ 306feGbf sd pgL Ps pRr ju{ kl/jf/sL lyOg\ . tkfO{n] h'g kq dnfO{ n]Vg'eof] ;a}eGbf ;lhnf] 5–
k|o;LnfO{ n]vs ] f] k|d] kq . a:b}g . d}n] Tof] kqdf ;f]w]sf] lyPF Sof:6«f] / Gof6Lsf] k|]d ;DaGws} Tof] clt g} s[kfk"0f{ 5, ;fy} b'n{e
lk|o, ls s] æqmf:gfof Hj]H8fÆ df uf]sL{nfO{ ;To syf
sf/0fkl5 Ps 5f]/L hlGdg\– Plngf ljd'Uwtf klg k|s6 x'G5 . d cfk"mdf EofEof eGg
df};d clt g} cfgGb bfos 5 . Pp6f Sofljg lbg ;Dej x'G5 < pm kmgf{ G 8] h /] E j] N 6f . pQm Tof] of]Uotf kfpg ;lSbg, h;af6
lxhf] ltdLnfO{ kq n]lv;s]kl5 d ef] l n ToxfF cfO/x] s f 5g\ . d ;dfrf/kqnfO{ Sof:6«fs ] f tL k|d ] kq o:tf] eb| JoGhgfx6sf] ;d'lrt pQ/ ;a}eGbf ;lhnf] 5–
d}bfgsf] s]xL cufl8 uPF / 8]9 k]6f« u] 8] af6 pgnfO{ lgsfNg rfxG5' . Plngfn] g} pknAw u/fPsL lyOg\ . lbg ;s'F . yf]/} zAbdf cfˆgf] ;fFrf] e]8f aGg Û
306f;Dd otfptf 3'd/] cfGfGb lnPF . ToxfF pgsf] ;fx; r'/–r'/ eO;s]sf] Plngfsf] cfˆgf] lktf Sof:6«f];Fu efjgf k|s6 ug{;Dd d cfk"mnfO{
:s6Nof08sf] b]abf? Af[Ifsf] tfhf, 5 / pgL clt g} 8/fPsf 5g\ . ;Dks{ 5}g . ;Lldt /fVb5' . d}n] :jLsf/ ug{k' 5{, dfG5] aGg slt ufx|f] 5 <
km]l/ ulx/f] xl/ofnL, ;kmf ;]tf] z/L/ dnfO{ cfzf 5 ls ltdL / c? :ofli6Puf]sf df]Gsf8f Aof/]s cToGt zfnLg tkfO{sf] kqn] dnfO{
ePsf] k'/fgf] …aLr{Ú -pQ/L b]zdf kfOg] ;fyLnfO{ uf]sL{;Fu ofqf ug{' w]/} g} dflysf] c;kmn cfqmd0f kl5 cf}wL cfro{df kf¥of] lsgls ljjfxsf] af6f] lxF8g\ ' k5{
Ps Kf|sf/sf] k"mnsf] ?v_ sf ;–;fgf /fd|f] x'G5 logL clt g} enfb\dL dflg; sf/fuf/df y' l gPsf Sof:6« f ] n fO{ ljifodf ;f]Rgsf nflu cg'dlt g d]/f] df]8x¿ cfpF5g\
k"mn, aa'nsf] a[Ifsf nx/fsf em'l8P/ x'g,\ yf]/} cl:y/ dg 5, t} klg Tof] /fhg}lts IfdbfgcGtu{t !(%% df pd]/n] lbG5 g t d]/f] ?lr k|s[ltn]
dlRrPsf] b[Zonufotsf ;f/f b[Zox? ;fwf/0f s'/f xf] . l/xf ul/Psf] lyof] . sf/f]af;sf] g} . o;sf cltl/Qm d sNkgf klg bf]af6f rf}af6fx¿ cfpF5g\
clt g} dgkbf]{ /x]sf lyP . lk|o, b}f/fgdf Gof6L;Fu k|d ] k|s/0f k|f/De ug{ ;Sb}g . Ps o:tf] ;do s'g}
cGtdf d 3fF ; dfly ulx/f] d] / f] b} l gsL ;w} F h:t} u/L u/]sf Sof:6«f]n] l/xfOkl5 Gof6LnfO{ JolQm d;Fu ljjfxsf] s'/f p7fpF5,
uf}8+ f uNyfx¿ cfpF5g\
lgGb|fdf ;'t]F, d t To;a]nf dfq laT5 . d cfˆgf] sf]7fdf cfOtaf/ xjfgdf e] 6 ] / u' l /NNff kmf} h sf] oltv]/ d}n] lktfsf] lgwgdf zf]s tuf/fx¿ cfpF5g
Ao'lemPF ha d]/f] j/Lk/L rf/}lt/ cf/fd lng] u5{' . dnfO{ clxn] lgdf{0fsf nflu d]lS;sf] km/f/ ePsf dgfpg'afx]s cGo s'g} klg s'/f ;f]Rg'
k+IfLsf ;d"xx? dw'/ :j/n] ufO/x]sf cf/fd} 5, To;}u/L 6«f6:sL klg 7Ls lYfP . To; e]6sf] ( dlxgfkl5 Plgnf x'Fb}g . pxfFk|lt d olt w]/} s[t1 5' s'g xf] cfˆgf] uGtJo k'Ug]
lyP, lunx/Lx? otfptf efu] / eO;s]/ blIf0flt/ uPsf 5g\ . hGd]sL lyOg\ . Df ltd|f] sf]dn kqx? ls -sDtLdf klg_ b'O{ jif{sf] ;do
a[Ifdfly rl9/x]sf lyP clg s]xL dnfO{ cfzf 5 pgn] ;a} sfd 7Ls Hftg ug{]5', ;w} hgt ug{]5' . ltd|f] dnfO{ pxfFsf] cfzf]r jfg{d{ f rflxG5 .
af6f] lrGg' k5{ Û
sf7 kmf]8fx? xfFl;/x]sf lyP, tL ug{]5g\ . k|wfg ;]gfklt aT;]tLsf] kq kfpg' d]/f] nflu ;RRff v';Lsf] o:t} d kTgL aGGf] ;DaGwdf s;/L dfG5] aGg slt d'l:sn 5 <
b[Zox? olt dgf]/~hgs / dfld{s :yfgsf P;=P;= sfd]g]n -k'jL{ s'/f xf] / o;sf] hjfkm lbg kfpg' lg0f{o ug{ ;s'Fnf ha;Dd d s]xL
lyP ls d}n] kz' / k+IfLx? s;/L df]rf{_ nfO{ /fv]kl5 l:yltdf ;'wf/ klg cfGfGbsf] s'/f xf] . …Sof:6«f]Ú n] jif{;Dd sf}dfo{sf] hLjg glatfpF / k|Zg ;f]Wg' k5{
algP eGg] s'/f;Dd e"Ng k'u5 ] '. xf]nf eGg] d}n] cfzf u/]sf] 5' . d}n] Ps k|]d kqdf n]v]sf 5g\ . csf{] kl/kSj gag'F .
lk|o dnfO{ tL ;f/f b[Zon] ltd|f] ofb k]qmf]:sL -Pd=Pg_ -Oltxf; lj1_ nfO{ Ps kqdf Sof:6«fn ] ] cfˆgf] cWoognfO{ ctM dnfO{ cg'dlt lbg';\, d]/f]
hjfkm lbg' k5{
lbnfof] . d of]eGbf c? afFsL csf]{ b'O{ dlxgfsf] 5'§L lbPsf] 5' / ;f] cufl8 a9fpg / pRr cfbz{k|lt n8{ gf} ;]gfWoIf, :ki6 ?kdf eof] ax; ug{' k5{
kqdf n]Vg]5' . 7fpFdf ?8f]Nkmf]Agf d]lDemg:sL - ;dlk{t x'g Gof6LnfO{ cfu|x u/]sf eGGf ;s'F, oBlk ;+;f/df c? sf]xL
– ltd|f] 8fla{g, – d'/kfs{ a'waf/ af]nz]efsf] ;f]zn l8df]qm]6_ nfO{ lyP . pgn] eg]sf lyP– olb ltdL klg JolQm 5}g hf] deGbf a9L lbdfu lvofpg' k5{
clk|n !*%* lgo'lQm ug{ rfxG5' / clxn] of] k"/f o;f] ulb{gf}F eg] Tof] kSsf ck/fw tkfO{+sf] of]Uotfsf] cfb/ u/f];\
@_ n] l gsf] k| ] d kq ePsf] 5} g t/ kf] h g/ -hf] x'g5 ] . ;fy} Sof:6«fn] ] cfˆgf] k|d] kqdf cyhf hf] Ps t6:y dflg; h:t}
ljZjf; dfq xf]Og zÍf klg ug{' k5{
Dfxfg\ bfz{lgs sfn dfS;{sf] gf/sf]Dk|f; ] dfdf 5g\_ nfO{ s'g} xfntdf of] klg n]v]sf 5g\– ltdLn] ;w} d]/f] tkfO{ k | l t olt ;x| f gfsf] efj ldl;g' k5{
e}fltsjfbL l;4fGtnfO{ z/L/ lbP/ klg of] kb lbg] aLrf/df d 5}g . ;dy{gsf] e/ k/] x'G5, o;sf] nflu /fVbf]xf];\ . t/, d tkfO{+k|lt cfˆgf]
/fhg}lts Oltxf;sf] lbzf df]8g] ljZj cGtdf lk|o l56f]eGbf l56f] Pp6f ltdLn] dfu ug{' kb{}g . of] efjgfsf] ljz]ifflwsf/ cfˆgf] nflu 5'l§g' k5{
rlr{t /fhgLlt1 le= cfO{= n]lggn] kq k7fpg' . d ltldnfO{ cflnËg ug{ æltld Ps gf/L xf] . o; ;+;f/sf ;'/lIft /fVg rfxG5' . ljjfxsf] Tof]
qmflGtsf] ;dodf qmflGtsf/L ;xofqL rfxG5', qmflGtx?sf If0fdf klg d]/f] k|f0fLdf gf/Lx? Gf} cToGt sf]dn s7f]/ aGwGwdf gkl/sg h;sf]
ldNg' k5{
s'K;sfonfO{ kq k|]lift u/]sf lyP . dfof ;b}a ltdLnfO{ x'g5 ] . 5g\ . d] / f] ;' v sf] , cfgGbsf] , sf/0f ax' w f dflg; jf:tljs n8\g' k5{
of] kq n]lggn] qmflGtsf] ;dodf –ltd|f] lj ljnogf]e efjgfsf] , ljutsf] , jt{ d fgsf] , u'0fx?sf] l:yltnfO{ la;{G5g\ . tkfO{+
n]v]sf x'g\ . sK;'sfo hf] :jo+ g} #_ Sof:6« f ] s f k| ] d kqx? eljiosf], k|To]s knsf] / hLjge/sf] dxfdfGo, o; dfly k"0f{ ljZjf; cufl8sf] ufF; dfq xf]Og
Ps s'zn qmflGtsf/L lyOg\ . k|rf/sf] Pp6f r'Dag csf{] r'Dag h:t} ;+lugL ltdL d]/f] Åbosf] cToGt lgs6 ug{';\ . oBlk tkfO{+sL kTgL x'g'sf] glhs}sf] 3fF; dfq xf]Og
bf}/fgdf pgL aflx/ uPsL lyOg\ . x'G5, t/ klg k|d] L–k|l] dsfx? R'fDagdf l5b| xf}, hxfF d ltdLnfO{ k"hf u5{' / ;'v :jLsfb{Lg{ t tkfO{s + f] dlxdfnfO{
n]lgg dfq ?;sf o:tf AolQm x'g\, slxNo} yfSb}gg\ . So"jfsf sDo'lgi6 kljqtfk"j{s cFufN5' .Æ Sof:6«f]n] ul/dfo'Qm agfpg] ;a} s'/fdf d]/f] ;o jif{ klxn}bl] v
h;sf] d/]sf] z/L/ cfh;Dd klg g]tf lkm8]n Sof]:6«f]n] k}tfln; jif{ cfˆgf] csf{] Ps k|d] kqdf o;/L klg ?lr lg/Gt/ /lx/xg] 5 . clg
?;df ;'/lIft 5 . cl3 cfˆgf] Ps k|]ldsfnfO{ n]v]sf] cfˆgf efjgf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . tkfO{s + f] ;]ljsf tyf c;n ldq x'gd' f ;o jif{ kl5sf] klg ;f]Rg' k5{
– d:sf] ( –&– !(!( k|]dkqdf eg]sf lyP . Toltv]/ $_ /fhs'df/L Plnhfj]ysf] kq dnfO{ ;b}a cToGt k|;GGftf k|fKt ‰ofpm g} ‰ofpm 5 dfG5] aGg Û
Kof/L gf3'Zsf, qmflGtsf/L o'js Sof:6«f] …cfO;Nof08 /fhs'df/L Plnhfj]y;Fu ljjfxsf] x'g]5 . – Plnhfj]y
ltd|f] kq kfP/ d clt v';L ePF . ckm kfOG;Ú sf] sf/fuf/df ;}lgs k|:tfa /fv]/ nf8{ P8ld/n ;]df}/n] k| : t' l t M ldng cfkmGt e]8f aGg Sof ;lhnf] 5

k]l/;df sd{ :dfl/sf ladf]rg


sf7df8f} F . g] k fn k| m fG;
s'6gLlts ;DaGw :yfkgfsf] &) cf}
d'nssf aLr lautdf P]ltxfl;s
e|d0fx? ePsf / b'O{ b]zx?sf lxdfnL
t/ kfn / g]kfnLsf] ;Demgf slxNo}
dgaf6 efUg g;s]sf] atfP . pgn]
dfhf], k'/fgf k|mfG;]nL /fhb"t ldz]n
n'df], g]kfnsf] af/]df uxg cWoog
cu'jfn] Eof eG5
Ps :j/n] Eof ul/lbgf];
cu'jf a]tf]8n] efU5
jif{ u fF 7 sf] pknIodf k| s flzt ;:s[lt / hLjgk4lt p:t} vfnsf eg]– d}n] d]/f] zx/df g]kfnsf] ul//xg'Psf k|mfG;]nL laåfg\ h]/f8{ kl5 kl5 eflulbgf];
:dfl/sf Úsd{Ú sf] g]kfn l:yt b]lvg] u/]sf klg pNn]v u/] . pgn] ;Demgf hLjGt /fVg b'O{ uNnLsf tf]kmfF, cj}tflgs al0fHob"t lblbP
k|mfG;]nL /fhb"t k|mG:jf hfleP n]h] b'O{ b]z aLrsf] ;DaGw k|uf9 agfpg gfdx? uf]/vf / kgf}tL /fv]sf] 5' . a]gf8{, dfgfy{ ;f+;b /f]a6{ n kmn,
cu'jf le/af6 xfdkmfN5
/ k]l/; l:yt g]kfnL /fhb"t bLks cfk;L ;xof] u ;dfembf/L / o;}u/L sfo{qmddf g]kfnaf/] uxg ljåfg\ h'lnoF ef;f]sf k|mfG;]nL efiffsf wdfwd kfn}kfnf] xfd kmfNg';\
clwsf/Lsf xftaf6 z'qmaf/ laxfg ;dfgtfnfO{ Wofg lbOPsf] atfP . cWoog ug]{ vf]hstf{ h]/f8{ tf]kmfFn] n]vx? ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . k':tsdf
k]l/;df ;+oQ ' m ?kdf ljdf]rg ePsf] g]kfn k|fs[lts b[Zodf dfq k|mfG;sf] tNnf] ;bgdf /x]sf] k|mfG; ;a} s'/f aGb ug{; ' \
5 . g]kfnL ;flxlTos dGr k|mfG;åf/f ge} efiff / ;F:s[ltdf ax't g]kfn d}qL ;d"xsL cWoIf e]/f]lgs s]jn Pp6} s'/f Vofn ug{; ' \
k|sflzt of] k':ts er{c ' n dfWod wgL /x]sf] atfP . l/of]tf]F{ / g]kfn k|mfG; OG6/kfln{ofd]G6/L
h' d df ul/Psf] lyof] . z' q maf/ o;}u/L, dxfsla nIdLk|;fb U?ksf ;+of]hs Pad k"ak{ w| fgdGqL cu'jf a:of] eg] a:g';\
k|mf+;n
] L dxfg ;flxTosf/ leS6/ Xo"uf] b]jsf]6fsf] af/]df ljBfjfl/lw dfwjs'df/ g]kfnsf] z'esfdgfx?
sf] @!( cf}+ hGdhoGtL klg xf] . ug{e' Psf k|mfG;]nL laåfg\ /]dL ;dfa]z ul/Psf] 5 . snf / ;flxTosf] cu'jf p7\of] eg] p7\g; ' \
ljdf]rg sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ af]bf]n
{ ] dxfslj b]jsf]6fsf s]xL s'g} e"uf]n gx'g] eGb} dfwjs'df/ cu'jf ;'Tof] eg] ;'Tg';\
g]kfnl:yt k|mfG;]nL /fhb"t hfleP r'lgPsf uLtx?sf] k|mfG;]nL g]kfnn] k|mfG;df g]kfn lrgfpg] sd{
n]h]n] sf]le8 !( n] ;[hgf u/]sf] efiffdf cg'jfb ul/;s]sf] / :dfl/sf / ;flxlTos d~rk|lt v';L 5}g t xfO;Grf] <
laifod kl/l:yltdf klg of] :dfl/sf cfpg] xKtf log} uLtx?sf] JoQm u/]sf 5g\ .
k|sflzt ul/Psf] uj{ ub}{ :dfl/sfn] ;Fufnf] …n ;Ft/ cDa'nGtÚ eGg] k':ts leq g]kfn / k|mfG;df sfd dfG5] aGgaf6 yfs]sf
g] k fn / k| m fG;aLrsf] ;' d w' / k':ts k|sfzg ug{ uO/x]sf] ul/;s] s f laleGg /fhb" t tyf cfpm e]8fx¿ xf] cfpm
;DaGwnfO{ cem k|uf9 kfg]{ ljZjf; atfP . sfo{qmddf g]kfnsf pkof]uL 7]ugfx? klg lbOPsf] 5 .
JoQm u/] . g]kfn / k|mfG;sf] ;DaGw tkm{ a f6 k| m fG;sf k' / fgf d~rsf ;b:o 8f= efg' Gof}kfg]åf/f dfG5] aGg 5f]l8lbpmF
b'O{ b]zsf gful/sx?sf] cflTdo /fhb"tx? df]xgs[i0f >]i7 / ;Grflnt pQm sfo{qmddf d~rsf
ljZjf;df c8]sf] pNn]v ub}{ pgn] clDasf dfggw/ n' O F 6 ] n , cfsf{ ;b:o ;'wL/ /fgfn] ljdf]lrt / e]8f alglbpmF
g]kfn / k|mfG; b'jn } ] ko{6gsf If]qdf cj} t flgs /fhb" t l8l8P k':tssf af/]df, 8f= /fh]z vltj8fn] cfˆgf] efiff 5f]l8lbpmF
lalaw lasf;df lalalws/0fsf] a]gf8{, åGb sfndf g]kfnnfO{ k|mfG;]nL dxfsla leS6/ Xo'uf]sf af/]df
vfFrf] cf}FNofP . o;}u/L k]l/; l:yt sfo{qmddf dfgfy{ ;f+;b tyf g]kfn sd{ynf] agfPsL cfdlGbg nfdfn] klg / cg'/fwf kf}8n ] n] dxfsla nIdLk|;fb / EofEof elglbpmF
g]kfnL /fhb"t bLks clwsf/Ln] g]kfn k|mfG; d}qL ;d"xsf k'/fgf ;efklt ;Daf]wg u/]sf lyP . b]jsf]6fsf] af/]df af]n]sf lyP .
/ k|mfG;sf] s'6gLlts ;DaGwsf] /f]a6{ n kmnn] kgf}tLdf /x]sf] Ps k':tsdf lalwGg lawfdf kf]Vt sfo{qmddf wGojfb 1fkg ub}{ ;F:yfsf e]8fx¿sf] j[xt Pstf– lhGbfjfb
lasf; @) clk|n !($( df ePsf] dlGb/ k'glg{df{0f tyf Ps 6lSgsn k|mfG;]nL tyf g]kfnLx?åf/f lnlvt s'n ;Fof]hs Pad ;flxTosf/ xl/x/ e]8fjfb– lhGbfjfb Û
:d/0f ub}{ o;} ;Gbe{df tof/ ul/Psf] :s"ndf k|mfG;]nL ;xof]usf] / uf]/vfdf $$ j6f n]v tyf /rgfx? 5flkPsf cof{nn] k':ts lgdf{0f ul/ k|sfzg /
of] :dfl/sf :t/Lo, ;'Gb/ / jhgbf/ :s'n eagx? lgdf{0f ug{ ;xof]u 5g\ . h;df ;u/dfyf cf/f]x0f ug]{ ladf]rg ug]{ sfd ;+nUg ;a}kl| t cfef/ EofEof– lhGbfjfb Û
laifo a:t'x?n] el/Psf] 5 eGb} b'j} u/]sf] rrf{ ub}{ cfk"m a[4 x'bF } uPsf] klxnf] k|mfG;]nL aof]a4[ gful/s lko/ AoQm ub}{ wGojfb lbPsf lyP .
@)&& ;fn kmfu'g !^ ut] cfOtaf/ 7

;+3Lo hgu0ftGqsf] :yfkgf cfhsf] ckl/xfo{ cfjZostf


æk|To]s qmflGtsf] cfwf/e"t k|Zg
/fHo;Qfsf] k|Zg xf], of] k|ZgnfO{
nflu k| l tudg ePsf] xf] . /
qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL kf6L{x?sf nflu
kbsf] n'5fr'F8Lsf sf/0f k|r08 –
dfwj u'6nfO{ tx nufpg ;+ljwfgsf]
;+;b\leq ;ef;b\x? vl/b–laqmL
x'g]5g\ . lsga]r x'g]5g\ . j}b]lzs
‘8«fOleª nfO;]G;’ kmf/fd
eg]s{ f] ;+Vof % nfv gf£of]
sf7df8f}F . oftfoft Joj:yf ljefun] gofF rfns cg'dltkqsf nflu
a'lemPg eg] qmflGtdf a'l4dtfk"0f{ yk k|ltudg ePsf] xf] . /, qmflGtsf/L s'g} jf:t gu/]/ ;Qf sAhf u/]/ zlQmx?n] cfˆgf] bnfn zlQmnfO{ kmf/fd eg]{sf] ;+Vof kfFr nfv gf3]sf] atfpb} cg'dltkqsf] k/LIff kf;
;xeflutf x'g ;Qm}g, qmflGtsf] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{x?n] cf]nL ;/sf/ a9L a;]sf] cf]nL u'6n] ;+;b\ lj36g u/]sf] arfpg / ;+/If0f ug{ ;a} k|sf/sf u/]sf ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ Ps dlxgfleqdf cg'dltkq lbO;Sg] of]hgf agfPsf]
cu'jfO{ ug]{ t s'/} 5f]8f} .Æ kmf;LjfbL aGb} hfg ;Sg] ;+Zn]if0f lyof] . To;kl5 b'j} u'6n] g]kfnL v]nsfF6fx? rnfpg] 5g\ . of] ;fdfGo atfPsf] 5 . 7"nf] ;+Vofdf sf8{ 5fKg] pks/0f -df; lk|G6/_ sf] k|of]u u/]/
– n]lgg, æå}w ;QfÆ 5flgPsf u/]sf lyP . ;+;b\ lj36g ul/Psf] hgtfnfO{ pNn' ahfpg] u/L zlQm k|lqmof xf], ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] . Ps}lbgdf w]/} ;+Vofdf cg'dltkq 5fKg ;lsg] ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . clxn]
/rgf, efu – @ . ljifodf ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf !# j6f k|bz{g u/]sf lyP . /, d'n'ssf] hgtfsf] nflu gf}nf] ljifo xf]Og . oL tTsfn sf8{ :6s yf]/} ;+Vofdf ePsfn] 5fKg g;lsPsf] eP klg gofF sf8{
;a} 36gf kl/36gfx?n] s] s'/fsf] cfpgf;fy cg'dltkq 5kfO ul/g] 5 . ljefun] !$ nfv sf8{ v/Lbsf
x:taxfb'/ s];L k'li6 ul/lbPsf] 5 eg] g]kfnsf] nflu k|lqmof cl3 a9fPsf] lgb]{zs /fdrGb| kf}8]nn] atfP . pgn] oL
;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] cf}lrTo ;fljt sf8{sf] v/Lb ug{ nfu]sf] sDklgn] clxn] yf]/} ;+Vofdf sf8{ gd"gf k/LIf0fsf
cfdg]kfnL hgtfsf] nflu t ;+;b\sf] eO;s]sf] 5 . o;sf] cfjZostf nflu;d]t k7fO;s]sf] / Tof] 7Ls 5 eGg] hfgsf/L lbPkl5 s]xL ;dodf g}
;dfKt eO;s]sf] 5 . To;f] eP/ sf8{ cfpg] atfP . pgn] eg] – …xfdL;Fu yf]/} sf8{ dfq} afFsL ePsfn] yf]/}
k'g:yf{kgf x'g' eg]sf] …a]n kfSof] sfunfO{ o;sf] j}1flgs ljsNksf] ;jfn cfh
5flkPsf] xf], gofF sf8{ cfpgf;fy wdfwd Ps}lbgdf w]/} 5kfO x'g]5 .Ú
g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;fd' v8f ePsf] 5 .
xif{ g lj:dftÚ eg] h:t} xf] . xfdLn] g]kfndf ;+;bLo Joj:yf c;kmn
ljefun] ut jif{ vl/b u/]sf] …df; lk|G6/Ú sf] Ifdtf Ps 306fdf $%)
eP/ o;sf] cf}lrTo;d]t ;dfKt cg'dltkq 5fKg ;Sg] /x]sf] 5 . Ps lbgdf !) 306f ;~rfng ubf{ klg
klxn]bl] v eGb} cfPsf lyof}+ ls …;+;b\ eO;s]sf] cfhsf] kl/l:yltdf ;+3Lo rf/ xhf/ %)) 5flkg] lgb]{zs kf}8]nn] atfP . pks/0fnfO{ @$ 306f
rnfpFbf !) xhf/ a9L 5flkg] pgsf] egfO 5 . ljefun] sf]le8–!( lgoGq0fsf
k'g:yf{kgf x'g' jf dWofjlw r'gfjÚ b'jn } ] hgu0ftGqsf] :yfkgf u/]/ j}1flgs
nflu ;/sf/n] hf/L u/]sf] aGbfaGbLsf] ;dodf tLg …l;ˆ6Ú df pks/0f
;dfhjfbdf k'Ug] af6f] to ug{' g}
g]kfnL hgtfsf cfwf/e"t ;d:of xn cfhsf] Ps dfq j}1flgs ljsNk ;~rfng u/]sf] lyof] . pxfFn] eGg'eof], …slt 306f rnfpg] eGg] rfkdf
g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;fd' v8f x'g k'us ] f] lge{/ u5{ .Ú sf]le8–!( sf sf/0f em08} !) dlxgfb]lv cj?4 gofF cg'dltkq
ug]{ xf]Og, emg} a9]/ hfg] xf] . lsgeg] 5 . o;s} lqmofGjogsf lglDt ev{/} ;/sf/n] ut k';df k'gM v'nfPsf] xf] . b]ze/af6 cgnfOg dfWodaf6 kfFr
dfq g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ -qmflGtsf/L nfveGbf a9L ;]jfu|fxLn] cfj]bg lbO;s]sf 5g\ . tLdWo] kf; b/ #)
sd/]8 dfcf]n] eGg'ePsf] 5 ls …;+;b\ dfcf]jfbL_ ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn k|ltzt xf/fxf/Ldf x'g] ePsfn] 5kfO ug{ ;lsg] ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . gofF
eg]sf] v;Lsf] 6fpsf] em'G8\ofP/ s's/' sf] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{, Clif s§]n g]tT[ jsf] !$ nfv sf8{ Ps}k6s cfPkl5 dfu wfGg ufx|f] gx'g] lgb]{zs kf}8]nn]
atfP . …df; lk|G6/Ú ;Fu} ljefudf ;fgf Ifdtfsf pks/0f /x]sf 5g\ .
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / cfx'lt
df;' a]Rg] k;n xf] .Ú sd/]8 dfcf]sf] pQm egfO cfh g]kfndf nfu" ePsf] 5 . g] t [ T jsf] j} 1 flgs ;dfhjfbL tTsfnsf nflu tLgsf] k|of]u geP klg k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] cj:yfdf /x]sf]
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{, g]kfnsf aLrdf ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . ljut b'O{ jif{bl] v k|bz ] ;/sf/cGtu{tsf oftfoft
lsgeg] k|ltkIf kf6L{x?sf] e"ldsf t lj/f]w ug{' pgLx¿sf] st{Joleq k5{ g} . t/, /0fg}lts ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0f ePsf] Joj:yf sfof{non] gofF cg'dltkqsf nflu k/LIff ;~rfng, gjLs/0f / ljt/0f
5 / /fhwfgL sf7df8f}F, a'6jn, ul//x]sf 5g\ . ljefun] …;e{/Ú sf] sfd / cg'dltkq 5kfO ul//x]sf] 5 .
;Qfwf/L g]skf leq k}bf ePsf] zlQm ;+3if{ / efuaG8f gldn]sf] / kbsf]
n'5fr'8F Lsf sf/0f k|r08 – dfwj u'6nfO{ tx nufpg ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} jf:t gu/]/
s} n fnLdf cfof] h gf ul/Psf
hgk|bz{gx?df Jofks ?kdf g]kfnL
hgtfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] 5 / oxL
##@ ljb]zL lgisflzt
sf7df8f}F . cWofudg ljefun] ut h]7 #! ut] ;/sf/ lj/f]wL cfGbf]ngdf
;Qf sAhf u/]/ a;]sf] cf]nL u'6n] ;+;b\ lj36g u/]sf] lyof] . To;kl5 b'j} u'6n] kmfu'g !* ut] O6x/Ldf cfof]hgf ;xefuL # hgf;lxt # ;o #@ ljb]zL gful/snfO{ b]z lgsfnf ul/Psf]
ul/g] hgk| b z{ g df xhf/f} +
g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ pNn' ahfpg] u/L zlQm k|bz{g u/]sf lyP . /, d'ns ' sf] hg;d' b fosf] ;xeflutf /xg]
hgfPsf] 5 . …Ogkm Oh OgkmÚ n] sf]/f]gf /f]syfd tyf lgoGq0fsf nflu
ePsf] vr{ ljj/0f kf/bzL{ ug{k' g],{ kL;Lcf/ k/LIf0f Jofks agfpg'kg],{
lglZrt 5 . of] hgnx/ b]zJofkL
;DklQdfly a|Xdn'6 dRrfpg] sfd u/]sf lyP . ca oxL kmfu'g @# ut] ;+;b\sf] ?kdf km}lng] s'/f lglZrt 5 . of]
Sjf/]lG6g ;'/lIft agfpg'kg],{ cu|kl+ Qmdf vl6g] :jf:YosdL{ / c:ktfnsf
sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ;'/Iff lbOg'kg]{ nufotsf dfu /fv]/ ePsf] lj/f]wdf ljb]zL
clwj]zg cfXjfg ul/Psf] 5 . ca ;+;bLo bnx?n] ;+;b\ ejg / l;+xb/jf/sf] hgnx/n] g]kfnL hgtfsf] cfsif{0f
gful/sx? ;xefuL ePsf lyP . b]z lgsfnf ul/Psfdf rLgsf @ ;o @),
qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6 kf6L{x? /x]sf]
d"n u]6df v;Lsf] 6fpsf] em'G8fP/ leq s's/' sf] s'lxPsf] l;gf] a]Rg] 5g\ . of] gf}nf] 5 eGg] k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . g]kfnL a+unfb]zsf !*, cd]l/sfsf *, O/fgsf &, leotgfdsf &, kfls:tfgsf &,
hgtfsf] of] efjgf / rfxgfnfO{ oL e'6fgsf &, l/klAns sf]6 l8 df]/]sf %, hd{gLsf @, lugLsf #, hf]8{gsf @,
ljifo aGg] 5}g . lsgeg] ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] d'Vo ljz]iftf g} xf] . rf/ qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6 kf6L{x?n] gfOh]l/ofsf #, /f]dflgofsf @, /l;ofsf @, ;f]dflnofsf @, :jL6\h/Nof08sf
cfTd;ft ug]{ / Jojxf/df nfu" ug{ @, yfONof08sf @, a]nfotsf @, odgsf % / cGo d'n'ssf @@ hgf /x]sf]
ut k'; % ut] k|wfgdGqL s]kL l/6 bfo/ ePsf lyP . nfdf] ax; ;DklQdfly a|Xdn'6 dRrfpg] sfd h?/L 5 . ;Qfwf/L kf6L{leq / atfOPsf] 5 .
cf]nLn] k|ltlglw;ef lj36g u/] . o; klg rnfOof] . t/ oxL kmfu'g !! u/]sf lyP . ca oxL kmfu'g @# ut] ;+ ; bLo kf6L{ x ? kf6L{ l eq tLj| kl5Nnf] ;do g]kfndf lelh6 le;f lnP/ k|jz ] u/]sf ljb]zL gful/ssf]
kl/36gfn] d' n ' s sf] /fhgLlts ut] ;jf]R{ r cbfntn] cf]nL ;/sf/n] ;+;b\sf] clwj]zg cfXjfg ul/Psf] cGtlj{ / f] w rls{ / x] s f] jt{ d fg ck/fw sd{df a9L ;lqmo /x]sf klg 5g\ . nfu" cf}ifw, dfgj a]rljvg tyf
jftfj/0f lgs} t/+lut x'g k'Uof] . u/]sf] ;+;b lj36gsf] lg0f{o b'O{ 5 . ca ;+;bLo bnx?n] ;+;b\ ejg kl/l:yltnfO{ uDeL/tfsf ;fy ;+ul7t ck/fw, /fxbfgL b'?kof]u, hfnL /fxbfgL, z+sf:kb /fxbfgL, cf]e/
;Qf?9 bn g]skf leqsf] k|r08 – dlxgfkl5 cyf{t\ oxL kmfu'g !! / l;+xb/jf/sf] d"n u]6df v;Lsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ of] cj;/nfO{ oL rf/ :6], le;f ljk/Lt sfo{, lagf leiff k|j]z, cfGbf]ngdf ;xefuL, vf]6f rng,
dfwj u'6n], k|ltkIfL g]kfnL sfFu; ]| , ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] vf/]h ul/lbof] / 6fpsf] em'G8fP/ leq s's/' sf] s'lxPsf] qmflGtsf/L sDo' l g:6 kf6L{ x ?n] rf]/L, hfnL gful/stf, ljb]zL d'b|f ljlgdo, ;'g lgsf;L k}7f/L, hfnL d'b|f
h;kf cflb bnx¿n] cf]nLsf] Tof] !# lbg leq ;+;b\sf] clwj]zg l;gf] a]Rg] 5g\ . of] gf}nf] ljifo aGg] qmflGtsf lglDt pkof]u ug{ h?/L a}+lsª s;'/ h:tf ck/fwdf ljb]zL gful/s ;+nUg x'g] u/]sf] cWofudg
u}/;+a}wflgs sbdnfO{ k|ltudgsf] af]nfpg' kg]{ km};nf u/]kl5 d'ns ' sf] 5}g . lsgeg] ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] d'Vo 5 . lsgeg] olta] n f qmflGtsf] ljefusf lgb]{zs 6]sgf/fo0f kf}8]nn] hfgsf/L lbP . ljefusf cg';f/
;+1f lbP / ;+ljwfgsf] arfp ug{ /fhgLlt kl/l:yltdf km]l/ s]xL t/+u ljz]iftf g} xf] . jftfj/0f aGb} uPsf] 5 . cf]e/ :6]df $* hgf lrgsf, le;f ljk/Lt !^, nfu"cf}ifwdf gfOh]l/of /
k|ltlglw;efsf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] dfu k}bf ePsf] 5 . of] t/+u ;+;bLo ;f]dflnof $ hgf, hfnL /fxbfgL leotgfd ^, ljgf leiff k|j]z e'6fgsf $,
/fv]/ ;8s cfGbf]ngdf plqP . s]kL
cf]nL u'6 / k|r08–dfwj u'6sf]
kf6L{x?sf lglDt xf] .
cfdg]kfnL hgtfsf] nflu t
‘;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgfn] jt{dfg ;+s6sf] ;dfwfg ub}g{ ’ hfnL gful/stf a+unfb]z #, lagf le;f k|j]z a+unfb]z # / /fxbfgL
b'?kof]u lugL # hgf lyP .
sf7df8f}F . g]skf -qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_ n] ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgfn] jt{dfg cWofudg P]g @)$( sf] bkmf ( cg';f/ ljb]zL gful/sn] sfg'g
aLrdf t zlQm k|bz{g u/]sf] b]vfP/ ;+;b\sf] k'g:yf{kgf x'g' eg]sf] …a]n
;+s6sf] ;dfwfg gx'g] atfPsf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf dxf;lrj df]xg j}B ls/0fn] ljk/Lt sfo{ u/]df lgisfzg ug]{ Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . ljefun] ck/fw dfg]sf
g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ pNn' agfpg] gf6s kfSof] sfunfO{ xif{ g lj:dftÚ eg]
;+;b k'g:yf{kgf x'Fb}df ;+;bLo
klg b]vfOof] . qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL h:t} xf] . xfdLn] klxn]b]lv eGb} ljleGg s;'/df g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[ltdf dxflgb]{zsn] lg:sf;g ug{
Joj:yfleq b]lvPsf] ;+s6 ;dfwfg
kf6L{n] klg s]kL cf]nLsf] sbdnfO{ cfPsf lyof}+ ls …;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgf kfpFg] Joj:yf 5 . cWofudgsf] sfo{ljlw @)^% sf] a'Fbf gDa/ ^# df
gx'g] atfPsf x'g\ . dxf;lrj
k|ltudgsf] ;+1f lbof] / ;8s x'g' jf dWofjlw r'gfjÚ b'jn} ] g]kfnL lgisfzg cjlw ljb]zLnfO{ ! jif{ b]lv !) ;Dd g]kfn cfpg gkfpg] u/L
ls/0fn] kf6L{sf] wf/0ff ;fj{hlgs
;+3if{sf] sfo{qmd cufl8 ;fb}{ cfof] . hgtfsf cfwf/e"t ;d:of xn ug]{ lg:sf;g ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf 5 . st{Jo Hofg / nfu" cf}ifwdf ;+nUgnfO{ !)
ub}{ d+unaf/sf] cbftnsf] km};nfn]
qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6 kf6L{x?n] eg] xf]Og, emg} a9]/ hfg] xf] . lsgeg] jif{ ;Ddsf] nflu lgsf;f, Hofg dfg]{ pBf]u jf afn of}g b'/frf/ ;+nUgnfO{ &
s]kL cf]nLsf] lg/+s'z kmf;LjfbL
@)^* ;fn r}t hgd'lQm ;]gfnfO{ sd/]8 dfcf]n] eGg'ePsf] 5 ls jif{, wd{ kl/jt{g, hfnL /fxbfgL / hfnL leiff k|of]ustf{nfO{ % jif{, ;+lbUw
sbdnfO{ c;kmn t'NofOlbP klg
k|ltlqmofjfbL ;]gf ;dIf cfTd;dk{0f …;+ ; b\ eg] s f] v;Lsf] 6fpsf] ck/fw, ljb]zL ljlgdo, vf]6f rng / dfgj a]rlavgdf ;+nUgnfO{ # jif{,
;+;b\sf] k'g:yf{kgfn] ;+s6 ;dfwfg
u/fP/ ljnfOPsf] / xltof/ em'G8\ofP/ s's'/sf] df;' a]Rg] k;n lagf cg'dlt lgif]lwt If]qdf lgl:sPsfnfO{ ! jif{ / leiff eGbf a9L ;do
gx'g] 7f]sj' f u/]sf 5g . dxf;lrj
k|ltlqmofjfbL ;QfnfO{ a'emfPsf] xf] .Ú sd/]8 dfcf]sf] pQm egfO cfh a:g]nfO{ ! jif{;Dd g]kfn cfpg gkfpg] u/] :jb]z k7fpg] Joj:yf 5 .
ls/0fåf/f hf/L la1lKtdf ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf s/0f pTkGg /fhgLlts ;+s6 /
lbgb]lv g} g]kfndf k|ltqmflGt ePsf] g]kfndf nfu" ePsf] 5 . lsgeg] g]kfn cfpg] ljb]zL gful/sx? cfk/flws lqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg x'gd' f ljZjnfO{
d'ns ' df ljBdfg /fli6«otf, hgtGq / hghLljsfsf ;d:ofx?sf] ;dfwfgsf
xf] . clxn]sf] ;+;b\sf] lj36gn] k|ltkIf kf6L{x?sf] e"ldsf t lj/f]w Unf]anL len]h dfGb} uPsf sf/0fn] klg cfk/flws ultljlw a9g yfn]sf]
nflu ;+3Lo hgu0ftGqsf] :yfkgf ckl/xfo{ /x]sf] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
;Qf?9 g]skf leqsf] k|r08 – dfwj ug{' pgLx¿sf] st{Joleq k5{ g} . lj1x? atfpF5g\ . w]/} h:tf] klZrdf d'n'sn] g]kfnnfO{ e|i6frf/df r'n{'Dd
dxf;lrj ls/0fn] ;+;bLo Joj:yfn] g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts ;d:ofsf] xn
;d"x / g]kfnL sfFu; ]| , h;kf, g]skf t/, ;Qfwf/L g]skf leq k}bf ePsf] 8'a]sf] dfGg] u/]sf]n] oxfF cfO u}/sfg'gL sfd ug{ nfnflot x'g] u/]sf]
ub}g{ eGg] wf/0ff ;fj{hlgs ub}{ b]zdf ca ;+3Lo hgu0ftgflGqs /fhgLlts
-d;fn_ ;d]tsf ;+;bLo kf6L{x?sf zlQm ;+3if{ / efuaG8f gldn]sf] / pgLx?sf] ts{ 5 .
Joj:yfdf hfg'sf] ljsNk gePsf]df hf]8 lbPsf 5g\ .
8 @)&&
sf= lh=;fn kmfu'b=g !^
k|= sf= ut] cfOtaf/
g+= !^#÷@)^#÷^$
n]vs Pad\ /fhgLlts laZn]ifsx? / qmflGtsf/L hgdtnfO{ ;d]t e|ddf ;+;bLo g]t[Tjsf] lj8Dagf p;n]
;af] { R r====
afF:tf]nfnfO{ l/xf ug{ cfb]z lbPsf]
g/]Gb|hu+ lk6/, gLns07 ltjf/Ln]
klg ;lxbx?sf ;kgf k"/f ug]t{ km{
kfg{] u/]sf 5g\ .
#= ;Qfsf] bfpdf /fli6« o tf
Joj:yfsf] ljsNk ;f]r]s} 5}g .
g]kfnLdf pvfg 5, …s'jfsf] Eofs'tfn]
;lxb ;Ktfx ljljw sfo{qmdsf ;fy dgfOb}
lyof] . afF:tf]nfnfO{ clgdf afF:tf]nf OdfGbfl/tf gb]vfO{Psf] af/] rrf{ M ;+;bLo cEof; slt;Dd b'u{lGwt s'jfeGbf aflx/sf] ;+;f/ kl/sNkgf sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] ;lxb ;Ktfx -kmfu'g !$—@! ut]_ df
e08f/Ln] bfo/ u/] s f] u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmddf ;a{xf/f 5 eg] c+ s ul0ftsf] v] n sf] g} ;Sb}g’ eg] h:t} clxn]sf g]tfx? ;lxbx?sf] :d/0f / ;Ddfgdf ljljw sfo{qmdsf ;fy dgfO/x]sf] ;dfrf/
aGbLk|ToIfLs/0f l/6df GofofwLz dfcf] j fbL sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f] ;dLs/0fdf ljb] z L zlQmx?sf] of] Joj:yf aflx/ hfg] sNkgf g} ug{ k|fKt ePsf] 5 . o;}qmddf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf dxf;lrj ljKnjn] ;lxb
dL/f v8\sf / ;'idfntf dfy]dfsf] cWoIf;d]t /xsL efjgf lab|f]xLn] af] n af] n fO{ x' g ] ub{ 5 . ;jf{ ] R r ;Sb}gg\ . pgLx? a? ToxL nl8a'8L ;Ktfx @)&& sf] cj;/df clegGbg kqdfkm{t ;lxb kl/jf/k|lt ;Ddfg
Ohnf;n] l/xf ug{ l/xf ug{ cfb]z o' 4 sfndf dlxnfx?n] ef] u ] s f cbfntdf ljrf/fwLg ;+;b\ lj36gsf] ul//xG5g\ . kmf]xf]/ u/]sf 5g\ / JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . pQm clegGbg kqdf …hg—hgsf lk|o Pjd\ ;Ddflgt
lbPsf] lyof] . k'; @( ut] k|x/Ln] oftgfaf/] rrf{ ubf{ k|1f ejgsf] d'2fdf ef/tLo k|wfgdGqLsf] ;xof]u kmf]xf]/df nTkltP/ uGxfPsf 5g\ t/, hgo'4 tyf PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf dxfg\ ;lxbk|lt efjk"0f{ >4f~hnL ;fy}
pgnfO{ nlntk'/ / dsjfgk'/sf] k':tsfno ;efxndf pkl:yt ;a}nfO{ / ;dy{g dfluof] . clxn] afa'/fd g'xfpg] jf ;kmf ug{] ljifodf ;f]rs ] } tkfO{ cfb/0fLo ;lxb kl/jf/k|lt ;lxb ;Ktfx— @)&& sf] cj;/df cl;d
;LdfIf]qaf6 kqmfp u/]sf] lyof] . efj laXjn agfPsf] lyof] . e§/fO{ ef/tLo c:ktfnsf] a]8af6 5} g g\ . cfk" m ;/sf/df hfg ;Ddfg Pjd\ xflb{s z'esfdgfÚ pNn]v ul/Psf]5 . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n]
To;;tf pgnfO{ k|x/Ln] ;jf]R{ rn] l/xf To;}u/L, sfo{qmddf o'4sfnsf eGb}5g\– ca k|wfgdGqL aGg] kfnf] . /fli6«otfnfO{ aGws agfpg tof/ ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] cj;/df b]zsf ;a} lhNnf / If]qx?df ;lxb a]kQf kl/jf/
ug]{ cfb]z lbPklg k6s k6s kqmfp 3fOt] tyf ckfËtkm{af6 u+uf nfdfn] cf]nL ;/sf/sf] sfo{sfndf Pd;L;L x'G5g\ . cfTd;dk{0fjfbL / u'nfdLsf] clegGbg, ;lxb a]kQf kl/jf/ e]63f6, ;lxb kfs{ lgdf{0f, ;lxb ;+u|xfno
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . k|:t'lt lbFbf klg jftfj/0f :tAw /fi6«3ftL 5 eGg] bfxfn, g]kfn / klg r/d ;Ldfdf k'u]sf 5g\ . olb lznGof;, ;lxbsf] ;Ddfgdf jQm[Tj snf, uLt sljtf k|ltof]lutfnufot
o;}aLr, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf ag]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf ;lxb vgfn v]df clxn] ;/sf/df k'Ugsf aflx/ cfP h:t} Pd;L;L, r'Rr] gS;f ljleGg ;[hgfTds sfo{qmdx?sf] cfof]hgf ul//x]sf] 5 .
;lrjfno ;b:o tyf ljb]z ljefu lbnaxfb' / /Dt] n sf kl/jf/sf nflu Pd;L;L kf; x'G5 eg]sf 5g\ . / sfnfkfgLdf /x]sf] ef/tLo ;}Go o;}qmddf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ dsjfgk'/n] ;lxb ;Ktfx sfo{qmdsf] pb\3f6g
k|dv' wd]G{ b| af:tf]nfsf] ckdfghgs tkm{af6 kz{'/fd /Dt]nn] af]n]sf ca kfnf] lnk'n]s / lnlDkofw'/fnfO{ SofDkdf cfTd;dk{0f ePsf] xf] eg] ub}{ afudtL ufpFkflnsfdf ( ;b:oLo sf;{ldlt klg u7g u/]sf] 5 . tTsfnLg
k'gM lu/ˆtf/Lsf] ;j{q lgGbf ePsf] lyP . sfo{ q mdsf] cWoIftf ;d]6/ 5flkPsf] r'Rr] gS;f clg eGg'kb{5, k|r08 cfTd;dk{0f / ;dodf dfcf]jfbLn] lj=;+ @)%@ kmfu'g ! ut] hgo'4sf] 3f]if0ff u/] nuQ} kmfu'g
5 . g]skfsf g]tf af:tf]nfnfO{ cleofgsf ;+of]hs /d]z zdf{n] sfnfkfgLdf /x]sf] ef/tLo ;}Go u2f/Lsf r/d gd'gf x'g\ . lxhf] ToxL !$ ut] hgo'4sf k|yd zxLbsf] ?kdf lbnaxfb'/ /Dt]nn] ;xfbt k|fKt u/] eg]
;jf]{Rr cbfntn] ;f]daf/ l/xf ug{ u/]sf lyP . cWoIftfsf] cf;g u|x0f SofDksf] x'g]5 . ;/sf/df hfg jf ljifodf cf]nLnfO{ u2f/ eGg] clg kmfu'g @! ut] tTsfnLg emfkf ljb|fx] df ljleGg % ;lxbx¿n] ;xfbt k|fKt u/]sf
cfb]z lbP nuQ} k|x/Ln] cdfgjLo ub}{ zdf{n] cjwf/0ffkq k9]/ ;'gfpg' ;Qf arfpg oL d'2fx? km]l/ anL cfh cfkm}F Tof]eGbf klg tn lug{] < lyP . oxL Pltxfl;s lbgnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ kmfu'g !$ b]lv @! ut]sf] lbgnfO{
9+uaf6 lu/ˆtf/ u/]kl5 ;/sf/ / ePsf] lyP eg] ;f] sfo{qmdsf] r9fOg ;S5 . r'Rr] gS;f cf]nL o:tf] 5'6 x'G5 < ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] ¿kdf dgfpFb} cfPsf] 5 . oxL dxTjk"0f{ lbgnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{
k|x/L k|zf;gsf] ;j{q lgGbf ePsf] ;+rfng cleofgsf k|jQmf lgdsfGt ;/sf/n] 5fKof] t/, kl5 ef/t;Fu To;sf/0f km]l/ klg g]kfndf kmfu'g !$ ut] g]skf dsjfgk'/n] lhNnfsf] k"jL{ e"efu afudtL ufpFkflnsfdf
xf] . g]tf af:tf]nfsf] pQm k'gM kf08]n] u/]sf lyP . ;DaGw ;' w fg{ ] axfgfdf r' R r] /fli6«o d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf] ckl/xfo{tf ;lxb ;Ktfx sfo{qmdsf] pb\3f6g u/]sf] 5 . pQm sfo{qmdsf] ;Daf]wg g]skf
lu/ˆtf/L lj?4 l/xfO{sf] dfu ub}{ gS;f;lxt 5flkPsf] kf7\ok':ts ag]sf] 5 . ca JolQm abn]/ d'ns ' n] dsjfgk'/sf lhNnf OGrfh{ hldgn] u/]sf lyP . pgn] lxhf] ;'vL g]kfnL, ;d[4
;/sf/sf] rsf] { cfnf] r gf ub} { /fli6«o===== ljt/0fdf nf]s nufOof] . Tolt dfq lgsf; kfpFb}g . d'Vo bf]ifL bnfn g]kfnsf] pHHjn eljiosf] ;kgf af]sL b]z / hgtfsf nflu ;of},+ xhf/f}+ sd/]8x?n]
;fdflhs ;~hfndf klg rf}tkmL{ @= ;+ ; b\ k' g :yf{ k gfkl5 xf]Og ;/sf/df k'Ug] gfddf km]l/ ;+;bLo Joj:yf xf] . of] Joj:yf sfod o'4sf] /0fd}bfgdf /ut aufPsf lyP, cfˆgf] Hofgsf] afhL yfk]sf lyP, alnbfg
lj/f]w e}/x]sf] 5 . Pd;L;L cg' d f] b g M ;+ ; b\ g]kfndf gbLgfnf jf hnljB't /xFbf;Dd cfTd;dk{0f, bnfnL / lbPsf lyP . cfh tL of]4fx¿sf] /utsf] d"No r'sfpg] lhDdf, ;lxbx?sf] cw'/f]
o;} q mddf, g] k fn sDo' l g:6 k'g:yf{kgfsf] nflu ul/Psf] bfxfn– kl/of]hgfx? pkxf/:j?k ef/tnfO{ e|i6frf/ al9/xG5 . cl:t dfq ;kgfnfO{ ;fsf/ agfpg] cleef/f tkfO{+ xfd|} sfwdf cfPsf] 5 . o;sf nflu
kf6L{lgs6 cGt/f{li6«o k|jf; Ao"/f] g]kfn ;d"xsf] g]kfn aGbdf wgf{ lbg] a'emfpg] vt/fx? 5g\ . g]kfndf kf6L{ ;+ljwfg aGof] / hgtfsf] hLt eof] cfdg]kfnL Psh'6 x'bF ,} uf]na4 x'bF } PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] dfu{df cl3 a9\g /
g]kfnL hgk|utLlzn df]rf{ dWo k"j{ qmddf cfGbf]ngsf/Ln] nufPsf] ljefhg ug{], cl:y/tf l;h{gf ug{] eg]/ lbkfjnL u/] . kl5 sDo'lgi6sf] bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yf vf/]h u/L j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL ;Qf :yfkgf ug]{ dxfg
;+u7g -stf/, o'PO{, ;fpbL, s'a]t_ cfsif{s gf/f …Pd;L;L vf/]h u/ ÛÚ p2]Zodf ef/t / cd]l/sL df]rf{aGbL ax'dt cfof] hgtfsf] hLt eof] eg]/ sfo{df h'6g\ cfJxfg u/]sf 5g\ .
n] Ps lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ af:tf]nfsf] eGg] gf/fnfO{ kf6L{ cWoIf k'iksdn ;kmn ePsf] 5 . pT;j dgfP . clxn] s]kL cf]nLsf] To;}u/L dxfg hgo'4 / PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf ;lxb ePsfx?sf] ;Ddfgsf
u}/Goflos lu/ˆtf/Llj?4 3f]/ eT;{gf bfxfnn] /f]Sg nufPsf lyP . kl5 #=!= /fli6«o cfTd;dk{0fjfb k|ltudg k/flht eO{ ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgf ;fy ;DalGwt ;lxb kl/jf/;Fu e]63\ f6 ug],{ lg/fzfsf] cfFwLn] d8fl/Psf]
u/]sf] 5 . lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5– pgn] :ki6Ls/0f lbPsf tYo klg / u'nfdLsf]] k|lt:kwf{ M km]l/ klg eof] eGb} lbkk|Hjng / n8\8' kfg cg'xf/df gjLg cfzfsf] ljhf/f]k0f u/L qmflGtdf k'gM k|l] /t ub}{ PsLs[t
g]kfnL ;dfh clxn] cToGt} 7"nf] tfh} 5 . pgn] eg] s f lyP d g]kfndf cl:y/tfsf] /fhgLlt ;'? u/] . t/, k|Zg p7\5 b]z / hgtfsf] hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfdf cu|;/ u/fpg] / ;Ktfxsf] clGtd lbg ;lxb kl/jf/nfO{
/fhg}lts ;+s6af6 u'lh|/x]sf] 5 . Pd;L;L kIfw/ eP/ eg]sf] xf]Og . ePsf] 5 . ;f+;bx? t/n cj:yfdf hLt eof] t < hgtfsf] hLt eGb} ;Ddfg u/L ;lxb ;Ktfx dgfpg] tof/L u/]sf] s'/f ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fPsf
qmflGt / k| l tqmflGtsf] aLrdf, clxn] ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgfkl5 bfxfn– 5g\ / pgLx?n] :jfy{sf] cfwf/df dxfe|dsf] ;Dk|i] f0f ub}{ km]l/ klg b]z 5g\ . ;lxb ;Ktfxsf] ;d'b3\ f6g sfo{qmds} aLr afudtL ufpFkflnsfdf (
cu|ufdL / k|ltufdL zlQmx?sf] g]kfn ;d"xsf ;a} g]tfn] eg]sf 5g\– u'6 cbnabn ul//x]sf 5g\ . x'g / hgtfnfO{ g} aGws agfpg] v]n ;b:oLo sfo{;ldlt klg u7g u/]sf] 5 eg] o; sfo{;ldltsf] g]tT[ j nLnfsf]
aLrdf 7"nf] ;+3if{ rln/x]sf] 5 . Pd;L;L kf; x'G5 . Pd;L;Lsf] ;S5 hlt cl:y/tf a9\5 Tolt bf]xf]l/Psf] 5 . ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgf kl5 /x]sf] 5 . afudtL ufpFkflnsf;Fu} dsjfgk'/ lhNnf / ;du| kf6L{nfO{ dha't
qmflGtsf/L zlQmx?nfO{ k|ltaGw ;a}eGbf w]/} lj/f]w ug{] emngfy ef/t / cd]l/sfsf] x:tIf]k / k|efj olb Pd;L;L kf; eof] eg] r'Rr] agfpFb} nfg] sfddf gjul7t sfo{;ldltn] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng]5 eGg] cfzf
nufP/ jt{dfg ;/sf/n] Psflt/ vgfn clxn] eGb} 5g\, …cd]l/sfdf a9\5 . b'j} v]dfsf g]tfx? ljb]zLnfO{ gS;f ufoa eof] eg] jf gbLgfnf / ljZjf;sf ;fy pQm sfo{ ;ldltnfO{ g]skf dsjfgk'/sf tkm{af6 lhNnf
sd/]8 ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]skf;Fu 6«Dk uP/ afO8]g cfO;s], ca ;Qfsf] dflns agfPsf 5g\ . cfk"m ef/tnfO{ a'emfOof] eg] jf g]kfnleq OGrfh{ hldgn] awfO{ tyf sfo{ ;kmntfsf] z'esfdgf ;d]t lbPsf 5g\ .
jftf{sf] hfnf] ˆofFls/x]sf] 5 eg] Pd;L;L ;+ ; b\ a f6 kf; x' G 5 .’ ;Qfdf k'Ugsf nflu dflnsx?sf] kfp ljb]zL ;]gf /fVg] lg0f{o ul/of] eg] o;}u/L, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ lhNnf ;ldlt c5fdsf] cfof]hgfdf ;lxb
csf{lt/ To;sf g]tf, sfo{stf{x?nfO{ k'iksdn bfxfnn] 3f]if0ff ul/;s]– df]ln/x]sf 5g\ . klxnf /fhfsf] Tof] /fi6«3ftL ;flat x'g]5 . ctM ;Ktfx @)&& cGtu{t ;lxb kl/jf/x?nfO{ ;Ddfg ul/Psf] 5 . lhNnfsf] If]q
w/sk8 ul//x]sf] 5 . cfh} dfq ca Pd;L;L cufl8 a9\5 . s]xL lalGtefp ug{x] ? clxn] ljb]zLx?;Fu km]l/ klg /fli6«o :jfwLgtfsf nflu g+= ! sf] ef6fsfl6of / If]q g+=@ sf] 8'u+ fnfdf ;Dk"0f{ ;lxb kl/jf/x?nfO{
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf ;lrjfno lbg cufl8 k' i ksdn bfxfnn] nDk;f/ k/] s f 5g\ . of] unt ;a} qmflGtsf/L, k|ultzLn, b]zeQm bf];Nnf cf]9fP/ ;Ddfg ul/Psf] xf] . ;Ddfg sfo{qmdsf k|dv ' cltly kf6L{
;b:o tyf ljb]z ljefu k|dv ' sd/]8 ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb| df]bLnfO{ k|lt:kwf{n] d'ns' nfO{ sxfF k'¥ofpnf < / ;Rrf nf] s tGqjfbL clg ;lrjfno ;b:o sdn yfkf, cWoIftf s=g=kf= OGrfh{ o'/fh / ;~rfng
wd]G{ b| af:tf]nf sfg'gsf] wHhL p8fP/ ;fj{hlgs ?kd} g]kfnsf] nf]stflGqs ;Qfdf k'Ug jf ;Qfdf l6ls/xg dfgjclwsf/jfbL zlQmx? Ps ;'dgn] u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmddf clylt c=g]=d ;+3 -qmflGtsf/L_ lhNnf ;+of]hs
;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] u]6af6} h;/L cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;dy{g ug{ cfXjfg /fli6«otfnfO{ bfpdf /fVg] k|j[lQn] x'gk' b{5 . ca ;/sf/df k'Ugsf nflu /rgfn] z'e–sfdgf dGtJo /fv]sL lyOg\ . k|dv ' clylt sdn yfkfn] ;lxbx?sf
unxTofP/ ckdfghgs 9+ u n] u/]sf lyP . :ki6 5, kl5Nnf] ;do g] k fnsf] eljionfO{ cGwsf/ ljb]zLx?;Fu cfTd;dk{0f ug]{ bnfn cw'/f ;kgf k"/f ug{sf nflu jt{dfg /fHo;Qfn] Joj:yf u/]sf] / cfk"mn]
sd/] 8 s~rgnfO{ k' g M ;jf] { R r k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLsf] Aofsckm jf agfpFb}5 . g]t[TjnfO{ nv]6\g' kb{5 . Joj:yf, ;lxbsf ;kgf k"/f ul/ 5f8\g] k|lta4tf u/] . ;+;bLo Joj:yf c;kmnl;4
cbfnt kl/;/af6 k'gM of] kqmfp d'Vo zlQm cfwf/ eg]sf] cd]l/sf $= g]kfnL /fhgLltdf rLgsf] ;+ljwfg jf ;/sf/eGbf 7"nf] b]z xf] . ;flat ePsf] / g]kfnL hgtfn] o;sf] ljsNk vf]hk' g]{ atfP . g]kfnL hgtfn]
ul/Psf] 5 lgs} b'vb\ / v]bhgs lyof] . t/, pgn] Pd;L;L ;+;b\af6 c;kmntf M kl5Nnf] ;do vf;u/L b]z /x] dfq c? ;a} agfpg ;lsG5 . v]Kg'k/]sf] /fhg}lts ;+s6 6fg{ clxn]sf ljBdfg kf6L{n] g;Sg] klg 7f]sj' f ub}{
5 . ;/sf/ / g]kfn sDo'lg:6 cg'df]bg ug{ g;s]sf]n] pgnfO{ k|of]u blIf0f Pl;of / g]kfnsf] dfdnfdf To;sf nflu ljKnj, k|sf08 / clxn] e|i6frf/ ;+:yfut ePsf] / xfdLn] e|i6frf/, cGofo, cTofrf/, ljs[lt
kf6L{aLr jftf{ tyf ;+jfb\ eO/x]sf] ug{] / ˆofFSg] /0fgLltdf u/]sf] rLg ;lqmo / cfqmfds 9+un] cl3 ls/0fsf] g]t[Tjdf /fli6«o d'lQm lj;+ultlj?4 cfjfh p7fpFb} ubf{ k|ltaGw v]Kg' k/]sf] atfP .
rrf{ rln/x]sf] a]nf cbfntsf] cfb]z
kl5 af:tf]nf 5'6\g] cg'dfg ul/Psf]
lyof]], t/ af:tf]nfnfO{ cbfntsf]
x'g;S5 . lsgls casf] ;+;bLo
;dLs/0fdf g]kfnL sfFu; ]| sf ;efklt
z]/axfb'/ b]pjf g]t[Tjdf bfxfn–
a9]sf] k|rf/ ul/Psf] lyof] . vf;u/L
cf]nL / bfxfnsf] u7aGwg aGg' /
cfGbf]ngsf] 3f]if0ff u/f}+ .
^= ;+ ; b\ d f /Qmkft x' g ;Sg] P;O{O{ k/LIff h]7sf] bf];f| ] ;ftfleq ;Sg] tof/L
Pstf x'gd' f rLgsf] k|efj eg]/ k|rf/ vt/f M ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5, cf]nL / sf7df8f}F . /fli6«o k/LIff af]8{n] dfWoflds lzIff k/LIff P;O{O{ cfufdL
cfb]z ljk/Lt kqmfp ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfn ;d"x / hgtf ;dfhjfbL kf6L{ ul/Psf] lyof] . olb Tof] ;xL ljZn]if0f bfxfn–g]kfn ;d"xsf] n8fO{F /fhgLlts
o:t} kmfu'g ^ ut] sfo{qmdsf] :yn h]7 bf];f| ] ;ftfleq} ;Sg] tof/L yfn]sf] 5 . lzIff lgodfnLsf] gjf}+ ;+zf]wgnfO{
;fd]n x'g] lglZrt 5 . Tof] ePdf lyof] eg] cfh eGg'k5{ pgLx?sf] / j}rfl/s xf]Og . b'j} kmf;LjfbL, ;b/ ub}{ dGqL kl/ifb\n] h]7 d;fGtleq rfn' z}lIfs ;q ;Sg] / c;f/ Ps
a'6jnaf6 kqmfp kg{e ' Psf af}l4s Pd;L;L ;xh} cg'df]bg x'g5 ] / rLg ljefhgnfO{ rLgn] /f]Sg ;s]g / lg/+ s ' z / clwgfosjfbL
g]tf e]if/fh e'iffnnfO{ ;d]t sf7df8f}F ut]b]lv gofF z}lIfs ;q ;'? ug]{ lg0f{o u/];Fu} af]8{n] P;O{O{ h]7sf] bf];|f]
lj/f]wL df]rf{df cd]l/sf / ef/tsf] c;kmn eof] . rLgsf] g]kfn gLlt b[ l i6sf] 0 faf6 rNb5g\ . b' j } s f] ;ftfleq ;Sg] u/L tof/Ldf h'6]sf] xf] . ;/sf/n] kmfu'g # ut] /fhkqdf
lhNnf cbfntaf6 k' g M kqmfp df]rf{aGbL ;kmn x'g]5 . eg]sf] Pstf / l:y/tf sfod ug'{ k[i7cfwf/ jf Aofsckm ;fd|fHojfbL
ul/Psf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] o; k|sf/sf] ;"rgf hf/L u/L lzIff P]g hf/L geP;Dd P;O{O{ ;~rfngsf] clwsf/
@=!= s] k L cf] n LnfO{ c;kmn xf], ha ls ef/t / cd]l/sfsf] gLlt zlQm s]Gb| x'g . b'j}df cfk"m lhTg] / af]8{nfO{ g} lbPsf] 5 . k/LIff ;+rfngsf] clwsf/ k|fKt u/]kl5 af]8{n] o;
/a}ofk|lt g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ljKnj agfpg] xltof/ dfq lyof] t cl:y/tf / ljefhg xf] . rLgsf] csf]n { fO{ l;Wofpg] wªwªL r9fOPsf]
g]tT[ j cGt/f{li6«o k|jf; Ao"/f] g]kfnL jif{ klg s]Gb|ut ¿kdf k|Zg kq 5kfO ug]{ ePsf] 5 . af]8d { f cfPsf]
Pd;L;L M k'iksdn bfxfn / dfwj k//fi6« gLlt cx:tIf]k / ;xof]u xf] 5 . clxn]sf] ;Qf ;+3if{ / zlQm ;+3if{ k|f/lDes l/kf]6{cg';f/ of] jif{sf] P;O{O{df lgoldt, u|]8 j[l4;lxt sl/a %
hgk|ultzLn df]rf{dWo] k"j; { u+ 7g - g]kfnnfO{ cf]nL ;d"xn] nufpg] Pp6f eg] ef/t / cd]l/sfsf] x:tIf]k / cem} a9\g] qmddf 5 . kmfNu'0f @#
stf/, o'PO{, ;fpbL, s'a]t_ 3f]/ nfv ljBfyL{ P;O{Od { f ;+nUg x'g] 5g\ .
cf/f]k lyof]– Pd;L;Lsf] lj/f]w ;xof]u xf] . lacf/cfO{ / Pd;L;Lsf] ut] ;+;b\ cfJxfg ul/Psf] 5 .
eT;{gf ub{5 . g]skf kf6L{ ;lrjfno
;b:o wd] G b| af:tf] n f sd/] 8
;/sf/nfO{ c;kmn agfpg] xltof/
dfq xf] . cfh ;+;b k'g:yf{kgf dfq
t'ngfaf6 klg ToxL tYo 5n{Ë x'G5 .
olt x'Fbfx'Fb} klg g]kfnsf bn, g]tf
clxn];Dd ;8sdf ePsf] n8fO{F ca
;+;b\df x'g] lglZrt 5 . ToxfF xft
k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] t:s/L Û
…s~rgÚ, sd/]8 e]if/fh e'iffnnufot s] ePsf] 5, ;/sf/df k'Ugsf nflu / ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? ef/t / xfnfxfn t x'g] g} l:ylt 5 . sf]xL sf7df8f}F . g]kfnaf6 ef/tdf k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] t:s/L a9]sf] 5 .
;fy} ljleGg 7fpFaf6 lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf Pd;L;Lsf] ;dy{g ul/g' b'ef{Uok"0f{ cd]l/sftkm{ g} bf}8fbf}8 ul//xG5g\ . eg]sf 5g\– s]kL cf]nLnfO{ unxTofP/ ef/tdf k]6f« l] nod kbfy{df ePsf] nuftf/sf] d"Noj[l4;Fu} t:s/L a9]sf] xf] .
;Dk"0f{ g]tf–sfo{stf{x?sf] lagf;t{ 5 . olb To;f] eof] eg] cf]nLn] o;sf] d'Vo sf/0f xf] bnfn ;+;bLo lgsfN5f} + . t sf] x L eGb} 5 g\ – g]kfnl:yt ef/tLo ;Ldf gfsfsf dflg;x? cfP/ 8«dsf 8«d t]n ef/t nfg]
l/xfO ug{ sfdrnfp ;/sf/;Fu nufpg] cf/f]k ;xL k|dfl0ft x'g]5 . Joj:yf . rLgn] g]kfnsf] /fi6«jfbL unxTofP/ b]vfpm . of] n8fO{d F f c? ub{5g\ . v'Nnf ;Ldfsf sf/0f g]kfnaf6 k]6«f]lnod kbfy{ ljgf /f]stf]s
hf]8bf/ dfu ub{5f}+ . kl5Nnf] ;do ;'jf; g]Djfª, k|lbk g]tT[ j, bn jf zlQmnfO{ klxrfg / bnx? /ldt] dfq aGg] 5g\ . ;a} hls{g, 8«ddf e/]/ ef/t nfg] u/]sf] kfOPsf] xf] . ;8sdfu{af6 klg 6\ofÍ/
;+ ; bLo===== 1jfnL / lji0f' kf}8]n klg bfxfn ;xof]u ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . g]kfnnfO{ bndf ljefhgsf ;Defjgfx? klg tyf 6«sdf k]6«f]n tyf l8h]n e/]/ nfg] ub{5g\ .
/ hgtfsf] cg' x f/ km] g { ;a} n ] g]kfn ;d"x;Fu g/d ePsf ;dfrf/ :jfwLg, :jtGq / l:y/ agfpg rfxg] 5g\ . k|Zg p7]sf] 5, st} ;+;bdf jL/u~haf6 k]6«f]n lnP/ ef/tsf] ljxf/tkm{ hfFb} u/]sf tLg ljxf/LnfO{
OdfGbfl/tf b]vfpg' kg]d { f hf]8 lbP . klg cfPsf 5g\ . ;f/df eGbf zlQm;Fu xft ldnfpFbf dfq rLgsf] /Qmkft gxf];\ . km]l/ klg ;+;bdf g]kfn k|x/Ln] laxLaf/ kqmfp u/]sf] 5 . k|x/Ln] pgLx?af6 !# ;o ^) ln6/
;f]xL sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ ;/sf/ jf ;Qfdf k'Ugsf nflu lxt x'G5 . ljb]zLx?sf] Ozf/fdf n8\g] e08f/vfn kj{x? jf sf]tkj{x?sf] k]6«f]n;d]t a/fdb u/]sf] 5 . ;Ldf gfsfsf :yfgLo ;lhn};Fu g]kfnaf6
gful/s cfGbf] n gsf cu' j f 8f ljb]zLx?sf] u'nfd aGg' kg{] cd]l/sf g]tfx?nfO{ ldnfpFbf ldnfpFb} jf k'g/fj[lQ gxf];\ . b'j} zlQmnfO{ k]6«f]lnod kbfy{ lnP/ ef/t hfG5g\ . hf] 8/fpF5g\ pgLx?n] dfq} ef/tdf
;' G b/dl0f bLlIftn] ;+ ; bLo jf ef/t;fd' cfTd;dk{0f ug'{kg{] RofltPsf] ;+;bLo Joj:yf 6fNbf6fNb} le8fpg] / l;Wofpg] g} ljb] z L t]n eg]{ ub{5g\ . h;sf sf/0f ;Ldf If]qsf ef/tLo k]6«f]n kDkdf k]6«f]lnod
Aoj:yfaf6 ;lxbsf ;kgf / la8Dagfsf] km]l/ kbf{kmf; ePsf] 5 . rLg x}/fg ePsf] xf]nf . zlQms]Gb|sf] dgzfo b]lvG5 . casf] kbfy{sf] laqmL &) k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 . k]6f« l] nod kbfy{sf] d"No j[l4 eO/fVg]
hgtfsf rfxgf k"/f x'g} g;Sg] 7f]sj' f ;/sf/ aflx/ x'Fbf /fi6«jfbL clg %= /fli6«o d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf] k'g:yf{lkt ;+;b\ clwj]zg lgs} xf] / o;/L g]kfnaf6 t]n NofO/fVg] eP ef/tLo ;Ldfgfsfsf k]6«f]n kDk
u/] . o;}u/L, al/i7 clwjQmf zDe' ;/sf/df k'Ugf;fy cfTd;dk{0fjfbL . 3f]if0ff u/f}+ M ;+;b\ lj36g jf ;+s6k"0f{ / lx+;fTds x'g] vt/f 5 . aGb ug{k' g]{ cj:yf cfPsf] g]kfn ;Ldfdf k]6f« n ] kDk rnfP/ a;]sf ef/tLo
yfkfn] g]tfx? OdfGbf/ aGg g;s]sf] zfob of] txsf] cfTd;dk{0f u/]sf] k' g :yf{ k gfn] b] z nfO{ emg\ 7" n f] xfdL ;+;b\ ejgleq} /Qmkft gxf];\ atfpF5g\ . /S;f}n ;Ldf glhs jL/u~hdf l8h]nsf] d"No xfn ef/tdf eGbf
rrf{ ub}{ ;lxbx?sf ;kgfdf wf]sf eP g]kfndf k"j/{ fhf lj/]Gb|sf] j+zgfz e8\vfnf]df xfNb}5 . cf]nLsf] 7fpFdf eGg] sfdgf u/f}+ . @& ?k}ofF %) k};f ;:tf] 5 . eg] k]6f« n ] sf] d"No @# ?k}ofF sd 5 .
ePsf] 7f]s'jf u/] . ;f] sfo{qmddf klg x' g ] lyPg / 1fg] G b| klg bfxfn–g]kfn, b]pjf jf e§/fO{nfO{ g]kfn k]6f« l] nod kbfy{sf nflu ef/t;Fu} lge{/ 5 . t/, ef/taf6 vl/b u/]/
a]kQf kl/jf/sf k|ltlglwsf ?kdf
jl/i7 clwjQmf Ps/fh e08f/Ln]
/fhu2Laf6 ;QfRo't x'g] lyPgg\ .
/fli6«otfsf lx;fan] bnfn ;+;bLo
k| w fgdGqL agfpg] b[ l i6sf] 0 fsf]
ljifodf ax; ug{ h?/L 5 . csf{t] km{
5f] / f;/x NofPsf] k]6f« l] nod kbfy{ g]kfndf ;:tf] x'gfsf sf/0f g]kfndf b]ze/ Pp6} s/
k|0ffnL 5 . t/, ef/tdf eg] pTkfbg z'Ns / /fHodf s/ b'j} ltg{k' 5{ . ef/tdf
a]kQf gul/sx?sf] cj:yftkm{ ;d]t
s'g} rf;f] glbOPsf] af/] /f]if k|s6
Joj:yf d'Vo afws alg;s]sf] 5 .
clxn] /fi6«jfbL zlQmx? klg e|d /
kf6L{ jf b]z ;a}nfO{ e8\vfnf]df xfn]/
eP klg cfk"m ;Qfdf l6ls/xg'kg{]
5f]/LnfO{ pTkfbg z'Nsdf lnOg] s/eGbf g]kfnsf] s/ ;:tf] 5 . h;sf sf/0f ef/tdf
k]6f« l] nod kbfy{ dx+uf] 5 . xfn g]kfndf k|ltln6/ $) ?k}ofF s/ lnOG5 . hxfF ls
ub}{ ;lxbx?sf] ;kgf ;fsf/ kfg{
qmflGtsf/L /fhgLlts zlQmx? Psh'6
cndndf 5g\ . 3/L ;+ ; b\
k'g:yf{kgfsf] kIfdf t 3/L r'gfjsf]
k| j [ l Qsf af/] d f 5nkmn
rnfpg'kb{5 . JolQm km]bd {} f clxn]sf
:s'n k9\g ef/tdf pTkfbg z'Ns / s/ u/L %) ?k}ofFeGbf a9L lnOG5 . ;LdfjtL{ dflg;sf
nflu g]kfn jf ef/t cfphfp ug{ ;lhnf] 5 . xfn g]kfnn] ef/tLonfO{ g]kfn
eP/ ;zQm kxn gu/];Dd l:ylt
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