EDSA T2K Design Master

AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

1.0

Scope of a Load Flow Analysis
A Load Flow analysis is used to evaluate the running steady-state condition of a system, under different
load, supply and configuration conditions. The idea behind the load flow algorithm is to determine the
following parameters, given that the load consumption at all busses is known:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Power flow in each branch (Lines & Transformers).
Power consumption at each source of generation.
Voltage magnitude and electrical angle at each bus.
System Losses.

Once this data is known, corrective actions can be taken in order to ensure that every load is supplied
with power that is within the acceptable limits of operation. Such actions can include the calculation of:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Transformer tap settings.
Reactive power compensation.
Generator set points.
Emergency power requirements.

A properly built load flow model of the system, lays a solid foundation for other important studies such
as short circuit, motor starting, harmonic and transient stability. The load flow model constitutes the
basic network information and the initial steady-state condition which these studies rely upon.

2.0

Load Models
Loads in general can be modeled in 4 different ways:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Constant Power Load (kVA)
Constant Current (Amps)
Constant Impedance (Ohms)
Functional Load

Notes:
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©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

EDSA T2K Design Master
AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

2.1

Constant Power Load (kVA)
This type of load is treated as constant demand of power. The load flow algorithm will attempt
convergence under the premise that these types of loads always draw the kVA specified by the user.
Caution should be exercised when interpreting the convergence results in the presence constant kVA
loads. To illustrate this, let’s assume that a given load is rated 1.2kVA at 120 Volts; let’s further assume
that the system experiences excessive losses (say 20% voltage drop on the load’s supply branch).
Under these circumstances the only way in which the system can sustain the load at the prescribed kVA
is by supplying more current in order to compensate for the voltage drop. More current means more
voltage drop and this cycle will lead to a non-convergence situation. The analysis is basically telling us
that the system, as it has been designed, cannot supply 1.2 kVA to the load due to excessive losses. At
this point one can switch the definition of the load from constant load to constant impedance and
determine exactly how much power can be transferred to the load. This issue will be illustrated with an
example in further sections of this manual.

2.2

Constant Current Load (Amps)
The load (P+jQ) is treated as constant current load. The current is calculated by using the following
equation:

I=
P
Q
V
I

=
=
=
=

Load
Load
Load
Load

P − jQ
V∗

Active Power (kW)
Reactive Power (kVAR)
Rated Voltage
equivalent constant current

How does this work?
When a load of rated “P” (kW), “Q” (kVAR) and “V” (Voltage) is entered, the program calculates the
equivalent current “I” and defines the load as a constant draw of “I” (Amps).

Notes:
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Page LF.2

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

EDSA T2K Design Master
AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

2.3

Constant Impedance Load (Ohms)
The load (P+jQ) is treated as constant impedance load. The impedance is calculated by using the
following equation:

V2
Z=
P − jQ
P
Q
V
Z

=
=
=
=

Load
Load
Load
Load

Active Power (kW)
Reactive Power (kVAR)
Rated Voltage
equivalent constant Impedance

How does this work?
When a load of a rated “P” (kW), “Q” (kVAR) and “V” (Voltage) is entered, the program calculates the
equivalent impedance “Z” and defines the load as a constant shunt impedance of “Z” (Ohms).

2.4

Functional Load
A functional load is a load that is composed of any combination of constant load, constant current,
and/or constant impedance. For example, in a single phase system, the total load at 120 Volts may be
(12 kW+j0 kVAR) broken down as follows:
30% as constant power load:
60% as constant current:
10% as constant impedance:

3.6 kW
7.2 kW
1.2 kW



3.6 kW
60.0 Amps
12.0 ohms

Notes:
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Page LF.3

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

EDSA T2K Design Master
AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

3.0

Generator Models
The Load Flow study algorithm, specifies each bus based on; Active/Reactive power consumption (Load
or PQ Bus), Voltage magnitude (Generation or PV Bus), and Voltage reference (Swing Bus). Supply
busses that contain synchronous generators may also be specified as PQ busses depending on
application, or re-designation from PV busses if the prescribed limits of reactive power generation are
reached during the Load Flow Analysis.
The Swing bus is the only bus at which the power is not specified. Net power flows cannot be fixed in
advance at every generating bus, since the network power losses are not known until the study has
been completed. The Swing bus is therefore defined based solely on voltage and angle, leaving the
rest of the variables (kW & kVAR, including system losses) free to adjust (SWING) to the requirements
of the network. In other words, Active and Reactive Power are the unknown variables of the Swing
bus.
In light of the above, a Load Flow Analysis is not mathematically feasible (by computer, by hand, or
otherwise) without the presence of a Swing bus or busses in the network. The Swing bus designation is
bestowed upon the stiffest busses in the network, traditionally Power Company or Utility busses.
The table below summarizes the critical variables for each type of bus:

Bus Type
Swing
Load
PQ Generator
PV Generator

Known Variables
V = 1.0 PU
δ = 0 deg
P&Q
P&Q
P&V

Unknown Variables
P&Q
V&δ
V&δ
Q&δ

Notes:
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Page LF.4

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.axd” Step 2. / PQ Logic Corp. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Proceed to open the file EDM7.5 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and correct any problems as required. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 Conducting a Balanced Load Flow Analysis (File: EDM7. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Step 1. Run a Load Flow Connectivity Error Check”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Normal Closed Open 3. / PQ Logic Corp. Emergency Open Closed Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Co-Gen.6 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Closed Closed Scenario Name 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Generator Utility Supply Switch Position Table BKR-1 BKR-2 1.

Page LF. Generator Type. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Generator Load Flow set-points.7 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Generator Model Generator Full Rating in kVA. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

8 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Utility Model Calculated SC Impedance values. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. the positive sequence SC impedance. Page LF. This allows the program to calculate the voltage drop at the “non-ideal” Swing-Bus. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. When X” is selected. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Short Circuit Levels. . The positive sequence impedance is passed onto the Load Flow model. is included in the Load Flow model for the Swing bus.

Step 6. Step 2. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Invoke the Load Flow program by selecting either of these commands. Select the rest of the options. Select the scenario to be analyzed. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 5. Refer to steps 6a & 6b in the next page. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 4.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Select “OK”. Step 3. Select the calculation method. . Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Verify the “Scenario” to be studied (Normal). / PQ Logic Corp.9 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Running the Load Flow & the Load Flow Options Screen Step 1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. This scenario calls for BKR-2 to be opened. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Fine-tune the advanced options as needed. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Page LF. . Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Yes” to initiate the analysis. Here the program is letting the user know that there is a dead island caused by the “Normal” scenario configuration. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. which isolates the generator from the system. Step 6b. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 6a.10 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Step 7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “OK”.

2 Viewing the Load Flow Analysis Results Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the desired report sections and options to be displayed. Verify that the analysis has converged. .EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. / PQ Logic Corp. Step 4. select the desired output format from the “Results” menu. To view the results. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “OK”. Step 2. Select “TD LoadFlow Format 1” Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Partial view of the output results for scenario 2 “Normal Power”.12 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. and Emergency). . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. conduct load flow analyses for the cases 1 & 3 (Co-Gen. Exercise Using the same procedure explained in this section. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Do the results make sense? Why? Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Compare the results of the 3 scenarios. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Open the file named “EDM8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Step 1. Model this load as a “Constant kVA” load. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 2.axd”. .EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.13 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3 Convergence & Constant kVA Loads (File EDM8. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

View the report. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. seem to indicate that the losses are too great.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Page LF. / PQ Logic Corp. The results. Run the load flow analysis. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. which in cases of nonconvergence ARE NOT TO BE RELIED UPON. The system is not able to supply 750 kVA to the load. Step 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and verify that in this case it does NOT converge.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3. Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4 Convergence & Constant Impedance Loads (File EDM8. . Open the file named “EDM8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Model this load as a “Constant Impedance” load.axd) Step 1.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Page LF.15 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and verify that in this case it DOES converge. Run the load flow analysis.axd”.

Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The results confirm that due to the high losses in the transformer and the line. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .5 kVA to the load.5 kVA Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….85 Volts Voltage drop at the load: 19. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. the system is only able to supply 484. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 4. Voltage available at the load: 385. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. View the report.16 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.62%. kVA = 4122 + 2552 = 484.

Static reactive power adjustment (Capacitors & Inductors). . Open the file named “EDM7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the voltage control generators by defining them as PV units. The first step is to prepare the network as follows: - Select the transformer(s) with adjustable taps that will be used as voltage control transformers. PQ generators cannot regulate voltage. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp. Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) The EDSA Object Oriented Load Flow analysis program can assist in correcting voltage levels by means of the any of the following techniques: - Transformer tap settings.axd”.5 Voltage Control Techniques (File EDM7. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. PV Generator reactive power adjustment (Exciter Control). Select the bus or busses at which static reactive compensation is to be considered. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. A combination of any the above techniques.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.

/ PQ Logic Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.18 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Define the settings for all the potential voltage control means desired. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The screen-capture shown here is a partial view of the report showing the voltage violation report Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 3. run a Load Flow Analysis using scenario No. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . / PQ Logic Corp. Following the guidelines explained in previous sections of this manual.1 (Co-Generation). Page LF. Produce a report that includes the “Bus Voltage” results and a voltage violation summary for all busses outside a ±10% voltage tolerance. Step 4. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Press “OK”. Page LF. Complete the “Voltage Control Limits” section as indicated here.20 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Select “Voltage Control”. / PQ Logic Corp.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 4. Select “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3. Select “Transformer Tap Adjustments” as a means of control. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Voltage Control / Transformer Taps Step 1.

EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 6. Page LF. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Select “No’ for now.21 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. This option will be explained later. Review the results and select “Done” to exit. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Step 3. Select “Voltage Control”. Step 2.. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Press “OK” Step 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.22 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Select “Capacitor/Inductor.2 Voltage Control / Capacitors-Inductors Step 1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Complete the “Voltage Control Limits” section as indicated here.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Select “OK”.” as a means of control. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

000 kVA). Select “No’ for now. / PQ Logic Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . To obtain actual kVA. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Required amount of reactive compensation. multiply by the base kVA (10.23 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. in per unit of base kVA. This option will be explained later. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Review the results and select “Done” to exit. Step 6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 5.

5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Press “OK” Step 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 2. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “OK”. . Select “Voltage Control”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….24 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Step 3.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.3 Voltage Control / Transformer Taps & Generator Settings Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Transformer…” and “Generator…” as combined means of control. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Complete the “Voltage Control Limits” section as indicated here. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….000 kVA). Select “Yes’ to test the results. Step 6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. in per unit of base kVA. Select OK to acknowledge. Step 5.25 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . Review the results and select “Done” to exit. / PQ Logic Corp. Step 7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. To obtain actual kVA.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Required amount of additional generator reactive compensation. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. multiply by the base kVA (10. Page LF. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….26 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Select “Yes” and verify convergence. Step 9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. The solution proves to be effective as indicated here.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 8. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 10. / PQ Logic Corp. Press “Save”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 11. Step 12. Select “Exit”. Select “Yes”. if you wish to avoid overwriting the original one. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Use ±7% as the acceptable tolerance.27 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Exercise Conduct a voltage control analysis for case 1 (Co-Generation). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Save the file under a different name. using ONLY Generator Reactive Power control as means of correcting the voltage drops in the network. Page LF. Is the calculation successful? Why? Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

Run a Load Flow analysis on the subject file. Step 2. Page LF.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Enter the “Design Margin” in %. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3. / PQ Logic Corp. Select “Xfr Sizing”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….28 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and select “OK”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Step 1.6 Load Flow Transformer Sizing (File EDM7. .

Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Step 1.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Select the desired components from the “AC Load Flow” section. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “ON”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . Step 4.axd) Step 2. Click here to select the “Back Annotation” tool. Select “OK”. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 Back Annotation of Load Flow Results (File EDM7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.

. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Load Flow back annotation. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Run a Load Flow Connectivity Error Check”. . Step 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Proceed to open the file “EDM9. / PQ Logic Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Step 1.axd” Note: These three static loads will be entered as unbalanced loads.0 Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis (File EDM9. Page LF. and correct any problems as required. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Select the “Visibility” tab.32 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. the percentile distribution of the load across the phases.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The steps described in this section. Click here to invoke the “Master File Editor”. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The user can enter. These % figures are based on the full load condition entered in the “Load Flow” tab. Step 4. Select “OK”. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Check the “View Unbalanced Load Flow Fields” option. Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. as required. The initial default assumed by the program is a balanced state as indicated here. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.1 Preparing the Master File Editor Step 1. will enable the “Unbalanced Load Flow” tab at every load in the single line diagram. Page LF. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and edit the Unbalanced Load Flow conditions as indicated in steps 2 & 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Assume the same percentile values for all three static loads. / PQ Logic Corp. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….33 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Double click on each of the static loads fed from bus J#1066. Step 2. Select the “Unbalanced Load Flow” tab.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2 Preparing the Unbalanced Loads Step 1. Page LF. Enter a per-phase distribution as indicated here. Step 3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Step 1.34 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “AC 3-Phase Unbalanced”. Select the desired options and press “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Allow the program to adjust the tolerance by selecting “Yes”. Step 3. Select “Continue”. Select “Run”.3 The Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis Interface Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Step 5. . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 4. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Partial view of the final report. To exit select “Done” Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. .35 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 6. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Verify that the calculation has converged and select “View Results”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

36 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. .axd) Step 1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 Load Flow Analysis Voltage / Profile Method (File EDM10. Step 2. and correct any problems as required. / PQ Logic Corp. Page LF.axd” Note: These four loads will be entered as cycling loads. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Run a Load Flow Connectivity Error Check”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Proceed to open the file “EDM10. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1 Preparing the Master File Editor Step 1. Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the “Visibility” tab. Select the “Time Periods” tab. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….37 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Select “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 5. Define the “Load-Cycling” time periods. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Click here to invoke the “Master File Editor”. Check the “View Voltage Profile Fields” option. Step 4. Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. / PQ Logic Corp.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Double click on each of the loads fed from bus J#1066. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.2 Preparing the Cycling Loads Step 1. / PQ Logic Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and edit the cycling conditions as indicated in this page.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. . Page LF.

To view the results.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Run”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . select “Results”. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and select “OK”. Define the “Load Flow Options”. Step 3. Verify convergence for all periods. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3 The Voltage Profile Load Flow Interface Step 2. Step 4. Page LF. Step 1. / PQ Logic Corp. Step 5.39 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Select “AC Voltage Profile”. and select “Done”.

/ PQ Logic Corp.4 Graphical View of the Results Step 3. by clicking on it once. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….40 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the bus to view. View and edit the graphs. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. When done press “Exit”. Step 2. Select “OK” to return. Step 1.

/ PQ Logic Corp. Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Name the file. Select Electrical One Line Single-Phase. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .41 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. and select “Open”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd”. Step 1. and press “OK”. Step 4. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 Single Phase Load Flow Analysis / Building the Job-File Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and press “OK”. Page LF.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 7. Click here to create a new job-file. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. De-select the password requirement.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. singlephase busses and branches. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. proceed to build the required single-phase network.42 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. This catalog contains both. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Single-Phase Element catalog. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Master Job-File Editor settings. Following the same guidelines outlined in the “Main User Interface” section of this manual. .

simply repeat the same steps explained in section 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . Invoke the AC Load-Flow Analysis program. Page LF.axd) Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3. To continue. Run a load-flow connectivity error check.43 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.0 of this manual. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 1.1 Conducting a Single-Phase Load Flow Analysis (File: EDM6. Exercise Step 3. The AC Load Flow Analysis program is designed to analyze both single and three-phase systems.axd”. Proceed to open the single-phase file named “EDM6.

complete the following questionnaire: 1. . Total System Losses on kW: ______________kW 4. Using the File “EDM7X. Page LF. Power Factor at the Utility Bus: _______________% 3. List the transformers loaded beyond 100% of their capacity: F:______ T:______ F:______ T:______ Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank. Total Power in kVA demanded from the utility supply: ______________kVA 2.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 8. / PQ Logic Corp. shown in the above picture. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….44 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.0 Practical Exercise (File: EDM7X. Voltage Drop at 480 V Bus J#1066: _______________% 5.axd”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

T:______ Assuming a design margin of 120%. resize the transformers listed in question 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. enter the value into the network and re-run the Load Flow Analysis to confirm the results. Adjustment: Min. / PQ Logic Corp.05 PU 0. Capacitor Bank Size: ___________kVA Once the required kVA has been calculated. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. is on-line. Size 1:___________kVA Size 2:___________kVA Size 3:___________kVA 7.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= F:______ 6. . Assume the following: All Transformers: Tap Location: Max. Calculate suitable transformer Tap Settings that will maintain system voltages within a ±10% tolerance at all busses. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….95 PU 4 steps The capacitor bank calculated in question 7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Design a Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank (as shown in the figure) that will improve the overall system power factor to a value of 92%. Adjustment: Total Steps: Secondary 1.45 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.

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