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05tcentennial VECTOR ANALYSIS .
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a series of volumes has been prepared by a number of the Professors and In the structors.Bicentennial publications With approval of the President and Fellows of Yale University. as a partial indica tion of the character of the studies in which the University teachers are engaged. This series of volumes is respectfully dedicated to raDuate$ of tfc . to be issued in connection with the Bicentennial Anniversary.
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. Professor of Vital Statistics in PH. Formerly Professor of Mathematical Physics in Yale University BY EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON. WILLARD GIBBS. LL.D.D.D. PH./ VECTOR ANALYSIS^ A TEXTBOOK FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS FOUNDED UPON THE LECTURES OF J. Harvard School of Public Health NEW HAVEN YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS .
December. 1020 Seventh Printing. in any form. 1947 All rights reserved. 1951 Eighth Printing. April. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA . 1922 . 1943 Ninth Printing. in whole or in part. October. 1901 Second Printing. 1925 Sixth Printing. This book may not be re produced. Fifth Printing. April.Copyright. April. July. January 19/3 Third Printing. 1916 fourth Printing^ April. 1901 and 1929 BY YALE UNIVERSITY Published. October. ex cept by written permission from the publishers.
. September. somewhat widely circulated among those who were known to the desire has been expressed be interested in the subject. WILLARD GIBBS. I was to have one of the hearers of my course on Vector very glad leisure to Analysis in the year 18991900 undertake the preparation of a textbook on the subject. however. I have not desired that Dr.PKEFACB BY PROFESSOR GIBBS SINCE the printing of a short pamphlet on the Elements of never published. the public. should be made accessible to tise. the years passed without my finding the meet this want. which seemed a real one. but Vector Analysis in the years 188184. 1901. YALE UNIVERSITY. that the substance of that trea perhaps in fuller form. As. but rather that he should use his own judgment in all respects for the production of a textbook in which the subject should be so illustrated by an my adequate number of examples as to meet the wants of stu dents of geometry and physics. Wilson should aim simply at the reproduction of lectures. J. in more than one quarter.
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The material thus obtained has been arranged in the way which seems best suited to easy mastery of the subject. has been made of the chapters on Vector Analysis in Mr. however. a large part of the text has to do with applications of the method. Professor Gibbs himself was already so fully I WHEN engaged upon his work to appear in the same series. my endeavor to use the freedom thus granted only in so far as was necessary for presenting his method in textbook form. For this reason he wished me to feel entirely free to use my own of the topics to be treated It has been discretion alike in the selection and in the mode of treatment. and physics. but have . which it seemed best to incorporate in the text but which for various reasons may well be omitted at the first reading have been marked with an asterisk (*). used in the follow ing pages has been taken from the course of lectures on Vector Analysis delivered annually at the University by Professor Gibbs. that it was understood no material assistance in the composition of this book could be expected from him. Indeed. Some use. Oliver Heaviside s Elec By far the greater part of the material tromagnetic Theory (Electrician Series. These applications have not been set apart in chapters by themselves. Nu merous illustrative examples have been drawn from geometry. Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics. Those Arts.GENERAL PREFACE undertook to adapt the lectures of Professor Gibbs on VECTOR ANALYSIS for publication in the Yale Bicenten nial Series. My previous study of Quaternions has also been of great assistance. 1893) and in Professor Foppl s lectures on Die Maxwell sche Theorie der Electricitdt (Teubner. mechanics. 1894).
The a necessary introduction to both other parts. have been placed at the end of each chapter. Hence a summary. The subject of Vector Analysis naturally divides itself into three distinct parts. Following the book is this division of the subject. Either may be taken up first. that which concerns addition and the scalar and vector products of vectors. in the hope that the reader will supply the details. the scalar treat of addition. including a list more important formulae. but as a textbook from which much of the subject as may be required for practical appli cations of the may be learned. first part is The second and third are mutually independent. and in so illustrating each idea that is introduced as to make its necessity evident and its meaning easy to grasp. It is hoped that by this means the reader may be better enabled to make practical use of the book. Great care has been taken in avoiding the introduction of unnecessary ideas. Chapters I. The exposition has been made is stood by and It can quite elementary. and a number of exercises. For practical purposes in mathematical physics the second must be regarded as more elementary than the third. which he would probably find more attractive and easy than the second. and many less essential points in the text have been indicated rather than fully worked out. Third. the main body of divided into six chapters of which two deal with each of the three parts in the order named. But a student not primarily interested in physics would nat urally pass from the first part to the third. that which concerns the differential and integral calculus in its relations to scalar and vector functions. First. and II. and and vector products of vectors. Second. readily be under especially suited for such readers as have a knowledge of only the elements of Trigonometry and Ana . Thus the book is not intended as a complete exposition of so the theory of Vector Analysis. The summary may be found useful in reviews and for reference.x GENERAL PREFACE been distributed throughout the body of the book as fast as the analysis has been developed sufficiently for their adequate treatment. subtraction. scalar multiplication. that which contains the theory of the linear vector function.
In fact Heaviside says : "I am in hopes that the chapter which I now finish may . Chapter IV. contain the treatment of those topics in Vector Analysis which. VII. to the fact that it leads to Multiple Algebra or the Theory of Matrices. deal with To students of physics the linear the linear vector function. a of applications. concluding chapter. Although modern theorists are devoting much time and thought to rigor. are of the utmost impor tance to students of physics. it has been deemed best to give but little attention to the discussion of this subject.. and vectors. As yet however no system of Vector Analysis which makes any claim to cially in the last Vector Analysis. who must first learn what the facts are and may postpone until later the detailed consideration of the restric tions that are put upon those efforts facts. completeness has been published. questions of mathematical rigor arise. though of less value to the students of pure mathematics. On the other hand there has been a growing tendency espe decade toward the adoption of some form of The works of Heaviside and Foppl re ferred to before may be cited in evidence. is of particular importance in the mathemati treatment of phenomena connected with nonisotropic media and to the student of pure mathematics this part of the book will probably be the most interesting of all. or allied subjects may perhaps need to read only the sum maries. owing vector function cal . and IV. And the more so for the reason that whatever system of notation be employed ques tions of rigor are indissolubly associated with the calculus and occasion no new difficulty to the student of Vector Analysis.GENERAL PREFACE xi Those who are well versed in Quaternions lytic Geometry. Chapters III. and a short sketch of imaginary or number although they will doubtless criticise this portion of the book adversely. has development of certain higher parts of the theory. and VI. In the treatment of the integral calculus. which contains the A complex been added. Chapters V. Notwithstanding the which have been made during introduce Quaternions into more than half a century to physics the fact remains that they have not found wide favor..
must was Professor Gibbs Electromagnetic Theory of Light. I. and all such algebras are of little value for investi gating questions in mathematical physics.. can come to so true an appreciation of the importance of vectors and of the ideas connected with them as by working in Vector Analysis and dealing directly with . And there is assertion shall prove true or not. He uses it s point of view in building up his system. of the operator y. etc. Elsewhere in the same chapter Heaviside has set forth the claims of vector analysis as against Quaternions. It has been asserted by some that Quaternions.x ii GENERAL PREFACE serve as a stopgap till regular vectorial treatises come to be written suitable for physicists. potential. have expressed similar views. linear vector function. such as shall be adequate for the needs of students of physics at the present day and adapted to them. tions: and keep clearly before the reader s mind the ques What combinations or functions of vectors occur in physics and geometry ? And how may these be represented symbolically in the way best suited to facile analytic manip ulation ? The treatment of these questions in modern books on physics has been too subtraction of vectors. 305). I feel confident.. be its then. As every geometer must be thoroughly conver sant with the ideas of invariants. of divergence and curl which have gained such universal recognition since the ap pearance of Maxwell s Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. and others The keynote. Vector Analysis. much This confined to the addition and is scarcely enough. Vol. based upon the vectorial treat ment of vectors" (Electromagnetic Theory. to any system of vector analysis practical utility. especially at the beginning of his sci entific studies. In writing this book I have tried to present the subject from this practical stand point. in his courses on Electricity and Magnetism and on entirely This. Whether this physics what invariants are to geometry. p. so every student of physics should be able to think in terms of vectors. one vectors are to mathematical may still maintain that no way in which he. of slope. It has been the aim here to give also an exposition of scalar and vector products.
xiii To those that hold these views the of Professor Foppl s Vorlesungen uber Technische Mechanik (four volumes. B. H. under obligations to my father. Dr. Teubner. YALE UNIVERSITY. for help in connection both with the proofs and the manuscript. can be but an encour success aging sign. . M. I take pleasure in thanking and colleagues. The good services of the latter have been particularly valuable in arranging Chapters III. October.GENERAL PREFACE the vectors themselves. Mr. and it is he who has furnished me with inspiration suf ficient to carry through the work. I wish to express my deep indebt For although he has been so edness to Professor Gibbs. in which the theory of mechanics is devel oped by means of a vector analysis. A. EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON. he has always been ready to talk matters over with me. for assisting me with the manu my script. already in a second edition). PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION THE only changes which have been made in this edition are a few corrections which point out to me. 1901. Porter Prof. my readers have been kind enough E. Finally. I am also preoccupied as to be unable to read either manuscript or proof. to W. Wilson. and IV* in their present form and in suggesting many of the illustrations used in the work. Edwin H. Bumstead. B. 18971900.
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. VECTOR RELATIONS INDEPENDENT OF THE ORIGIN CENTERS OF GRAVITY. VECTOR EQUATIONS THE THREE UNIT VECTORS 1. 27 39 46 51 52 CHAPTER II DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 2728 2930 3133 3435 36 THE DIRECT. THE PARALLELOGRAM LAW SUBTRACTION LAWS GOVERNING THE FOREGOING OPERATIONS COMPONENTS OF VECTORS.. . . ....... THE NEGATIVE SIGN ADDITION. k APPLICATIONS TO SUNDRY PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY. . BARYCENTRIC COORDINATES THE USE OF VECTORS TO DENOTE AREAS SUMMARY OF CHAPTER i EXERCISES ON CHAPTER i . VECTOR. OR DOT PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS THE DISTRIBUTIVE LAW AND APPLICATIONS THE SKEW. ... j.. SCALAR. 8 11 12 14 18 21 .TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE BY PROFESSOR GIBBS vii GENERAL PREFACE ix CHAPTER ARTS.. 1 4 6 7 . OR CROSS PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS THE DISTRIBUTIVE LAW AND APPLICATIONS THE TRIPLE PRODUCT A* B C 55 58 60 63 67 . I ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 13 4 5 67 810 11 12 1316 17 1819 2022 2324 25 SCALARS AND VECTORS EQUAL AND NULL VECTORS THE POINT OF VIEW OF THIS CHAPTER SCALAR MULTIPLICATION. .
. . APPLICATION TO HYDROMECHANICS THE DIFFERENTIATING OPERATORS OF THE SECOND ORDER GEOMETRIC INTERPRETATION OF LAPLACE S OPERATOR AS THE DISPERSION V* SUMMARY OF CHAPTER in EXERCISES ON CHAPTER in 115 120 125 131 . 113 CHAPTER 5556 57 III THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS DERIVATIVES AND DIFFERENTIALS OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO A SCALAR VARIABLE CURVATURE AND TORSION OF GAUCHE CURVES KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE. CONTENTS PAGE 3738 3940 4142 4345 4647 4850 51 52 53 54 THE SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT A* B X C OR [ABC] THE VECTOR TRIPLE PRODUCT A X (B X C) PRODUCTS OF MORE THAN THREE VECTORS WITH APPLI CATIONS TO TRIGONOMETRY RECIPROCAL SYSTEMS OF THREE VECTORS SOLUTION OF SCALAR AND VECTOR EQUATIONS LINEAR IN AN UNKNOWN VECTOR SYSTEMS OF FORCES ACTING ON A RIGID BODY KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM OF A RIGID BODY RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO RIGHTHANDED SYSTEMS OF THREE PERPENDICULAR UNIT VECTORS PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY.XVI ARTS. PLANAR COORDINATES SUMMARY OF CHAPTER n EXERCISES ON CHAPTER n ... 68 71 75 81 87 92 97 101 ... 104 106 109 .. . 5859 60 61 .EXPANSION OF A VEC TOR FUNCTION ANALOGOUS TO TAYLOR S THEOREM. . . . . .... THE HODOGRAPH THE INSTANTANEOUS AXIS OF ROTATION INTEGFATION WITH APPLICATIONS TO KINEMATICS SCALAR FUNCTIONS OF POSITION IN SPACE THE VECTOR DIFFERENTIATING OPERATOR THE SCALAR OPERATOR A VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF POSITION IN SPACE THE DIVERGENCE V* AND THE CURL INTERPRETATION OF THE DIVERGENCE INTERPRETATION OF THE CURL X LAWS OF OPERATION OF V> * X THE PARTIAL APPLICATION OF V. . 133 136 138 62 6367 68 69 70 71 V V 147 149 72 73 V V > V VX 150 152 155 157 7476 V 159 77 78 166 V 170 172 177 .
. AND . . 230 234 240 243 MAXWELLIANS 96 CERTAIN BOUNDARY VALUE THEOREMS SUMMARY OF CHAPTER iv EXERCISES ON CHAPTER iv 249 255 CHAFIER V LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 9798 99 100 101 102 108104 105107 108 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS DEFINED 260 DYADICS DEFINED 264 ANY LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTION MAY BE REPRESENTED BY A DYADIC. SURFACE. 82 THEOREM STOKES S THEOREM GAUSS S 83 84 85 CONVERSE OF STOKES S THEOREM WITH APPLICATIONS TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINE." " MAX " RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTEGRATING AND DIFFER . PAGE 7980 81 LINE INTEGRALS OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS WITH APPLICA TIONS 179 184 187 ." "LAP. AND VOLUME IN 193 197 8687 88 89 90 91 TEGRALS.CONTENTS xvii CHAPTER IV THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS ARTS. GREEN S THEOREM REMARKS ON MULTIPLEVALUED FUNCTIONS " POTENTIAL. THE INTEGRATING OPERATOR " POT COMMUTATIVE PROPERTY OF POT AND REMARKS UPON THE FOREGOING THE INTEGRATING OPERATORS "NEW. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTY OF THE SCALAR AND VECTOR PRODUCTS 271 PRODUCTS OF DYADICS 276 DEGREES OF NULLITY OF DYADICS 282 THE IDEMFACTOR 288 . NEWTONIANS.. CERTAIN OPERATORS AND THEIR INVERSE MUTUAL POTENTIALS. . LAPLACIANS.. PROPERTIES OF DYADICS 266 THE NONION FORM OF A DYADIC 269 THE DYAD OR INDETERMINATE PRODUCT OF TWO VEC TORS IS THE MOST GENERAL. 200 205 211 V 215 222 ENTIATING OPERATORS 92 228 is THE POTENTIAL " POT " A SOLUTION OF POISSON S 9394 95 EQUATION SOLENOIDAL AND IRROTATIONAL PARTS OF A VECTOR FUNCTION.
CONTENTS PAGE 109110 111 POWERS AND ROOTS OF DYADICS SELFCONJUGATE AND ANTICONJUGATE DYADICS.. 353 356 368 CHAPTER 136142 143146 VII MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS QUADRIC SURFACES THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS . DETERMINANTS 315 INVARIANTS OF A DYADIC... . SELFCONJUGATE PARTS OF A DYADIC RECIPROCAL DYADICS. 343 347 351 129 130 131 132 CYCLIC DYADICS RIGHT TENSORS TONICS AND CYCLOTONICS REDUCTION OF DYADICS TO CANONICAL FORMS. . CHAPTER VI ROTATIONS AND STRAINS 123124 125126 127 128 HOMOGENEOUS STRAIN REPRESENTED BY A DYADIC ROTATIONS ABOUT A FIXED POINT... . 290 294 112114 115116 117 THE VECTOR PROD 118119 120 121 122 UCT. SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SHEARERS SUMMARY OF CHAPTER vi .. ... . .319 EQUATION SUMMARY OF CHAPTER v 321 EXERCISES ON CHAPTER v 329 . ANTISELFCONJUGATE DYADICS. . 372 392 147148 149157 158162 VARIABLE DYADICS CURVATURE OF SURFACES HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS 403 . ..XV111 ARTS.. . QUADRANTAL VER8ORS 297 REDUCTION OF DYADICS TO NORMAL FORM 302 DOUBLE MULTIPLICATION OF DYADICS 306 THE SECOND AND THIRD OF A DYADIC 310 CONDITIONS FOR DIFFERENT DEGREES OF NULLITY 313 NONION FORM. 411 426 . TONICS. 332 . 334 339 . CYCLOTONICS. THE HAMILTONCAYLEY .. VERSORS THE VECTOR SEMITANGENT OF VERSION BlQUADRANTAL VERSORS AND THEIR PRODUCTS .
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VECTOR ANALYSIS .
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] Definition : A vector is a quantity which is considered as possessing direction as well as magnitude. velocity. . . The same is true of displacement. or in some intermediate direction. But in addition to this each of them must be considered as having direction as well as magnitude. for different kinds of quantity present themselves. East. Of these quantities some can be represented adequately by a single number temperature. density. not their direction. example. of so Force to be sure is said to be many pounds or grams weight. . A force points North. West. 2. of so many feet or centimeters per second. South. . and acceleration. force. by degrees on a thermometric scale time.VECTOR ANALYSIS CHAPTER I ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 1.] IN mathematics and especially in physics two very Consider. No scale of num bers can represent them adequately. by mass and density. Definition : A scalar is a quantity which is considered as pos sessing magnitude but no direction. displacement and acceleration. of a point. mass. temperature. velocity. velocity. capable of such representation. or seconds ues which are wholly determined when the unit of the scale On the other hand the remaining quantities are not is fixed. up. by numerical valyears. days. It can represent only their magnitude. down. time.
rigid body This is equivalent to shifting space as a in that direction through the distance without D rotation. is used as the mathematical origin for all vectors. its terminus. called a translation. just as the ordinary positive and negative bers are used as the symbols for all scalars. 1). scalar algebra when necessary to distinguish it from the vector algebra or analysis which Consider The typical vector is first a point the subject of this book. all but of the points in space. the direction of to the direction of the line from PP 1 PP 1 P P points 1 . Let the move in straight lines in the same direction and for the same distance D.2 VECTOR ANALYSIS The positive and negative numbers of ordinary algebra are the For this reason the ordinary algebra is called typical scalars. Its tail or initial point is its origin. and its is head or final point. then that of any other known for Q Q must be equal and parallel : PP PP. Next consider a displacement not all of one. The absolute position of this arrow in space is entirely immaterial. a stroke. straight line Let P be displaced and take a new position is in a P f . each point of space undergoes a displacement equal to T in magnitude and direction. and conversely if the displacement fers in the translation point to Q is also which any one particular point P suf T is known. the displacement of translation in space. This change of position line PP. symbol num . is P (Fig. The is represented by the magnitude of the displace ment it is the length of . The translation T is represented geometrically or graphically by an arrow T (Fig. 1) of which the magnitude and direction are equal to those of the translation. possesses direction Such a displacement is and magnitude. This geo designated by metric quantity. It When space undergoes a translation T. Technically the arrow is called a stroke. In the figure the and the terminus by T.
however. Magnitude. by no means the sole property of these quantities. Of all scalar quantiperhaps number is the simplest. It implies nothing but tities pure magnitude. Each implies something besides magnitude. Each has its own its distinguishing characteristics. however. two alone vector. den and temperature have been mentioned. a property common the only one.] sity. known 3. as in the case of scalar quantities. dimensions in the sense well cited. pure number. As examples of vector quantities force. just as the analogy he attribute some properties to the mathematical vector which do not belong to it . 3 As examples of scalar quantities mass. other characteristics than those which belong to a vector pure and simple. and acceleration have been given. abstracts from all directed quantities their magni tude and direction and nothing but these mathe matical scalar. of inertia. abstracts the magnitude and Hence one must be on his guard lest from that alone. When it is applied line in to a rigid body the in case which it acts must be taken into consideration. as an example of which to physicists 3. a time a work are very to 3 is. . fice.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION * 3. work. and he must be even more careful lest he obtain erroneous results by considering the . Moreover the question of dimensions is is present vector.. And than force. volume. magnitude and direction alone do not suf it is applied to a nonrigid body the point of application of the force is as important as the magnitude or Such is frequently true for vector quantities other direction. The concept of vector involves two ideas and But magnitude of the vector and direction of the force is more complicated. It is the scalar par excellence and consequently different. which the primary object of consideration in this book. The mathematical the stroke. moment is Others are dis tance. The magnitude them it is used as the mathematical symbol for all scalars. displacement. etc. may be A all distance 3. time. etc. velo Each of these has city.
it may appropriately be designated by one letter. In some would prove just as undesirable as it is convenient in others. but /. This permits the use of the same letter differently printed 1 to represent the vector and its scalar Thus if magnitude. a vector or stroke 4. Owing however to the fundamental difference is between scalars and vectors. are also acceleration. it instances is by no means invariably followed.4 VECTOR ANALYSIS For example vector quantities of physics as possessing no properties other than those of the mathematical vector. however. matical physics. the distinction is furnished by the physical interpretation. necessary. the time.] to itself. . C be the electric current in magnitude and direction. and a. as in mathe carefully the one from the other. but a single concept. Thus . however. scalar m. the are vectors. if v be the velocity of a moving mass. Hence in this book Clarendon type is used for setting up vectors and ordinary type for scalars. taken in its entirety. when they have the same magnitude 1 and the same This convention. it would by never do to consider force and it its effects as unaltered This warning may not be parallel shifting it may possibly save some confusion. yet Inasmuch as. of refraction it must be scalars . if n be the index . v the magnitude of that velocity. and the force. g may be the scalar value of that acceleration . . When. as the letters are regarded merely with no particular physical significance some symbols typographical difference must be relied upon to distinguish vectors from scalars. It is chiefly valuable in the application of vectors to physics. C may be used to represent the magnitude of that current if g be the vector acceleration due to gravity. it is necessary to distinguish Sometimes. Definition : Two vectors are said to be equal direction. the mass. The use of Clarendons to denote vectors makes it possible to pass from directed quantities to their scalar magnitudes by a mere may be change in the appearance of a letter without any confusing change in the letter itself.
Or if #.0). one vector equality implies three scalar equalities. the vector will be represented three coordinates of its terminus r by the (* . segments radiating from one fixed point Equal vectors f in space will of course coincide. If r.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION The equality of two vectors 5 A and B is denoted by the usual sign =. </>.y y. These may be chosen in a variety of ways. y9 z be Cartesian coordinates in space a vector r may be considered as given by the differences of the coordinates a/. z r of its origin. . segment PP f may be moved and parallel to itself until the point P falls upon the point P upon some point T. In this way all vectors in space may be replaced by directed 0. by the three scalars the vector. both fall upon T = ~OT. 1) for the may be drawn from any assigned point as origin .*. Thus A=B r Evidently a vector or stroke is not altered by shifting it about parallel to itself in space. </>. y i z f of its terminus and those r #.*. * ) When two vectors are equal the three scalars which repre sent them must be equal respectively each to each. Thus (Fig. when placed with their ter mini at the same point 0. Hence any vector A = PP (Fig. If in particular the origin of the vector coincide with the origin of coordinates. r r~ (x x. y. Hence .z z). with its be polar coordinates in space any vector r drawn origin at the origin of coordinates may be represented r. 1) A = PP\ and B = Q~Q . three scalars For the numerical determination of a vector are necessary. 6 which determine the terminus of r~(r.
what is the The obvious answers to these questions suggest immediately the desired definitions. however. the negative of A? And if B be another. 27. care must be exercised riot only to avoid selfcontradictory definitions but also to lay down useful ones. it might be considered to have that it direction which is finite vector. what is the sum equivalent of A of A and B ? That and B taken together ? is to say. In extending to vectors the fundamental operations of algebra and arithmetic.6 Definition : VECTOR ANALYSIS A vector A is said zero. and multiplication. quantities are treated there. or. addition. vector of finite length. Both these ends may be accomplished most naturally and by looking to physics (for in that science vectors con tinually present themselves) and by observing how such easily If then A be a given displace or velocity. force. general x times A? What. what amounts to the same thing. Thus A= if A = 0. by terminate direction all. none at be regarded as the limit approached by a If. It consequently would have a wholly inde say. or in ment. this direction The justification for disregarding and looking upon all null vectors as equal is that when they are added (Art. All null vectors are regarded as equal to each other without any considerations of direction. 8) to other vectors no change occurs and when multiplied (Arts. 31) by other vectors the product 5. when the limit approached by the direction of the the length decreases indefinitely and ap proaches zero as a limit. three.] is zero. what is two. to be equal to zero when is its magnitude A is Such a vector equal to A is called a null or zero vector and written naught in the usual manner. . namely. subtraction. In fact a null vector from a geometrical standpoint would that is to be represented by a linear segment of length zero a point.
The direction in both cases is vertically down if f East by North. Definition : A unit vector is one whose A may magnitude is unity. its magni A=A The unit vector a a = a A. 1000 times f is the force exerted by a kilogram. 2 times a velocity of twentyone knots with the direction still be the force exerted upon the scalepan by a gram weight. If A be the vector and x the x scalar the product of x and A is denoted as usual by A or A x. may a 1 A = ^ A = I A A . Or ward. A by I/A similarly be written as the product of or as the quotient of A and A.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION Scalar Multiplication 6. vector its vector a in be looked upon as the product of a unit direction by the positive scalar A.] 1 Definition: A vector positive scalar when its said to be multiplied by a magnitude is multiplied by that scalar is and v is its direction if is left unaltered Thus v be a velocity of nine knots East by North. This multiplication by a scalar is called scalar multiplication. however. more customary to place the scalar multiplier before the multiplicand A. It is. Any tude. fact is This statement is im mediately obvious when the taken into consideration that scalar multiplication does not alter direction but merely multiplies the length. and it follows the associative law x (y A) as in ordinary algebra = (x y) A=y (x A) and arithmetic.
A will denote the " reaction. prefixed to a vector reverses its direction but leaves if its magnitude unchanged. A) =m A). S will carry Q such that Q~Q = S and T will then carry Q into Q" T is to carry the point now Q r f . which Another of the same length instead of A A but which in the direction from B to A from to 5. 2).] The addition of two vectors or strokes may be treated most simply by regarding them as defining translations in space (Art. the stroke is B A. (ra  + = . The two signs + and when used These are in connection with scalar multiplication of vectors follow the same laws of operation as in ordinary algebra. Let S be one vector and T the other.] VECTOR ANALYSIS Definition : The negative sign. Again if the stroke A~B be A. +. interpretation is obvious. 2. to the left. will be A. Let P be a point of space (Fig. be prefixed to a vec tor to call particular attention to the fact that the direction has not been reversed. into If Q P into the point be any other point in space. 2). The trans lation S carries P into P such that the 1 line PP P 1 is direction.8 7.= ." The + may . Addition and Subtraction 8. Consequently the result of S followed by P". T and equal to it in magnitude. If A denote an "action. illustration of the use of the negative sign may be taken from Newton s third law of motion. ( = +." positive sign. 1 The transformation T into equal to S in magnitude and will then carry P 11 the line P P" being parallel to FIG. symbolically ++=+ The . is For example A be a displacement for two feet to two feet A as is a displacement for the right.
= T. then resultant R = PP". Suppose now that T carries P into P ". terminus of the second. The P P " line PP P is equal and parallel to PP". Con . 3) . the sum or resultant of two translations is the following definition for the addition of any two vectors down. f Thus S followed f by T carries Q into Q".] The order affect the in which two vectors S and T are added does not sum. Consequently the two translations S and T are equivalent to a single translation R. For let S carry (Fig. S + T then carries into P". 1 the third sides of the triangles must be equal and parallel That is Q Q" is equal and parallel to PP".ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION such that Q Q" Moreover. Moreover if S stroke = PP R T is and T =P it is P". sum is noted in the usual manner by R=S + From analogy with laid T. being equal and parallel to S and T respectively. For Q Q Q" the two sides Q Q and Q Q". S followed by T gives precisely the same result as T followed into by S. This displace As Q ment is therefore a translation. or The called the sum This of the two de strokes S and to which equivalent. is any point in space this is equivalent to saying that means of S followed by T all points of space are displaced by the same amount and in the same direction. Hence the triangle is equal to PP P". and T. 9. P into P". must be likewise parallel to P P and P P" respectively which are also parallel to S and T. : Definition The sum or resultant of two vectors is found by placing the origin of the second first upon the terminus of the and drawing the vector from the origin of the first to the Theorem.
the sum of several may be found by adding together the first two. two vectors be drawn from the same origin and a parallelo gram be constructed upon them as sides. 10.10 VECTOR ANALYSIS sequently the points P. f carries P" into Hence S P". This S may be designated symbolically S. either case the same. note that in case the vectors lie along the same line vector addition becomes equivalent to algebraic scalar addition.] After the definition of the sum of two vectors has been laid down. acceleration. to this the fourth. and so on until all the vectors have been combined into a sin . T fol lowed by S therefore car ries P" through P\ T carries P into P" through P m The final result is in into P whereas S followed by . and angular velocity are compounded. P P 9 ff . . their sum will be that diagonal which passes through their common origin. by writing R= +T=T+ 1 It is to be noticed that S = of the parallelogram PP and T = PP m are the two sides pprpp" which have the point P as 1 common origin . " This is the wellknown " parallelogram law according to which the physical vector quantities force. to this sum the third. veloc It is important to ity. Hence par pm pn allel js e q ua l an(J to PP. If This leads to another very common way stating the definition of the two vectors. but subtracted In either case the sum they have oppo has the same direction if as that of the greater vector. The of the two vectors to be added are added if the vectors lengths have the same direction site directions. and Pm lie at the vertices of a parallelogram. and that JL=PP" sum of is the diagonal drawn of through P.
B = A B. To show Let A= Then Let now B C = D. and since the sum may be arranged in any order by successive interchanges of adjacent vectors. C = B C. Since any two adjacent vectors may be interchanged. A . then the resultant force is zero and the point is in equilibrium under the action of the forces. D = is D.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION gle one. cent vectors of sequence of the vectors in a sum is of no con This may be shown by proving that any two adja may be interchanged without affecting the result. Then C B C D 1 ! _ A. which proves the statement. a parallelogram and consequently C f D = C. order. T form the sides of a closed polygon taken in R. S.B = A + (. if In mechanics it states that any number of forces act at a point and if they form the sides of a closed polygon taken in order. Interpreted geometrically this states are such that the number of displacements R. By this means subtraction is reduced to addition and needs . The order sequence.B). 11 The final result is the origin of each succeeding vector the same as that obtained by placing upon the terminus of the preceding one and then drawing at once the vector from the origin of the first to the terminus of the last. E = D E. S.] is Definition : A vector is said to be subtracted when it added after reversal of direction. then the effect of carrying out the displacements Each point terpreted in of space is brought back to its starting point. Hence OJ = A + B + D + C + E. T is nil. the order in which the vectors occur in the sum is immaterial. Symbolically. In case these two points coincide the vectors form a closed polygon and that their if a strokes sum is zero. 11.
] scalar multiplication of vectors have been defined and inter the development of vector algebra mathe exact and systematic it would now become necessary matically to demonstrate that these three fundamental operations follow preted. important There way geometrically. (A III a III. ence of two vectors which are drawn from the same origin is and the negative of : A the vector tracted tracted. which constructed upon A and B as sides. Complete the parallelogram of which A and B Then the diagonal are the sides. B = 0IT(Fig. give the sum and dif ference of A and B. (m + n) A = m A + n A. agonal 02) = !) will be the B.12 VECTOR ANALYSIS is however an interesting and the difference of two vectors of representing no special consideration. . + = A+ . C is the sum A + B of the ~OG = Next complete the B parallelogram of which A and = OB are the sides. In the foregoing paragraphs addition. m (A + B) = m A + m B. al though from the standpoint of the physical and geometrical interpretation _of vectors this may seem n (m A) C superfluous. subtraction. 4). These laws are m II (n A) = B) = (m n} A. + (B + C). A + B r.B. B + A. is drawn from the terminus of the vector to be it sub to the terminus of the vector from which is sub Thus the two diagonals of the parallelogram. Then the di two vectors.(A + B) = . To make the same formal laws as in the ordinary scalar algebra. This leads to the following rule The differ vectors A and B. Let A = OA. sum of But the is parallel and equal segment OD Hence BA may be taken as the difference to the two to BA. and 12.A .
it is suggested that the out for the sake of fixing the fundamental reader work them They will not be given here. clearly in mind. Scalars and vectors are entirely different sorts of quantity.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 1 is 13 the socalled law of association and commutation of the scalar factors in scalar multiplication. I 6 is the law of association for vectors in vector addition. Ill. in the statement : and scalar multiplication more The result of the laws may be summed up scalar The laws which govern addition. +. III a cation. It states that in adding vectors parentheses may be inserted at any points without altering the result. So long as this is borne in mind no difficulty need be antici pated from dealing with vectors much as if they were scalars. proofs of these laws of operation depend upon those propositions in elementary geometry which have to deal with the first properties of the parallelogram and similar triangles. It is precisely this identity of formal laws multiplication of vectors are identical with those governing these which it is justifies the extension of the use of the familiar signs of arithmetic to the algebra of vectors and =. One caution only need be mentioned. subtraction. For this reason to each other zero. subtraction. is the distributive law for vectors in scalar multipli is The the distributive law for the negative sign. 11 is the commutative law of vector addition. and also this which ensures the correctness of results obtained by operat ing with those signs in the usual manner. is the distributive law for scalars in scalar multipli III 6 cation. Thus from equations in which the vectors enter linearly with . but ideas of addition. except perhaps in the trivial case they can never be equated where each is For the same reason they are not to be added together. and operations in ordinary scalar algebra.
The sign is positive Any vector b collinear with a may be when b and a have the same direction If . Components of Vectors 13. B. or D may be expressed in terms of the other D = :OA + &B + cC).] Definition : Vectors are said to be collinear when they are parallel to the same line. to the when parallel same plane.2 E. have opposite directions.14 scalar coefficients VECTOR ANALYSIS unknown vectors may be eliminated or with the same limita found by solution in the same way and for the eliminations and solu as in tions ordinary algebra. expressed as the product of a and a positive or negative scalar which is the ratio of the magnitude of b to that of a. then OA = negative. Obviously any two vectors are coplanar. a And two vector equations such as 3 A+ 4B=E A+ 3 and yield 2 B =F by the usual processes the solutions A=3E4F and B = 3 F . cC + dD = 0. tions scalar coefficients of the equations depend solely on the If for and not at all on what the variables represent. when they a. three as C. instance aA + &B + then A. Two or more vectors to which no line can be drawn parallel are said to be noncollinear. Three or more vectors to which no plane can be drawn parallel are said to be noncoplanar. the vector r drawn . coplanar.
vector b is surely not of the form x a line parallel to point upon it. B OA Let OB = b. This resolution may be accomplished by constructing the par allelogram (Fig. may If x be a variable scalar parameter this equation there fore be regarded as the (vector) equation of all points in the line Let now be any point not the line or that line produced upon in either direction (Fig. 5).] Any may a and b vector r coplanar with two noncollinear vectors be resolved into two components parallel to a and b respectively. may (2) or This equation all the points in the line which be regarded as the (vector) equation of is parallel to a and of which B is one point. Hence the vector drawn from to R is 0~E=0~B + ITR r = b + #a. The a. If several vectors r x .ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION from the origin either direction is 15 to any point of the r line A produced in (1) = x a. 14. . OA. 6) of which the sides are parallel to a and b and of which the di agonal is r. Of these components one is x a . the other. y b. Draw through B and Let " Flo 5 OA R be any is The vector BE collinear with a and is consequently expressible as #a. r 2 r 3 may be expressed in this form as is . x and y are respec tively the scalar ratios (taken with the proper sign) of the lengths of these components to the lengths of a and b. Hence r =xa+ yb (2) a typical form for any vector coplanar with a and b.
b. 15. and of which the agonal This par FIG. allelopiped may be drawn easily by passing three planes parallel re c and a through the origin spectively to a of the vector r terminus It. b. If the vector r is zero each of components must be zero. The resolution may then be accom plished by constructing the parallelepiped (Fig. Consequently the one vector equation r equivalent to the two scalar equations = is y\ + ft + ft + = (3) vector r in space may be resolved into three components parallel to any three given noncoplanar vectors. Let the vectors be a. b and c. 7) of are parallel to c which the edges a. 7.] Any and c. and a similar set of three planes through its These six planes will then be parallel in pairs . b. b.16 VECTOR ANALYSIS =x r2 = # r = x rl 3 l a 2 z a a + + + yl 2/ 2 b. b. 2/3 their sum r is then + This is (ft + ft + ft + ) the wellknown theorem that the components of a sum of vectors are the sums of the components of those its vectors. and di is r. and .
the corresponding scalar co efficients are equal. Hence 7/b r is = #a + + zc (4) a typical form for any vector whatsoever in space. . Several vectors r lf r 2 . and c. parallelepiped. be coplanar with a and b. the planes are lines which are or b. Consequently the one vector equation r the three scalar equations = is equivalent to xl 2/i *i + + + #2 2/2 *2 + #3 + + 2/3 + +%+  = = v y = / r = 0. where x. all the com vanish. z are respectively the scalar ratios (taken with the proper sign) of the lengths of these components to the length of a. (5) Should the vectors all ponents parallel to c equations reduce to those given before. r 3 may be expressed in this form as . and zc. rx r2 1*3 =x =# =X + + 2 a + Z l a a yl b y2 b 2/3 + + z l c. In this case therefore the above If two equal vectors are expressed in terms of the 16. or c is The and three components of r are x a. . y. 17 That the parallel to intersections of a. *2 c b Their sum r 1 l is then F3 = r + r2 + + * = a + *2 + X Z + + 2/2+ 3/3 + )!> (2/i + Ol +^2 + ^3+ "O 0*1 +  If the vector r is zero each of its three components is zero.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION and hence form a obvious. .] same three noncoplanar vectors. y b. b.
or three noncoplanar vectors. In case two equal vectors are expressed in terms of one vector. In that case one of the three vectors could be expressed in terms of the other Then r r r = m a + n b. c ! TI z) b. k. But this tively to linear it by no means necessitates x.). b. impossible to infer that their coefficients vanish The theorem may perhaps be stated as follows : individually. is . =x a+y b+z x =x Then y=y . The simplest set of three such vectors is the rect . = #a + y b + s c = (a + m z) a + (y + = x a + y b + z c = (x + m z a + (y + r = [(x + m z ) (x + m z )] a. z to be equal respec In a similar manner if a and b were colx\ y\ z 1 .y = 0. j. f 1 ) But this would not be true two as if a. cessarily coplanar. 18 et seq.r = For x . This principle will be used in the applications (Arts. y. The Three Unit Vectors i. y . Hence c. true if the two vectors be collinear . z . In the foregoing paragraphs the method of 17. and c were coplanar.] express ing vectors in terms of three given noncoplanar ones has been explained. 1 ) nz) b.* = 0.* = 0. r r in the directions Hence x y + mz = f x r nz =y f + mz + nz r 1 . the But this is not ne corresponding scalar coefficients are equal.y ) b + (* . Hence the individual components of a and b (supposed different) are zero.18 VECTOR ANALYSIS r Let r 9 =r 1 .x a + (y . = (x r . . 1 . or two noncollinear vectors.z ) c. or the three vectors.
Such a sys tem wise. and the Xaxis. angular system familiar distinct however be either of two very rectangular system may types. state Z . the plane z 2 convenient righthanded system and one which is always available consists = A of the thumb.. This relation X axis be directed to the right and the Faxis vertically. plane means the plane which contains the X. second finger. Y. and if the second finger be bent over toward the palm at right angles to first finger. 8. i. or counterclock It is easy to see that the Faxis lies upon that side of the ^Xplane on which rotation from the ^axis to the Xaxis is counterclockwise . the Or if the X^axis will be directed toward the observer. e. If the thumb and first finger be stretched out from the palm perpendicular to each other. positive.plane on which rotation through a right may be stated in another form.k Righthanded FIG. first part) the Zaxis l lies upon that side of the X Y. The X Y 0. 8. Lefthanded ment is common in mathematical physics and engineering. a righthanded system is formed by the fingers taken in the order thumb.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 19 This in Solid Cartesian Geometry.and Yaxis. If the to the Faxis appears counterclockwise angle from the Xaxis or positive according to the convention adopted in Trigonome try. and the Faxis to the Still another method of right. In one case (Fig. If a righthanded screw be turned from the Xaxis to the Faxis it will advance along the (positive) Zaxis.. or Zaxis the positive half of that axis is meant. . upon that side of 1 By the X. and second finger of the right hand. first finger. first finger. axis point toward the observer the ^axis will point upward. 2 of axes is called righthanded.
but if all three be so reversed it will be. matters little. order cyclic screw is turned from one axis toward the next it advances between the three axes same XYZXY 8. Which asmuch all of the as two systems be used. along the third. Hence this system called lefthanded. is r In this case. In the other case (Fig. the relation between the three axes as the same cyclic order X YZX Y is is S3 mmetrical so long preserved but it is just the opposite of that in the former case. or clockwise. JTaxis to the Faxis appears The Faxis then lies upon that side of the ^Xplane on which rotation from the ^axis to the Xaxis appears clockwise and a similar statement may be made concerning the Xaxis in its relation to the F^plane. But in the formulae of geometry and mechanics differ slightly in the which matter of sign. Thus it appears that the relation is perfectly symmetrical so long as the If a righthanded is observed. They as are sym One is If the JT image and Faxes of the two different systems be the of the other seen in a superimposed. metric. it is advisable to settle once for shall be In this book the adopted. 1 left hand just as a righthanded . righthanded or counterclockwise system will be invariably employed. A lefthanded system may be formed the by one was formed by the right. mirror. negative. Thus one system may be obtained from the other by reversing the direction of one of the axes. 1 The two systems are not superposable. that if A little thought will show two of the axes be reversed in direction the system will not be altered. that side of the X second part) the ^axis lies upon Fplane on which rotation through a right clockwise or neg angle from the ative. the ^axes will point in opposite directions. too.20 VECTOR ANALYSTS Faxis to the Z the F^plane on which rotation from the axis is counterclockwise. is If a fe/Mianded it screw turned from one axis toward the next advances along the third.
becomes possible to pass at will There is nothing contradic On the contrary it is often desirable tory between them. Applications *18. and about k from to j are all positive. established between vector analysis tesian coordinates that it k such a correspondence is and the analysis in Car from either one to the other. The coefficients x y y. F. about j from k to i. and Z. By means of these vectors j.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION Definition : 21 The three letters i. z are the ordinary Cartesian coordinates of the terminus of r if its origin be situated at the origin of of r parallel to the X. Any two may noncollinear vectors in the plane may be taken as the fundamental ones in terms of be expressed. j. y j j. k will be reserved to de note three vectors of unit length drawn respectively in the directions of the JT.axes of a righthanded rectan gular system. any vector r may be expressed as (6) = xi + y] + zk. The components x and ^faxes are respectively i.J Problems in plane geometry easily may frequently be solved by vector methods. i. or even necessary to translate the formulae obtained by vector methods into Cartesian coordinates for the sake of comparing them with results already known and it is still more frequently convenient to pass from Cartesian on account of the brevity thereby obtained and because the vector expressions show forth the analysis to vectors both intrinsic meaning of the formulae. Often it is possible . The rotations about i i from to k. which all others in that plane The origin to may also be selected at pleasure. T. z k. coordinates. In terms of these vectors.
equating corresponding coefficients (Art. Let A BCD be the parallelogram. to scalar. A R is one third of origin. Example 1 : The line which joins one vertex of a parallelo gram to the middle point of an opposite side trisects the diag onal (Fig. A B and AD as the R= 1 (S + T). . * S (1 X) T =yS+ y Hence. Hence or \ T + + x (S 1 i  T) =y (S + T) T.22 VECTOR ANALYSIS make such an advantageous choice of the origin and funda mental vectors that the analytic work of solution is materially simplified.  where x is the ratio of ER to EB R=y (S an unknown T). Then the sum of S and T. To show AC. To show AC is Choose A as two fundamental vectors S and T. And where y is + the scalar ratio of AR AC to be shown equal to. 2 (1 . Let AR = R. 9). R FlG 9 the point in which this line cuts the diagonal A C. The adaptability of the vector method is about the same as that of oblique Cartesian coordinates with differ ent scales upon the two axes. 16).x) = y. the line joining the vertex B to the middle point of the side BE E AD.
the diagonals of the parallelo grams thus formed intersect upon the diagonal of the given parallelogram. R a point within respectively to it. (m + ri) Adding . Next express R in terms +n and T S the third side of the triangle. line AB (1 n ). Evidently from (a) ri) R= Hence (m line (m + S (T . also  o the line j&2? must be trisected as well as the diagonal : A C. Consequently by similar triangles the ratio of the line parallel to to the line Similarly the ratio of the line parallel to itself is A C itself is A B to the of S (1 ra). be If through any point within a triangle lines Example 2 drawn parallel to the sides the sum of the ratios of these 2. Choose two fundamental vectors S the the point within and AR = R = w S + m R S is 7i T. KM and LN two lines through R parallel AB and . cut off by the tri + ri) S is the fraction of A B which is through R parallel to B C. The remainder of cut off by the line through B must be the frac A tion (1 m) S.m) + is (1 . (a) the fraction of A B which is AC parallel to A C. and the theorem : proved. T.n) + = 2. R A as origin. If from any point within a parallelogram lines Example 3 be drawn parallel to the sides. Consequently by similar angles the ratio of this line to the three ratios (1 BC itself is (m + n).ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION From which Inasmuch as 23 y x is = .S). A B and A C as it. Let A B CD be a parallelogram. lines to their corresponding sides is Let ABC be Let the triangle.
The method of analogous to that in the simpler case. AD.m) S + n T]. Choose A as origin. AS. N lying upon the sides DA. y (1 m) By solution. M. Problems in three dimensional geometry may be essentially the same manner as those in two dimen terms of which solution is In this case there are three fundamental vectors in all others can be expressed.] solved in sions. + 7i T. P be the point of intersection of KN with LM. is collinear with A C. P = m S + y [(1 . m=m+ . Z. Let B C. m+ ~ n 1 m m+ n 1 Substituting either of these solutions in the expression for P. show that the diagonals and and LBME meet LM of the two parallelograms on A C. A B and A D as the two funda mental vectors S and T. 19. Hence and Equating P = n T + x [m S + (1 n) T]. To KN KRND R= and let AB = m S 4. (1 Then KN=KR + BN = m S + =(1 m) S  rc) T. x coefficients. Two . the result is P^^^S + which shows that P * T).ft T.24 VECTOR ANALYSIS the points K. CD respectively.
In this way the equations between three unknown scalars are obtained from which those scalars may be determined by solution and then substituted in either of the expressions for the required vector. m = xv l Hence and &. A C.. The vector B. C. efficients of the 25 The co corresponding terms are equated. Join the vertices to until they intersect the opposite P and produce the lines To faces in A\ B C D . Also BA . The vector method has the same degree of adapta bility as the Cartesian method in which oblique axes with different scales are employed. BA 1 is D Hence it B and C coplanar with be expressed in terms of them. 1 = I PA* PA _ JL1 ZZ ~~& 7 V +m+n " ^7 .ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION expressions for the same vector are usually found. any it. may ^1 WC = 1 BD A =B+ Equating coefficients Jc (CB)+y (D~B). Example 1 point within : Let A B CD be and 1 P f . Let the vector 7i AD as the A P be P = A P=IE + raC + A =AA =AB+ D. D. those in the foregoing section are The following examples like worked out not so much for a tetrahedron their intrinsic value as for gaining a familiarity with vectors. show PA A~A Choose f PB TTB PC ~C~O 1 PD " f A as origin. and the edges A J?. three fundamental vectors B. .
A: Hence and In the same 2 i __ way it may be shown that 1 PC CC* Adding . P and are collinear .A).1). (J . Choose C = ~OC. C + y 2 D = B + 2 (ZB + mC + ^DB 2 = 1 + *.B). A B = # 2 C + y2 D A B = ^t + B B = B + & 2 (P . Any point P of A B may be 0~A of expressed as P= OP= Any point + xA = A + x (B. it as origin and let Let be the given point.PL 3D is 4<w the four ratios the result i d JL vn ^ _L 7 J_ w I 77 1 Example % : To find a line which passes through a given point and cuts two given lines in space. Let the two lines be fixed respectively by two points A and B. D=d~D. C and D on each. be written Q CD may likewise in the If the points P and Q lie That is same line through 0.26 In like manner VECTOR ANALYSIS and Hence and o.
x = = I m i y 2 = iI _________ +m Substituting in P and ft A+ m B +m ft = Either of these may be taken as defining a line drawn from and cutting A B and CD. B FIG. 10). Vector Relations independent of the Origin 20. 10. : To divide a line AB in a given ratio m : n Choose any arbitrary point Let OA = A and OB origin.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION Before vectors it is 27 must be expressed in terms possible to equate coefficients one of the four of the other three. B=A 7i (B . as = B. To find the vector P = ~OP of which in the the terminus ratio P divides AB m f m : n. (7) That is. Then & P Tf _1_ =A+ (1 x (B . P =nA+ mB n . =z Hence [1 + y (n .A).A) _1_ >w A _J_ m Tl P I^^T Hence 1 x=zy x = zy m. /.] Example 1 (Fig.1)J.
C are noncoplanar. Hence x =9 y 3 Hence M =4 (A + B + C).C triangle. triangle corresponding coeffi Assuming cients may be equated. Then M M and ~< = B that has been chosen outside of the plane of the so that A. the ratio A P / PE would be nega and the signs of m and n would be opposite.28 VECTOR ANALYSIS of The components P parallel to A and B are in inverse ratio and to the segments divided by the point P. AP PB it into which the line A B is should so happen that P divided AB externally. but the formula would hold without change if this difference of sign in m and n be taken into account. Let A . Example 2 of a triangle. . If the line tive. B. vertices A. and "00 = C. B. ()B = B. Let be the point of intersection of the medians and M = the vector drawn to it. Let 0~A be respectively the middle points of the sides opposite the f . Choose the origin Let A BC be the given = A. (7. : To find the point of intersection of the medians at random.
Thus the points themselves become the subjects of analysis and the formulae read n A +mB m+n +B+ C). such as those in Arts. the position of the origin may be specialized with regard to some crucial point of the figure so as to facilitate the computation but in many . etc. C. the sum of the scalar coefficients must be zero.. and This is M=~(A typical of a whole class of problems soluble In fact any purely geometric relation must necessarily be independent of the origin assumed for the analytic demonstration. etc. other cases the generality obtained by leaving the origin unspecialized and undetermined leads to a symmetry which renders the results just as easy to compute and more easy to remember. 19. In the problems of which the solution has just been given the origin could be chosen arbitrarily and the result is in dependent of that choice. C. 18. by their termini A. In methods. B. different parts of a figure by vector between the some cases. Or if all the terms of a vector equation be transposed to one side leaving one side of the sign of equality is zero on the other. B. : The necessary and sufficient condition that a vector equation represent a relation independent of the origin is that the sum of the scalar coefficients of the vectors on Theorem equal to the sum of the coefficients of the vectors upon the other side. Hence it is even possible to disre gard the origin entirely and replace the vectors A.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION The vector drawn to one third of the 29 equal to the median point of a triangle is sum of the vectors drawn to the vertices. Let the equation written in the latter form be .
&A + Hence 6B B.30 VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 Change the B = OO a (A 4 to by adding a constant vector origin from The equation to each of the vectors A. If they did the equation would mean nothing. = 0. D  then becomes B) + 6 (B + B) + c (C + B) + d (D + R) +  = B If this is to be independent of the origin the coefficient of must vanish. B. in which the coefficients is zero. Hence That is this condition is fulfilled in the two examples cited obvious. * 21. if m+ m+ n n m+ + n If M = \ (A 3 l f B C). coefficients assumed that not both the a and b vanish. C. is that the vectors sum of the scalar be equal in magnitude and in direction. A= .] The necessary and sufficient condition that two vectors satisfy an equation. First let aA a and It is of course + 6B = + 6 = 0. Sub stitute the value of a obtained from the second equation into the first.
is that when drawn from a common origin they termi nate in the same straight line. Substitute the value of a obtained from the second equation into the first.A and A~C = C . B suppose three vectors which A= = 00 the same origin vectors terminate in a straight line. The sum of the coefficients on the two sides is the same. Hence those three points 4.A are collinear. or Hence the vector which collinear with that joins the extremities of C and A is joins the extremities of A and B. c. Not all the coefficients a. B. Secondly drawn from OB. in which the sum of the scalar coefficients is zero. Hence the equation subsists. 1 First let aA + 6B + a cC = and + b + c = 0. Let c be a nonvanishing coefficient. zero. Then the AB = B . subsists between them.G= OA.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION Secondly if 31 A and B are equal in magnitude and direction the equation AB = The sum of the coefficients is zero. The necessaiy and sufficient condition that three vectors satisfy an equation. C lie on a line. vanish or the equations would be meaningless. J. The necessary and in which the sum of 1 sufficient condition that an equation. subsist line are called the scalar coefficients is Vectors which have a common origin and terminate in one Hamilton " terminocollinear: by .
B) + lie c (A  C). exists one equation the sum the C. Vectors which have a common origin and terminate in one plane are called " by Hamilton terminocomplanar." . B. EB.or what amounts to the same equation between them. the other two. The sum cients in this equation zero.82 VECTOR ANALYSIS if between four vectors.A) + n (D . Secondly do lie in one plane.A) = 0. of the coeffi where /. First let drawn from a common origin aA and + 6B + cC + dV = a + b + c + d = Q. and ~AB =BA are co planar vectors. The sum 1 of the coefficients of this equation is zero. EC. ~AC = C . D in C. ft thing there must exist an (E  A) + / (E . Hence all four termini A. Substitute the value of a obtained from the last equation into the first. Form differences EA.E be the five given vectors. The AD is (7. A B and A C. B. One of one plane.A) = 6 D (A . / them may be expressed in terms of This leads to the equation (B  A) +m (C . Let d be a nonvanishing coefficient. Between any five vectors there of whose coefficients is zero. in terms of the other three One of these may be expressed .A. or d (D line .D) = 0. m. ED. suppose that the termini of A.B) + m (E .D. B. B. Let A. is that 1 they terminate in one plane. C. and n are certain is scalars.A. coplanar with of A.C) + n (E . D Then AZ) = D .
Hence E 7iC =D ?iB = #A. the equation ED holds true. ED the line parallel to the base CB. It must cut the line EC. Consequently the vector represented by either side of this equation must pass through the point A. It must cut the line DB. Example 1: If a line be drawn parallel to the base of a triangle. To show Choose the that F FI(J n it bisects CB. The equal vector D 7&B is coplanar with D and B. Rearrange is evidently zero as terms so that the equation takes on the form E nC = "D 7i B. . 11). origin at random. Special theorems. Let the vectors drawn from to the various points of the figure be denoted by the corresponding Clarendons as usual.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 33 The results of the foregoing section afford simple *22. and geometric nets in two and three dimensions are taken up in order.B) The sum of the coefficients should be. the line which joins the opposite vertex to the inter section of the diagonals of the trapezoid thus formed bisects the base (Fig. The vector E n C is coplanar with E and C. Let ABC EB be the triangle. and Fthe AG with CB. the vector equations of lines and planes. G the point of intersection of the diagonals and DC of the tra intersec pezoid tion of CBDE. lel to Then since ED is by hypothesis paral CB. it =n the (C .] solutions of many problems connected solely with the geo metric properties of figures.
is zero. Let be any point of the line. A. and F or 0. the actual analysis has con and the theorem has been proved. Example % plane. sisted of just four equations obtained simply from the first. Hence Hence n (B + C) = (1 + )G F (1  ) A= 2 nf. B. however.C. In reality. P = a + b . Choose an arbitrary origin. and A must be such that the sum of its coefficients This determines x as 1 n. must therefore be a a multiple that the sum of the coeffi multiple of F and such cients of the equations which connect B. = The proof has covered considerable space because each detail of the reasoning has been given. By another rearrangement and similar reasoning E+ Subtract the first 7i B =D + 7iC= = + n) G (1 + n)Qt. 0. line. EC and AQ.n) A. and The P terminate in the same line. Hence B  C =D B = (1 . and F shall be zero.w) A. C. vectors A. : To determine the equations of the line and P Let the line be fixed by two points A and B upon it. aA + 6B a + I + p = 0. and A lie upon the same straight Hence the equation which connects the vectors E.34 VECTOR ANALYSIS However the points E. Hence and Therefore . : second equation from the (1 n (B + C) This vector cuts It (1 .
vary for different points of the plane.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION For different points values. 6. and C. 12). it is more customary to write in their stead y t z. Let A B meet and CD in a fifth vertex E. That is to show that the cross ratios . + Example 3 . x. Let P be any point of the plane. B. aA + 6B + cC P= a + b f c As a. Let the two diagonals AC BD that p 12 intersect in intersects G. and P terminate in one plane. The vectors A. c. Then x + y Let a plane be determined by three points 4. Choose an arbitrary origin. y + z The line which joins one vertex of a com plete quadrilateral to the intersection of divides the opposite sides har two diagonals monically (Fig. They may be replaced by x and which are used more generally to represent variables. Hence 6B + cC and Therefore + c+p = Q. C. B. B. 35 P the scalars a and b have different y. be four vertices Let A. To show in a point AB CD in a point E 1 such that the lines AB same and (7I> are divided internally at E 1 and 2?" in the ratio as they are divided externally by E. D of a quadrilateral. AD and i" and meet BC FG in the sixth vertex F. C.
ratio b and CD in the ratio But equation (a) shows that JE divides C D in the c:d. If they have the same sign the internal point of division is E. Which of the two divisions is and which external depends upon the relative signs and d. The four vectors A. C. C.(a + d) (a (a + c)Q (a + rf)F or c = 6B + __ +d 6B + cC b + c b cC (a di + c c) (a + d) cC a : a Separate the equations again and divide aA + EB _ a f b cC + c + d : (6) Hence c / d. one lie in of points and straight lines obtained in the following Start with a certain number of points all of which . : two terms Separate the equations by transposing a Divide : +c= cC a (b + d). B. Hence a and + b +e+ d = 0.  E 1 and E may opposite signs. is Example 4 To discuss geometric nets. B. be shown to divide if it is E 1 .86 VECTOR ANALYSIS Choose the origin at random. In a similar way A B harmonically. Hence E and E" divide CD internally and 2? divides AB in the ratio a ff externally in the internal of c same ratio. D drawn from it to the points A. +c aA + d D F= In like manner a + d (a + C )G (a + d)F " Form: + c) . By a geometric net in a plane meant a figure composed manner. D terminate in one plane.
These lines will intersect each other in a number of points. To treat this net analytically write down the equations = (c) and a +b+c+ d= Q which subsist between the four vectors drawn from an unde termined origin to the four given points.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION plane. Probably the most interesting case of a plane geometric net that in is which four points are given to commence with. treating this equation as (c) be obtained* was treated new points may . possible to obtain From these it is a Tjl A + 6B a + b A + cC a + c A + dJ) a + d + dD c + d Z>B + dD cC +d &B + cC b + c b dividing. F may be chosen and the equa tion the sum of whose coefficients is zero may be determined. The construction may be kept up indefinitely. now be drawn in the figure. Joining these there are six lines which intersect in three Three new lines may points different from the given four. 37 joining these points in pairs. These cut out six new points. From these more lines may be obtained and so on. This second set of lines will determine a still greater number Next draw of points all which may in turn be joined in pairs and so on. E. D. all Draw the lines the lines which connect these points in pairs. At each step the number of points and lines in the figure increases. by splitting the equations into two parts and This would be aA + dV + By (a + b) Ef (a + c) P = 0. Next four vectors such as A.
drawn from an undetermined origin to the given Between these vectors there exists an equation whose coefficients is zero. may be found in Hamilton s " Elements obtained. E.c + c)F +d E c a + b + + 6) d Equations between other sets of four vectors selected from A. the sum of This equation separated into parts as before and the be obtained. loc.38 VECTOR ANALYSIS H= 1 a A + dD a (a + + d (a + (a + 2a + b + c 6)E c)F = aA + + ft)E __ <?D+ a (a (a 4. by Hamilton. From these new points may be obtained by finding the intersections of planes passed through sets of three of the As remaining is pairs. Five points are given. D. cit. The A of Quaternions. B. C. process of finding more points goes forward fuller account of geometric nets indefinitely. new points may be may thus then F = a + 6B +b + b cC c + dD + +d+e e A + cC a are 6B + dV + b + d + c two of the points and others may be found in the same Nets in space are also discussed way. . similar to that in the The analytic treatment case of plane nets. regards geometric nets in space just a word may be said. There are five vectors five points. may be found and from these more points . F." Book I. The given points with lines connecting the construction may then be carried for ward with the points thus obtained.
A and B. Their center of gravity G is given by where the vectors are referred to any origin whatsoever. In finding the center of gravity of two systems of masses each system may be replaced by a single mass equal in magnitude to the sum of the masses in the system and situated at the center of gravity of the system. Given two masses a and b situated at two points 2. The center of gravity of three masses 4.] 39 The center of gravity of a system of particles may be found very easily by vector methods. a. c situated at the 2. The center of gravity of two masses (considered as situated at points) lies on the line connecting the two masses and divides it into two segments which are inversely pro portional to the masses at the extremities. The two laws of physics which will be assumed are the following: 1. C may be found by means of law The masses a and b may be considered as equivalent to a single point mass a + b situated at the a A + &B a + b " Then G = (a + A + 6B a f 6) + c C b TT Hence G = aAh&BfcC a f b + c . This follows immediately from law 1 and the formula (7) for division of a line in a given ratio.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION Centers of Gravity * 23. three points B. J.
however.40 VECTOR ANALYSIS number of masses Evidently the center of gravity of any at the points A. Join A. Let A. respectively. ^ Theorem 1 : The lines join the center of gravity of a divide it into three triangles which triangle to the vertices are proportional to the masses at the op posite vertices (Fig. &. . &. 13). + b + c a In a similar manner and BCA GCA~ CAB _ ~ GAB a + + I + + c b a b c ~~c join the center of gravity of a tetrahedron to the vertices divide the tetrahedron into four Hence the proportion is proved. . Let G be the cen ter of gravity. B. situated be found in a similar manner. first three.... The result is aA + a ftB + cO + rfD + + b + c + d + ... d. The last proportion between ABC It and a is. B. C to G and that produce the lines until the opposite sides in they intersect A B\ C f 1 ... Theorem 2 : The lines which . C. D. may a. + + comes from compounding the the demonstration. C be the vertices of a triangle weighted with masses a. which . GA G~A f b + c + 1.. To show the areas G B C G CA G A B A B C = : : : a : b : c : a + b b + c c. useful in Hence ABC AA GBC~ GA! ABC GBC AG CTA a . B. c. c.
d. C. B. c lo (7. G\ D . the center of gravity G may be made to coincide with any given point of the triangle. PAB may an from each other only a common factor of These quantities by proportionality. PCA^ and respectively.] d which proves the proportion. D be D they meet the opposite faces in the volumes A B\ . P tainly becomes so in the light of the foregoing theorems. Let 4. it is only necessary to choose the masses a. C. J. &. If this be not obvious from physical considerations it cer cated at the vertices A. the vertices of the tetrahedron weighted be the center of respectively with weights a. B. but which . * By a suitable choice of the three masses. &. gravity. sets differ Thus not merely one infinite number of set of masses a. B. c proportional to the areas of the triangles PEG.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 41 tetrahedra which are proportional to the masses at the oppo site vertices. For in order that the center of gravity fall at P. To show that BCDG:CDAG:DABG:ABCG:ABCD BCDA BCDG In like manner and and ABCD 24. 6. a. c. Let to G and produce the lines until Join A. c be found.
corresponds an infinite P there number of sets of quantities. Similarly any point plane suitable set of masses a. The Inasmuch c of which one will differ in sign the point lies outside of the triangle as only the ratios of a. and c are im if of the quantities may always be taken positive. 6. 6. areas of the three triangles of which and the sides of a given triangle of these areas is P is the common vertex ABC. which however do not differ from one another except for a factor of proportionality. The coordinates of may GO GAB a point P would then be three numbers proportional to the .42 a. idea of employing the masses situated at the vertices as coordinates of the center of gravity is due to Mobius and was published by him in his book entitled " Der barycentrische portant two Calcul" in 1827. The sign determined by the following definition. c VECTOR ANALYSIS may therefore be looked upon as coordinates of the points P inside of the triangle ABC. The center and 1 situated at the points masses 2 and respectively would be a point G dividing the line externally in the ratio 1 : 2. To obtain the points P of the plane ABC which lie outside A AB B of the triangle ABC one may resort to the conception of of gravity of the negative weights or masses. of negative masses The conception in nature which have no existence be avoided by replacing the masses at the vertices by the areas of the triangles GBC. point of This may be fairly regarded as the starting modern analytic geometry. the bases. . To each set there and to each point corresponds a definite point P. 6. and to which they are proportional. That is point of the line a suitable set of masses Any AB a. P of the ABC P may be represented by a from the other two ABC. b produced may be represented by which differ in sign. A.
a brief treatment of here may : not be out of place. Or in the light of theorem 2. page 40. The area is said to be negative when the points follow in the negative or clockwise direction. A CB = BA If = CBA = A B C. " coordinates to The extension of the idea of " barycentric space is immediate. may be replaced by the four tetrahedra which are proportional to them. these center of gravity G is represented by or four others proportional to them. The four points A. d respectively. Interchange of two letters which amounts to a reversal of the cyclic order changes the sign. To quantities obtain points outside of the tetrahedron negative masses The be employed. The same will also hold if P be outside of the triangle provided the signs of the areas be taken into con The areas or three quantities proportional to sideration. them may be regarded as coordinates of the point P. c. Then the idea of negative vol may the masses umes takes the idea it is place of that of negative weights.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION Definition: positive 43 when a triangle is said to be the vertices A. J. P be any point within the triangle the equation PAB+PBC+PCA=ABC must hold. As this of considerable importance later. letters therefore does not alter Cyclic permutation of the the sign of the area. C follow each other in the The area ABC of positive or counterclockwise direction upon the circle de scribed through them. B. D situated at the vertices of a tetrahedron are weighted with mass a. Definition to be positive The volume A B CD of a tetrahedron is said when the triangle ABC appears positive to . C. B.
page 40. It should read The BCDG:CDGA:DGAB:GABC:ABCD . Thus If P is any point inside of the tetrahedron A B CD the equation ABCPBCDP+ CDAPDABP=ABCD holds good. The equation may be put into a form more symmetri cal P and more easily remembered by transposing all the terms to one number. ACBD = CBAD=BACD=DBCA The sible sign of the tetrahedron for any given one of the pos twentyfour arrangements of the letters may be obtained by reducing that arrangement to the order A B C D by means of a number of successive interchanges of two letters.44 VECTOR ANALYSIS the eye situated at the point D. The volume is negative if the area of the triangle appear negative. If the number of interchanges if is even the sign is the same as that of A B CD . odd. Then if proportion in theorem 2. opposite. To make the discussion of the signs of the various tetrahedra perfectly clear solid it is almost necessary to have a modeL A plane from it difficult to see drawing is scarcely sufficient. It is which triangles appear positive and which negative. does not hold true the signs of the tetrahedra be regarded. The following relations will be seen to hold if a model be examined. It still is true if be without the tetrahedron provided the signs of the volumes be taken into considera tion. The interchange of two letters in the tetrahedron A BCD changes the sign.
it may be seen by comparison with = that the a four quantities + &B + c C + rfD +b+c+d x.D respectively if G is to be the G lies outside of the tetrahedron they may or be regarded as masses some of which are negative better merely as four numbers whose ratios determine perhaps the position of the point Gr. z are in reality nothing less more nor with respect to the triangle equation than the barycentric coordinates of the point ABO.B. 2. B. D drawn from the same origin. d repre sent quantities proportional to the masses which must be located at the vertices center of gravity.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION If the 45 point G. the terminus of P. The vector P drawn from an indeterminate point of the plane origin to any A B C is (page 35) aA + yB + zC x + y + z Comparing this with the expression aA + &B + cC a + b + c it will be seen that the quantities x. C.lies inside the tetrahedron a. with respect to the tetrahedron CD. In like manner from P __#A + yB + 2C + x wD + y +z+w which expresses any vector P drawn from an indeterminate origin in terms of four given vectors A. J.C. w are precisely the bary centric coordinates of P. y. c. Thus the vector methods in which the origin is undetermined and the methods of the " Bary " centric Calculus are practically coextensive. y. If still A. In this manner a set of "bary" centric coordinates is established for space. It AB was mentioned before and it may be well to repeat here .
but only in reference to that direction in which its boundary is supposed to be traced and to is some point out side of its plane. but negative from all points on the side upon which . x + y + z + y z This step brings in the points themselves as the objects of " to the " Barycentrische Calcul analysis and leads still nearer of Mobius and the "Ausdehnungslehre The Use of Vectors 25. The vector equations then become point equations x A + y B 4x z and + xA + yB + zC + wD w. For the area PR f Q PQR.] to " of Grassmann.46 that the origin VECTOR ANALYSIS may be left wholly out of consideration and the vectors replaced by their termini. in the negative or clockwise order (Fig. when they follow negative. 14). denote Areas plane Definition: An area lying in one MN when and the bounded by a continuous curve itself is PQR which nowhere cuts said to appear positive from the point letters PQR follow each At other in the counterclockwise or positive order. X in the positive trigonometric order appears positive from every axis point on that side of the plane on which the positive lies. and an area viewed from is negative relative to negative relative to the same area viewed from a point O upon the side of the plane A circle lying in the Fplane and described opposite to 0. It is evident that an area can have no determined sign per se.
Hence a plane positive side of the plane in which it lies. area is A A plane a vector quantity. A orthogonally upon the plane MN . upon the right hand of one and the left hand . the side upon which appears negative. 15). then the orthogonal projection of that area upon a plane will be represented by the component of that vector in the direction normal to the plane of projection (Fig. If an around a closed plane curve the lines of magnetic force through the circuit pass from the negative to electric current flow the positive side of the plane. Let M N&nd M* N r inter . hand will lie other. The following theorems concerning as vectors are important. the negative side. positive magnetic pole placed upon the positive side of the plane will be repelled by the circuit. Let it be projected Let the area lie in the plane MN. positive the direction of the normal to the possess direction. That side of the plane upon which the area is seems positive it called the positive side . It is clear that if two persons be considered to trace out together the same curve by walking upon opposite sides of the plane the area enclosed side. negative. areas when looked upon : Theorem 1 If a plane area be denoted by a vector whose magnitude direction is is the numerical value of that area and whose the normal upon the positive side of the plane. area may be looked upon as possessing more than It may be considered to or negative magnitude. the area enclosed is said to be positive if it lies upon his left negative if upon his right. of description of the view must be kept boundary is Another method of stating the definition as follows : If a person walking upon a plane traces out a closed curve.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION the negative ^axis lies. of the to the To one it will consequently appear positive other. 47 For this reason the point of and the direction clearly in mind. namely. This idea is familiar to students of electricity and magnetism.
PQ. but the sides Q R and S P to QR and SP multiplied by the cosine of #. project into rectangles whose sides are likewise Hence respectively parallel and perpendicular to I and whose area is equal to the area of the original rectangles multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the planes. This will project into a 1 P Q will be equal will be equal R S in M N The sides P Q and JR S to PQ and US. rectangles. RS and QR. of which the sides are respectively and perpendicular to I. Consider whose sides.48 sect in the line I VECTOR ANALYSIS and let the diedral first two planes be x. and perpendicular rectangle to the line 1 . 15. At FIG. From this it follows that is any area A is area which equal to the given area multiplied projected into an by the cosine of the angle between the planes. the line of intersection of the parallel two planes. . Consequently the rectangle the angle between the planes. angle between these a rectangle PQJRS in SP are respectively parallel f MN /. For any area A may be di vided up into a large number of small rectangles by drawing a series of lines in MN parallel and perpendicular to the line I.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 49 Each of these rectangles when projected is multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the planes and hence the total On the area is also multiplied by the cosine of that angle. may be resolved into A generalization is of this statement to the case where the three planes are not mutually orthogonal and where the projection oblique exists. its three components. in the direction normal to the plane of projection is equal to the total vector A multiplied MN f f by the cosine of the angle between its direction which is This ^and the normal to the normal to the plane is x . those sides of the bounding planes which lie outside of the body are The vec conventionally taken to be positive. between the magnitudes of A and A is therefore is relation A =A 1 cos x. which proves the theorem. the added as scalar quantities. for the angle between the normals to two planes angle M MN The r .] Definition : Two said to be added when area is plane areas regarded as vectors are the vectors which represent them are added. 26. surface made up of several plane areas may be repre sented by the vector which is the sum of all the vectors A In case the surface be looked upon representing those areas. which repre sents the given area. and corresponding components these sums compounded as vectors into the resultant area. the same as the angle between the planes. tors which represent the faces of solids are always directed out from the solid. not into it 4 . other hand the component A of the vector A. as forming the boundary or a portion of the boundary of a solid. A vector consequently the sum of its three com ponents obtainable areas each by orthogonal projection upon three Moreover in adding two mutually perpendicular planes.
be proved by means of certain considerations of Suppose the polyhedron drawn in a body of hydrostatics. The theorem has been proved closed surface consists of planes. . Consider the orthogonal projection of the closed surface upon any plane. however. Hence closed surface zero. into negative area. was any plane whatsoever. The fluid is in equilibrium under its own internal The portion of the fluid bounded by the closed other. The part of the surface farthest from the plane projects into positive area . These cancel each other. surface moves neither one way nor the and normal to Upon each face of the surface the fluid exerts a definite force proportional to the area of the face it. 1 for the case in which the In case that surface be Such a state of affairs is realized to all practical purposes in the case of a polyhedron suspended in the atmosphere and consequently subjected to atmos pheric pressure. as the fluid is The resultant of all in equilibrium. The force of gravity acts but is counterbalanced by the tension in the suspending string. the vector which represents a closed surface has no component along the line perpendicular to the plane of projection. Hence the total projection of a upon a plane (if taken with regard to sign) is But by theorem 1 the projection of an area upon a plane is equal to the component of the vector representing that area in the direction perpendicular to that plane. The proof may be given in a purely geometric manner. the part nearest the plane. This. gravity in cluded. This consists of a double area. This may fluid assumed to be free from all external forces. Thus the surface projects into a certain portion of the plane which is covered twice. Hence the vector is zero. Hence the sum of all the vector areas in the closed surface is zero. 1 pressures. once with positive area and once with negative. these forces must be zero.50 Theorem 2 surface : VECTOR ANALYSIS The vector which represents a closed polyhedral is zero.
whose number Hence the vector which represents any closed surface polyhedral or curved is zero. A parallel to any three noncoplanar vectors. subtrac tion. tiply its multiply a vector by a positive scalar length by that scalar and leave its direction To multiply a vector by a negative scalar mul length by that scalar and reverse its direction. subtraction. Equal vectors possess the same magnitude and the same direction. That vector is the limit l approached by the vector which represents that polyhedral surface of which the curved surface may is the limit when the number of faces becomes indefinitely great. are equal. and multiplication of vectors by a scalar follow the same laws as addition. k form a righthanded rectangular system. If the surface be not closed but be curved it be represented by a vector just as if it were polyhedral.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION curved it 51 may be regarded as the limit of a polyhedral surface of faces increases without limit. 1 This limit exists and is unique. r This resolution = x* + yb + zc. To subtract a vector reverse its direction and add. The three unit In vectors i. and conversely if the com ponents are equal the vectors are equal. method in which . A To null or zero vector is one whose mag nitude is zero. its multiply unchanged. vector is not altered by shifting it vector is A A parallel to itself. can be accomplished in only one way. j. Addition. Vectors add according to the parallelogram law. (4) The components of equal vectors. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER I a quantity considered as possessing magnitude and direction. and multiplication in ordinary vector may be resolved into three components algebra. parallel to three given noncoplanar vectors. It is independent of the the polyhedral surface approaches the curved surface.
A triangle may be parallel . terms of them any vector Cartesian coordinates #. EXERCISES ON CHAPTER 1. B. c gravity of a number of at the termini of the vectors of supposed to be drawn from a common origin is given by the formula A vector may be used to denote an area.52 VECTOR ANALYSIS may z. and the direction of the vector is the direction of the normal upon the positive side of the The vector plane. 2. r be expressed by means of the = xi + yj+zk. I 12. y. C a. any four vectors there cients. (6) Applications. &. representing a closed surface is zero. exists an equation with scalar is coeffi If the sum of the coefficients zero the vectors are an equation the sum of whose scalar terminocoplanar. constructed whose sides are and equal to the medians of any given triangle. coefficients is zero exists between three vectors they are If terminocollinear. ratio m : n is point which divides a line in a given given by the formula The m+ The necessary and n (7) sufficient condition that a vector equation represent a relation independent of the origin is that the sum Between of the scalar coefficients in the equation be zero. The center situated masses A. If the area is plane the magnitude of the vector is equal to the magnitude of the area. Demonstrate the laws stated in Art.
In the special case in which the hexahedron is a parallelepiped 8. points of intersection of corresponding sides lie on a line. the four diagonals of the hexahedron meet in a point. Find the middle point 5. the same and coincide with the center of gravity of a system of equal masses placed at the vertices of the quadrilateral. Can this theorem be generalized to the case is where the masses are not equal ? 7. points of the sides of any face of a tetrahedron. If two opposite sides of a quadrilateral in space be divided proportionally and if two quadrilaterals be formed by joining the two points of division.ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION 3. If the the three points are at an infinite distance Prove that the three straight lines through the middle 9. By the center of gravity meant the center of gravity of four equal masses placed at the vertices. common Find the middle point of the line which joins the middle Show that these two points are points of two opposite sides. each parallel to the straight line connecting a fixed point with the mid dle point of the opposite edge of the tetrahedron. then the centers of gravity of these two quadrilaterals lie on a line with the center of gravity of the original quadrilateral. The diagonals are the lines which join the points of intersection of pairs of sides 1 . of the line which joins the middle points of the diagonals. 53 The six points in l which the three diagonals of a com* meet the pairs of opposite sides lie three four straight lines. then plete quadrangle by three the lines joining the corresponding vertices pass through a point and conversely. upon If two triangles are so situated in space that the three 4. The bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet in a point. meet in a P A complete quadrangle consists of the six straight lines which may he passed through four points no three of which are collinear. edges of a hexahedron meet four by four in three points. 6. Given a quadrilateral in space.
. equation with scalar coefficients between any four given vectors A. Discuss the conditions imposed upon three. bisected by Show that without exception there exists one vector the center of gravity of the tetrahedron. 11. four.54 point VECTOR ANALYSIS E and that this point is such that PE passes through and is 10. C. D. or five vectors if they satisfy two equations the sum of the co efficients in each of which is zero. B.
This is read A dot B and therefore may often be called the dot product instead of the direct product. sum of B and C is equal to the sum of the products of A into B and A into C. the distributive law which states that the product of A into the .B).. The direct product of two vectors A and B is Definition : the scalar quantity obtained by multiplying the product of the magnitudes of the vectors by the cosine of the angle be tween them.CHAPTER II DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS Products of 27. The direct product is denoted by writing the two vectors with a dot between them as AB. then by A B definition AB = ^cos AB = B (A. It now becomes of vectors. (2) . e. It is also called the scalar product owing to the fact that its value is sca lar. subtraction. (1) Obviously the direct product follows the commutative law A. and scalar multiplication have been defined for vectors in the way suggested by physics and have been employed in a few applications.] Two Vectors THE operations of addition. necessary to introduce two new combinations These will be called products because they obey the fundamental law of products i. If be the magnitude of A and that of B.
In case the two vectors Conversely if A the scalar product A B vanishes. Consequently vector is the product of a vector by itself vanish the a null vector. In case the two vectors A and B are collinear the angle be tween them becomes zero or one hundred and eighty degrees and its cosine is therefore equal to unity with the positive or Hence the scalar product of two parallel negative sign.] is A B= 0. vectors is numerically equal to the product of their lengths. Hence the product A B vanishes. vectors The i. k =k . i = 0. B or cos (A. l. . If more generally a and b are any two unit vectors the a product b = cos (a. then Hence either A or A B cos (A. j.56 If either vector be VECTOR ANALYSIS multiplied by a scalar the product is multiplied by that scalar. The product of a vector by of its length itself is therefore equal to the square (3) A. and either the vectors are perpendicular or one of them condition for the perpendicularity of two is null. The sign of the product is positive when the directions of the vectors are the same. k scalar products of the three fundamental unit are evidently ii = jj = kk = i . b). (4) j = j . and B are perpendicular the angle between them becomes plus or minus ninety degrees and the cosine vanishes. Thus the vectors. neither of which vanishes.A=^4 2 if . B) = 0. 28. That is (x A) B =A (x B) = x (A B). B) is zero. negative when they are opposite.
57 between two vectors and scalar product determines the cosine of the angle is in a certain sense equivalent to it For this reason geometric definition of the product rather than one follows might be better to give a purely which depends upon trigonometry. B) = B cos (A. 25). (5) a unit vector in the direction of A. The scalar product of two vectors is will appear whenever the cosine of the included angle of importance. For the volume (Fig.B) A. B). 16) is equal to the base multiplied by the altitude h. A is itself a unit vector the formula reduces to (AB) A If = B cos (A. the scalar prod uct of A B will be the volume of the cylinder which the area A is the base and of which B is the directed slant height. This is A FlG the projection of v B upon A or B cos (A. This is easily accomplished as If a and b are two unit vectors. Hence = A h = A B cos (A. B) =A B. B) If a. From by these definitions the facts that the product of a vector the square of its length and the product of two perpendicular vectors is zero follow immediately. and if B be a vector inclined to that plane. The trigo itself is nometric definition can also readily be deduced. .DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS Thus the it. The projection of a The following vector B upon a A A A where a is AB A = AB A a cos (A. a b is the length : of the projection of either A upon the other. If more generally and B are any two vectors A B is the product of the length by the length of projection of the other of either upon it. A repre sent a plane area (Art. examples vector may is be cited. A be a constant force and a displacement the is work done If by the force A during the displacement A B.
. B. Z. + B) c.A 3 and B 19 S29 SB the direction cosines of the lines A and B referred to X. That is B) ..] VECTOR ANALYSIS The scalar or direct product follows the distributive law of multiplication.. that of is A + B upon B But c.C (A This to its tion. (6) may be proved by means of projections. Let C be equal its magnitude C multiplied by a unit vector c in direc To show (A + (A B) (<7c) or + B) =A c = A A (0o) c + B c . Hence the relation (6) proved.58 29. j.. the projection of the sum A + B equal to the is sum of the projections. are expressed in terms of the three unit vectors k as and then A = ^[ 1 i + ^ 2 j + ^ 8 k. + B. ..) + a+") = AP + A.A^. (P By an immediate generalization (A +B+ . <ey The If scalar product may be used just as the product in ordi difficulties. 2 j i + ^k) l l l l k By means of (4) this reduces to A* = A If in particular 1 l + A2 E. + c.. their (7) A and B are unit are A components l . It has no peculiar two vectors A and B i. Y.P + B.. that of B upon c . + = AC + B. B = ^ i + JB2 j + B k. (0o) A (A c is the projection of upon c. + A B JB. nary algebra.Q + .C.. vectors. A.B = (A i + A z j + A B k) (^i + = A B i i + A 2 i j + A B% l .Q+.
F).^) (B. JT). ). the square of one side of a triangle is equal to the of the squares of the other two sides diminished by twice is. X) cos (B. F) + line (A. (B.B. Then or B)=A.] A and B are two sides A o and side OB of a triangle OAB.A + 2A. CC + D. D. JT) cos (B. the third AisG = BJL PlG 17 (Fig. 17). * or C*C = (BA).DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 59 A = cos (A. T). ^f). Hence the equation becomes cos (A.(A + = (A + . (BA)=BB 2 2 2 (7 = A + J5 2 A^cos(AB). Moreover A B is the cosine of the included angle. Or. C =A+ B B are the diagonals. a 2 + 7) 2 = 2 (A* C.B + B. That sum their product times the cosine of the angle between them.D=(AB).B.) between the direction cosines of the A and If the line B. B) = cos (A.D = 2(AA + BB). the square of one side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides diminished by twice the product of either of those sides by the projection of the other upon If it A and D =A the generalized Pythagorean theorem.C B). X) + cos (A.B + B. ^! = cos (B.(AB)=AA2A. cos Y) cos cos (B.Z).# 2 = cos (B. T) + In case cos (A. 30. X) + cos (A.) cos (B. JT). A z = cos = cos 3 (A. l A<i = cos (A. A and B relation are perpendicular this reduces to the well known = cos (A. and B are two sides of a parallelogram. . T) cos (B.
zj* + 2 (a. In like manner also or C*D = 4A 2 is. distance squared is D2 = . A is any vector expressed in terms of l j. i. c) (c.60 VECTOR ANALYSIS is. cos (A. (* 2 ) 31. That the sum of gram is equal to twice the the squares of the diagonals of a parallelo sum of the squares of two sides. the difference of the squares of the diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to four times the product of one of the sides If That by the projection of the other upon it. k as then A = A i + A 2 j + A B k. b) cos (b. . 2 ca cos a).2/0 cos (X.ft) (.T).*!> cos (F. b. (8) But A be expressed in terms of any three noncoplanar unit as vectors a.xj cos (^. y v z% the oblique axes. This formula is analogous to the one in Cartesian geometry which gives the distance between two points referred to If the points be x v y v z v and # 2 . A A = A* = A* + A* + if A*.S) + 2 (z 2 24) (x 2 .xj (y a . Y) + 2 (yt . c + 2 J c bc + + + 2 b 2 c c a e a A = a? + 2 6 2 + c 2 + 2 a b cos (a. B).yi 2 + (z 2 .] Definition: The skew product of the vector A into the vector B is normal upon the vector quantity C whose direction is the that side of the plane of A and B on which .x^ + (y a .
. A) X B If =AX (zB) = xC. The skew product is denoted by ^ A a cross as the direct product was by a dot. 18). B) = 0. 18. it is called the vector prod to the fact that it is a vector quantity and in con is scalar. Obviously also if either vector A or B is multiplied by a scalar x their product is multiplied by that scalar. respectively and and In case A B are unit vectors the unit vector c skew product A X B reduces to the multiplied by the sine of the angle from A to B. is A and B are parallel the angle between them either zero and eighty degrees. C =A x B and read product. trast A cross B. It is written FIG. uct. The which direction of A x B may also be defined as that in an screw advances as to carry ordinary righthanded it turns so as c= AXB toward B (Fig. with the direct or scalar product whose value is The vector product C by definition =A x B = ^J5sin (A. And conyersely if A X B is zero or one hundred A B sin (A.B)c. For this reason it is often called the cross More owing frequently.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 61 rotation from A to B through an angle of less than one hundred and eighty degrees appears positive or counter clockwise and whose magnitude is obtained by multiplying . In either case the sine vanishes and consequently the vector product A X B is a null vector. (9) when where A and c is are the magnitudes of A and a unit vector in the direction of B B C. however. the product of the magnitudes of A and B by the sine of the angle from A to B.
At present a few uses of the vector product may be cited. B) c represents the area of that parallelogram in magnitude direction (Art. appearance again in considering the velocities of the individ ual particles of a body which is rotating with an angular ve If R be the locity given in magnitude and direction by A. The product makes its any point of A to any point of trigonometric definition follows at once. From it the of such common The vector product If A and A are two forces forming a couple. the moment of the couple is A X B provided only that B is a vector drawn from A. Thus the condition for two vectors neither of which vanishes is A X B parallelism of As a corollary the vector product of any vector into 0. The two prod ucts are in a certain sense complementary. They have been denoted by the two common signs of multiplication. radius vector drawn from any point This velocity is of the axis of rotation A the product AX& will give the velocity of the extremity of B (Art. B) is zero. as will be cross. perpendicular alike to the axis of rotation and to the radius vector B. 18) are the two adjacent sides of a parallel ogram the vector product C =A x B = A B sin (A. 32. just as the scalar product did in the case of the cosine. This geometric representation of A is and X B occurrence and importance that it might well be taken as the definition of the product. Hence A or B or = itself vanishes. 25). They are at the same time amenable to algebraic treatment. 51).] The vector product of two vectors will appear wher ever the sine of the included angle is of importance. the dot In vector analysis they occupy the place held by the trigonometric functions of scalar analysis.62 VECTOR ANALYSIS sin (A. and the seen later. If A and B (Fig. appears in mechanics in connection with couples. .
This is the first instance in which the laws of operation in vector analysis differ essentially from those of scalar analy sis. the order of the factors in a vector product is In the same manner this reversal of sign. Hence same. as appear after a little practice it is and acquaintance just natural and convenient as 34. very familiar. the area will be changed in sign (Art. although the sign is not required for the case of the cosine. rotation from B to A will appear positive on the other. For if rotation from A to B appear positive on one side of the plane of A and B. which occurs when will reversed. Changes similar to this are. AxB = BxA.] necessary. if the cyclic order of the letters ABC in the area of a triangle be changed. The magnitudes of A X B and B X A are the same. however. It may be that at first this change of sign which must accompany the interchange of factors in a vector product will give rise to some difficulty and confusion. Again 25).] 63 The vector products A X B and B x A are not the They are in fact the negatives of each other. No one would think of inter changing the order of x and y in the expression sin (x without prefixing the negative sign to the result. x) cos (y = cos ( x y). The distributive law of multiplication holds in the except case of vector products just as in ordinary algebra . be (10) The factors in a vector product can interchanged if and only if the sign of the product be reversed. AB C = ACB.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 33. Thus sin (y y) x) = sin (x y). Hence A X B is the normal to the plane of A and B upon that side opposite to the one upon which B x A is the normal.
A X The C +BX C = (A + B) X C. D will be noncoplanar if D is properly chosen. the products may be expanded. 19. areas of the bases are 5 (A x B) and .(A x B). . D.. D. Hence AxC + BxC(A + B)xC = or 0. Hence by (11) (C A X (C + D) +B X + D) = (A + B) x (C + D). 26. C. C. Then C + D also will lie out of with relation is therefore A and B. and A + B. Then (A + B) will be the third side (Fig. (11) proved in case C is noncoplanar Should C be coplanar with A and B. Let A sides of a triangle taken and B be two in order. 19). the slant height or edge. that plane. A very simple proof may be given by making use of the ideas is developed in Art. But the sum prism is of all the faces of the prism is zero. (A f B) x C.64 that the VECTOR ANALYSTS order of the factors must be carefully maintained when expanding. choose D. for the a closed surface. any vector out of that plane. B x C. Since the three vectors in each set A. Suppose that C not coplanar with A and B. of Form the prism which this triangle is the base is and 4 FIG. and B. which C The areas of the lateral faces of this of prism are Ax The C. C.
A x B = (A l Hence + 4 + ^ k) x (^i + + 3*) = A ixi + A B ixj + A BzixTt x k. Hence j Xj= changed when the order of j Xj=0.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 65 AxC + AxDfBxC + BxD But by (11) Hence + B) x D. vector products of the three unit vectors easily seen by means of Art. A x B = (A^B^ . If two vectors A and B are expressed in terms of i. for a vector product.BB )j . The skew product of two equal l vectors of the system i. j.  (A + B+)x(P + a + = AxP + Axa + +BxP+B x <J (11) + i. z l i 2 j 3 2j l l 2 l l i 2j j B j z z 1 i B z B 2) i 1 2 1 This follows also from the fact that the sign is is factors reversed. The distributive is law holds The generalization ) immediate.A + (A Z B A. B) x C = (A + + (A This completes the demonstration.] The k are ixi = jxj = kxk = 0. 5 . j. ixj=j xi = k. k.A BJ k. x + AZ B + A 2 j x + AI + A S k x + A BZ k x j + A B k x k. 4. The product of two unequal vectors is the third taken with the positive sign if the vectors follow in the cyclic order i j k but with the negative sign if they do not. AxD + BxD = (A + B)xD. k is zero. AxC + BxC = (A + B)xC. 17 to be 35. their vector product to the distributive may be found by expanding according law and substituting. jxk = k x = kxi = ixk=j. j.(A. (12) j i.
are the direction cosines of JT. 29. 7i . 7i and w a . sin sin (a. b) = k sin x (y x). cos y i Hence a. cos y cos x sin y sin a a x b x b x) : k k k sin (a. = b x) . two unit vectors a and a referred to F. x. m = cos (a. . makes with i. a ) = IV + m m + j j r nn f . y cos x b ) = k sin (y + x) k (sin y cos x + sin x cos y). cos y cos x sin y j. a a b b x) : cos (a.66 This VECTOR ANALYSIS may be written in the form of a determinant as Ax B = The formulae for the sine and cosine of the sum or dif ference of two angles follow immediately from the dot and Let a and b be two unit vectors lying in the cross products. as has already been shown in Art. = (sin y cos sin x cos y). b) = cos + + (y x).V: (y + x) : cos (a. If x be the angle that a i. Hence If cos (y : V cos sin y sin x. Hence sin (y  axb ax Hence If /. and y the angle b makes with then a = cos x + i sin x j. 9 sin (y + Z  sin TI y cos x + sin # cos y. i jplane. m. = sin x cos y. b ) = cos (y + x). cos y i f sin y j. then a a = li + m + k. The familiar formula for the square of the sine of the angle between a and a may be found. : cos x cos y sin x sin y.
I n /) +(lm m)*. V. a m n)*+ (nl 2 r f ) e e f = sin 2 2 (a. a ) e = (mn f m ri) i + (n V n ? + (Jm f m) where (a k. This in reality does not differ essentially from scalar multi The scalar in this case merely happens to be the scalar product of the two vectors A and B. a ) = (mn = sin (a. will be defined. Next to the simple products AB and AxB the triple products are the most important. form of a product as BC without either a dot or a cross to unite them.B) C and A(B C) are identical and consequently no ambiguity can arise from the omission of the parenthesis. All higher products may be reduced to them. i way * than as the product Later (Chap. x a ) (a x a ) sin 2 (a. This leads to an easy way of establishing the useful identity = (72 + w2 + 7i 2 ) (V* +m 2 +n *) (ll + mm + n n 2 ) . a ). the parenthesis in (AB) C is superfluous.] Two Vectors been said concerning products in which the number of vectors is greater than two. Products of More than 36. Moreover inasmuch as two vectors cannot stand side by side in the plication (Art. e is a unit vector perpendicular to a and a . is called The scalar product of simplest triple product is formed by multiplying the two vectors A and B into a third C as (AB) C. 6). .DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS a 67 I) j x a = sin (a. If three vectors are combined into a product the result Up to this point nothing has a triple product. But it will be seen there that (A. where no sign either dot or cross occurs. The expression ^n cannot be interpreted in any other of the vector C by the scalar AB.) the product BC.
68 37. negative.] VECTOR ANALYSIS The second triple product is two vectors. c =A (BxC) = . C. = 0. is the same in both (14) Hence (AxB) . The two products A(BxC) and (AxB)C are equal to the same volume v of the parallelepiped whose concurrent edges are A. and C are coplanar this volume will be neither positive nor negative but zero. In case A. The sign of the volume . the slant height or edge. is posi it but if they form a lefthanded or negative system. And conversely if the volume is piped must zero^the three edges A. B. B. and C be any three vectors drawn from allelogram of which scalar will therefore be the the same origin is Then BxC (Fig. C none As a corollary the scalar triple product of three vectors of which two are equal or must vanish for any two vectors are coplanar. B. 28. the area of the par sides. of three vectors A. cases. C form a righthanded or is upon the same they lie on opposite lie positive system of three vectors the scalar A* (BxC) tive. This volume v side of the sides. Hence the necessary and suffi cient condition for the coplanarity is of which vanishes collinear A(BxC) . B and C . B. positive A and BxC B Cplane In other words but negative if if A. C of the parallelolie in one plane. .. This sort of product has a scalar value and consequently is often called the scalar triple prod uct. See Art. B. 20). as is A(BxC) or (AxB>C. Let A. are two adjacent * The (14) volume if of the parallelepiped of which BxC is the base and is A . of which one the scalar product of itself a vector product. B. Its properties are perhaps most easily deduced from its commonest geometrical interpretation.
A<CxBV (16) may be seen from the figure or from the fact that BxC Hence : = CxB. It may also be seen that the vectors A. Can they be omitted without am is A word biguity ? They can.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS This equality 69 may be stated as a rule of operation. but it is reversed permuting cyclicly the order of the in sign if the cyclic order be changed. The triple product upon may therefore have any one of six equivalent forms = B(CxA) =: C. A scalar triple product is not altered by interchanging the dot or the cross or by vectors.] in necessary upon the subject of parentheses this triple product.(AxB) = (AxB)C = (BxC)A = (CxA)B A<BxC) If (35) however the cyclic order of the letters is changed the product will change sign. B will be on the positive side of the C Aplane and C the positive side of the A Bplane. C and the cross in a scalar be interchanged may be per muted cyclicly without altering the product A(BxC) For each same parallelepiped and that sign. A(BxC) This = . The expression ABxC can have only the one interpretation A<BxC). volume (15) of the expressions gives the volume of the same will have in each case the positive side of the A is upon the B C plane. The dot triple product may without altering the value of the product. sible to For the expression (AB)xC is meaningless. 38. It is impos form the skew product of a scalar AB and a vector . B. because if = B(CxA) = C(AxB).
it is often convenient to use the symbol [ABC] to denote any one of the six equal products. j. no confusion can arise from omitting the Furthermore owing to the fact that there are six scalar triple products of A. may be written in the form of a determinant. B.BxC = B*CxA = C AxB = AxB. C = C i+C 2 + C 3 k. (17) i.+ This tions be obtained by actually performing the multiplica which are indicated in the The result triple product.C = BxCA = CxAB [A B C] = . C2 A. This see exercises. (16) The all scalar triple products of the three unit vectors i. + 8 k. [A B C] then = A.[A B]. and C which have the same parentheses. j. 1 4i \ [A B C] 1 = B is the formula given in solid analytic geometry for the volume of a tetrahedron one of whose vertices is at the For a more general formula origin.70 C. C be expressed in terms of k B then [ABC] may =A = ^ i + A. [ijk] = _[ikj] = l. B. Hence as if three vectors A. VECTOR ANALYSIS Hence as there is only one way in which ABxC may be interpreted. k vanish except the two which contain the three different vectors. j 1 j 1 Z C3 + . . value and are consequently generally not worth distinguish ing the one from another.
c which are not necessarily unit x A=a B a = &! C =c l a a + + a2 b &2 c2 b b + + 8 c J8 c where a^ # 2 stants.] The third type of triple product of of two vectors which one is the vector product itself a vector product. know which product . In like manner also the lie scalars. Hence Ax (BxC). The vector Ax(BxC) is perpendicular to A and to (BxC). But (BxC) is perpendicular to the plane of B and C. B. Such is are Ax(BxC) and (AxB)xC. noncoplanar vectors vectors." ftp & 2 . therefore essential to cannot be removed or cross inter is changed. being perpendicular to (BxC) must lie in the plane of B and C and thus take the form Ax(BxC) where x and y are two vector in the plane of = x B + y C.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS If 71 more generally A. a. . being perpendicular to (AxB) must A and B. are certain con then [A B 0] = (a l &2 C B + [a b c]. Hence it will be of the form (AxB)xC where = ra. (AxB)xC. #3.A + From to nB this it is evident that m and n are two scalars. C are expressed in terms of any three b. in general (AxB)xC The parentheses It is is not equal Ax(BxC). or [A B C] = [a be] (19) 39.
An examination of the figure will show that the direction of Ax (AxB) is opposite to that of B". and B. Let A (Fig. (20) has been expressed The component of B perpendicular component B parallel to to A in terms of the vector triple product of A. The product AxB The product plane of A and B. Hence B" = Ax(AxB) . The A was found in Art 28 to be . Hence Ax(AxB) where c is = cB". Let the components of B parallel and per A X (AXB) 2i perpendicular to the Ax (AxB) lies in the plane of is B and B" reDraw A and B from a spectively. Hence collinear with B". This product is termed the vector triple product in contrast to the scalar triple product.72 VECTOR ANALYSIS first formed and which second. Now but if Ax (AxB) = . A. 21) be a given vector and B another vector whose com ponents parallel and perpendicular to A are to be found. c b" be a unit vector Hence A2 A* A. common origin. in the direction of B".A* B sin (A.c B sin (A. B) V . B) b". pendicular to A be A it and is B. some scalar constant. vector triple product may ponent of a vector B which is be used to express that com perpendicular to a given vector This geometric use of the product is valuable not only in itself but for the light it sheds AXB AXB* B upon the properties of the product.c B"^= . The A. It is furthermore perpendicular to A.
&. Then cCx(BxC) (II) Ax(BxC) The vector product = SBx(BxC) + + any vector by a (BxC)x(BxC). By equation (22) or = AB A . 37 (II)" By Hence = b BC + c C*C + a (BxC)O. AC = 5BC + cCC.(6BB + cCB)C].A.Cx(CxB) = . Hence Ax(BxC) = [(&BC + cCC)B. C.] 73 =?A B (21) =B + = ?A^>.CB C + CC B. A = bE + where cC + a (BxC).A B AA B (22) (23) This proves the formula in case two vectors are the same.Ax(AxB) Ax(AxB) = A*B A . (I) #. But from (I) AB = JBB + cCB + a (BxC>B and AC Art. (BxC)B = and (BxC)C = 0. AB = JBB + cCB. of Hence By (23) (BxC)x(BxC) = Ax(BxC) = 6Bx(BxC) + c Cx(BxC). and BxC. itself is zero.BB C (II) Cx(BxC) = . AA AA C (22) as the The vector triple product Ax (BxC) may be expressed sum of two terms as Ax(BxC)=AC BAB In the first place consider the product when two of the vectors are the same. To prove it in general express A in terms of the three noncoplanar vectors B. . Bx(BxC) = BC B .DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS B B 40. c are scalar constants.
Ax(AxC) is zero. CB). Ax(BxC) a scalar constant. the direct product of by A Hence A[Ax(BxC)] and x :y = a. Multiply by B.B C. was shown that the vector triple product Ax(BxC) was form of the Ax(BxC) Since it = #B + yC.C B . C by different arrangements.Ax(CxB) = (CxB)xA = . Ax(CxB).A. B. if the order of the factors (BxC) and B be inverted.AB C). A[Bx(BxC)] Hence n =1 and = A[B. Ax(BxC>B = n (AC B.(BxC)xA. is perpendicular to A. satisfy the equations Ax (BxC) = . Ax(BxC) = A. Ax(BxC) = A. AB C.BAB The scalar triple product allows cross. (CxB)xA. It remains to show n = 1.74 VECTOR ANALYSIS Substituting these values in (II)".BC] = BC AB + BB AC. A*B : + yAC = Hence where n is = A*C AB. four allied products in each of which B and C are included in parentheses may be formed. an interchange of dot and Hence Ax(BxC>B = A<BxC)xB = .A[Bx(BxC)]. B.C B (24) From the three letters A. These are Ax(BxC). = n (A0 B . Another method of giving the demonstration is as follows. As a vector product changes factors is two sign whenever the order of the above products evidently interchanged. . (24) The It relation is therefore proved for any three vectors A. its (BxC)xA. C.C BB.
. Let this vectors A. Interchange the dot and the cross.CB A + CA Ax(BxC) B. 41. reduce a scalar product of two vectors each of which a vector product of two vectors. Their content may be stated in the following rule. But it is frequently more convenient to have at hand other reduction formulae of which all may be derived simply by making use of the expansion for the triple product Ax(BxC) and of the rules of operation with the triple pro duct ABxC. The formulae then become and (AxB)xC = AC = A*C . and be regarded as a scalar triple product of the three CxD thus AxB(CxD).Cx(AxB) = .A. to memory. As far as the practical applications of vector analysis concerned. one can generally get along without any formulae more complicated than that for the vector triple are product. To expand a vector triple product first multiply the exterior factor into the remoter term in the parenthesis to form a scalar coefficient for the nearer one.] to form a scalar coefficient for the and subtract this result from the first. then multiply the exterior factor into the nearer term in the parenthesis remoter one.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS The expansion for a 75 vector triple product in which the parenthesis comes first may therefore be obtained directly from that already found when the parenthesis comes last.B C B . as To is itself (AxB>(CxD).CB A. B. (AxB)xC = . B (24) (24) These reduction formulae are of such constant occurrence and great importance that they should be committed.
: E back into the equation (AxB)x(CxD) Let F = (ACxD)B  (BCxD) A. product according to the familiar usage in proportions. There is in general only one such equais This . The product becomes (AxB)xE Substituting the value of = AE B . D.0. (27) an equation with scalar coefficients between the four vectors A. (26) = AxB. B. as (AxB)x(CxD). (26) By all equating these two equivalent results and transposing the terms to one side of the equation. (AxB>(CxD) = AC BD . C.(AxBC) D.BE A.(CxD) be written in determinantal form. [B C D] A [C D A] B + [D A B] C  [A B C] D . To reduce is a vector product of two vectors each of which itself a vector product of two vectors. The product then becomes Fx(CxD) = FD C FC D (AxB)x(CxD) = (AxBD)C . The scalar product of two vector products is equal to the (scalar) product of the antecedents times the (scalar) product of the consequents diminished by the (scalar) product of the means times the (scalar) product of the extremes.C.76 VECTOR ANALYSIS Hence This = ABx(CxD) Bx(CxD) = BD C . Let CxD = E.BC D. B. (25) may (25) and D be called the extremes B and C the means . A and C the antecedents: B and D the consequents in this If A . then the expansion may be stated in words.AD AxB.
. (27) More examples of reduction formulae. and = AC BD .[ABC] D. They also afford a simple means of deducing the formulae of Spherical Trigo 42.] * The nometry. 11 because any one of the vectors can be expressed in only one way in terms of the other three thus the scalar coeffi : cients of that equation which exists between four vectors are triple found to be nothing but the four scalar those vectors taken three at a time. of which some are important. (AxB>(CxD) (25) (26) which are now to be interpreted. the combination of any number of vectors connected in any legitimate way by dots and crosses or the product of any number of such combinations can be ultimately reduced to a analyzing the combinations of vectors and showing that they all possible fall under the reduction formulae in such a way that the crosses sum of terms each of which contains only one The proof of this theorem depends solely upon cross at most.B. Let a unit sphere (Fig. These do not occur in the vector analysis proper. may be removed two at a time until not more than one remains. formulae developed in the foregoing article have interesting geometric interpretations.BC AD (AxB)x(CxD) = [ACD] B . the centre of the sphere. Let the vectors A. C. Their place is taken by the two quadruple products. 22) be given. D. B.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS tion.[BCD] A = [ABD] C . products of also The equation may be written in the form [A B C] D = [B C D] A+ [C A D] B + [A B D] C. (7. are given among the exercises at the end of the In view of these it becomes fairly obvious that chapter. D be unit vectors drawn from a common origin. and terminating in the surface of the The great circular arcs sphere at the points A.
and other. 22. of the sphere to the points B.AD BC AxB = sin (A. AC BD. the angle between the normals to the ABand CDplanes. .D B*C = cos AC cosBD . Let A.cos AD cos BC.. Then (AxB). are the diagonals. FIG. CxD = sin (C. c Let A. circular arcs AB. The angles (A. 23) be a spherical tri the sides of which are arcs of great angle. give the angles between the vectors A a quadrilateral The points A.(CxD) CD = AC .78 VECTOR ANALYSIS AB.A. Then (AxB). The product of the cosines of two opposite sides of a spherical quadrilateral less the product of the cosines of In words the other two opposite sides sines is of the equal to the product of the diagonals multiplied by the cosine of the angle between them. A and C. B. B. This theorem is credited to Gauss. drawn from the center Furthermore let . determine D upon the sphere. C. Let the sides be denoted by a. Hence sin A B sin CD : cos x = cos A C cos B D cos AD cos B C. AD BD AB (AxB). A C) etc. 6. Let it be denoted by x. respectively. CD D) may be replaced by the great which measure them. pa p b pe be the great circular arcs dropped . B.D) cos a:. D). This is the same as the angle between the planes themselves. (C. B). etc. circles.(CxD) = sin A B sin CD cos#. (CxD) = sin (A. is The angle between AxB and CxD FIG. and B. C (Fig. AC and BD are B one and C> the pair of opposite sides . 23. B). C. C be the unit vectors A.B) sin (C.
C AA.BC. AxB respectively. (CxAHBxC) = CB A. CxA.A = cos & cos c cos a 1. not the interior angle is one of the angles of the triangle but it is the exterior A : angle 180 A. Then AxB = c sin AxC = cxb sin c sin & = A (AxB)x(AxC) = c. (CxA) Hence AC BA By cos a = sin c sin b cos (180 A) = sin c sin 6 cos A BC A. b sin sin c 6 sin 6 sin A [A B C] = (AxB)C = cC sin c = cos (90 [ABC] A = sin c sin p A. (AxB)x(AxC) = [A B C] A. Let the three vectors a.(AxB) = BA C B . angle is equal to the angle between the plane of A.B. It is.C . = cos 6 cos c cos 6 = cos c cos a cos c = cos a cos 6 The last letters or sin a cos A B sin a sin 6 cos C. (AxB). b. B and the which plane of C. sin 6 sin c cos sin c equating the results and transposing. Then where x (AxB) (CxA) the = sin c sin This angle between AxB and CxA. . c be unit vectors in the direction of BxC. Next cases in interpret the identity (AxB)x(CxD) is in the special which one of the vectors repeated. C to the sides a. A) = sin BA b cos #.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS perpendicularly from the vertices Interpret the formula 4. B) = sin . 79 6. (AxB)(CxA) = AC c. J9. however. 6. A. c pc) sin c . (CxA) = sin (C.CA. cyclic permutation of the two may be obtained by from the identities (BxC). (AxB) = sin is (A. as an examination of the figure will show.
From this equation a + bf = It almost is all the elementary formulae follow immediately. the sum of the sides taken The A as vectors is zero for the triangle c is a closed polygon. [CAB] are equal. These may be written in a single sin line. = sin b sin A sin^? a = sin c sin B sin p = sin a sin C. Again write (AxB)x(AxC) (BxC)x(BxA) Hence = [ABC]A = [BCA]B (CxA)x(CxB) = [CAB]C. the results in pairs and the formulae A = sin a sin B sin c sin B = sin b sin C sin a sin C = sin c sin A sin b sin are obtained. to be noticed that the angles from a to b. A= sin a sin c sin B = sin b sin a sin C = sin c sin b sin [A B C] [B C A] [C A B]. Equate The expressions [ABC].80 VECTOR ANALYSIS equating the results and cancelling the By common factor. [BCA]. from b to c. from . triangle two may be obtained by cyclic permutation of the The formulae give the sines of the altitudes of the in terms of the sines of the angle and sides. A sin B sin C sin a sin b sin c formulae of Plane Trigonometry are even more easy to obtain. If B C be a triangle. sin^ c b The last letters.
angles 180 A. Let . is one or by cyclic permutation of the The area of the triangle 2 ^axb = ^bxc = 2 cxa = a b sin C = % b c sin A = ^ c a sin B. 43.] The problem of expressing a.C. 180 o to (7. c any vector r in terms of three noncoplanar vectors may be solved as follows. to the first The last two are obtained in a manner similar letters. 180 . b. be the length of the sides a. c (b + c)*(b =b+c + c) = bb + cc + 2 bc. c.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS a are not the interior angles A. Another formula for the area may be found from (bxc)(bxc) the product = (cxa)(axb) a sin B) (a sin Z?sin b sin (7) 2 Area (6 c sin A} = (c 2 2 Area =a C sin A Solution of Equations Reciprocal Systems of Three Vectors. the fundamental relation sin A sin B sin is obtained. B. b. this becomes c 2 =a + 2 62  2 a 6 cos C.B. 81 but the exterior a aa = If a. . J. If each of the last three equalities be divided by the product a b c.
c. v b + ra x b e [abe] or r [abc] a [a be] =r bxc r _ +r r cxa. this reason they merit a distinctive : name and notation. a. a and b.. ccbxo In like manner by multiplying the equation by .82 VECTOR ANALYSIS a. a.bxc c. namely They are perpendicular respectively to the planes of b and c. b.a + ro r x . They occur over and over again in a large number of important relations. . c and a. The equation may r also be written c = rb r  x . [abc] [abc] [abc] The three vectors which appear here multiplied _ bxc [a * be] [a cxa _b  > c] [a b c] _ axb by !. or = a abxc + 6 bbxc + [rbc] = a [a be]. a X b the coefficients b and c may be found. For are very important. [c a b] (28) The denominators equation [a equal. c x a and = I [b c a] = c [c a b] [r a b] [r c a] Hence r = are a+ [be a] all b + . Definition The system b x c ^ of three vectors cxa [abc] axb [abc] [abc] . c are where three scalar constants to be determined Multiply by bx r. Hence b this gives the b c] r [b c r] a + [c r a]  [r a b] c = which must exist between the four vectors r. J.b +r axb o.
This gives Hence = x [b c a]. c are noncoplanar. Three coplanar vectors have no reciprocal system. may be expressed in terms of the reciprocal a. c. a and b must also be noncoplanar._bxc ""[abc] ? h . The place a . y = rb = z [a b c]. b c vector r . The system will be of three vectors reciprocal to system . c . y. b . b. c by the scalar a. c are not coplanar. b. . (31) . c.c c. c denoted by primes as a b . c. z = rc [a b c] rc r = ra a + rb b + rc c . be expressed in terms of them by means of proper scalar coefficients #. b. _ c x a . This must be carefully remembered. Hence r may z. r x a + ?/b + z c Multiply successively by [a b c] ra a. __ a x b (29) [abc] ~[ac] form (30) The expression for r reduces then to the very simple r = ra a + rb b + r. product [abc] called the reciprocal system to is The word noncoplanar important. is used. b. Hereafter when the term reciprocal system a. c a. and which are the normals to the planes of b and c. x b of three noncoplanar vectors is a. . a. b. [a b c] If a. b. system a it . b. x = ra [abc]rb = y [cab]. it will be understood that the three vectors b. c a.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS x a 83 which are found by dividing the three vector products bxc. c were co planar the scalar triple product consequently the fractions would vanish and bxc j cxa j ________ axb [a be] [a b c] [a b c] would all become meaningless. c instead of in terms of In the first is necessary to note that if a.
b b l =a =b =c c. satisfy the relations Aa = Bb = Cc = 1 Ab = Ac = Ba = Bc = Ca = Cb = . Hence from the first 1 From From This the second the third =a =b =c *a = a b a a l=b =c .c = l = a . and a. c are noncoplanar the corresponding coeffi on the two sides of each of these three equations must be equal. C. b . c the any vector of the reciprocal system into the c corresponding vector of the given the product of system is unity . Since a cients .84 44. scalar product of be the system reciprocal to a. b = bxc [abc] if = bxcb = [abc] =0 [abc] and so forth. That (32) a .cc . c.b This may be seen most easily by expressing a terms of themselves according to the formula (31) r . V. b = 0. Conversely two sets of three vectors each. proves the relations. V.a = bM>=:c . say A. e. also be proved directly from the definitions of a c . o. b.] VECTOR ANALYSIS If a . a a = bxc [abc] b a = bxca = [be a] = 1 [abc] [abc] a . b. bW .aa + b bb + = c aa + c bb + c .c = b a = b *c = c a = c a . but is two noncorresponding vectors is zero. They may b . c in Hence a b c = raa + r*bb + rcc = a aa + a b V + a cc = b . B.
a a b =a c = b . then a. That is to say.c = c a = c (32) . . Theorem: If a then a. be the reciprocal system of a V. c are symmetrical and hence if a . The necessary and a . c it is evident that the system a.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS then the set A.b = 0. b .c and b c is the reciprocal a. c . c be the reciprocal system of . c will b . 85 By + Ab b + Ac c B = Ba a + Bb b + Bc c C = Caa + Cbb + Cc c Aa a A= . v (29V / e [a [a b c ] These relations may be demonstrated directly from the definitions of a . c may . b. b. b. b these equations are perfectly symmetrical with respect and a. C the system reciprocal to reasoning similar to that before is a. C =c . The relations between a b . c is set of vectors b . b. Substituting in these equations the given relations the re sult is A= Hence Theorem : a . c. b . The proof given above is as short as could be desired. c. but rather long and tedious as it depends on compli cated reduction formulae. . B =b . . As to a . c . b c just as the system a . b.c = l = b a = b . B. b. b. b. sufficient conditions that the a. b. a. be looked upon as the reciprocal of the system a . c may be regarded as the reciprocal of a. The demonstration is straightfor ward.b = c .  V [a x b c c b=] x ab c ] a  . c. c be the reciprocals of that they satisfy the equations a . x b c . c. system of a. b. c must be the reciprocal system of .
be reciprocal systems and [a b c] are numerical That is [a t.A B. products are removed.B J R. Thus the two crosses which occur in the two scalar ft.c ac *C (P.B Q.] VECTOR ANALYSIS Theorem : If a .C ac . Hence bV] = : [abc] 2 = [abc] (33) [abc] c] it By means is of this relation possible to prove between [a b c ] and [a b an important reduction formula.B B P. b .B + BC P. Then [POB] = aA RA [A B C ].86 45.A B*A (34) which replaces the two scalar triple products by a sum of nine terms each of which is the product of three direct pro ducts. But Hence (bxc) x (cxa) [bxc cxa axb] [a = 1 [abc] caxb = [abc] 1 2 .axE)(ABxC) = Q. [bxc cxa axb] = (bxc)x(cxa>(axb). c and a.B B + P. V. = [abc]c.B Q.C 1 But [A B C = [ABC] . B be P = PA A + P.C C C B = BA A + P. PA P. R.B *B p. c the scalar triple products [a b c ] reciprocals. bV] [abc]=l xc cxa axb" [abc] (33) ]=[i "be] [a 3 [abc] J ~[abc] [bxc cxa axb]. b. expressed as To give the proof let P.
Z* are used to denote a set of axes different from X. k and the system i. F . AB = AC = B and 0. k. k * 46. j. j. Let A.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS P. The only systems of three vectors which are their own reciprocals . j. C must be a system like i. Hence A is perpendicular to C. i x j  (35) primes i . a system of vectors reciprocal k are not needed to denote to i. As an exam ple of such an equation the following may be given. Z. are the righthanded vectors.A R.B B*C i. k. or like i. Hence A. k is its own reciprocal jxki For this reason the kxi J k==k .A PB aB PC Q. The value of each term must be scalar. j.. That is Then by (32) Hence the vectors AA = BB = CNC = 1. F. Hence C is perpendicular to A and B.A The system of system. C be a set of vectors which is its own reciprocal.] k. BA = BC = 0. a abxr + 6(oxd)(exr) + c fr + d = 0.C 87 Hence [PQE] [ABC] = Q. are all unit vectors. j . B. three unit vectors R. Hence B is perpendicular to CA =C. j. . and lefthanded systems of three unit the system i. k just as X* . The primes will therefore be used in the future to denote another set of rect angular axes i. j. B. j. A and C. A scalar equation of the first degree in a vector r is an equation in each term of which r occurs not more than once.B = O.
or T cos (r. f where are known vectors . known scalars. Obviously any scalar equation of the first degree in an unknown vector r may be reduced to the form rA =a a. be necessary to In more complicated forms to take the desired form. and A (r. that of A. a . b.88 VECTOR ANALYSIS a. may of various reduction formulae before the equation can be make use made ]>A = a.A) r be the magnitude of r = if . be a fixed vector drawn from the same The equation then becomes r A cos (r. The expression r cos A) is the projection of r upon A. c. c. where A is a known vector . Three The geometric tion interpretation of the equa r. it is As a vector has three degrees of freedom clear that one scalar equation is insufficient to determine a vector.A => a is (36) interesting. e.A) = a. and a known scalar. 24) drawn from a Let A origin. The equation therefore states that the projection of r upon a certain fixed vector A must . d. To ac complish this result in the case of the given equation proceed as follows. d. &. scalar equations are necessary. Let r be a variable vector fixed origin. (Fig. a axbor {a + axb + "b (cxd)xer b (cxd)xe it + c fr + d = + c f}r = d. and a.
is therefore accomplished.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 89 always be constant and equal to a/A. however. Hence there will be either no solution for r or there will be an infinite number. three scalar equations in an unknown why Each equation de vector determine the vector completely. if they are coplanar. is The analytic solution of three scalar If the equations are equations extremely easy. C will C which have no reciprocal system In this solution will fail. . the three planes de termined by the three equations will be parallel to a line. rA = a =b rC = c rB it is (37) 9 only necessary to call to mind the formula r Hence = r. This gives Theorem : A scalar equation in regarded as the equation of a plane. . is the reciprocal system to A. (38) It is expressed in The solution . They will therefore either not intersect (as in the case of the lateral faces of a triangular prism) or they will intersect in a common line. The vectors A. Consequently the ter minus of r must trace out a plane perpendicular to the vector A at a distance tion upon A equal to a/A from the origin. B. tor r is determined. B. One terms A B caution must however be observed. terminus of the It is unknown easy to see termines a plane in which the terminus of r must lie. C .A A + rBB + rC r = a A + 6 B + c C . C. Hence the case. The projec of any radius vector drawn from the origin to a point of this plane is constant the following theorem. an unknown vector may be which is the locus of the vector if its origin be fixed. The Hence one vec three planes intersect in one common point. and equal to a/A.
] A D + &B .D + cC D = d [BCD] + b [CAD] + c [ABD] = d [ABC]. D. One such equation may in gen eral be solved for r. cients are written in the terms. E. It is understood of course that A. D. C are noncoplanar. c are C cr = D. for they . B. and r the unknown vector. where A. n a known scalar.B = 6 rC = c rD =d (39) the vector r may be entirely eliminated. No scalar coeffi known vectors. B. Thus three scalar equations are obtained. To accomplish this solve three of the equations fourth. a. Such is an equation is (AxB)x(Cxr) + D ET + n r + F =0. B. The method vectors. . That is to say. may first be solved by the methods of the foregoing place let the equation be A ar + B br + where A. C. C .90 VECTOR ANALYSIS From four scalar equations rA =a r. r and substitute the value in the = aA + 6B + cC or * a 47. may be incorporated in the vectors. general sufficient to determine the unknown one vector equation is in vector which is contained in it to the first degree. F are known vectors. b. C. of solving a vector equation is to multiply it with a dot successively by three arbitrary known noncoplanar These In the article. Multiply the equation successively by A B . a (40) A vector equation of the first degree in an unknown vector an equation each term of which is a vector quantity containing the unknown vector not more than once.
n r. terms which are the vector known and the unknown vector and constant . Exr. c. A ar + B The terms of the types br + C n r and Exr may also be expressed in this form. be reduced number. = a ar + n b br + n c cr Exr = Exa ar + Exb br+Exc cr. The sum of all terms of multiplied into r the type terms. D.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 91 = DA br = DB cr = DC ar r . br. will contain terms which consist of a known vector multiplied by the scalar product of another known vec and the unknown vector . b. r = DA a + DB b + DC c . B. . The terms of the type A ar may always a. as A ar therefore reduces to an expression of three cr. or. For the vectors all b. sets of three vectors is coplanar will not which either of these be discussed here. which are be expressed in terms of three nonmay coplanar vectors. terms which are scalar multi of the ples product of terms. The solution is coplanar and therefore accomplished in case A. Hence all the products ar. n r 7i Adding to the all these terms together the whole equation reduces form L ar + M br + N cr = K. The most general vector equation of the first degree unknown vector r contains terms of the types in an A That tor is it ar. C are nonThe special cases in a. c also noncoplanar. to three in a unknown vector. But Hence r = a ar + b br + c cr. may be expressed in terms of three.
f 2 . f 3 .. c in . the sum of the forces on a body at the added as vectors is called the resultant R. B=f + 1 fa + f8 + . c f . V. A force has magnitude of application. The solution is in terms of three noncoplanar vectors a .. different lines in the body do not produce the same If a Nevertheless vectors are sufficiently like forces to be useful in treating them. and direction forces lie . f2. mag as defined above. E = f1 + In the same f2 + f8 + .. b.. SUNDRY APPLICATIONS OF PKODUCTS Applications to Mechanics 48.] vector in the sense understood in this book. Definition: The moment of a force f about the point is equal to the product of the force tance from by the perpendicular Its dis to the line of action of the force. number of forces f x . way if if f x.L a + KM b + XJT c a. These form the system reciprocal to the products containing the * terms of which unknown vector r were expressed.92 VECTOR ANALYSIS This has already been solved as r = K. but which upon effect. As far as the resultant is concerned a force does not differ from a vector. 3. In the mechanics of a rigid body a force is not a See Art. f 8 do not act at the same point the term resultant is still applied to the sum of these forces added just as they were vectors. (41) The idea of the resultant therefore does not introduce the line of action of a force. but it has also a line Two which are alike in magnitude and direction. Its direction is usually taken to . act same point 0. The moment however nitude is is best looked upon as a vector quantity.
. A subscript will moment be attached to designate the point about which the taken. dxf (d. the terminus of the arrow which represents the force The is M will be used to denote the moment. is the (vector) If This * is known If f as the total or resultant moment if of the forces v *& 49. the magnitude of the force. and the point f. . Q. to f. Now d sin (d.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 93 be the normal on that side of the plane passed through the and the line f upon which the force appears to pro point in the positive duce a tendency to rotation about the point Another method of defining the direction. 25).] be a force acting on a body and to d be the vector drawn from the point the force. This includes at once both the magnitude and direction of the The point P is supposed to be the origin letter moment . the any point in the line of action of is moment of the force about the point . f)/e. . f) is the perpendicular distance from The magnitude of dxf accordingly equal to this perpen dicular distance multiplied by/. The moment of a number of forces f x f 2 sum of the moments of the individual forces. trigonometric is as follows moment of a force t = PQ about the point : The moment of the force f = PQ to twice the area of the triangle about the point is equal PQ. the vector product of d into f Mo For if e W = dxf (d. f) e. (42) dxf = d f sin = dsm is be a unit vector in the direction of dxf. (Art.
Let d/.c)xf a + = d x xf +d2 xf 2 + . number to the of forces acting at the P is equal moment For let of the resultant B of the forces acting at that point.cx(f j + f a + xf j x 1  =d . x .. be vectors drawn from any point fr f .. d 2 . f 2 . (44) in d 2. f 2 be the vector from to_0 Then respectively. (43) + .. . resultant BO considered as acting at 0. the moment about of a force equal in magnitude and parallel in direction to f 1 but situated at 0. = (d . of any number of forces f x f 2 on a rigid body is equal to the total moment of those acting forces about increased by the moment about of the total f The moment about . } + Mo< {Bo to \. Hence Hence c x f. of a of the moments about same point to P. be the vectors drawn . {f i> f 2 >} = Mo {f r f 2 . M<x Let dj.. d2 = d2 + c. {f} = dxf. . {f!. Mo The sum f p f 2.94 This is VECTOR ANALYSIS .. Mo Mo {f i. + d 2 xf 2 + } J=d xf 1 + d a xf a + . .) But is c is the vector drawn from to 0.f 2 . x ! ^ . from O f to the same points in f x . d be the vector from Then {f x> {f a  Mo Mo = dxf = dxf a l = dx( + f 1 a + . Let o d^d/Hc. Hence of dxf is the relation is proved. 2 respectively.)=dxB .c)xf + (d 2 . The direction the magnitude of the moment MO {f} the same as the direction of the moment.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS fa 95 + } . } . This important from the equation Mo For E. f a . Hence MO/ {f x .cxBo = Mo {f r {Bo}.Mo But the {*i.) = . if!. + E. moment of E is perpendicular to E no matter what the point of application be. A point O may be found such that the total moment 50.M {B }.. The is the moment and the resultant same no matter about what point the moment be taken.} + MCX {Bo . The condition for r parallelism is {f x .. the result ant.] about it is parallel to the resultant. }=<) =0 . f2 9 } are relation follows immediately any two points in space. Hence EMO* IE O } =o and the relation is proved. (44) The theorem is therefore proved.. The resultant is of course the same at all The points. The variation in the total moment due to a variation of the point about which the moment is taken is always perpendicular to the resultant. E MO where O and f {f i. fa . scalar product of the total In other words the product of the total moment. f 2 }= B MO {f ! .f 2 . =M fa . = Mo {fj f 2 }=* M {f^. . f2 . is attached to show at what point it is subscript merely For supposed to act when the moment about O is taken. f the point of application of E affects the value of that moment. } } + Mo {Eo}. and the cosine of the angle between them is invariant for all points of space.
will be parallel to E. since the scalar product of the total moment and is the resultant it is is constant and since the resultant itself constant clear that in the case total where they are parallel the numerical value of the will be a moment minimum. . a known Ec = ExM = EE c ExMo EE If c be chosen equal to this vector the total r . vanishes and the 0. Let c be chosen in the plane through known. moment about the point O which is at a vector distance from equal to c. f2 . where by its Mo {Eo} in the braces { }. } . M o is also supposed to be quantity. to solve this equation for ExMo Now R is EE c + R. Then RxMcy The problem is = ExMo . about which the total parallel to the resultant but the total moment about any point in the line drawn through parallel to E is parallel to E.c E = 0.96 VECTOR ANALYSIS any point chosen at random. about O is equal to that about Hence possible to find not merely one point is O . Moreover. perpen and the equation reduces to Then dicular to E. Furthermore the solution found in equation for c is the only one which exists in the plane perpendicular to E unless the resultant E vanishes. moment moment it is = f O f is parallel to E.Ex(cxE) = 0. f 2 } = Mo cxE r {f ! . Replace value and for brevity omit to write the f v f 2 is .cxE. The results that have been obtained may be summed up as follows : . For If c Mo jf !. c. The total moment it is is unchanged by displacing the point about which taken in the direction of the resultant.
51. APPELL. nor will its moment be a minimum. A system of forces may desired point be reduced to a single force (the resultant) acting at any of space and a couple the moment of which (regarded as a vector quantity) is equal to the total moment about of the forces acting on the body.] Suppose a body be rotating about an axis with a con stant angular velocity a. and point of His vectors are consequently not the same as those used in this book. application. Appell defines a vector as a quantity possessing magnitude. 7 . carried through in the The treatment of his vectors is Cartesian coordinates. Those who would pursue the study of systems of forces acting on a rigid body further and more thoroughly may consult the Traite de Mecanique Rationnelle l by P. This line is itself zero act parallel to the resultant. easily converted into the notation of vector A number of exercises is given at the close of the chapter. The points in the body describe circles concentric with the axis in planes perpendicular to 1 Paris. GauthierVillars et Fils. 1893. Each step however may be analysis. then there exists in space one and only one line such that the total moment about any point of it is parallel to the resultant. But in general the of this couple will not be perpendicular to the result plane ant. equivalent to the one which states that any system upon a rigid body is equivalent to a single force (the resultant) acting in a definite line and a couple of which the plane is perpendicular to the resultant This theorem of forces acting and of which the moment is a minimum. whose resultant is upon a rigid body. The first chapter of the first volume is entirely devoted to the discussion of systems of forces.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS If 97 not any system of forces f 19 f 2 . The total moment about all points of it is the same and is is numerically less than that about any other point in space. direction.
The vector product axr is = a rsin(a. 25. velocity The direction of the velocity axis is perpendicular the radius of the circle described to the and to by the point. Let r be a radius vector drawn from any point of the axis of rotation to a point in the be a. That is v If the = axr. body. (45) a i* a 2> a a case body be rotating simultaneously about several axes which pass through the same point as in the gyroscope. r) from the point to the line a. The vector a may be taken to the angular velocity. VECTOR ANALYSIS The velocity of any point in its circle is equal to the product of the angular velocity and the radius of the It is therefore equal to the product of the angular circle. 25) be a vector drawn along the axis of rotation in that direction in which a righthanded screw would advance FIG. For its direction is perpendicular to a and r and its magnitude is the product of a and the perpendicular distance r sin (a. and the perpendicular dis tance from the point to the axis. the velocities due to of the the various rotations are v i =a 1 xr 1 v8 = a 8 xr 8 . if turned in the direction in which the body is Let the magnitude of a rotating.98 the axis. represent the rotation of the body. Let a (Fig.r) equal in magnitude and direction to the velocity v of the terminus of r.
. At any instant this point will have a velocity v the body will have a motion of rotation Relative to the point about some axis drawn through 0. Hence the velocity v of fixed The most general motion be treated as follows. r 2. . on the axis a 19 a 2 a 3 the vectors r x . and r. a 8 . TJ Then = ra = r8 = == a xr x =r + a 2 xr and v = vt + v2 + v3 + + a 8 xr + This shows that the body moves as angular velocity which velocities a 19 a 2 . The not the same for position.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS where r x. 99 are the radii vec tores . r 2 . as the parallelogram This axis axis is is called the instantaneous axis of rotation. v =v + axr. (46) . r 3. It will be shown later (Art. is if the vector sum is rotating with the of the angular This theorem sometimes known law of angular velocities. r 8 . drawn from points same point of the body.) 60 that the motion of any rigid body one point of which is fixed is at each instant of time a rotation about some axis drawn through that point. but constantly changes its The motion of a rigid body one point of which is fixed is therefore represented by (45) v where a is = axr radius vector the instantaneous angular velocity. the drawn from the fixed point to any point of the of a rigid body. is body no point of which Choose an arbitrary may point 0. any point of the body may be represented by the sum of V the velocity of and axr the velocity of that point relative to 0. Let be drawn from the common point of to the intersection of the axes. all time.
its That is This may be done as follows. it the vector r. It is therefore seen that the most general motion of a rigid body is at any instant . thus determined. v xa (axr)xa or aa r = ar a = a. Multiply by xa. which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to v =v + v " + axr A point may now be found such that v " = axr. point zero. be v =v + axr . has the property that If a line be veloc is the motion of this drawn through this point parallel to the body is one of instantaneous rotation it about new is axis. Let r be chosen perpendicular to Then ar is zero and aa f r = =  v x a v x a aa its The ity a. given by velocity zero. the along a simultaneously. This is screw advancing along a. this point denoted by Let the different points of the body referred to r Then the equation becomes . (46) The motion here expressed consists of rotation about an axis a and translation along that axis.100 VECTOR ANALYSIS is In case v parallel to a. In case v neither parallel nor perpendicular to a may be resolved into two components vn vn v 4r vn " a. v xa. In case v is is body moves around a and precisely the motion of a is perpendicular to a. r. such that possible to find a point.
f 2. the forces equal to the work done by This must be zero for every displacement The equation DE all = holds for vectors D. 2 + = DCfj + is f2 + = D. To prove this break up f into two to a. body be in equilibrium under the action of the forces the work done must be zero. adxf = adxf + . its of advancing per unit of rotation pitch) change from instant to instant. where d is a vector drawn from any point of the axis of rota tion a to any point of f . The work done by D.f 2 + . methods.. W= Dfj + Df their resultant. The total resultant must be zero if the body be in equilibrium. e. f.E = 0.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 101 definite axis a in space. components f " parallel and perpendicular respectively adxf ". the motion of a screw advancing at a certain rate along a The axis of the screw and its rate (i. 52. Suppose any system of forces If the act on a dis body be displaced through a vector be finite or infinitesimal tance D whether this distance the work done by the forces is The total work done is therefore l W^^i If the + D.] The of principle conditions for equilibrium as obtained by the virtual velocities may be treated by vector f x . The work done by a force f when the rigid body is dis placed by a rotation of angular velocity a for an infinitesimal time t is approximately adxf t.. rigid body. Hence E = 0.
the work " done by f during a rotation of angular velocity a for time t is approximately The vector d drawn from any point of a to any point of f may be broken up into three components of which one is h. The scalar product of the angular velocity a and the total moment of the forces tv f2 about any point must be As a may be any vector whatsoever the moment itself zero. Hence a*M \tl9 f2 .. f2 . act be dis body upon which the forces f v f 2 an angular velocity a for an infinitesimal time t placed by and if d x d 2 be the vectors drawn from any point of .. Hence is W= ahxf If a rigid = adxf f t = adxf . . parallel to a the scalar product [a adxf = adxf ".)* . On the other hand the f work done by t" is equal to the work done by during the displacement. . If h be the common vector perpendicular from the line a to the force f ". another In the scalar is parallel to a. .. . triple product [adf] perpendicular alike to a and " t only that component of d which " f has any effect.M If the 1 xf 2 + ) t xf 1 {f 1 + d 2 xf 2 + t. a to any points of f v by the forces f v f 2 .} body be in equilibrium this work must be } t zero. and the third is parallel to f ". t. then the work done  will be approximately 2 W= (adjXfj + ad = a.f 2 .102 VECTOR ANALYSIS f is As d f ] vanishes..(d = a. Mo {f r f r  } = 0. = 0. For f being parallel to a is perpendicular to its line of action. must vanish.  respectively.
then for any displacement of translation D DE = JF=Df1 + and the total o. Conversely if the resultant of a system of forces and the moment of those forces about any one particular point in space vanish simultaneously.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS The necessary 103 conditions that a rigid body be in equilib rium under the action of a system of forces is that the result ant of those forces and the total moment about any point in space shall vanish. f 2. with an angular velocity a about the line a This work is zero. It has been proved that the total work done by the forces during this displacement is zero.f 2 + . Hence the forces must be in equilibrium..  } +M {Bo} But by hypothesis E is also zero. . = the body suffers any work done is zero. But this expression is work done by the forces when the body is rotated t 1 .. when displacement of translation. If E = 0. passing through the point O of a rigid body may be regarded as a Any displacement translation through a distance D combined with a rotation for a time t with angular velocity a about a suitable line a in space. \ = Mo 1 flf f 2 . The theorem is proved. Hence Hence where a for is equal to the a time any vector whatsoever. D. the body will be in equilibrium. Let Mo {fp f 2 be zero for a given point 0. } other point O any > 1 Then for Mo< {fx .
j. a2 j + + a3 k c3 k.i i i ^ i i + ij j + ik k = ^ + jj j + jk k = a a + k.j j + i k k k =a = 1 i + + 2.104 VECTOR ANALYSIS Applications to Geometry Relations between two righthanded systems of three Let i. j. k. be two such systems.t ^*v. direction cosines of i j .j j + kk k = a a 7 i i f i + \ y + GI k + 6 2 j + c2 k + J 8 J + C 3 k/ (47)" t !/!_/ !? fcf "1 I /t 9i ^ I n & 9i j / 9 4 and ) j. a2 a3 . i) = cos (k . cv That is <&]_ " cos  (i (j .ji j j ( k = k. j) j) a3 t> = cos  (i (J .] . rj j + rk k (47) . i) l) a2 c2 = cos  (i (j .k ! \ K ! = =\ = U = Cj f\ cj ttj + f &2 c2 C< b B cs C 3 (50) dy a% . k and i j k mutually perpendicular unit vectors.j ( kk =1= + =1=a2+ 2 2 s J 22 6 32 + + + f c2 2 c 2 3 (49) and ] I j i_^ . 2. Kj k). . ( 4o) = cos (k . b lt . j) c3 = cos (k . k Z> cl i c2 j c3 The scalarsflj. 53. Hence and r = = ri r this i i i +r i r /+ I *^. b 3 . From / i = + i . I k =k i i +k j j +k . k) == COS 0j cx ) O t == COS ^ i 3 COS . In the same manner = ii . k are respectively the with respect to i. They form their own reciprocal systems.
plying the equations i may a3 k perhaps not so well be found by multi =a l i + a2 j + in vector multiplication. set of .a3 6 2 ). orthogonal axes important and well X F 1 which expresses one JT.k = = a* # 2 a3 9 + 62 K 63 I* + c c. (50) and y l "2 (51) k = i xj = (a 2 53 . but nevertheless important. Z are known to students of Cartesian methods. From its form upon the right it is seen to possess no component in . &! k Cj j =a 3 j a2 k. which are known.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS and 105 \ jk j. The ease with which they are obtained here may be note worthy. All these scalar relations between the coefficients of a transformation . (52) Or and similar relations may be found a v a2 a3 .a3 62 ) i But = Hence (a2 & 3 . . Z* in terms of another set F. Co = for the other six quantities b v & 2 . &3. (53) The quantity on either side of this equality is a vector. A number of vector relations.
and j k the sine of the angle between the planes. OB = B.C) = 0. each of which gives one of the nine lines of intersection of the two sets of mu the line of intersection of the is  its The magnitude of the vector is in tually orthogonal planes. The magnitude 1 a^ is the square*of the sine of the angle Hence the vector between the vectors i and i ^k cj ^sjaak is (53) and jkplanes.106 the its i VECTOR ANALYSIS direction but to lie wholly in the jkplane . Example 2 : To find the vector equation of a through the point B parallel to a given vector A. =C. and from form upon the left it is seen to lie in the j k plane. *! = 1 . . magnitude V af + a or V b^ + c^.B) = B<A . Choose as origin and let OA = A. By and hypothesis Add. magnitude Eight other similar vectors may be found. it Hence Its must be the is line of intersection of those two planes. 2 This gives the scalar relations af + a* =V+ .A) = 0. Various examples in Plane and Solid Geometry may 54. each case the sine of the angle between the planes.a*.] be solved by means of products. C<B . drawn . Let A B be the Let the perpendiculars from A to BC and from B triangle. To show is perpendicular Example 1 : gle to the opposite sides to A B. and Then = CB. The perpendiculars from the vertices of a trian meet in a point. to CA meet in the point 0.(C line which proves the theorem. A.
Ax(BB) = 0. Hence the vector product vanishes. Let be the ra line. Let is to be denoted b^ a vector MN MN . Example 3: The introduction of vectors to represent planes. Heretofore vectors have been used to denote plane areas of The direction of the vector was normal to definite extent. the plane and the magnitude was equal to the area to be re presented. if it lies in the plane.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS Let be the origin and to parallel to 107 B the vector OS. a plane in space. dius vector from any point of the required Then E This B is A. and there or. The equation of a plane was seen (page 88) to be a scalar equation such as is BC = c in the unknown vector B. The equations ( are B) Ax(B BC = i =e AxB = AxB AC Hence B . there are is no solution number of solu tions. just as a vector represents a point. The result is analogous to the plane coordinates of analytic geometry. AC solution evidently fails when ever the line is parallel to the plane The AC = 0. unknown vector B. an infinite In this case how . Let The plane be be an assumed origin. The point of intersection of a line and a plane may be found at once.c A = (AxB)xC (AxB)xC + c A .CB A = (AxB)xC AC B . But it is possible to use vectors to denote not a plane area but the entire plane itself. It is a vector equation in the the desired equation.
is distance from the length of p is the reciprocal of the perpendicular to the plane. p) in terms of that perpendicular distance. rp then =1 For (r. is the equation of the plane. The quantities u. v. the equation repre is the locus of all If however p be sents a point r through which all the planes p pass.108 VECTOR ANALYSIS is whose direction the direction of the perpendicular dropped and whose magnitude is the upon the plane from the origin Thus the nearer of that perpendicular. which represents If r be in the plane any radius vector drawn from the origin to a point and if p be the vector which denotes the plane. The relation between r and p is symmetrical. reciprocal of the length a plane is to the origin the longer will be the vector it. development It is familiar to all students of geometry. Now p. k unity. On the other hand r cos (r. It is a rela tion of duality. j. rp = r cos p) p. The of the idea of duality will not be carried out. If in the equation rp =1 p r. The use of vec tors to denote planes will scarcely be alluded to again until Chapter VII. Hence = #i + yj + zk p = ui + vj + wit rp = xu + yv + zw = L. r be regarded as variable. If r and p be expressed r Hence rp must be i. w are the reciprocals of the intercepts of the plane p upon the axes. . the equation represents a plane which points given by regarded as variable and r as constant.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 109 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER The them. scalar product II of two vectors is equal to the product of their lengths multiplied by the cosine of the angle between (1) (2) AB = A B cos (A. (9) The vector product is equal in magnitude and direction to the vector which represents the parallelogram of which A and B are the two adjafcent sides. AB R XA A (*\ The vector product of two vectors is equal in magnitude to the product of their lengths multiplied by the sine of the an The direction of the vector product is the gle between them. B) c.B (4) H = A B + A. normal to the plane of the two vectors on that side on which a rotation of less than 180 from the first vector to the second appears positive. B) AB = B. B + AS Bz = A* = A* + A* + A*.A = ^.. are The scalar products of the vectors j. is (3) The necessary and of sufficient condition for the perpendicularity two vectors neither of which vanishes that their scalar i. The necessary and sufficient con dition for the parallelism of two vectors neither of which . k ^=J!Uk!=o A. product vanishes.A A. 1 1 2 (7) (8) If the projection of a vector B upon a vector A is B f . AxB = A B sin (A.
AxB = BxA ixi ixj (10) =jxj jxk kxi = = = i = kxk = jxi = k =i j (12) kxj ixk AxB = 2) = + (A a B .110 vanishes is VECTOR ANALYSIS that their vector product vanishes. [ABC] = (18) [ABC] = [a be] (19) . C are three edges which meet in a point. but a change of cyclic order changes the sign. The com mutative laws do not hold.[A OB].CxA = CAxB = AxBC = BxCA = Cx AB [ABC] (15) =.A l 1 (13) AxB = (13) Bn The Bo scalar triple product of three vectors [A B C] is equal volume of the parallelepiped of which A. (16) the cross in a scalar triple product may be inter changed and the order of the letters may be permuted cyclicly The dot and without altering the value of the product . to the [AB C] = ABxC = B. B.
.DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS If the 111 component of B perpendicular to A be B". c form a system reciprocal to . (27) Application of formulae of vector analysis to obtain the for mulae of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.CB A (AxB>(CxD) = A. c will form a system reciprocal to a b . = _AX(AXB) A*A (24) = AC B .cc a.[ABC] D = 0. The system of vectors a V. b.. .b = a c = b .[BCD] A = [ABD] C[ABC] D.. b. (31) The necessary and sufficient conditions that the b. c when a = _bxc. b . c be reciprocals that = Vb = c c = 1 a . b. B. B . The equation which is subsists between four vectors A. c two systems of is noncoplanar vectors and a b .a = c a = e b = 0.AB C (AxB)xC = AC B . D [BCD] A[CDA]B + [DAB] C. (30) . a. a . c is said to be reciprocal to the . .a a + r. system of three noncoplanar vectors a.c = b .AD BC (AxB)x(CxD) = [A CD] B. c .a If a . Ax(BxC) (24) (25) (26) C.V b + rc c r = raa + r. then a.bb + r.C BD . c . b cxa = = => [abc] * = axb [abc] (29) [a be] A vector r may be its expressed in terms of a set of vectors and reciprocal in two similar ways r = r.
by making use of the principle of Applications of the method to obtain the relations which exist between the nine direction cosines of the angles between two systems of mutually orthogonal axes. the velocity of any point.A aA R. tation.B ftB P. Application to special problems in geometry including the form under which plane coordinates make their appear ance in vector analysis and the method by which planes (as distinguished from finite plane areas) may be represented by vectors. to the treatment of a system of forces acting on a rigid body and in of forces to a single particular to the reduction of any system force and a couple of which the plane is perpendicular to that force. v a translational veloc and a the vector angular velocity of ro Further application of the methods to obtain the conditions for equilibrium virtual velocities. (36) Applications of the methods developed in Chapter II.112 VECTOR ANALYSIS [PaK][ABC] = The system system be its P.C ac (34) BB RC i. k is its own it own reciprocal reciprocal and if conversely a must be a right or left handed system of three mutually perpendicular unit vectors. The vector equation of a plane is rA = a.. .A P. Application of the methods to the treatment of instantaneous motion of a rigid body obtaining v where v is =v + a x r (46) ity in the direction a. j. Appli cation of the theory of reciprocal systems to the solution of scalar and vector equations of the first degree in an unknown vector.
B P. Show tors and polar the connection between reciprocal systems of vec Obtain some of the triangles upon a sphere* geometrical formulae connected with polar triangles by inter preting vector formulae such as (3) in the above list. [AxB BxC CxA] = [ABC] P.B Q. Obtain formula (34) in the text by expanding [(AxB)xP]. Cxtt] CxR] + [Axtt BxR CxP] + [AxR BxP 7.[Cx(ttxR)] in two 8. c form a reciprocal system to a. bisectors of the sides of a triangle meet in a 11. 113 Ax{Bx(CxD)} = [ACD]BABCxD = BD AxC BC AxD. R Ax(BxC) + Bx(CxA) + Cx(AxB) [AxP Bxtt = 0.[CDB] [AEF].[ABC] [DBF] = [ABE] = [CD A] 3. c .DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS EXERCISES ON CHAPTER II Prove the following reduction formulae 1. a system reciprocal to a 9. different ways and equating the results. = P Q RA RB 6. 2. = 0. The perpendicular point. . b.[ABF] [BCD] . to . . b . c. b. [AxB CxD ExF] = [ABD] [CEF]. 10. Demonstrate directly by the above formulae that if a V. c form . then a.A 4 [PQE] (AxB) 5. two lines not lying in the Find an expression for the common perpendicular same plane. [FCD] [BEF] 2 .
c). n = cos (a. &. b. 46. c I are the lengths of a. a). c respectively (b. If a line is . two opposite edges by the perpendicu between them and the sine of the included angle. VECTOR ANALYSIS Show by vector methods that the formulae for the vol of a tetrahedron ume IS whose four vertices are 13. 15. b). the through three lines thus obtained lie in a plane. Making use of formula (34) of the text show that 1 n 1 I m I [abo] where = a be n N m 1 a. drawn in each face plane of any triedral angle the vertex and perpendicular to the third edge. Determine is the perpendicular (as a vector quantity) of solution which dropped from the origin upon a plane determined by a. 14. b. Use the method Show that the volume of a tetrahedron is equal to one sixth of the product of lar distance 16.114 12. c. and where = cos m = cos (c. the termini of the vectors given in Art.
P f .] Variable IF a vector varies and changes from r to r the incre ment of r will be the difference between r and r and will be denoted as usual by A r. The ratio P FIG. and as t possesses one degree of freedom r will vary in such a way that its terminus describes a curve in space.CHAPTER III THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Differentiation of Functions of One Scalar 55. 26. If the variable r be A r is of course also unrestricted : may have any magnitude and any direction. A r will be the PP 1 Ar A* . If. however. To it obtain a clearer conception of the quantities involved will be advantageous to think of the vector r as drawn (Fig. which give the two values r and r . from a fixed origin When the independent variable t changes its value the vector r will change. Ar = r r. r will be the radius vector of one point of the curve . where (1) A r must unrestricted the increment it be a vector quantity. the vector r be regarded as a function (a vector function) of a single scalar variable t the value of A r will be completely determined when the two values t and f t of . 26). of a neighboring point chord of the curve. are known. r .
dt* . * _ n 3 ~ dt* (2) r* ? _i r. A r8 k and Hence the components spect to t of the first derivative of r with re t are the first derivatives with respect to of r.dn i j__ _f n . the components r v r 2 . i + Ar2 j + Ar3 k Ar _ A ^ ?*! 1 " A r2 J+ . c as r = aa + dn a &b + cc dn b dn r dn c . r3 will be functions of the scalar r = (r 1 + Arj)i+ r (^ 2 + Ar2 )j + x (r 3 + Ar3 )k Ar = r = Ar . the the vector chord PP will approach the tangent at P. b.. i. rfr (t t ap and Ar i\ t . be expressed in terms of r k as =r + x i r2 j + rz k t. . will approach which If r is a vector tangent to the curve at t P directed in that sense in which the variable increases along the curve. The same . j.. When A t 1 approaches zero P f will proach P. of the components derivatives.116 VECTOR ANALYSIS with the chord will be a vector collinear PP f but magnified in the ratio 1 : A t. l dt n dt i j d d __ __ dt dt* r ? fl n J i v In a similar manner noncoplanar vectors if r be expressed in terms of any three a. is true for the second and higher dt*~ dt* dn r _ .
Hence d is =r t* a differential equation satisfied by the hyperbola.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Example : Let r 117 = a cos + t b sin t. then describe an ellipse of which a and b are two conjugate diameters. Example : Let r =a cosh t + b sinh t. 90) + b + 90). The second derivative the negative of r. Hence is evidently a differential equation satisfied by the ellipse. t Hence = a cos (t + + 90). . Then X = a cos t. Y = 6 sin the equation of an ellipse referred to a pair of con diameters of lengths a and b respectively. and   = a cosh + t b sinh t. jugate is which dr 3 = a a sin t + b cos sin (t t. This may be seen by assum r will The vector ing a set of oblique Cartesian axes X. The tangent for to the curve is parallel to the radius vector 2r = is (a cos t + b sin t). vector r will then describe an hyperbola of which a and b are two conjugate diameters. Y t. coincident with a and b. The dr dt = a sinh + t b cosh t.
bxc) = ab v dt \d t X [b X be demonstrated exactly The last three of these formulae may as the first was.118 56. The formal process differs in of differentiation in vector analysis no way from that in scalar analysis except in this one point in which vector analysis always differs from scalar analysis.] VECTOR ANALYSIS combination of vectors all of which depend on the same scalar variable t may be differentiated very much as in ordinary calculus. A d For (a + Aa) .ab A* Hence  =a Ab A* t H Aa A* b + AaAb 1  in the limit when A = 0. namely : The order of the factors in a vector product . (b A(ab) = (a + Aa) (b + Ab) . d_ dt _(a.
two formulae d and first is evidently incorrect. the factors must be differentiated in situ. scalar differentiation must take place without The altering the order of the factors of a vector product. but the second correct. In case the vectors depend upon more than one variable the results are practically the same. 52 9y \3x5y .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Hence of the 119 cannot be changed without changing the sign of the product. y. and partial derivatives of the first will have three The second partial derivatives are formed in the same way. The order. z. Suppose a and b are two vectors which depend on tives three scalar variables #. partial derivatives occur. In place of total deriva with respect to the scalar variables. scalar product it ab will depend upon these three variables. This of course was to be expected. In other words.
Hence A r / A to unity The increment A r s is is the chord of the approximately equal in magnitude and approaches unity as its limit when A s becomes Hence d r / d s will be a unit vector tangent to infinitesimal.j in the discussion of curvature and torsion of curves. Let r denote the radius vector of a curve some vector function of the scalar t. (4) when dealing with The formulas d (a b) become db. As an illustration consider the following If r be a unit vector rr = 1. first differentials. ables. The locus of the terminus of r is a spherical surface of unit r radius described about the origin. d (a X b) and so example. x b + a (3) (4) x db. = da. curve. Let s be the of arc measured from some definite point of length f is where the curve as origin. is Hence the increment di the vector. b + a = ds. perpendicular to This can be seen geometrically. particularly true (3). Differentiate the equation. depends upon two vari Hence r dr = 0. forth. the curve and will be directed toward that portion of the . Vector methods may be employed advantageously *57.120 Often it is VECTOR ANALYSTS more convenient This is to use not the derivatives but the differentials. If r traces a of a unit vector sphere the variation d r must be at each point in the tangent plane and hence perpendicular to r. In most appli cations in physics and mechanics t represents the time.
The osculating plane is the plane of the tangent vector t and the curvature vector C. As t approximately the angle which the tangent has turned measured in circular through measure. c. _ of unit d n/d s. 27). k system . Let t be the UAt The curvature of the curve is the limit of the ratio of the angle through which the tangent turns of the arc. n form an i. j. is to the length The tangent changes by the increment At. Hence the directed curvature C is is of unit length. the length of At LIM As=0 The vector C t. j.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS curve along which unit tangent s is 121 increasing (Fig. 28) to the osculating plane and the three vectors t. with C If c be a unit vector collinear n will be a unit =t x c normal (Fig. for is As = t = ds* ds collinear with t is At and hence perpendicular to inasmuch as a unit vector At is perpendicular to t. c. a righthanded rectangular system. From vectors the fact that t. n form an i. The tortuosity of a curve is the limit of the ratio of the angle through which the osculating plane turns to the length of the arc. k system. Then the angle through which the osculating plane turns will be given approximately by A n and hence the tortuosity is by definition that is. The normal to this planei8 N = txC.
It is desirable however to have . T moreover has been seen to be parallel to C Consequently the magnitude of T is the scalar product of T by the unit vec tor c in the direction of C. n is also perpendicular to n. and consequently perpendicular to n. is parallel to dn and hence The tortuosity T is i \ ~ds^ T * d*r d*r j O v d s* * VCC/ The first term of this expression vanishes.122 t VECTOR ANALYSIS and = c c = nn = 1 tc = cn = nt = 0. n scalar value of the tortuosity will T. of The increment of n is perpendicular to It is t. it to c. do is + rft c =cdn + dcn = ndt + dnt==0. t Differentiating the first set tdt and the second t* = cdc = ndn = 0.dt = 0. that is. But d t Hence parallel to c n. d n t = 0. therefore be given . = d 2 r/ds 2 the tortuosity positive when the normal n appears to turn in the positive or counterclockwise direction if viewed from that side of the n cplane upon which t or the positive part of the curve lies. turns away from when The by c the tortuosity is positive. But the increment c. With this convention d n appears to move in the direction c c. therefore parallel to As the tortuosity is T = dn/ds.
Butdnis perpendicular to n. (14) r = txc^ as (14) . Hence d n must be parallel to c. cT = r= . . x (12) Or .c ds = n. dtc = dct dn c dc n = dn*t = dtn. Hence Hence dnt = 0. dt n = 0. because d n appears clockwise from the positive direction of the curve. ~ Hence C Hence T. (13) The is tortuosity may if somewhat shorter be obtained by another method which not quite so straightforward. The tortuosity is the mag nitude of dn/ds taken however with the negative sign is Now dt parallel to c .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS c 123 1 T = 1 c x d 2 i/d s 2 ~~ . hence perpendicular to n. Hence the scalar tortuosity T may be given by r= dn . dc ds C . Hence tc = cn = nt = 0. dr d2 r d But c is parallel to the vector Hence dr ds ds 2 And c is a unit vector in the direction C.
124 VECTOR ANALYSIS c = C V cc d C . Carre et Naud. A/C C x CC _ dC T~ 1 m= ITTc (13) ds* In Cartesian coordinates this becomes (13) T= Those who would pursue the study of twisted curves and surfaces in space further from the standpoint of vectois will find the book " Application de la Methode Vectorielle de Grass maun d la Greometrie 1 Infinitesimale" 1 by FEHB extremely Paris. 1899. . ds VC. dC dc ds !.C ds / CC But t t x c c C = 0.
. is 125 He works elegant. They will not be taken up here. Then . fA r" dr a vector quantity. V This velocity = LIM A * . * Kinematics Let r be a radius vector drawn from a fixed origin to a moving point or particle. ticle. This is the oldfliixional notation . Its direction is the direction of the tangent of the curve described by the par is used frequently to denote merely This convention will be the scalar value of the velocity. Let t be the time. increment A t. It is found convenient in mechanics to denote differentiations with respect to the time by dots placed over the quantity differentiated.] of the path is then The This velocity of the particle is its rate of is the limit of the increment A r to the change of position. The equation 58. difficulty One used other.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS helpful. The treatment The notation used is however slightly different from that used by the present writer. with vectors constantly. The term speed is followed here. if s (16) be the length of the arc measured from some fixed point of the curve. to either method need have no with the All the important elementary properties of curves and surfaces are there treated. The fundamental points of difference are exhibited in this table HI Xa x a3 2 ~ Oi = [a x a 2 a 3 ] 2] ax a2 ~ [a x a 2 aj.
126
VECTOR ANALYSIS
introduced by Newton. It will also be convenient to denote The equations become the unit tangent to the curve by t.
T.
v
<">
(17)
of velocity.
It
=v
it
t.
The
is
acceleration
is
the rate of change
a vector quantity.
Let
be denoted by A.
Then by
definition
LIM
At=OA7rf7
and
Av_dv _ =
d
dv
Differentiate the expression
A
v
=v
dv
t.

dv __
dt
~
d(vt) v
dt dz
.
_ dt
*
I
nj
dt __ dt
.

dv
dt _ d
t
s~
s
t?
dt d
_
_
ds d
_=C
t
where C
the result
is
the (vector) curvature of the curve and v
is
the
speed in the curve. Substituting these values in the equation
is
A=st+
The
lei
v* C.
in a curve has there
acceleration of a particle
moving
fore been
broken up into two components of which one is paral to the tangent t and of which the other is parallel to the
C,
curvature
that
is,
perpendicular to the tangent.
That
this
resolution has been accomplished
would be unimportant were
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
it
127
not for the remarkable fact which
it
brings to light.
The
component of the acceleration parallel to the tangent is equal It is entirely in magnitude to the rate of change of speed. of what sort of curve the particle is describing. independent
would be the same if the particle described a right line with the same speed as it describes the curve. On the other hand the component of the acceleration normal to the tangent
It
equal in magnitude to the product of the square of the speed of the particle and the curvature of the curve. The
is
sharper the curve, the greater this component. The greater the speed of the particle, the greater the component. But the
of change of speed in path has no effect at all normal component of the acceleration.
rate
If r be expressed in terms of
i,
on
this
j,
k
as
z k,
r
=# +
i
y}
+
= V ** + y* + * 2 A = v = r = ii + yj + * k,
v
,
(16)
(18)
A = v=s =
From
change of speed, and A is apparent. Just when
x x
V
+y * +z% x + y* + z 2
i/ i/
2
these formulae the difference between s t the rate of
= r, the
rate of
this difference first
change of velocity, became clearly
it is
recognized would be hard to say.
Newton must have had it in law of motion. The rate of change
to the impressed force
;
But certain mind when he stated
of velocity
is
that
his
second
proportional
but rate of change of speed is not. The hodograph was introduced by Hamilton as an 59.] aid to the study of the curvilinear motion of a particle.
With any assumed origin the vector velocity r is laid off. The locus of its terminus is the hodograph. In other words,
the radius vector in the hodograph gives the velocity of the
128
particle in
VECTOR ANALYSIS
magnitude and direction at any instant. It is proceed one step further and construct the hodo
possible to
graph of the hodograph.
vector acceleration
A=r
done by laying off the from an assumed origin. The
This
is
radius vector in the hodograph of the hodograph therefore gives the acceleration at each instant.
Example 1
:
Let a particle revolve in a
*
circle (Fig. 29) of radius r with a uniform
a.
fV
^r^
angular velocity
be equal to
v
The
speed of the particle will then
=a
r.
Let
velocity v
r
be the radius vector
is
perpendicular to
f
drawn to the particle. r and to a. It is
The
=v=a
x
r.
The
The
vector v
is
tude.
The hodograph
always perpendicular and of constant magni is therefore a circle of radius v = a r.
is
radius vector r in this circle
r in
just ninety degrees in
circle,
advance of the radius vector
its
and
it
conse
quently describes the circle with the
a.
same angular velocity
is
The
acceleration
A
which
is
the rate of change of y
always perpendicular to v and equal in magnitude to
A = a v = a 2 r.
The
acceleration
r
A may
be given by the formula
aa
r.
= A = axv = ax(axr) = ar a
r
But as a Hence
is
perpendicular to the plane in which r
lies,
a r
= 0.
= A = aa r =
2 a9
r.
The
a circle
acceleration due to the uniform motion of a particle in is directed toward the centre and is equal in magni
tude to the square of the angular velocity multiplied by the
radius of the circle.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Example 2:
Consider the motion of a projectile.
is
129
The
acceleration in this case
the acceleration g due to gravity.
r
= A = g.
The hodograph of The curve vector.
the
the
hodograph reduces to a constant
hodograph.
It is easy to find is merely a point. Let v be the velocity of the projectile
in path at
will be
any given
instant.
At
a later instant the velocity
t
v
=v +
g.
Thus the hodograph
ing through the
particle
a straight line parallel to g and pass The hodograph of a extremity of v
is
.
moving under the influence of gravity
is
hence a
straight line.
The path
:
is
well
known
to be a parabola.
Example 3
acceleration
In case a particle move under any central
r
= A = f(r).
the accelerations
collinear
r!
The tangents to the hodograph of r are But these tangents are approximately
chords between two successive values
vector in the hodograph.
r
with the
and
f
of the radius
That
is
approximately
A*
Multiply by rx.
r
x
r
=rx
.
Since r and r are parallel
r
x x
(r
Hence
r
r
 r ) = 0. r = r x r
.
But J
x
f is the rate of description of area.
Hence the
equation states that when a particle moves under an ac celeration directed towards the centre, equal areas are swept
over in equal times by the radius vector.
9
130
Perhaps
it
VECTOR ANALYSIS
would be well
to
go a
little
more carefully into
particle in
this question.
If r be the radius vector of the
its path at one instant, the radius vector at the next instant The area of the vector of which r and r r. r are is r
+A
+A
the bounding radii is approximately equal to the area of the This triangle enclosed by r, r + A r, and the chord A r.
area
is
The
rate
of description
of area
by the radius vector
is
consequently
A* = 02
LIM
irx(r+ Ar) Lm 1 A* ~A*=02
AT
1
A*~2
r
P and P
is
Let r and r be two values of the velocity at two points which are near together. The acceleration r at P
r
r
the limit of
A*
A
*
_ Ar "
A
*
"
*
*
Break up the vector
parallel
A ^t
= ?^IlI?
A
t
into
two components one
.
and the other perpendicular
to the acceleration r
Ar.
if
n be a normal to the vector
if
.
proaches unity when A t approaches zero. approaches zero when A t approaches zero.
The quantity x ap The quantity y
Hence
r
x x
Ar = rr = #A*r + yA*n.  r ) = x A* r x r + y A* r x (r
(f
n.
r
 r ) = r x r  (r +
^A M x
f
.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Hence
131
Ar rxrr xf = /A xr
6
A* + zA*rxr + yA* rxn.
But each
of the three terms
infinitesimal of the second
upon the righthand side is an order. Hence the rates of descrip
differ
tion of area at
P
and
Pd
by an
infinitesimal of the
second order with respect to the time.
point of the curve.
at all points.
60.]
Hence the
rates
This is true for any must be exactly equal
The motion
is
fixed
This proves the theorem. of a rigid body one point of which is at any instant a rotation about an instantaneous axis
passing through the fixed point. Let i, j, k be three axes fixed in the body but moving in space. Let the radius vector r be drawn from the fixed point to any point of the body. Then
But
d
r
= (d r
i) i
+
(d r
i,
j) j 4
(d r
k) k.
Substituting the values of d r the second equation
dr
j,
d r k obtained from
dr
= (xi
j
di+
yi
di + yj
+ *dj +
d
j
2 i
d k)
i
zj
But
= 0. Hence dj +j di = Q or jc?i = dj = or k.dj = jdk j.dk + k.dj k.di + i.rfk = k di. or idk = Moreover i.i=j .j=kk = l. Hence d = d = k d k = 0.
i
j
=j
k
=k
i
i
i
i
i
j
j
132
VECTOR ANALYSIS
r.
Substituting these values in the expression for d
dr
=
(zi
dk +
yjdi)i+(jdi
(y
s
k
k
.
dj
xi
d k)
k.
This
is
a vector product.
dr
Let
= (Wj + idkj + jdik)x(>i +
i
yj
i

+
2;
k).
k
dj
r
.
k l+ i J+J ii
.
d k
.
d
Then
r
=
d
r
;n
=axr

This shows that the instantaneous motion of the body is one of rotation with the angular velocity a about the line a.
This angular velocity changes from instant to instant. The proof of this theorem fills the lacuna in the work in Art. 51.
Two
infinitesimal
rotations
may be added
like vectors.
Let ax and a 2 be two angular velocities. due to them are d l r = a x x r d t,
The displacements
d2
If r
r
=a
2
x
r
d
t.
be displaced by
T
a, it
becomes
T
+
d1
=T+
,
a,
1
xrdt.
If it
then be displaced by a 2
r 4
it
becomes
x
Hence
= r + d r + % x [r + (a d r = aj x r d + a x r d +
d
r
l
x
a2
r)
d
t]
d
t.
t
2
t
x
(a x
x
2
r) (d
)
.
If the infinitesimals
(d
2
t)
of order higher than the first be
neglected,
d
r
=a
x
x
r
d
t
+
a2
x
r
d
t
=
(a x
+
a 2)
x
r
d
t,
which proves the theorem.
.
If
both sides be divided by d
1
t
r
= dr = (a +
a 2)
x
r.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
the parallelogram law for angular velocities. was obtained before (Art. 51) in a different way.
133
It
This
is
In case the direction of
stant, the
a,
the instantaneous axis,
is
con
a.
motion reduces to one of steady rotation about
r
=a
x
r.
The
acceleration r
= axr + axr = axr + ax
(axr).
a does not change its direction a must be collinear with That is, it is perpen a and hence a x r is parallel to a x r.
dicular to
r.
As
On
the other
hand
ax
(a
x
r) is parallel to
r.
Inasmuch
as all points of the rotating
body move in con
about a in planes perpendicular to a, it is unnecessary to consider more than one such plane. The part of the acceleration of a particle toward the centre
centric circles
of the circle in
which
it
moves
is
a x (a x r).
equal in magnitude to the square of the angular It does not velocity multiplied by the radius of the circle.
is
This
to
depend upon the angular acceleration a what is known as centrifugal force.
at all.
It corresponds
On
the other
is
hand
the acceleration normal to the radius of the circle
axr.
This
equal in magnitude to the rate of change of angular It does not velocity multiplied by the radius of the circle.
is
depend in any way upon the angular velocity itself but only upon its rate of change. 61.] The subject of integration of vector equations in which
the differentials depend upon scalar variables needs but a
word.
If
It is precisely like integration in ordinary calculus.
then
d
r
r
=d
s,
=s+
C,
134
VECTOR ANALYSIS
is
where C
tion in
some constant
vector.
To accomplish
the integra
difficulty
any particular case may be a matter of some
of ordinary integration of scalars. just as it is in the case 1: Integrate the equation of motion of Example
projectile.
a
The equation
of motion
is
simply
which expresses the fact that the acceleration tically downward and due to gravity.
r
is
always ver
= g + b,
t
where b
a constant of integration. 0. velocity at the time t
is
It
is
evidently the
=
r
c is
=
t
ig*2 + b* +
c.
another constant of integration.
It
is
the position vector
of the point at time
= 0.
The path which
last equation is a parabola.
expressing
it
in terms of x
:
That this is and y and eliminating
given by this so may be seen by
is
t.
Example % The rate of description of areas when a par ticle moves under a central acceleration is constant.
r
= f(r).
parallel to the radius,
Since the acceleration
is
r
x
r
=
(r
L>
0.
But
For
u/ t
r
x
x
r
=
a
x
r).
(r
f)
=
(r
r
x
r)
f
+
r
x
r.
Hence
CL t
x
f
=
C,
and
r
x
=
which proves the statement.
But r r x C x r C C C . _ Lr o * Hence Each *2L o = is side of this equality a perfect differential. = C. ^2 Given Then Hence r r x x r r = 0. magni tude and I a unit vector in Multiply the equa by r . r xC = 1 ^ rx (rxr)= r {r. Then r x C c* = + e I.r r ( . r e is its where tion e I is the vector constant of integration. its direction. r r x C r r c* r r + e r * I. Then r = r r. 1 jjj Multiply the equations together with x. r r = r 2.rr r}. Integrate. Differentiate.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 135 Example 3 : Integrate the equation of motion for a particle moving with an acceleration toward the centre and equal to a constant multiple of the inverse square of the distance from the centre.
be set equal to a constant. y. z) which takes on a definite scalar value for each set of coordinates #. In mechanics T and theories of attraction the potential function. In the at any point of a body is a theory of heat the temperature scalar function of the position of that point. This. z) functions of position are of constant occurrence. In case be the tempera V V . y. The vector The length the equation of the ellipse of which e is the eccentri I is drawn in the direction of the major of this axis is It is possible to cany the integration further and obtain the time. too. Such a function. is axis. In physics scalar (x. is If a scalar function V is the allimportant a scalar function of position. Or = p + e cos w This city. z) == x2 + y* + z2 = r\ This function gives the square of the distance of the point from the origin. for ex ample. function (20) defines a surface in space such that at every point of it the has the same value c.y. is V O. 62. So far merely the path has been found. y. The function V will be supposed to be in general continuous and singlevalued. the equa tion V(x. I). Scalar Functions of Position in Space. Then p= r + 1 e r cos u. ] The Operator V a A function V (x. y.136 T f VECTOR ANALYSIS p= C c C s" and cos u r = cos (r. z in space is called scalar function of position in space.z)=c.
when x changes F" (a? [" to x z remain constant is LIM + A a. 137 It is called an isothermal surface. 64).z)=c V equal to a constant is frequently spoken an equipotential surface even in the case where V has no connection with the potential. k be a system be written appropriately as vectors. The tion rate at which the function V increases in the X direc +A x and y and "1 that is. That this is actually the case will be shown later (Art. the surface V O. The rates of increase of V 3V 1 3V J 3V ~3~z JZ* 5? The sum of these three vectors would therefore appear to be a vector which represents both in magnitude and direction the resultant or most rapid rate of increase of V.T (x. y. they may Let i. . but is any scalar function obtained by setting of as of positions in space.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS ture. and as it is perhaps the most important of all such functions owing to its manifold applications. this is a surface of constant temperature. In case V be the potential. Y) Z are respectively 3V ~Wx 3V Ty* Tz 3V Inasmuch as these are rates in a certain direction. y. of unit vectors coincident with the rectangular system of are axes X. this surface of constant potential is known as an equipotential surface. j. g) . Hence the rates at which increases in the directions of the three V axes X. y. z) Aa = This is L A x J* the partial derivative of Fwith respect to x. As the potential is a typical scalar function of position in space. Y) Z.
tricitdt 1 Some Foppl in his Einfuhrung in die Maxwell 1 sche Theorie der Elec V.138 63. It has been found by experience that the monosyllable del is so short and easy to occurs pronounce that even in complicated formulae in which a number of times no inconvenience to the speaker or hearer is read simply as " del F. Hamilton and is now in universal There l seems.] VECTOR ANALYSIS is of The vector sum which Fis denoted by the resultant rate of increase VF a directed represents a directed rate of change of or vector derivative of F^ so to speak. The terms It is gradient and F are also used for V F. to be no universally recognized name for it. Others have noted its likeness to an inverted A and have consequently coined the none too euphonious name Ailed by inverting the order of the letters in the word Delta. for printing no particular is name quiredsomething often repeated. necessary. R. W. Indeed. the primitive of VF. v avoids any special designation and refers to the symbol as "die Operation How this is to be read is not divulged. This symbolic operator V was introduced by Sir employment. and slope of F. but for lecturing and purposes of instruction something is re too that does not confuse the speaker or hearer even when . customary to regard V as an operator which obtains a vector V F from a scalar function F of position in space. has been defined as Although this operator V VF V * v=i* + ji. For this reason will be called the derivative of VV V VF V.+k 9z dx dy use the term Nabla owing to its fancied resemblance to an Assyrian harp. although owing to the frequent occurrence of the symbol some name is a practical necessity. however." arises from the repetition.
k and by actually carrying out the differentiations and finally by taking into account the identities (49) and (50).z)=c and V (x. page 104. 64] Consider two surfaces (Fig. The the is actual increase of first Ffrom FIG. constant and which are moreover infinitely Let #. 30. dius Let denote the ra vector drawn point from any fixed origin. y. surface to the second a fixed quantity dc. as the magnitude and direction from the interpretation of of V. z) =c+ d c. The rate of increase is a variable . y ^ z referred to them.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS so that is it 139 appears to depend upon the choice of the axes. k and a new set of Then V referred to this system is v/ = i ?T7 ax +J o^7 ay + k ^T7 dz ( 22 ) By making use of the formulae (47) and (47)". j . Then any the c point near by in neighboring surface V + d c may be represented by the radius vector r + d r. 53. upon which near together. Art. it This would be surmised in reality independent of them. k to i . j. V is r y. z be a given point upon the surface to this V=c. The details of the proof are omitted here. variables # . may V actually be transformed into V. for transformation of axes from i. 30) y. f i . because another shorter method of demonstration is to be given. To demonstrate the inde of the most rapid increase V pendence take another set of axes. j .
Z.dr = n dV d n n.dr. The rate of increase will be the quotient of the actual increase d c and the distance x. The quotient surfaces . is equivalent to the one r. first To do this multiply by d VF. n d n will then be the least value for d r. parallel to n and equal in magnitude of The expression is therefore a vector of which the direction is the direction of is most rapid increase of rate of that increase. z between the surfaces at the point in the direction d r. d n From (24) is certainly the vector which this definition. VFis independent of the axes. Moreover VV V It remains to show that this definition given. Let n be a unit normal to the r Vdr d and d n the segment of that normal intercepted between the surfaces. Y. Fand c of which the magnitude is the This vector entirely independent of the axes JT. y.140 VECTOR ANALYSIS quantity and depends upon the direction dr which is fol lowed when passing from one surface to the other. Hence n d r is the projection of d r on n and must be equal to the perpendicular distance d n between the surfaces. and the rate the direction of most rapid increase of gives in that direction. (25) is a unit normal. \/d r will therefore be a dr is maximum when d r d n. . is be replaced by its equal d V which the increment of F^in passing from the first surface to the Let d second. Then let V V be defined again as Vr=4^n.
According the equation to ordinary calculus the deriv ative y  satisfies d x dx dy dx ..] definition (24) has been and consequently definition of ed equivalent to The equation (25) found above is often taken as a V V.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS dT 141 = dV dn = dn = dV 5V z (25) But where If 5V =7rdx (d x? 5V dy 2 5z d r. i)i + Henceby(26) (Vrj)j + (VT. = dy . j + (d y) + (d *) 2 = dr i takes on successively the values equation (25) takes on the values dr dy. k)k. k VF= is i ^ + j T+ it. dx. rf be cancelled these equations state i.  reduced to the first The second *65. kdz the ids= dy 5V dx ~dx dy (26 ) = sv 9V If the factors rf a. VF VF* j. k directions respectively are equal to 3V 5x 5V 5y* 5z VF=(VF. that the components i. VF5_V k of VF in the j. rf y.
In a similar manner is possible to lay down the following definition. . before given seems to be better. The computation frequently carried differentiation. See Chapter VII. evidently the direction of most rapid increase of r and the rate of that increase. is This definition certainly the most natural and important from theoretical considerations. The real significance of this last definition cannot be appreciated until the subject of linear vector functions has been treated.142 VECTOR ANALYSIS this Moreover it equation defines dy / dx. either of the definitions But for practical purposes They are more tangible. of the derivative V of a function is most on by means of the ordinary partial Example 1 : (ix + jy + kz) The This is derivative of r is a unit vector in the direction of r. of a scalar function of Definition: The derivative V^ position in space shall satisfy the equation for all values of d r.
r).(rkk. ix + )y = T *) "" Hence V log V^ + y T r r . denote the vector drawn from the origin to the point z) of space. Example 4 F(#.r(k.k kr (rkk. the function V may be written as 2/1 and = log Vr. i y. equal to the reciprocal of the square of the length Example 3: V rn Let n rn ~ 2 r = n r* i>r The proof is left to the reader.r) .r) 2 k kr. V log V^Tp = TT + 22 2 f 22 + 2 k If r . z) = log y# 2 + 5 j y*. derivative of 1/r is a vector whose direction is that and whose magnitude r. y.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Example % : Let T 1 143 V1F z X (x z T + y z + 2 )* (x + y z + 2 2 )* k Hence 2 + g 2 )t _1 1 and V ~ == 7 r 1 r  ^i (r r) r = ~T 3 r is The of r.
Let F= (rxa) V = rr ab dra rb (rxb). V V = a. F=dr. But when the former method has to be resorted to.a = dr Vr.144 There is VECTOR ANALYSIS another method of computing V which is based upon the identity Example 1 : Let d V = Vrr = r.a) = bx(rxa) fax two methods for (rxb). dV = Hence 2cZr*r ab drb ra = di V Fl V F == 2 r ab a r. y. V= =^ = V v r r Hence Example 2 : Let  i>r r is V= r a. z of a . d Hence Example 3: constant vectors. may therefore be It is also shorter in case the function Fcan be cannot be so expressed easily in terms of r.b b r^a Vr= (rabarb) + Which of these (rab br. computing V shall be applied in a particular case depends entirely upon their relative ease of execution in that case. y. The latter method is independent of the coordinate axes and preferred.] V The V pose T (#. expressed in mathe great importance of the operator matical physics may be seen from a few illustrations. Sup *66. where a and b are ra rb. z) be the temperature at the point #. where a a constant vector.
denoted the potential energy of a mass situated at #. mass. creases 145 That direction in which the temperature de V most rapidly gives the direction of the flow of heat. y.VF. a constant depending upon the material of the be the gravitational potential Suppose again that is due to a fixed body. attraction problems they are generally considered to have opposite signs.VfF. T. tial and potential energy have the same sign whereas in . Then magnitude equal to the rate of increase Let F be the force per unit F As = VF. The difference between potential and potential energy 10 is this. as has been seen. The force is in the direction of most rapid decrease of In dealing with electricity and magnetism poten potential. the point (#. V where k body. z.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS heated body. magnetic pole re V represent the electric or magnetic potential due to a definite electric charge or to a definite spectively the force as the case might be F is acting upon a unit charge or unit pole F = . gives the direction of most rapid increase of temperature. it that the potential Preferred to here has the opposite sign to If the potential energy. the force acting upon that mass W m would be F In case = . The direction of the force in either case is in the direction of most rapid decrease of potential energy. . f Hence the flow of heat f is = _& vr. z) potential and is is force acting upon a unit mass at in the direction of most rapid increase of The in per unit length in that direction. might be well to state different writers use different conventions as regards the sign of the gravitational potential. y.
however.] It is !_ A 3y 9x As are precisely !. 3z far as combinations of these are concerned.. For instance the commutative law 99 Sx3y the associative law = d  9 *. ._ 3x\3y 3zJ 3x3y dxdz f 3 ( 33 33 a(b + c) =a hold for the differentiators just as for scalars.146 VECTOR ANALYSIS Potential in electricity or magnetism is the potential energy per unit charge or pole . *67. the formal laws what they would be a. A scalar function u cannot be placed under the influence of the sign of differentiators. 6. and potential in attraction problems is potential energy per unit mass taken. 5 9 3\ law 3 3 and the 3 distributive 3\ +_)=__ + . with the negative sign. formulae as Of course such 3 3 where u is a function of x cannot hold on account of the properties of differentiators. a = 3ySx 3 a. often convenient to treat an operator as a quantity provided it obeys the same formal laws as that Consider for example the partial differentiators quantity. Such a patent error may be avoided by remembering that an operand must be understood upon which 3/3 # is to operate. if instead of differentiators three true scalars c were given.
V = A provided l x+ /l A2 / + As j.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS In the same looking upon 147 way a great advantage may be obtained by Vif +jf + kf 3x dz dy as a vector.] If A represent any vector the formal combination A. When applied This operator a scalar differentiator. It is not a true vector. if #. V(ttfl) = (Vtt) v + ^(Vtf). c V u = V (c u). It is A dz dy a vector differentiator and of course an operand operations are is always implied with it. (27) A=A A V is i + A^ j + A% k. 68. w and v are any two scalar functions of the scalar variables y. (a. <^ r A+^+^Suppose for convenience that (28) A is a unit vector a.. JL. y.. As far as formal For concerned it behaves like a vector.V)F=a 1 I + a r +a8 r 2 (29) . 2 and if c be a scalar independent of the variables with regard to which the differentiations are performed. P# are not true scalars. for the coefficients . z) it to a scalar function V (x. Vis A. gives a scalar. instance V (u + v) = V u + V v.
.(V F) may however (a a. In case Fbe electric or magnetic potential a difference of sign must be observed. 3V 3V 3F. Z. is interpreted in an important theorem. The V operator a applied to a scalar function of position yields the same result as the direct product of a and the V vector V V. 3V (29) It expresses the magnitude of the rate of increase of V in In the particular case where this direction is the normal n to a surface of constant value of F. (a. For this reason either operation (30) may be denoted simply by a VF without parentheses and no ambiguity can result from the omission. V) F is On the other hand a. of the normal. if n x n 2 n 3 be the direction cosines . this relation the direction a. the directional derivative of in the direction be F a : ( V V) is the component of V F in F in the direction Hence The directional derivative of any direction equal to the If VFin in that direction. Consequently (a V) V appears as the a.(VF). The two different forms (a V) Fand a. F. : component Fdenote gravitational potential the of the derivative theorem becomes The directional derivative of the potential any direction gives the component of the force per unit mass in that direction. wellknown This is directional derivative of V in the direction often written T^^+^^sT.148 where a v VECTOR ANALYSIS a^a B are the direction cosines of the line a referred to the axes Jf.V)F=a. becomes the normal derivative. .
y. z) j + F3 (x. At each point of Already F has in general a definite vector value.V) F2 j + (a. Fluxes of heat. of vector functions are very numerous in physics. y.z) i + F2 1 (as. y.] 149 A vector function of position in space is a function V vector. z) = F! (x. z) which associates with each point x. y. k 9V 9V. ics of rigid bodies the velocity of electricity. Then a  V= i^ i + a 3 3^+af (a.V)F. The tion scalar operator a V may be applied to a vector func V to yield another vector function. In mechan space Examples VF V each point of the body is a vector function of the position of the point. y. etc. are all vector functions of position in space. 3V 9V2 9V\ ( 3V 2 . magnetic force. (x. the function has occurred. y. y.V)V = (a. z) k and a =a i + a2 j + a 3 k. fluids. y.z)i+ F2 (x. z) j + F3 (a?.. z in space a definite The function may be broken up into its three com ponents V (x. Let V= Fi (x.V) F! a + (a. z) k. y.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Vector Functions of Position in Space 69.
That is Qy 3z (32) (88) These may be expressed in terms of the components F". x V. The differentiators V . V.150 This VECTOR ANALYSIS may be written in the form Hence (a V) V is the directional derivative of the vector a.] have but the one interpretation given to it by V. 1 two formal combinations of the vector operator V and a vector function V may be treated. applied to a vector function V has not yet been Hence from the present standpoint the expression V V can V) 70. pass by the dot and the cross. These are the (formal) scalar product uct of into V. being scalar operators. Although the operation V V has not been defined and cannot be at present. . +kxV . . function V in the direction It is possible to write (a V) V =a VV  without parentheses. i A definition of VV will be given in Chapter VII. For the meaning of the vector symbol V a (a when defined. . They are V and the (formal) vector prod T and < 82 > VxV = i + ]and . del cross V. ofV. (88) V V is read del dot V. PI.
fl3V Hence V V = rf + ^7 + 3Ti > (32)" Moreover This may be written in the form of a determinant VxV= 333 i j k (33)" .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Now dx 3y 3* Then 151 9x Sx 9y h dy 3* ~5y (34) 8V_9V} 5V. 3 3F Jl ~3 i.
] as a vector just in so far as the differentiators ^)e y ^e same * aws ^ or(^ nary sca ar quantities. shall be as entirely new operators quite distinct and V xV = ix for practical purposes all + jx4kx. This symbol obeys the same laws ^ 333 T~ T~~ 71. standpoints objections may be brought forward as a symbolic vector and introducing V against treating as the symbolic scalar and vector x V respectively and From some V V V products of V into V. simply laying down These objections may be avoided by the definition that the symbols and V V x. and for (33) But remembering formulae it seems by means advisable 3 to regard 5 3 as a symbolic vector differentiator. Let therefore the vector V denote . to perceive these properties it is convenient to attribute to the function V some definite physical meaning such flow of a fluid substance.152 It is to be VECTOR ANALYSIS understood that the operators^are to be applied to the functions Vv F"2 . 63 it was seen that the is independent of the choice of axes. which may be looked upon from V. F3 when expanding the determinant. l That the two functions V V and V x V have very important physical meanings in connection with the vector function V may be easily recognized. By the straight forward proof indicated in Art. operator fact the inference is immediate that V and x V From this V V V represent In order as flux or intrinsic properties of V invariant of choice of axes.
V site (x. z) =V l (x9 y. Consider the amount of fluid which passes through those faces of the cube which are perpendicular to the axis. is +i and the flux . This may be a material fluid as water or gas.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS at each point of space the direction 153 of the and the magnitude flow of some fluid.y. e. and dz respectively. The normal face.z)i+ V^ (x y y. or a fictitious one as heat or electricity.z) dy dz. to the oppo. The flux xy2 of substance through this face is i. that the nor mal to the lefthand face of the cube is i. y. the face whose is x coordinate through it is greater by the therefore amount dx. To obtain as great clearness as possible let the fluid be material but not necessarily restricted to incompressibility like water. dx + 3y k *I dz called the divergence of V and is often written V.z FIG. whose x coordinate is. 31. i. 31). Then is = i~+j. V V= div The reason that point for this term is that VV gives at each at point the rate per unit volume per unit time which fluid is leaving the rate of diminution of density. dy. z) j + F3 (x. Let of the cube be dx. the lesser. V (x. y. To prove Let the edges this consider a small cube of matter (Fig. The normal to the face X is parallel to the F^plane. z) k.
In like manner the fluxes through the other pairs of faces of the cube are i 3V. z) + 3v dx i dy dz = i V (x The faces is y y. dx dy dz ^ 9y j. z) dy dz = r i V(#. it. dy 9z 9x . i ( 3V 9x + t 3V j \ dy + t . total is outward from the cube through these two This therefore the algebraic sum of these quantities. dy 9z Because V thus represents the diminution of density or the rate at which matter is leaving a point per unit volume per unit time. The total change of contents must therefore be sible fluid For this reason the characteristic differential equation which any incompres must satisfy is . This is This is V. y. The quotient of this by the volume dx dy dz of the cube gives the rate of diminution of density. it is called the divergence.dx dy 9z is dz. 3^ = ^  9x dx dy dz. z) dy dz + i 3V dx c) x dy dz. flux simply i 3V = 9x dx dy dz . 9zJ ) dx dy dz. In case the fluid is incompressible. as V much matter must leave the cube as enters zero.164 VECTOR ANALYSIS (x i V + dx.. . the net quantity of fluid which leaves the cube per unit time. y. This is the negative of the divergence.T.. Maxwell employed the term convergence to denote the rate at which fluid ap proaches a point per unit volume per unit time. .. 9x + . k 3V\ .I. The total flux out from the cube therefore /.c)V and k .
Second. it is closely connected with the angular velocity or spin of the flux at each point. To V V The of position in space. Consider as before that V represents the flux of a fluid. z). y. name curl. V is curl of a vector function itself a vector function As the name indicates. infinitesimal sphere therefore may have any one of three distinct types of motion or all of them combined. This equation is known as the hydrodynamic equation. If D = V D = 0. Finally may have been rotated as a whole about some axis through an angle dw. It may have been subjected to a strain by longer this it virtue of it which it becomes slightly ellipsoidal in shape.] fluid. the operator X Maxwell gave the This nomenclature has become widely accepted. div 72. But the interpretation of the curl is neither so easily obtained nor so simple as that of the divergence. a strain with three definite rates of elongation along the axes of an ellipsoid. First. Take at a definite instant an infinitesimal sphere about any point (#. .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS where 155 often V is the flux of the fluid. it may have an An angular velocity the magnitude of which is dw/dt. sphere ? In the first place it may have moved off as a whole in a certain direction by an amount d r. In other words it At the next instant what has become of the may have a translational velocity of dr/dt. is It is satisfied by any flow of water. since water practically incompressible. The great importance of the equation for work in electricity is due to the fact that according to Maxwell s hypothesis electric dis placement obeys the same laws as an incompressible then D be the electric displacement. x V = curl V. That is to say. a translation with definite velocity. In addition to may have undergone such a deformation that it is no a sphere.
ri + 2/jfzk v r.(V a) r. It is this In fact. Hence the term V x v vanishes. r = 3x it + 3y ^+3 a = 3. . The more difficulties analytic discussion of the motion of a fluid presents than it is necessary to introduce in treating the curl. to give The motion of a rigid body is sufficiently complex an adequate idea of the operation. V =a V.156 VECTOR ANALYSIS Third. Hence  1 Therefore in the case of the motion of a rigid body the curl of the linear velocity at any point is equal to twice the angular velocity in magnitude and in direction. i a / 3 3 3\ = a Vr=( ai^ + a 2j+ a s^ Jr Vxv = 3a a = 2a. and r. V As a is . 51) that the velocity of the particles of a rigid body at any instant is given by the formula Let =v + a x curl v = Vxv = Vxv + Vx(axr). Then x v as if it were the vector triple V v is =V x v + (V  r) a . l i 1 i j 3 expand V product of X (a x r) formally V. a. third type of motion which is given by the curl. It was seen (Art. an angular velocity about a definite axis. a vector which has at each point of space the direction of the instantaneous axis of rotation at that point and a magnitude equal to twice the instantaneous the curl of the flux is V angular velocity about that axis. a constant vector. a = a + a% j + a 3 k r = r + r 2 + r k=:. z a constant vector may be placed upon the other side of the differential operator.
vector functions. 69 the expressions V) uand u V) v * (  V n and n V v me to be interpreted as . rule followed in this that the operator V applies to the nearest term only. The following Let u. (V By Art. 73. as in the case of the applica tion just cited. Then (35) + t?) = Vw + Vfl V. that the operators V>V% V X. The 1 Vu book v.Vxu uVxv (42) Vx (uxv) = v.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 157 V a x v = curl v = 2 a. is Vu x v. be scalar functions and v vector func tions of position in space.] It frequently happens. (43) A word necessary upon the matter of the interpretation is of such expressions as V u v. have to be be found applied to combinations of scalar functions.Vu~vVuu.Vv + uV. That v is. useful.(uxv)=v. + ^ (V x v) x r = v + \ (curl v) x r. (34) The expansion of V x (a x r) formally may be avoided by multiplying a x r out and then applying the operator V X to the result.(u + v) = V.v. or both.u + Vv Vx(u + v) = Vxu + Vxv V (u v) = v V u + u V v V (w v) = V M v + M V v V(t6 v (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) + v x (V x u) + u x (V x v) 1 1 V. v rules of operation will u. v =v = ^Vxv= curl v.
z. thesis as upon the lefthand side of the above equations. . y. j. venient. is to be applied to more than the one term which follows the terms to which it is applied are enclosed in a paren it. To demonstrate V (u =v Vu+ u Vv + v x ( V x u) + n x ( V x v). k. The By means of it the operators V> V* Ax take the form The summation extends over #. To demonstrate Vx (wv) ^ Hence 9x Vx v) (wv) = Vwxv + ^Vxv.158 VECTOR ANALYSIS V uv = (V u) v V u v = ( V u) v V u x v = ( V u) x v. If V proofs of the formulae may be given most naturally by expanding the expressions in terms of three assumed unit The sign 2 of summation will be found con vectors i.
3u ^ . Let M =U i 1 of the formula 41. That is. the quantity u is to be regarded as constant. + u ^ .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 159 V(u.iV u. the operation v). The other formulae are demonstrated in a similar manner. . those functions which are constant for the differentiations are written after the parenthesis as subscripts. 9 u IE v ** 9x =v . 3v Now ^ 2 v . The idea of V V V v X (V X n). 3u ^ .v) = 2^v+^^. is carried out only partially upon V the product (u partially it in In general if V is to be carried out upon any number of functions which occur after a parenthesis. 71] The notation l V(uv) u will be used to denote that in applying the operator (44) V to the product (u v).. lost This idea and notation of a partial so to speak may be avoided by means But a certain amount of compactness and simplicity is u v )u is surely no more complicated than u v or ( thereby. 1 = vx(V i xu) + 2v.r* x ( V x x u) + v In like manner Tu + 3v dx =u ( V x v) V v. Hence V(uv)=vVu + v x (V x n) + u x (V x v)._ 3 u or .
160
then
VECTOR ANALYSIS
nv
=M
1
1
+ u^v 2 + u z
and
V
(u
V)
3^0
But
and
V(u.v) T
=
rrr^j
Hence
V(uv)
Vw +
x
But
and
V(uv) n
Hence
= w Vi? + ^ a Vi? a + w 8 V? 8 V(uv) v = ^j V^ + 2 V^ 2 + ^ 3 V^ 3 V (u v) = V (u v) u + V (u v) v
1 1 x
i;
.
(44)
.
(45)
This formula corresponds to the following one in the nota
tion of differentials
d (u v)
or
d (u
= d (u v) = u
v) u
dv
+ d (u v) T + d n v.
(Art. 73) may be obvious from analogy
:
The formulae
(35)(43) given above
written in the following manner, as is with the corresponding formulae in differentials
V (u +
V.
(u
v*)
+
v)
v)
= V (u + v\ + V (u + v) = V (u + v) u + V (u + v) v
9
(35)
(36) (37)
Vx
(u
+
=V
x (u
+
v) u
+Vx
(u
+
v) y
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
161
V (u v) = V (u v\ + V (u v\ V (u v) = V (u v). + V O v) r V x (u v) = V x (i* v) a + V x (u v) v V (u v) = V (u. v) u + V (u. v) v V (u x v) = V (u x v) a + V (u x v) y V x (u x v) = V x (u x v) a + V x (u x v)
This notation
scalar product
is
(38)
(39)
(40) (41)
(42)
(43)
v.
particularly useful
in the case of the
u^v and
for this reason it
it
was introduced.
In almost
simplicity.
all
other cases
can be done away without loss of
.
Take
for instance (43)
Expand
V
x
(u
x
v) u
formally.
Vx
(u
x v) u
= (V
v) u
is
(V
u)
v,
where
it
must be understood that u
which occur in V.
constant for the differ
in the last
entiations
Then
term the
factor u
may
be placed before the sign V.
*
Hence
In like
Hence
75.]
V X (uX v) u = u V v u Vv. manner V x (u x v) = v V u v V u. Vx(uxv)=vVu v V u u V v + u V
v
v.
There are a number of important relations in which
the partial operation
V
(u v) u figures. v)
u x
or
(V x
= V (u
v) u
v) a
 u V v,
v),
u.
(46) (46)
V(uv) u
u
= u. Vv + u
x (V x
or
V v = V (u
A
method
+ (V x
v) x
(46)"
The
is
proof of this relation
i,
may
be given by expanding in
easily
terms of
j, k.
of
remembering the result
as follows.
Expand
the product
u x (V x v)
ll
162
formally as
if
VECTOR ANALYSIS
V,
u,
v were
all real vectors.
Then
ux(Vxv)=u.vV
u
V v.
The second term is capable of interpretation as it stands. The first term, however, is not. The operator V has nothing
upon which
that
it
to operate.
It therefore
shall
have u v as
must be transposed so an operand. But u being outside
is
of the parenthesis in
tiations.
u x (V x v)
u v
constant for the differen
Hence
u x (V x
and
If
V = V (u v) u u V v. v) = V (u v) u
a,
(46)
u be a unit vector, say
the formula
aVv = V(av) a + (V x
v)
x a
(47)
v of a expresses the fact that the directional derivative a in the direction a is equal to the derivative vector function v
of the projection of the vector v in that direction plus the vector product of the curl of v into the direction a. Consider the values of v at two neighboring points.
V
v
(x, y, z)
and
v (x
+
dx, y
+
dy> z
+
dz)
= v (x + dx, y + dy, z + dz) v (#, y, z). v = v{i + v 2 j + v 8 k Let dv = dv i + dv%j + dv 3 k. dv = dr* But by (25) d v% = dr dv% = dr d v s= d r (V v Hence + V v + V v z k). dv = dr Vv Hence d v = V (rfr v) dr + (V x v) x dr. By (46)"
dv
l
1
l
i
2 j
(48)
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Or
if
163
V denote the value of v at the point
(#, y, z)
and v the
value at a neighboring point
v
= v + V (d r
v) dr
+ (V x
its
v) x dr.
(49)
This expression of v in terms of
the
dels,
value v at a given point,
and the displacement d
r is analogous to the
expan
sion of a scalar functor of one variable by Taylor s theorem,
/<*>=/(*>+ .TOO **
The
That For
derivative of (r
v)
when v
v
is
constant
is
equal to v.
is
V (r
v) v
V (r v) = v. = v V r  (V x
9
r> x
v,
v
Vr = v
l
i
+
x
v%j
r
+
8
k
= v,
V
Hence
In like manner
if
V (r
= 0. v) v = v.
r,
instead of the finite vector
still is
an infinitesimal
vector d r be substituted, the result
V/fllO*^
By
(49)
Hence
V (d r v) v = v. v = V + V (d r v) dr + (V x v) x d r V (d r v) = V (d r v) d + V (d r vV V (d r v) dr = V (d r v) v.
;
Substituting :
v
= ^ vo + ^V(dr.v) + ^(Vxv)xdr.
is
(50)
This gives another form of (49) which
sometimes more
convenient
It is also slightly
more symmetrical.
164
*
76.]
VECTOR ANALYSIS
Consider a moving
fluid.
Let v
(#,
T/, 3,
t)
t.
be the
velocity of the fluid at the point (#, y, z) at the time
Sur
round a point
(a;
,
y
,
z )
with a small sphere.
dr dr
= c2
.
At each
point of this sphere the velocity
is
v
=v +
t
d
r
V v.
In the increment of time B
the points of this sphere will have
moved
the distance
The
point at the center will have
moved
the distance
distance between the center and the points that were upon the sphere of radius d r at the commencement of the
interval $
t
The
has become at the end of that interval S
t
To
find the locus of the extremity of
dr
r
it is
necessary to
eliminate d r from the equations
c2
= dr
d
r.
be solved for d r by the method of Art. 47, page 90, and the solution substituted into the second.
first
The
equation
may
The
result will
show that the
infinitesimal sphere
has been transformed into an ellipsoid by the motion of the fluid during the time 8 1.
A
may
more
definite account of the
change that has taken place
be obtained by making use of equation (50)
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
v v
165
= iv + v(rfr.v) + 2(Vx
v)
xdr,
= v +i[V(dr.v)v ] + (Vxv)xdr; S
v
or of the equation (49)
= v + V(drv) dr +(Vx
v) dr
v)xrfr,
^
v
=v + [V (dr
The
first
+
I
(V x
v)
x d
r]+
(V x
v)
x d r.
the infinitesimal sphere
term v in these equations expresses the fact that is moving as a whole with an instan
is
taneous velocity equal to V . This of the motion. The last term
the translational element
^(Vxv)xdr =
shows that the sphere
lar velocity equal in
is
curl v
x dr
undergoing a rotation about an instantaneous axis in the direction of curl v and with an angu
curl
v.
magnitude to one half the magnitude of The middle term
or
v(dr.v) dr 
(Vx
v)
x dr
expresses the fact that the sphere is undergoing a defor mation known as homogeneous strain by virtue of which it
becomes
ellipsoidal.
For
this
term
is
equal to
dx V^j + dy V# 2 + dz
if
Vj,
v 2 , v s be respectively the
i,
components of v in the direc
that at any given point
tions
j,
k.
It
is
fairly obvious
(#o> 2A
may
mutually perpendicular axes i, j, k be chosen such that at that point V^, V# 2 V# 3 are rezo) ^ set of three
,
166
spectively parallel
VECTOR ANALYSIS
to
them.
Then
the
expression
above
becomes simply
dx *i i+dy y dx 9y
The point whose
infinitesimal sphere are
^i + dz ^. 9^
dy,
s
coordinates referred to the center of the
dx,
is
dz
In the time S
t it
therefore
will
endowed with this velocity. have moved to a new position
The
totality of the points
upon the sphere
the ellipsoid of goes over into the totality of points upon which the equation is
dx 2
2
dy
dz*
y
The statements made before (Art. 72) concerning the three types of motion which an infinitesimal sphere of fluid may
possess have therefore
77.]
now been
demonstrated.
in
applied several times This will correspond in a general way to forming derivatives of an order higher than the first. The will all be independ expressions found by thus repeating
succession.
The symbolic operator
V may be V
ent of the axes because
dels of the second order.
V itself
is.
There are six of these
Let
V
(#, y, z)
The
derivative
VF
be a scalar function of position in space. is a vector function and hence has a curl
Therefore
and a divergence.
VVF,
VxVF
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
are the
167
two derivatives obtained from V.
of the second order
which may be
(51)
(52)
VVF=div VF
x
V
the derivative
VF=curl VF.
The second expression
V x V V vanishes identically. V
V possesses no V V in terms of
That
is,
of any All x be seen by expanding i, j, k. the terms cancel out. Later (Art. 83) it will be shown con possesses no curl, i. e. if versely that if a vector function
scalar function
curl.
This
may
W
V
x
W = curl W =
V VF
0,
then
W = VF,
in terms of
W
is
the derivative of some scalar function F.
first
The
i, j,
expression
when expanded
k becomes
Symbolically,
V V=
V V is
s
^ y2
+
O
<i/2
5
+ r O
/v
2
The
operator
therefore the wellknown operator of
Laplace.
Laplace
Equation
becomes in the notation here employed
VVF=0.
(53)
When applied to a scalar function F the operator yields a scalar function which is, moreover, the divergence of the
derivative.
V V
be the temperature in a body. Let c be the con The ductivity, p the density, and k the specific heat.
flow f
is
Let
T
168
VECTOR ANALYSIS
rate at
is
The
which heat
is
leaving a point per unit volume per
of temperature is
unit time
V
f.
The increment
rfr=^V.f K
p
dt.
d at
This
ture.
is
= ^.VT.
pK
Fourier
s
equation for the rate of change of tempera
Let
V
be a vector function, and
Vv Vv Vz
may
2 j
its
three
com
ponents.
The
operator V V of Laplace
1
be applied to V.
3
v.vv = vvr + vvr + v.vr
i
k
(54)
If a vector function
its
V
satisfies
Laplace
s
three scalar components does.
Other
dels of the
Equation, each of second
order
of V.
may
be obtained by considering the divergence and curl The divergence V has a derivative
V
VVV = VdivV.
The
and
curl
(55)
V X V has in turn a divergence and a curl,
V V x V, VxVxV. V V x V = div curl V V x V x V = curl curl V.

(56)
(57)
and
Of
these expressions
V VxV
vanishes identically.
vector is zero.
i, j,
That
is,
the divergence of the curl of any x V in terms of seen by expanding
This
may
be
V V
k.
Later (Art.
83) vector function
it
will be
W vanishes identically, V W = div W = then W = V x V = curl V,
i. e. if
shown conversely that
if
the divergence of a
0,
W
is
the curl of
some vector function V.
V V Of these. The term V VV is meaningless until it V be transposed to the beginning so that operates upon V. . vanish. curl curl V= V VV. VxVxV = VV. (58) very important. two vanish identically.VV. satisfy Laplace s Should the vector function V Equation. operator (58) V V is equivalent to the operator of Laplace.VVVV. It expresses the curl of the curl of a vector in terms of the derivative of the divergence This formula and the operator of Laplace. V x V x V. Should the curl of the curl of V V div V = V VV. V. VxVxV = VV. VVxV = 0. There are six of the dels of the second order.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS If the expression 169 V x (V x V) were expanded formally triple vector product. V Vx V. according to the law of the Vx(VxV) = VVVV. VVT.VV. VVV. VxVr=0. A third may be The expressed in terms of two others.VV. or curl is (58) curl V = V div V . To sum up. V VV = and curl curl V = V div V. Should the divergence of V be zero.V VV. VxVF.
. upon a geometric interpretation of the second u of the one scalar variable x. Xn *"" XQ * XQ a ~~~ */ &t Then is ^ o ^^ ni the ratio of the difference between the average of u at the points x l and #2 and the value of u at x to the square of the distance of the points x v #3 from x . = u~ : ?^_. is easily proved by Taylor s theorem.170 * 78. two points on k at the same distance a from x o? . That d*u .] VECTOR ANALYSIS The geometric interpretation of V Vw is interesting. . Let it be required the value of u at the point x Let u be to find the second derivative of u with respect to x at the Let xl and x2 be two points equidistant from # point x That is. LIM . LIM. Let u be a scalar function of position in space. let It depends derivative of a scalar function i t._2 . k and evaluate the expressions Let x s . Choose j. > and a?! be two points on the line i at a distance a from 2 #4 and #3 two points on j at the same distance a from #e and #6 . three mutually orthogonal lines i. .
The u\ + U2 + 6 * ^ n terms n then approaches the average value of u upon the surface of a Denote this sphere of radius a surrounding the point x . By * adding together all these results u\ + u% + a==  6 n terms a at the Let n become fraction infinite and same time let the different sets of axes point in every direction issuing from # .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 171 Add: LIM r ~a=OL As V and V are independent of the particular axes chosen. same reasoning holds in case u is a vector function. this expression may be evaluated for a different set of axes. by u a . then for still a different one. = a V V u is equal to six times the of the excess of limit approached by the ratio u on the surface of a sphere above the value at the center to the square of the radius of the sphere. etc. If The u be the temperature of a body VV u (except for a constant factor which depends upon the material of the .
dn r dt* =d n r. u be a scalar or vector function. In case u is a vector function the average is The is proportional to the excess of a vector average.172 body) 77). That the temperature is a solution of Laplace Maxwell gave the name concentration to is. is VECTOR ANALYSIS equal to the rate of increase of temperature (Art. The derivatives of the components of a vector are the components of the derivatives. Evidently therefore the condition for a steady flow is V V u = 0. V V u whether Consequently V V u may u whether it be called the dispersion of the function or vector. s Equation.. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER III t If a vector r is a function of a scalar r the derivative of a vector quantity whose direction is that of the tangent to the curve described by the terminus of r and whose magnitude is equal to the rate of advance of t with respect to is that terminus along the curve per unit change of t. n i d H r . The additions in it are vector additions. . If positive the average temperature upon a VV^is small sphere is greater than the temperature at the center. The center of the sphere is growing warmer. In the case of a steady flow the temperature at the center must remain constant. d* H r~ dt dt* j J dt* k ( 2V be A combination of vectors or of vectors and scalars may differentiated just as in ordinary scalar analysis except that the differentiations must be performed in situ. be scalar dispersion the average value of the function on an infinitesimal surface above the value at the center.
The differential of a unit vector is perpendicu lar to that vector. r.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 173 (3) (4) or d (a b) =da b + a d b. derivative of a vector r with respect to the arc s of the curve which the terminus of the vector describes is The the unit tangent to the curves directed toward that part of the curve along which $ is supposed to increase. The arc s."The derivative of t with respect to the arc * is <" is a vector whose direction normal to the curve on the concave side and is whose magnitude equal to the curvature of the curve. (3) (4) d(axb) = daxb + axdb. and so forth. tortuosity of a curve in space is the derivative of the unit normal n to the osculating plane with respect to the ~ ^n_^_/rfr X r ds~ ds\ds ds* <? 2 _1 VCTC/ _ \ The magnitude of the tortuosity is r= rdr d*r 3 r" L^s ^T2 rf^J cZ .
or under a central acceleration. *** The acceleration is which one rate of be broken up into two components of parallel to the tangent and depends upon the may change of the scalar velocity v of the particle in its path. Integration with respect to a scalar of differentiation. operator applied to a scalar function of position in a vector whose direction is that of most rapid space gives increase of that function and whose magnitude is equal to The V the rate of that increase per unit change of position in that direction . in particular motion in a circle. is Application to finding the paths merely the inverse due to given accelerations. (19) Applications to the hodograph. and of which the other is perpendicular to the tangent and depends upon the velocity of the particle and the curva ture of the path. t the time. A the acceleration.174 If r VECTOR ANALYSIS denote the position of a moving particle. Application to the proof of the theorem that the motion of a rigid body one point of which is fixed is an instantaneous rotation about an axis through the fixed point. A= s t + 2 C. parabola. v the velocity.
J~ + k. so far as the scalar differentiators of 51 5 x> "9 / d y. 3 z (33) 3 x + ^+ 3y ^ 3 z .VF = (aV) F=a(VF). V .  3 x _ .V= ^ J 3y + kx 8 . 9 3 z y (32) VxV=ix^ + jx 3x V. may be looked upon as a fictitious vector. k.^. a vector It obeys the formal laws of vectors just in differentiator. or WdT = dV. (32) .THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS is invariant of the axes operator denned by the equation 175 The V i. 9 1 3 z obey the formal laws of scalar quantities V A If a  VF a. =^ ^i^ l7 + < 28 > be a unit vector a VV is the directional derivative of V in the direction a. (25) by two methods depend Computation of the derivative V and (25) Illustration of the oc ing upon equations (21) currence of V in mathematical physics. If (30) V is a vector function a VV is the directional derivative of that vector function in the direction a. It may be (24) n. j.
(49) v = \ v + V (d r + \ (V x x d r. v V u v) =v . u Vv + uV* v.176 Proof that of V. v) dr v) + (V x v) x v) dr. V (u v) = V u v + u V v. t.) (35) (36) u + V v. (50) Application to hydrodynamics. the curl V V = div V. V(nv)=vVu + U Vv + vx (V x =V (37) (38) (39) (40) n) v). (42) (43) dif is Introduction of the partial ferentiations are V (u v) u v) u . V X V = curl V. u x If a (V x v) = V (u n V v. . in which the performed upon the hypothesis that u constant. (46) be a unit vector the directional derivative a Vv=V of (a v) a + (V x v) x a. V O + = V u + Vtf. (41) + n x (V x Vx (u x V (n x v) = v VxuuVxv. V (u + v) Vx(u + v)=Vxn + Vxv. V x (u v) = V u x v + u V x v.Vu del. V (u v) = v V u + u V v. (47) The expansion any vector function v in the neighborhood of a point (x# y# z ) at which it takes on the value of v is v or =v + V (d r . VECTOR ANALYSIS V V is the divergence of V and V x V. The dels of the second order are six in number.
If VVF=0. 12 .V.V. be the ijplane. EXERCISES ON CHAPTER III Let the particle moving in a plane curve. Vx VxV=curlcurlV = VV. Obtain the formulae for the compo plane nents of the velocity parallel and perpendicular to the radius 1. VV.THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 177 V x VF= curl VF= 0. Given a vector r. These are rp where is is kxr. 2. makes with i. (52) (51) VVJ^vV^f^+^ + Vp d x d y 9 2 2 x) 2 F" wv &v z2 V V place s is Laplace s operator. The operator be applied to a vector. V satisfies may La Equation. V V x V = div curl V = 0. Obtain the accelerations of the particle parallel and perpendicular to the radius vector. V = VdivV. These are Express these formulae in the usual manner in terms of x and y. VV. the angle the radius vector r and k the normal to the plane. The geometric interpretation of (55) (56) (58) V V as giving the disper sion of a function.
y. k and show that they vanish (Art. be a system of polar coordinates in space. By the second method given case the derivative is V of a triple product #. 63 that the operator 6. 5. 9. 10.VV. z in r) r. </> the meridianal angle. . a meridian. is V is equal to j> and show that in these cases the formula (58) holds. . and (VxV) x W=Vx (Vx . terms of i. f are constant vectors. y. V V F when Fis r 2 r. V is independent of the axes. VV V. If r. VV. Reduce z. </>. d. j. Show by expanding in terms of k that Vx VxV=VV. obtain the expressions for the components of the velocity and acceleration along the radius vector. computing V find [a be] each term of which for a function of a = (r b = (r a) e. Show by the direct method suggested in Art. or r r r* V V V. and V x V x V when V .VW+ WA. Obtain the accelerations of a moving particle parallel and perpendicular to the tangent to the path and reduce the results to the usual form. where r is the distance of a point from the origin. Prove A.V(7W) = VA. Compute Compute equal to r and when 8. and a parallel of latitude. these expressions to the ordinary form in terms of #.178 VECTOR ANALYSIS 3. 4. Expand V x V V and V V x V in 77). i. c =r x t. VV 11. j. e. where 7. and 6 the polar angle .
y. Let be a vector function of position in be any curve in space. each approaching zero. t/ r W dr = r [W+dx \W*dy +W%dz\. d r have opposite signs when the curve is described in oppo . and r the radius vector (#. Divide the curve into infinitesimal elements dr. t/ (7 (1) The the definition of the line integral therefore coincides with definition usually given. is called the the curve C and is written .] Let W C space. From the sum of the scalar product of these elements d r and the value of the function thus W at some point of the element 2W d r. z) drawn from some fixed origin to the points of the curve.CHAPTER IV THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 79. The in limit of this sum when the elements dr become infinite W along number. It is however necessary to is specify in which direction the radius vector r supposed to describe the curve during the For the elements integration.dr. line integral of and dT I = dx + j dy + i i C7 k dz.
dr = o F(r) .y. z) at the point r and at the point r That is. If f denote the force point to point along the curve which may be supposed to vary from (7. along any curve from the point r to the point r is equal to the difference between the values . the work done by the force is when r its point of application moved from the initial point of the curve C to its final point r is the line integral f J Theorem : ff c . fact that the integral is The is taken around a closed curve denoted by writing a circle at the foot of the integral sign. Vr.180 site directions. a closed curve bounding a portion of surface the curve will always be regarded as described in In case the curve C is such a direction that the enclosed area appears positive (Art. method of description be denoted by C and the other by /W G dr =  JI c W d r. To show (3) . the derivative The line integral of VF of a scalar function V(x. y. derivative (2) The line integral V F" of a single valued scalar function of position closed V taken around a curve vanishes.y. dr= f r J z) dr. 25).).^) of the fdV= F(r) Theorem :  F(r ) .V(xy*d. of the function F (#.F(r ) = dr V(x. By definition V F" = d V = Ffey.V(xyz.z) . VECTOR ANALYSIS If one (7.
/ c /Wdr = c / Jc W*dr. Jo if : Conversely closed curve vanishes. Hence J / W c dr = J / W c dr. J di be any fixed point in space and r a variable point.dr = 0. of integration Hence the value of the integral is independent of the path and depends only upon the final point r. Given J o To show Let r W = V V.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUJS OF VECTORS The initial 181 point r and the final point r coincide. . z) of position in space.dr = 0. For let any two paths C and C be drawn between r and r. Hence Hence by (2) Theorem fvF. y. Hence by hypothesis /W*cZr+ j fw. The line integral independent of the path of integration C. The curve which is f consists of the path C from r to r and the path C from f r to r is a closed curve. W the line integral of about every is the derivative of some scalar W function V (x.
k be chosen so that k is vertical. I w= z ) = g (z z).z). Then The work done by the force when its point of application moves from the position r to the position r is w= Hence I Jr f*dT = g I Jr (z # k dr = J r gdz. the forcefunction is V is one to V any forcefunction. z). V= g f = VF=0k. Let a system of axes i. may be obtained In the above ex V=w = g(z Or more simply The force is Q z. The force f is said to be derivable from a forcefunction V when there exists a scalar function of position V such that the force is if equal at each Evidently by adding ample arbitrary constant.] the surface of the earth under the influence of gravity. j. another point of the derivative VF. Let the integral be taken between two points together. be the force which acts upon a unit mass near 80. The value the position of the point r whose coordinates are x. infinitely near But by Hence definition VV dr = d V. W is The theorem Let f therefore demonstrated. y. y. .182 VECTOR ANALYSIS of the integral is therefore a scalar function of z.
6 r This It is is the law of universal gravitation as stated by Newton. y. is that the work done by the force when its point of application moves around a closed circuit be zero. The tional force of attraction exerted is by a fixed mass is M upon a unit mass directed toward the fixed mass and to the inverse square of propor the distance between the masses. of the attracting mass Choose the origin of coordinates at the center M. The work done by the force is w= If I f dr . this integral vanishes when taken around every closed contour And conversely if f = VV work done the integral vanishes. V= w + const exist. = c$r r dr Jr I r 2 =cM M 1) } j I r r 3 . f M = cr. In case there is friction no forcefunction can a particle is For the in a work done by closed circuit friction when moved around is never zero. easy to see that this force is derivable from a force function V. Then the work done is M ? r d r.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS The necessary and 183 sufficient condition that a forcefunction V (z. The forcefunction and the differ only by a constant. But r r dr = r d r. z) exist.
< where r r r 2 r 8 are the distances of the attracted unit mass from the attracting masses v M% B M y M The law of the conservation of mechanical energy requires that the work done by the forces when a point is moved on the assump tion that none of the mechanical energy has been converted into other forms of energy during the motion.184 VECTOR ANALYSIS a proper choice of units the constant c may be made The forcefunction equal to unity. . is function exists system for which a forcecalled a conservative system. derivable conservation of energy therefore requires the forces to be from a forcefunction. From the A mechanical it is clear that bodies example moving under the law of universal gravitation form a conservative system at least so long as they do not collide. just cited above be any vector function of position in Let S be any surface. finitesimal elements.] Let W (x. Conversely if a force function exists the work done by the forces when a point is carried around a closed curve is zero and consequently there is no loss of energy. The law of This is around a closed curve shall be zero. may therefore be By V chosen as If there had been several attracting bodies the forcefunction would have been M . Divide this surface into in space. z) plane and may be represented by infinitesimal vectors of which the direction is at each point the direction of the normal to the surface at that point and of which the magni tude is equal to the magnitude of the area of the infinitesimal . y. These elements may be regarded as 81.
and the (vector) element of The limit of this is sum when the elements of sur face approach zero called the surface integral of W over (4) the surface $. It is however necessary to The determine with the greatest care which normal to the surface da is. That is is. (5) surface integral therefore has been defined as is cus tomary in ordinary analysis. and is written The value of the integral pressed in terms of their and da be ex three components parallel to i. For the normals upon the two are the negatives of each other. 185 Let the this infinitesimal vector which represents the element of surface in magnitude and direction be denoted by d a. Hence the surface integrals taken over the two sides will surface be looked is differ in sign.rfa s . which side of the surface (so to speak) the sides integral taken over. j. k is scalar. If W or da = dy dz i f dz dx j + dx dy k. In case the upon as bounding a portion of space d a considered to be the exterior normal.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS element. always If f denote the flux of any substance the surface integral f. Form sum of the scalar products of the value of which is the sum W at each element of surface surface.
components is treated separately. F. 71) that the rate at which matter was leaving a point per unit volume per unit time was V f The total amount of mat ter which leaves a closed space bounded by a surface S per . It was seen before (Art.186 VECTOR ANALYSIS gives the amount of that substance which is passing through the surface per unit time. (8) This is known as Gauss s Theorem. The where X. Z are the three components of the flux f familiar when each of the three theorem is perhaps still more . It states that the surface integral (taken over a closed surface) of the product of a function the cosine of the angle which the exterior normal to that surface makes with the Xaxis is equal to the volume integral of the partial derivative of that function X and . unit time is the ordinary triple integral (6) Hence the very important relation connecting a surface in tegral of a flux taken over a closed surface and the volume integral of the divergence of the flux taken over the space enclosed by the surface /// CO Written out in the notation of the ordinary calculus this becomes I I \Xdy dz + Ydzdx + Zdxdy~\ 3Y.
f = This equation dv J J ^ fffda.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS that surface.f= dvQ fda. Theorem : The surface integral of the curl of a vector 82. (10) which is evidently independent of the the properties of the divergence may be deduced. Hence V. a (9) be taken as a definition of the divergence The divergence of a vector function f is equal to the f. (11) the celebrated theorem of Stokes. That is V.] function equal to the line integral of that vector function taken around the closed curve bounding that surface. In order to make use of this definition it is necessary to develop at least the elements of the integral calculus of vectors before this definition From axes all the differentiating operators can be treated. A dvJJs . limit approached by the surface integral of f taken over a sur may V face when bounding an infinitesimal body divided by that volume the volume approaches zero as its limit. all On account of its great importance in branches of mathematical physics a number of different proofs will be given. If the surface 187 with respect to x taken throughout the volume enclosed by S be the surface bounding an infinitesimal sphere or cube ff fda = Vf dv where d v is the volume of that sphere or cube. is f fV x JJ8 This is Wda= JO wdr. . This definition of f consequently is interesting more from a theoretical V than from a practical standpoint.
W W .188 First Proof : VECTOR ANALYSIS Consider a small triangle 1 23 upon the surface at the vertex 1 be S (Fig. in this case a small triangle. Then by (50). Let the value of III. 32. + V (W* 8 r) + (V x W) x where the symbol 8 r has been introduced for the sake of dis tinguishing it from d r which is to be used as the element of The integral of W taken around the triangle FIG. JA Cdr vanishes because the integral of d r around a closed figure. The second term g Jfv(WSr). is W = ~{ W integration. . / f (V x W) x A o first term I 2 fw JA . Cwdr=l fwo dr + + The 5 g fv(WSr).. 32).dr = iw o . the value at any neighboring point 8 r j .<Zr Srdr. is zero. Chap.dr A Hence vanishes by virtue of (3) page 180.
Hence the product Sr x di vanishes because 8 r and d r are collinear. side #5. is the r x dr = where d a denotes the positive area of the triangular element For the infinitesimal triangle therefore the of surface. Let the surface 8 be divided into elementary triangles. but taken Hence the vector product vanishes. = JV xWSr When dr is x dr. This area. 8r in the opposite direction. relation =V x W holds. 2/ JA a 1 . Interchange the dot and the cross in this triple product. Sr is a line drawn from the vertex to this side S3. also equal to this side. Hence positive area 1 % 3. For convenience let the curve which bounds the surface be made up of the sides of these triangles. integration Perform the JA fwdr around each of these triangles and add the results together. In like manner when dr is the side 31. Hence the product 8 r x d r twice the area of the triangle.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 189 Cw*di = JA l JA fvxWxSrdr. moreover. Sr is equal to the side 12 of the triangle. When dr 1 at which is is the W= W is the same side 13.
leaving in the sum only the terms which arise from those sides which make up the bounding which arise S curve of the surface. 33. Let to C. C r be another such contour near Consider the variation S which FIG. 33). takes place in the line integral of in passing from the contour C to the W contour C". it is member that all the sides of the ele Hence all the terms in the sum surface from those sides of the triangles lying within the cancel out. Let Second Proof C be any closed contour drawn upon the surface It will be assumed that (Fig. . 2 V x Wrfa=JJv x W In adding together the line integrals which occur in the first necessary to notice mentary triangles except those which lie along the bounding curve of the surface are traced twice in opposite directions.190 VECTOR ANALYSIS ] The second member is V x W da 3 the surface integral of the curl of W. tegral of Hence the sum reduces to the line in W along the curve which bounds the surface S. = fw Jo Hence V x W da = fW Jo : d r. is S C continuous and does not cut itself.
differential.dr. z and &y . integral is In this case the taken around the closed contour C.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS t/ 191 /V.dr = t/f f S fwdr = But and d(W Hence J*W &dT= Cw*dST=f d(W*Sr) (W 8 r) is  CdW *ST. Hence Jc Hence /^ and S fwrfr= fsw. The expression d The value of the by its form a perfect integral of that expression will therefore be the difference between the values of W dr at the end and at the beginning of the path of integration.f But d W = 9W d J K ^ i d! a? + 7T J dy + or d W = PW &x vx r + ^ d 3W j dr + 3W k ^ y d d r.
[ 8r idr + similar terms in y But by (25) page 111 Hence sfwdr=/ j i x ^ Srxdr and z  . in expand until starting at a point coincides with the contour bounding S.Br~ ox and z. + or 8 similar terms in y fW dr = fV x W 8r x d r. The line integral Let the curve C it will vary from the value at the point to the value / t/O . Hence 8r X dr is equal to the area of an ele mentary parallelogram included between surface S. In Fig. 33 it will be seen that d r is the element of arc along the curve C and 8 r is the distance from the curve C to the curve C r .192 VECTOR ANALYSIS Substituting these values x dT i. That is C and C upon f the S fwdr= fv x W da.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS taken around the contour which bounds the surface S. IT = V x W. 13 The converse is therefore demonstrated. (11) theorem that the surface integral of the curl of a vector function is equal to the line integral of the func tion taken along the closed curve which bounds the surface also true. integral of a The converse is If the surface vector function U is equal to the line integral of the function W taken around is the curve bounding the surface and if this relation holds for all surfaces in space.V x W)da = S over which The Let the surface infinitesimal. then TT is the curl of W. has been proved. 0. total variation of the integral will be 193 This of the equal to the sum variations 8 Or 83. . the integration is performed be integral reduces to merely a single term (U_V As first x any element of surface this equation holds for d a. the surface integral df the difference between and // (tf~ Vx W)*da=f W*dr or f Wdr = 0. (12) IT Form V x W. if That f fll. f f (TI.] f Wdr= Stokes s ff Vx Wda. the factor vanishes. thenU=Vx W. da = f Wdr. Hence ITHence V x W = 0.
a small circle of finitesimal plane area. the current density). That is Edr. concentric with P. j. .194 VECTOR ANALYSIS which is independent of the axes definition of V x k may be obtained by applying Stokes s theorem to an in A i. area d a. e. Pass a plane through P and draw in it. When d a between has the same direction as (13) value of the V X W the line integral will be a maximum. Vx W.dajo F/V W f Wrfrl J (13) at each Hence the curl VxW of a vector function W has point of space the direction of the which the line integral of normal to that plane in taken about a small circle con centric with the point in question is a maximum. per unit area per unit time (i. IM =rfa rfa=:0 Lda. d a will be equal For this value of da. W Consider a point P. This definition like the one given in Art. Stokes s theorem or rather s its converse may be used to de duce Maxwell equations of the electromagnetic field in a simple manner. Let E be the electric force. H It is a fact learned from experiment that the total electro motive force around a closed circuit is equal to the negative of the rate of change of total magnetic induction through the circuit.da=f W*dT. 81 for the divergence is interesting more from theoretical than from practical considerations. and C the flux of electricity induction. V x W and for the cosine of the angle to unity. B the magnetic the magnetic force. The mag nitude of the curl at the point is equal to the magnitude of that line integral of maximum value divided by the area of the circle about which it is taken. The total electromotive force is the line integral of the electric force taken around the circuit.
B. experiment that the work done in carry unit positive magnetic pole around a closed circuit is ing a equal to 4?r times the total electric flux through the circuit. That is ///* Experiment therefore teaches that = 47r C f JJs .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS The total 195 face integral of the magnetic induction magnetic induction through the circuit is the sur B taken over a surface circuit. It is also a fact of The work done in carrying a unit pole around a circuit is around the circuit. Hence by the converse of Stokes s theorem V x E = . bounded by the That is B d*. That is the line integral of H through the circuit is the surface integral of C taken over a surface bounded by the total The flux of electricity circuit. i Experiment therefore shows that or JJ J/Edr=/l a o B d a. curl E = .B.
Vx VF=0. The surface bounding to a Apply point . div curl curl W= 0. VVxWdv = Jfwdr = o 0. closed. . interpretation of the current C. V V x W= 0. theorem VX Wdv= According to Stokes s theorem f fvxWda = CW dr. the sphere Hence its bounding curve reduces to zero. V V x W= 0. an interpretation depending upon one of Maxwell s primary hypotheses. in the form used by to The theorems of Stokes and Gauss may be used demon strate the identities. as the dis placement current in addition to the conduction current. this relation and the preceding one are the funda mental equations of Maxwell Heaviside and Hertz. s theory. and the integral around it. Hence fffvVxWdtf= this to is Cw*dr. According to Gauss s VF=0.196 VECTOR ANALYSIS the converse of Stokes s theorem By V With a proper x H=4 TT C. an infinitesimal sphere.
The curve this surface is closed. then TT is the curl of some vector function W. surface. (2) JYv x Wrfa= f W. then U is the derivative of some scalar function 84.] By making : use of the three fundamental relations between the dels/ viz. Apply this bounding to any infinitesimal portion of surface. V As x any d a.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Again according to Stokes s 197 theorem ffvxvr. If the V TJ =V x W* TT is If the curl V x II of a vector function everywhere zero.rfr. and the . it this equation holds for follows that Vx VF=0. line. In a similar manner the converse theorems may be TT of a vector function divergence TJ is everywhere zero. and volume integrals. (11) (7) possible to obtain a large it is number of formulae for the transformation of integrals. F". demonstrated. These formulae correspond to . Hence the line integral of the derivative VF" vanishes.<2a = fvrdr.
the end of the path. (15) a / Jo / uv dr I I J J V?txvrfa. 8 Hence f* I f* I J J or V^xvda=l &Vxvda= f* a Jo uv dr f* f* I I J J wVxvda. V ( C C Jc Hence I ~Jc % T C V JG \ Vv di = [uv] r vV u* dx. (15) Third Vx (wV y)^^VxV^ + V^xV V x Vv = (u V v) = V u x But Hence Vx V v. (14) The expression [u v] represents the difference between the value of (u v) at r. Jo Second f* I f^Vvdr = x (u v) f* / C V Jo x v + u*dr. and the value at r the beginning of the path. for differentiating. (14) V =uV (* Vu x (* v. page 161. a 2. They formulae. First V (u v) = u V v + v V u. . If the path be closed .198 those VECTOR ANALYSIS " in ordinary connected with u integration by parts are obtained by integrating both sides of the calculus. f* I J J V x (wv)*^ a= S J J / ^Vxvrfa+/ f* I S J J Vwxvda.
all. like those above can be multiplied almost without It is known Only one more will be as Greens Theorem and is perhaps If the most important of functions of position. Vvd JJJV. (17) v(V^xv) = VXV^*v v^VXv. (18) In all surface these formulae which contain a triple integral the is the closed surface bounding the body throughout is which the integration performed.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS f* f* 199 f* f* JJ Hence f* f* S J J f* It 8 IIVO AVt/ J J s . ..(T)^=JJJVT^ JJJ * /// r r r + C C C Hence ^v or a C C C ^7uv dv= Fifth I I Mvda rrr^V V^i. Examples given here. u and v are any two scalar . x v. P ^J 7 1 S4 />V I Jo Jo v \ / Fourth V (u v) =uV +V w v. V (V M x Hence v) = V^ V rfv^xvrfa = $ fffv^vxvdi..y . of integration by parts limit.
By expanding the expression in terms of i. (21) w is a third scalar function of position.200 VECTOR ANALYSIS V (^ V fl) VOV JJJ^ Hence u u) = V^ V + V V^ = V u V v + v V V u> tf 24 ^ vclv== J J J V. j.] In the preceding articles the scalar and vector func tions which have been subject to treatment have been sup . The use of v in these two different senses can hardly give rise to any misunderstanding. By subtracting these equalities the formula (20) / / / (^ is V V^ v V V w) ^ ^ = / / (^ V t> v V ^) ^ a. * 85. to The element of volume dv has nothing do with the scalar function v in these equations or in those that go before. (19) = / ^ / V^ da I v^*V udv. obtained.(uvv)dv C f Cu^ / / /V^Vtfdfl=/ /^VvcU f j / r/^VVvdi?. further generalization due to Thomson (Lord Kelvin) is the A following : / / lw^/u*Vvdv=l I uwVv*d& I I I I u\ = where / I vwVU"d* I I v\? [w^ u^ dv. k the ordinary form of Green s theorem may be obtained.
0) to the point (1. Let one path be a semi and the other. circle lying above the JTaxis axis. possessing derivatives of the first two orders at every point of space under consider ation. 0) along two different paths. From this it appears that the integral does not depend merely the limits of integration. Suppose for instance VFThe line integral y dx Introducing polar coordinates = r cos 6. or fail to possess derivatives of the discontinuous or multiplefirst two orders in in certain regions of space. upon . some caution must be exercised applying the results obtained. singlevalued. a semicircle of the integral along the lying below that first The value path is along the second path. but upon the path chosen. When the functions are valued. y = r sin 0. x 7 V d r = I d 0.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 201 posed to be continuous. . I /* d6 TT. Form the line integral from the point ( + 1.
the function and fails to possess a derivative. Any closed curve which does not contain the origin may be shrunk up or expanded at will .1). the function V takes on not only the value F= but a whole series of values 7T i tan l = TT r> 4 +&7T. The difficulty is follows fell out. 0) to (1. 79 were false seem It might and that consequently the entire bottom of the work which This however is not so. Furthermore at which was included between the two semicircular becomes wholly inde paths of integration. that the function F=tan is 1 ^ V x not singlevalued. If the two paths of integration from (+ 1. The curve C not surrounding the origin . In other words the value of the integral around a closed curve origin vanishes as it should. let it be considered as marked as Inasmuch the origin by an impassable barrier. curve does not vanish. but a closed curve which surrounds the origin cannot be so distorted as no longer to enclose that point without break ing its continuity. 2 TT. any positive or negative integer.0) had not included the origin the values of the integral V would not have differed. for instance. which does not include the appears to be the point which vitiates the results obtained. but is equal to closed therefore the results of Art. where k is the origin.202 VECTOR ANALYSIS of the value the value along one path being the negative around the circle which is a The integral along the other. It will be seen terminate therefore that the origin is a peculiar or singular point of the function V. At the point (1.
Let all V fails to be continuous or to have con tinuous barriers. can only shrink down and fit closer and closer about It cannot be the origin. for instance. The curve C is said to be reducible . It must always remain encircling the origin. Consider. may be shrunk up to nothing and is said to be but a circuit which contains one or more such its points cannot be so shrunk up without breaking and it is said to be irreducible. the region (Fig. C Suppose next that the points at which V is any function whatsoever. irreducible. acyclic. VF A it may be shrunk up to nothing without passing through any singular point of V and without breaking its continuity. shrunk down to nothing. (7. then. 34) en closed between the surface of a cylinder and the surface of a cube which contains the cylinder and whose bases coincide with those of the cylinder. but the integral around any irreducible circuit C does not vanish. a region every closed curve in which is reducible*. In case of the function F. first partial derivatives be marked as impassable it Then any circuit which contains within no such point reducible. By means of a simple device any cyclic region may be ren dered acyclic.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS may but 203 C shrink up to nothing without a break in its continuity . The theorem stated: The line integral of the derivative continuity V vanishes circuit around any reducible circuit C. it is true that the integral taken around any reducible circuit vanishes. region such that any closed curve C within V without passing through any of the and without breaking its continuity. Such a region is realized in a room . is said to be All other regions are cyclic. may then be VF" of any function It may or may not vanish around an irreducible circuit In case one irreducible C may be distorted so as to coincide with another irreducible circuit C singular points of the two circuits are said to be reconcilable and the values of the line integral of about them are the same. that is.
Owing to the inser tion of the diaphragm to it is draw a circuit which shall pass completely no longer possible around the cyl inder cuit the diaphragm prevents it. They belong properly to the subject of integration itself. rather than to the particular notation which may be employed in connection with it and which is the primary object of exposition here. To For cyclic regions they may or may not hold enter further into these questions at this point is Indeed. . and the two sides of the diaphragm is acyclic. true. which a column reaches from the It circuit which passes evident that this region is cyclic. region In like manner any region inserting a sufficient may be rendered acyclic by number of diaphragms. If now a diaphragm be inserted reaching from the surface of the cylinder or column to the surface of the cube the region thus formed bounded by the surface of the cylinder. the surface of the cube. In acyclic regions or regions rendered acyclic by the fore going device all the results contained in Arts. Hence every closed cir which may be drawn in the region is reducible and the is acyclic. the column is irreducible. In this respect these questions are similar to questions of rigor. The bounding surfaces of the new region consist of the bounding surfaces of the given cyclic region and the two faces of each diaphragm.204 in is VECTOR ANALYSIS floor to the ceiling. much discussion as has been given them already may be superfluous. even as unnecessary. For they are ques tions which do not concern vector methods any more than the corresponding Cartesian ones. hold true. It cannot be contracted to around A ~^x / nothing without breaking its continuity. 79 et seq.
however.] 205 The Potential line. and owing to their especially frequent occurrence and great importance in physics. Vx. y 2 . Then (y2 r = x O 2 !>! + . origin. Suppose that ^0** Vv is *a) a scalar function of the position in space of the point For the sake of definiteness V may density of matter at the point (# 2 . *i) be any other fixed point of space. certain special volume integrals which. In nonhomogeneous dis tributions of matter V varies from point to point. r2 = drawn from any assumed the point (# 2 . represented by the vector drawn from the same r2 is origin. merit especial consideration. owing to their intimate connection with the differentiating operators V. may be used to designate Let On yi. and volume integrals of functions both scalar and vector.*j) k the vector (#2> IJy 2 2) drawn from the point (x v y v Zj) to the point A S s vec ^or occurs a large number of times ^ in the sections immediately following. yv 22 ). V. r i2 it will be denoted by =r ~~ r 2 i . be regarded as the In a homogeneous body V is constant. Hitherto there have been considered surface. but at each point it has a definite value. There exist.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS The Integrating Operators. z 2 ).yi ) j + (z 2 . 86. The vector z 2 i + y 2 j + * 2 k. matter exists V is In those portions of space in which no identically zero.
terpretation of this integral / . The element mass dm . This indeed might seem the other body of which the most natural set of limits.x^ + (y2 . During the integration the point (x v y v z^ re mains fixed.^) 2 .^) + 2 2 . 2! dm V (# 2 y2 2) dx^ dyz dz% = Vdv. value at each definite point (x v y v zj. The integral / is therefore the sum of the elements of mass in a body. i2 then r 12 and will be assumed to be = V r 12 r 12 = V (* 2 . In the first place they may be regarded as coincident with the limits of the V is the density. The inIt is a function of that point. 35). performed with respect to the variables with respect to the body of which V represents the density (Fig. is easy.206 VECTOR ANALYSIS of r 12 is The length positive. if the function V of be regarded as the density of matter in space. Consider the triple integral integration that ^2> ^2> ^ 2 The is is. at (# 2 . y 2 . z 2 ) is . each divided by its distance from a fixed point r dm J termed the potential at the point (x v y v due to the body whose density is This is what is The in limits of integration in the integral / may be looked at either of two ways. 3o. On hand the integral / may be . The integral / has a definite FIG.
y2 . z2 2. that integral called the potential of V. no matter what is V represents. such an integral the potential np connection with physical potential according to the The reason for calling even in cases in which it has is that it is formed same formal law as the true potential and . The function V and Pot It V therefore have different sets of variables. The value of the integral the same in both cases. Pot. frequent The operation Pot V r=fff ^ y" * 2> rf* 2 dy^ dz y (22) The symbol Pot V. potential." a function not of the variables is The #. For when the limits are infinite the function V vanishes identically at every point (# 2 .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 207 is regarded as taken over all space.] owing to its vanishing iden by matter. is read "the potential of V. yv with regard to variables which the integration is performed but of the point (x v y^ Zj) which is fixed during the integration. These enter in the expression for r 12 . over all space. is used for it. to consider the limits as infinite and the integral as extended This saves the trouble of writing in special The function Vot itself then limits for each particular case. practically determines the limits tically at all points unoccupied 87. such an been regarded as the density interpretation for V V is entirely too restricted for convenience. of finding the potential is of such occurrence that a special symbol. has hitherto may be necessary to note that although of matter in space. Whenever it becomes necessary to form the integral i of " < 22 > any scalar function V. 2 2) situated outside of the body and hence does not augment It is found most convenient the value of the integral at all.
V out into space. z 2) Pot W= W (* is 2 y* * 2) dx. were everywhere constant in space the in tegral would become greater and greater without limit as the limits of integration were extended farther and farther for instance. yv z 2) W= i Pot X+ j Pot Y+ k Pot Z. just as the potential and is W of a scalar function tion in space. Z. Thus the potential of a vector function is a vector function. The potential of a scalar function V exists at a point (x v y v z p ) when and only when the integral taken over all space converges to a definite value. y2 . for the convergence of the potential may be obtained by F A transforming to polar coordinates. z2 W be resolved into three components = X O yv ) + T <> yv ) ) 2. the rfy. yv 32 ) few important sufficient conditions recedes indefinitely. Pursuant to this idea the potential of a vector function WO may be written down. Y.208 VECTOR ANALYSIS of opera by virtue of that formation has certain simple rules tion which other types of integrals do not possess. 2/2 . z2 j 2. z2 + kZ <> 2 Pot . Let . 2. Evidently therefore if Jhe potential is to exist must approach zero as its limit as the point (#2 . If. rf. (24) The potential of a vector function W is equal to the vector sum of the potentials of its three components X. If V was i seen to be a scalar function of posi its WO 2. r (23) In this case the integral sum of vector quantities consequently itself a vector.
z = r cos = r sm0 dr dO is Let the point (xv y v ^) which be chosen at the origin. space outside of a supposed to be a large quan all K 14 . then the integral con verges as far as the distant regions of space are concerned.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS x 209 = r sin 6 cos fa yr dv 2 sin 6 sin fa 0. and consequently converges as far tity) is less than %TT* as regions distant from the origin are concerned. For let r = 00 dr d0d<f> r = 00 dr d0 d<f> = QO Hence the triple integral taken over sphere of radius R (where R is jR. Then r i2 fixed for the integration =r and the integral becomes or simply PotF= CCCVrsmff dr d0 dfa If the function V decrease so rapidly that the product Vr* remains finite as r increases indefinitely. d<f>.
more stringent ones must be resorted to. They are by no means neces The integral may converge when they do not hold. will not be discussed here. the point (x x . y2 z 2 ) . Unless the tests given above show the convergence. y v z x ). KR space inside a sphere supposed to be a small quantity) far as Zj) are If at any point (x 2 y2 i. They belong to the theory of integration in general rather than to the . For let Vr<K f CCrrsmddr d0 r d<f> < C C fadr d0 d<f>. z 2 ) not coincident with the origin. Such. z2) are concerned. the function V becomes infinite so at weakly that the product of the value 0/V a point near to ( X 2> J2> Z 2) ty the square of the distance of that point from y2 . It is however indispensable to know whether or not an integral under discussion converges. e. The proof of this statement like those given These three conditions for the convergence of the integral Pot V are sufficient. sary. however. then the integral converges as far as regions near to the is point (x 2 . and consequently converges as the origin which is the point (x v y v . then the integral converges as far as regions near to the origin are concerned.210 VECTOR ANALYSIS the function If V remain finite or if it become infinite so weakly that the product Vr remains finite when r approaches zero. = dO d<t> CCC Hence the of radius is less = all triple integral taken over R (where than 2 Tr2 R is now regions near to concerned. (x 2. remains finite as that distance approaches zero. before. .
] may be treated as above. 36). the value of Fat each point of space is **) to changed from where v C*2> y* A# 2 = A x r v 0*2 . It is only their positions relative to each other tial. by the But now if T be displaced in the negative direction amount A#. which determines the value of the poten both body and point be translated by the same amount in the same direction the value of the potential is un If changed. The discussion of re the convergence of the potential of a vector function three components which are scalar duces at once to that of its W functions and 88. This is the same as the potential at the point FlG 36   due to the same body T displaced in the negative direction by the amount A x r For in finding the potential at a point P due to a body T the absolute positions in space of the body T and the point P are immaterial.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 211 theory of the integrating operator Pot. is a function of the variables x v y v z l which are constant with respect to the integration. the potential at the point due to a certain body T. Let the The potential value of the potential at the point (x v y v z^ be denoted by The is first partial derivative of the potential with respect to x l therefore LIM ^[ The value of this limit may be determined by a simple Consider device (Fig.
y2 .[Pot It will be found convenient to introduce the limits of integration. t As all the following potentials are for the point indices have been dropped. Hence (25) becomes. *. . yt . i the bracket and . *y *\ /*/*/* ill 1^ f V O1 tl " ^ *V* V91 9 J / J J JM / / / I ^j 2 rft>..+ / / / J J Jm T YL ^_Mrf r2 <) 1 . and let the portion filled by the body after its translation in the negative direction through body T M the distance overlap.t a. when A ^j is replaced *by ar its equal Aic 2 . lf yi.. Then Pot V (a. the remainder of M 1 . + A . + A * y r * 2) f ^ d rrr JJJ m ^ Pot = I /// I I "\F ( O/ft r I W (II t/n * ^O/.. 2 . The regions Let the region common to both be m remainder of be m. A x l be denoted by M ... = [Pot F<> 2 + A . Let the portion of space originally filled by the be denoted by . M and M 1 . and let the M M 1 . Hence LlM [ Pot A #! = HX.212 VECTOR ANALYSIS Hence [Pot V(x v yv z^ + j / AX.
There are cases in which this reversal of the order in which the two limits are taken gives incorrect results.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 213 + Or. M and Jf both approach t as a limit. " A a. my(* A 2 C r f J J J . LIM v yy r12 g2 = rrr LIM j ( jJJ ^ r 12 9 X when A ^! approaches zero as its limit the regions mand which are at no point thicker than A #. J If the derivative of T function V must For the same reason within the region T. . 2 ==0 ^. approach zero . Jf m . If Fchanged suddenly from a finite value within the surface to a zero value outside the de rivative QVlS^i would not exist and the triple integral would be meaningless. Fis to exist at the surface bounding the values of the diminish continuously to zero upon the surface. V is supposed to be finite and continuous at every point . This is a question of double limits and leads to the mazes of modern mathematical rigor.
z2 of F. it may be written Vr In like manner the the righthand side may be written atten 2 to call tion to the fact that it applies to the variables #2 y 2 . V upon Then V V a Pot F= Pot V F 2 (27) To demonstrate this identity V may be expanded .3 PotF * ^J I . A^ojjj tial I V(Y V ^o* \ <>/ fo z \ ^9y OT riaAa. VPotF=PotVF (27) This statement follows immediately from the former. I in terms of . The derivative V of the potential ofVis equal to the potential of the derivative V V.2 Ji 7 = /\ Consequently the expression for the derivative of the poten reduces to merely 3 Pot d xl F= r r r J1/1 M J J i r 12 3 F 3# 2 dv* = Pot 3 F V 3^2 is ^%^ partial derivative of the potential of a scalar function equal to the potential of the partial derivative of V. .3 PotF * T 3 i lr * PotF ^ l+jPot 3 SV .214 VECTOR ANALYSIS if it be assumed that the region vanishes upon the surface bounding T Then T is finite and that V T/nvr i <t\ jvi I rrr I . the As V upon the lefthand side applies to the set of vari ables x v y^ Zj.
the sign of by means of (26) be integration and the terms may Then The curl function VX and divergence V of the potential of a vector potential of the curl W are equal respectively to the and divergence of that function.] T was finite and that the function Fwas everywhere region finite and continuous inside of the region T and moreover decreased so as to approach zero continuously at the surface bounding that region. It is be proved in a manner analogous to the even possible to go further and form the dels may of higher order v v Pot r= Pot v Uf>iac<3* VF. V x V x Pot W= Pot V x V x W. (30) (31) V. V. (32) (33) The dels upon the left might have a subscript 1 attached to show that the differentiations are performed with respect to the variables x v y v z v and for a similar reason the dels upon the right might have been written with a subscript 2.V Pot W = Pot V V W. In the foregoing work it has been assumed that the *89. results of this article may be summed up as follows: The Theorem: The differentiating operator V and the integrating operator Pot are commutative. curl Pot W = Pot curl W Vj Pot W = Pot V W. V V Pot W = Pot VV W. 2 (28) 2 These relations above. div Pot W = Pot div W. 215 k are constant vectors they may be placed under collected.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS As i. j. x Pot or and or W = Pot V x W. These restrictions are inconvenient .
da. 2 n m ^s equal to = Aa. $ bounding the r The element dt? 2 of volume dv z 2 i in the region m is therefore equal to =A# da. The derivative of the potential was obtained (page 213) in essentially the form xl otr_ r r r J J J .216 VECTOR ANALYSIS and may be removed by making use of a surface integral.^2^^2^2112) = TfV JJ The element of r !2 re gi volume d v 2 ^ n *^ e di.f LJLJjl I SV \^o V2 r 12 2x 2 J. Hence L 2 fff J J Jm I I I . > Hence /Tf J\X^J J Jm * Consequently ida. ^ r !2 (34) . 2 i. * i * ^2 ** 2^ a V2 7 12 LIM 1 rrr T r(g a> r y ff i2 g a) fgr Let d a be a directed element of the surface region J!f.
ceases to be continuous or becomes infinite Suppose that V at a single point (x^ y v z^) within the region T. s The surface integral becomes smaller and smaller and ap becomes infinite. Consequently provided far as the infinite V is such a function that Pot V exists as regions of space are concerned. proaches zero as its limit when the region Moreover the volume integral M JLJT^ remains finite as M becomes infinite. then the equation = holds as far as those regions of space are concerned. This convention avoids the difficulty that arises in discontinuous. infinite. <//*. Let the bounding surface tity which is large. connection with the existence of the derivative at the surface S where V becomes The surface integral is taken over the surface S which bounds Suppose that the region the conditions imposed the potential M becomes V to the region. i S be a sphere of radius 2 .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS integral is taken throughout the region the understanding that the value of the derivative of 217 The volume M with V at the surface S shall be equal to the limit of the value of that derivative of when the surface is approached from the interior M. Surround . a quan da <R d 6 d<f>. By virtue of upon insure the convergence of Vr* < K.
the constant is zero and the surface integral becomes smaller and smaller as however. <//. may or may not approach a limit when E becomes smaller and smaller. Vr remains finite.* d6 d^ R becomes smaller zero. Moreover the volume integral . Hence the equation SPotF SV has not always a definite meaning at a point of the region T at which becomes infinite in such a manner that the V product If. the point in question so that the product Vr approaches zero. Let S denote the included surface of this sphere and M all the region T not within the sphere. Consequently when the sphere of radius and smaller the surface integral may or may not become Moreover the volume integral 1 3V . V remains finite at K R approaches zero. Then i =JJj^^ By the conditions imposed upon r r r 9V dv * + r r v 1 JJ*^ V Vr<K //>" V .218 this point VECTOR ANALYSIS with a small sphere of radius R.
where I is near to it. limit and remains finite upon the Finally suppose the function surface S bounding the region jT. .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS approaches a definite limit as sequently the equation 219 R becomes infinitesimal. (iC2 y 2 According to the . . Con 5 Pot 7\ V _ A Ob dV p V holds in the neighborhood of all isolated pointe at which remains finite even though it be discontinuous. = Pot SV TT (a? . but does not vanish there. it is zero. . need not become zero and consequently the equation 5PotF need not hold for any point if V becomes infinite at # 2 y2 . conditions laid upon V VI* < K. its then the surface integral will approach zero as the equation will hold. . Within this surface V is finite . the distance of the point (z2 y2 z2 ) from a point Then the surface integral V r !2 . r yv z^) of the region. V In this case there exists a surface of discontinuities of V. Suppose that V becomes infinite at some single point 22 ) not coincident with (x^ y v z^). without. z2 in such a manner that But VI <K. The surface integral F.
will surely hold at finite a point (x x yv Zj) if remains always or becomes infinite at a point (x 2 y2 z 2 ) so that the . . and let it be granted that each point of space at which V Let the surface of the ceases to be finite by a small sphere. . (35) space.220 VECTOR ANALYSTS Hence the equation Pot does not vanish in general. be denoted by S. 1 In other cases special tests must be whether the formula (27) can be used or the more complicated one (35) must be resorted to. applied to ascertain 1 For extensions and modifications of this theorem. . Draw in space all those surfaces sphere Pot F be any function in F exists. SPotF = =dX 1 9V ^r v%i cannot hold. if V possesses no surfaces of and if furthermore the product V r remains finite discontinuity. Let these sur by S. Similar reasoning may be applied to each of the three x By combining partial derivatives with respect to v y v z r the results it is seen that in general Vj Let PotF= Pot V2 F+ f f Z da. V product finite. Then the formula (35) holds where the surface integral is taken over all the surfaces which have been designated by S. If the integral taken over all these surfaces vanishes when the radii of the spheres above mentioned become infinitesimal. see exercises. Surround which are surfaces of discontinuity of faces also be denoted V. then ^ This formula (27) V PotF=PotV 1 2 F. V1 remains and 3 as r becomes infinite.
the full value of Pot VV should always be understood as including the surface integral //. W similar expressions to be W a surface of discontinuities. whenever the vector function In like manner Pot V W. . . y2 2 2 ) passes from one Such a device renders the potential side of S to the other. surface In cases in which it is V possesses a discontinuity frequently found convenient to consider V as replaced by another function V which has in general the same values as Fbut which instead of possess S of ing a discontinuity at S merely changes very rapidly from one value to another as the point (#2 . and which gives to the treatment of the integrat ing operators an elegance of treatment otherwise unobtainable. It is precisely this convention in the interpretation of formulae which permits such simple formulae as (27) to hold in general.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS The relation (27) is so simple 221 and so amenable to trans formation that V will in general be assumed to be such a function that (27) holds. New V met in the future must be regarded as consisting not only of a volume integral but of a surface possesses integral in addition. of V actual simpler to treat analytically and probably conforms to physical states more closely than the more exact conception of a surface of discontinuity. This device prac tically amounts to including the surface integral in the symbol Pot VF: In fact from the standpoint of pure mathematics it is better to state that where there exist surfaces at which the function V becomes discontinuous. in addition to the volume integral >VF U SSSr*J *J 2 10 12 and other Pot V X W.
.) "^^^ V[(*a* )H(y ^ )2+(v^)T 1 8 2 1 ( 3 7) In like manner for a vector function ~ \9 i S Pot W /* /* /* *. /. 1 = CCC Jj J Q *> 2> 3/21*2) _ W ~ \2 i may also .222 VECTOR ANALYSIS irregularities The which may arise are thrown into the inter pretation.*... ^ i rrr (*. an attempt were made to obtain the second partial derivatives in the same it would be seen that the volume integrals no longer converged. /r/ /^. . . This is the essence of Professor Gibbs s method of treatment. If manner. " " d. p^ ""I I / ..] The first partial derivatives of the potential be obtained by differentiating under the sign of integration. not into the analytic appearance of the formulse. ~ . 90. ~ \2^ia 2 y ! Or and ^!W= / / / *". . r (38) 12 But 1 2 ! 2  x 2  ! = 12 .*!> r^y..
The first is (45) written New V and read The Newtonian of V! 9 .3 r = Max W.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Hence In like manner 223 V Pot F = /// ^f. Conse is quently although obtained so simply from the potential each Moreover inasmuch as these given a separate name. They are to be looked upon as three new integrating operators defined each upon its own merits as the potential was defined. (42) 12 12 . Let. therefore. (40) and V Pot W = fff ^* These three integrals obtained from the potential by the differentiating operators are of great importance in mathe matical physics. Each has its own interpretation. integrals may exist even when the potential is divergent..d vr (39) ^. they must be considered independent of it. then V Pot F= New F VxPotW = LapW VPotW = MaxW. 12 (44) If the potential exists.
of attraction at the point (x^ y v Zj) due to the body. that the Newtonian gives the force of attraction to the law of the inverse square of the distance. according Let dm<i be any element of mass situated at the point f rce at ( To show x v Vv z i) due to dm is equal to in magnitude and has the direction of the vector r12 from the . occurs frequently in electricity W W and magnetism. If represent the current C in space the Laplacian of C gives the magnetic force at the point (x v y v zj due to the current. of magnetization For instance I. the total force is where V denotes the density of matter.224 VECTOR ANALYSIS for calling this integral the The reason Newtonian is that if body the integral gives the force. V represent the density of a W read "the Laplacian of W. too. The third is written Max and read " the Maxwellian of W. represent the intensity the Maxwellian of I gives the magnetic if W potential at the point (x^ y v z^) due to the magnetization. It. It is of frequent occurrence in electricity and magnetism." This integral was used to a considerable extent by Laplace. This The second is written Lap and will be proved later. point (xv y v zj to the point (#2 y2 . Hence the force is Integrating over the entire body. ." This integral was used by Maxwell. z 2 ). or over all space according to the convention here adopted.
f electric flux. k. z The magnetic force at (x v yv 2 y<p 2 ) due to an element of current d C 2 is equal in magnitude x ) to the magnitude d C% of that element of current divided by the square of the distance r 12 . 12 The three components may be expressed in terms of the po tential (if it exists) as 12 (42) It is in this form that the Newtonian is generally found in books. element of current dC 2 and direction of the force therefore the direction of the vector product of r 12 and dC 2 The force is therefore r T 312 15 . j. that is dC* T*2 12 The The direction of the force is perpendicular both to the vector to the line r 12 joining the points. W (# To show that the Laplacian gives the magnetic force per unit positive pole at the point (x v yv z^) due to a distribution .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS The integral 225 may be expanded in terms of i. is .
226 VECTOR ANALYSIS Integrating over all space.. if I be a vector whose magnitude is point (x v %>*2)> equal to the magnetic moment per unit volume and whose To show that if . Let z^) z%). k components of Lap W are respectively C.^^ (43) In terms of the potential (if one exists) this S Pot may be written i Lap Pot W=3 g Z Y g r=lP^_a2t^ . the total magnetic force acting at the point (x^ y v z^) upon a unit positive pole is /// c r r ri2 x d C 2 J J V may 2) r r r* J J J ^ x 4 w ". W (x v y v * r i2=(^ 2 = X(x v i yv z^ + j Y (x^ y v k^O 2.i. 7 This integral be expanded in terms of k. j. j. (43) I be the intensity of magnetization at the that is. yv ^i) i+(yyi)J+ (a*i)k The i.
z. the total magnetic potential is seen to be 12 This integral Let may also be written out in terms of x. ^ the variables x^ y. and instead of e variables %. 9. . therefore r 12 I dv% Integrating. ?. The magnetic moment of the element of volume d 2 is I d v%. then the Maxwellian of I is the magnetic potential due to the distribution of magnetization. z. f be used 1 the expression takes zl xv yv According to the notation employed for the Laplacian Max w fff (*. p. The potential at (x v y v 24) due to this element is equal to its t> magnetic moment divided by the square of the distance r 12 and multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the direc The potential is tion of magnetization I and the vector r 12 . *ia I = O x a i) A+ (y a ~ Vi) B + (*2 .*i) & If instead of x v y& z z oq the form given by Maxwell. y.i (44) 1 Maxwell : Electricity and Magnetism. II. Vol..THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS direction is 227 the direction of magnetization of the element d v% from south pole to north pole.
much used in ordinary treatises The Newtonian.+ SPotF + dx = l 3y l  = 9z l  (44)" This form of expression is upon mathematical physics. 91. The Laplacian is applied to a vector function and is yields a function of the same sort. V PotF= V. They should be looked which may be applied.Pot VF=Max VF. But they frequently the potential exists they exist when the potential fails to converge. By (27) and (29) But by and by (45) (45) W = V Pot V. If Moreover. however. Then by (27) and (29) V V PotF= V Pot VF = Pot V VF. VV V Pot W.VF (46) Hence V. and Maxwellian. as the functions of position in space. . The New potential is. V. any tonian is applied to a scalar function and yields a vector upon as integrating operators to function. derivatives.228 VECTOR ANALYSIS of a vector function is The Maxwellian It a scalar quantity. W= Pot V V Pot W = Max W. applied to a vector function of The Maxwellian and yields a scalar function. W. Laplacian. But by (45) and V Pot V = New F. NewF= Max VF = PotV. (if it exists) as may be written in terms of the potential Max W = =. V Pot V W = New V. should not be associated indissolubly with the particular physical interpretations given to them above. these integrals should not be looked upon as the derivatives are its the potential.] Let V and W be such functions that their potentials exist and have in general definite values.
Chap. (51) .  V V x W By or (56). Hence And by or Hence And by V V x Pot W = 0. (58). (48) III. V x V PotF= 0. (51) These formulae may be written out in terms of curl and div if Thus div New V = Max V F. V. Chap. Chap. Lap V X W. III. (46) V Max W = New div W (47) W = Lap curl W div Lap W = Max curl W = curl Lap (48) (49) (50) curl New V = Lap VF= Lap curl V V Pot W = New div W W. (49) III.V V W.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Hence 229 VV (28) Pot W = V Max W = New V W = Pot VV. V X Lap W. V x Pot W = Lap W. V Pot V x W = 0. VxPotVF=0. (50) V x V x W = VV W .VW = VVW VxVxW.W (47) By V x V x Pot W=V x Pot But by (45) and Hence V x = Pot V x x W. V x Pot V x W = Lap V x W. V Lap W = Max V x W = 0. V x New V = Lap V V = 0. V x Pot W = V x Lap W = Lap V x W = Pot V x V x W. (52). Hence or V V Pot W New V W V V Pot W = V Max W desired.
. But Vj r vt = .NewF=ff TVJ. V V . x x Pot r= Vj .V PotF=V .V2 ru and V (v V 2 2 ^ = V2 V F+ V Va Va 2 . The proof as follows.230 VECTOR ANALYSIS Poisson s Equation 92. New * F= Max V r=T f C 2 V ^* dv v The subscripts 1 and ^ have been attached to to designate differen clearly what are variables with respect which the tiations are performed. c> 2 PotF 32 PotF 32 PotF This equation is known as Poisson s Equation.4 TrF. V . V2 Fdv a 1 1 1 .] Let V "be any function in space such that the potential PotF has in general a definite value. as the potential is a is The integral which has been defined solution of Poisson s Equation. Then (52) V V PotF= .
a large quantity. and must R be allowed to increase without limit.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Hence 231 . (53) =rr J J The ^v t s 7*12 surface integral is taken over the surface which bounds the region of integration of the volume integral.v. s That is to say satisfies Laplace Equation. finite owing to the presence of the term ..(V !2 v \ WV Integrate But V V 2 2 = 0. 2 !2 r !2 . This is taken " over all space." Hence the surface integral must be taken over a sphere of radius R.rfa. v2 r + v.r=rv.V2  r V V = V V2 V 2 . (V \ V 2 \ r !2/ m v. And by (8) Hence Vj V x Pot V = f f fV x V2 Vd v 2 . y 13 : . At the point (x r y^z^)^ the integrand of the surface integral becomes in however.V2 .
surrounding must be allowed to approach zero as its limit. it is assumed that the conditions given (Art. Hence the surface For integral over that sphere approaches zero Hence when R becomes infinite the surface integral its over the large sphere approaches zero as limit.232 VECTOR ANALYSIS of the Hence the surface S must include not only the surface sphere of radius J2.Va ii 12 = ^ ** * Then for the large sphere of radius R dd>. That is < Vr < Introduce (#i> #i fiT. !2 . For the small sphere V Hence the 1 t da r !2 <r r = 5 r 2 sin 7*v d d 6. i) polar coordinates with the origin at the point Then r12 becomes simply r and V x l = . when r is large K. da = r *3 4*3 r r2 sm0 d0 as its limit. integral over that sphere becomes . a small quantity. 87) for the existence it As V of the potential hold. 1 V. when r is small. R f has been assumed that the potential of exists. but also the surface of a sphere of radius the point (x^y^z^) and B .
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Let
233
supposed to be finite and continuous at the point Then for the ( xvl/v z i) which has been selected as origin.
surface integral
V be
V
is
practically constant
and equal
to its
value
V (*ii Vv *i)
at the point in question.
f
Hence
fs sintf d
 f /Vsi d8 sintf
the radius
its limit.
d<
=
when
R
f
of the sphere of integration approaches
zero as
Hence
v
and
>
v

ff, rv

<
= 4 * F
< 68)1
V VPotF=47rF.
if
(52)
In like manner
W
is
a vector function which has in
general a definite potential, then that potential satisfies Poisson s Equation.
V V Pot W =  4
TT
W.
its
(52)
three
The proof
ponents.
of this consists in resolving
W into
com
For each component
the equation holds.
Let
vV. VPotF=47r F, V V Pot Z = 4 TT Z.
Consequently
V V Pot (JTi +
Fj + Zk)
=  4 TT
(JTi
+ Fj +
234
VECTOR ANALYSIS
:
Theorem
If V and
W are such functions of position in space
and continuous
those potentials
that their potentials exist in general, then for all points at which
V
and
W
are finite
satisfy
Poisson
s
Equation,
V VPot r=4irF; V V Pot W =  4 TT W.
The
modifications in this theorem which are to be
points at
(52) (52)
made
at
which
V and W become
discontinuous will not be
taken up here.
93.]
It
was seen
(46) Art. 91 that
Hence
or
V VPotF = V NewT=Max V New V =  4 V
TT
VF1
(53)
Max VF=47rF.
it
In a similar manner
was seen (51) Art. 91 that
Hence
or
V V Pot W = V Max W V x Lap W = New V W Lap V x W. V Max W  V x Lap W =  4 W, New V W  Lap V x W =  4rr W.
TT
.
(54)
(54)
By
virtue of this equality
W
is
divided into two parts.
W=
Let
7
Lap V x
W
47T
4?T
7
New V W.
(55)
W = W! + W
W =
t
2,
where
r
4rr
Lap
V
x
W =  Lap curl W 4?r
47T

(56)
and
W =
:
NewV W =

7
Newdiv W.
(57)
47T
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
235
multiplied Equation (55) states that any vector function 4 TT is equal to the difference of the Laplacian of its curl by
W
and the Newtonian
of its divergence.
Furthermore
V
W,
=
4?r
V
Lap
V xW= V V x Lap W r 47T
7
But the divergence
Hence
of the curl of a vector function
is
zero.
V.W = divW =
1
1
(58)
V
x
W =  j Vx New V W = 2
2
VxV Max W
is zero.
2
.
But the
Hence
curl of the derivative of a scalar function
V
x
W
2
= curl W = 0.
2
(59)
which has a potential Consequently any vector function may be divided into two parts of which one has no divergence
W
and
of
which the other has no
curl.
This division of
W into
curl
two such parts
is unique. In case a vector function has no potential but both
its
and divergence possess
potentials, the vector function
first
may be
;
divided into three parts of which the
has no divergence
the second, no curl; the third, neither divergence nor curl.
Let
W=4
V
1
7T
Lap V x
W4
New V
7T
W + W.
Vx
(55)
As before
4?r

Lap V x
W=
T
V V

x Pot
47T
W=
0.
and
V x New V W
1
7T
47T
4
VxV Pot V W =
The divergence
part of
W are therefore zero.
of the first part
and the curl of the second
236
VECTOR ANALYSIS
4?r
V
x Lap
VxW =
47T
VxVxPotVxW
=
4
7T
VV
VV
Pot
Vx
~ W  4?T V V Pot V X W.
t
,
4?r
for
P ot V x
W =  V P o V V x W =
V V x W = 0.
^ 47T
Hence
V VPot V x W = V x W.
l.
Hence
4?r
V x Lap VxW = VxW = VxW
is
The
curl of
W
equal to the curl of the
first
part
r
47T
into
Lap
VxW
as the second part has
which
W
is
divided.
Hence
no
curl, the third part
can have none.
Moreover
T: 7T
V
New
V
W= V W
is
V
W
2.
Thus
the
divergence of
W
equal to the divergence of
the second part

4?r
into
New
V
W.
is divided. Hence as the first part has no the third can have none. Consequently the third divergence This proves the part 3 has neither curl nor divergence. statement.
which
W
W
be seen that any function 3 which possesses neither curl nor divergence, must either
of Art. 96
it
By means
may
W
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
237
vanish throughout all space or must not become zero at In physics functions generally vanish at infinity. infinity. Hence functions which represent actual phenomena may be
divided into two parts, of which one has no divergence and the other no curl.
94.]
Definition
:
A vector function the
vanishes at every point of space is vector function the curl of which vanishes at every point of space is said to be irrotational.
divergence of which said to be solenoidal.
A
In general a vector function is neither solenoidal nor irrota But it has been shown that any vector function which possesses a potential may be divided in one and only one
tional.
way
into
two parts
all
Wv W
2
of
which one
is
solenoidal
and
the other irrotational.
The following theorems may be
stated.
They have
With
been proved in the foregoing sections. v the operators respect to a solenoidal function
W
4?r
are inverse operators.
Lap and
is
V
X
or curl
That
4?r
Lap V x Wi
to
=V
x
j
4rr
Lap Wi
= Wr
either
(60)
of
these opera
Applied
tors
an
irrotational function
W
2
2
gives zero.
That
is
With
respect to

W = an irrotational function W
Lap
W
2
=
,
V
x
0.
(61)
the operators
2,
New
and
is
4?r
are inverse operators.
v
or
div
That
_ _L New V
4
7T
W
2
=V
i
4
New
W =W
2
2
.
(62)
7T
238
VECTOR ANALYSIS
respect to
With
a scalar function
V

the operators
V
and
also
or
div and
New,
47T
=
Max and
is
V
4?r
are inverse operators.
That
V.i NewF= V
4 7T
(63)
and
~Max VF=
4?r
V.
TFttA respect to a solenoidal function

W
x
the operators
Pot and
V
x
is
V
x
or curl curl
47T
are inverse operators.
That
Pot
4?r
V
x
V
x
W
x
=V
x
V
x
4?r
Pot Wi
= Wr
(64)
With
respect to
an
irrotational function
W
2
the operators
Pot and
4?r
are inverse operators.
VV
That
.
is
_ _L Pot
With
operators
VV W
to
2
=  VV L Pot W = W
.
2
2
.
(65)
respect
any scalar or vector function V,
W
the
Pot and
47T
V V
are inverse operator*.
That
is
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
239
_ JL
4?r
Pot
v v v=  v v
i Pot
F= v
4?r
and

4?r
,
Pot
^V V W =  V V 4?r
Pot
W = W. (66)
With
respect to
a solenoidal function
W
x
x
x
the differentiating
operators of the second order
V V
are equivalent
and
V
X x
V

V VW =V
x
With
respect to
an
Wr irrotational function W
V
2
(67)
the differentiat
ing operators of the second order
V V
are equivalent
and
VV
.
That
is
VBy
VW
2
= V VW2
(68)
integrating the equations
and
4
TT
4^^= V.NewF W = V x Lap W  V Max W
by means
of the potential integral Pot
4<7rPotF=:Pot
4 TT
V New F=  Max New F (69) Pot W = Pot V x Lap W  Pot V Max W 4 Pot W = Lap Lap W  New Max W. (70)
TT
Hence for scalar functions and irrotational vector functions

New Max
For solenoidal
vector
47T
is
an operator which
is
equivalent to Pot.
^
functions the operator

Lap Lap
240
gives the potential.
gives
the potential
VECTOR ANALYSIS
For any
of the
vector function the first operator
irrotational
part;
the second^ the
potential of the solenoidal part. *95.] There are a number of double
volume integrals which in mathematical physics as are of such frequent occurrence
to merit a passing mention, although the theory of
them
will
not be developed to any considerable extent.
These double
They are not scalar func integrals are all scalar quantities. tions of position in space. They have but a single value. The integrations in the expressions may be considered for
functions by vanishing identically outside of certain finite limits deter mine for all practical purposes the limits of integration in
all space.
convenience as extended over
The
case they are finite. Given two scalar functions
Z7,
V
of position in
it
space.
The mutual potential
of the
or potential product, as
is
may
be called,
two functions
the sextuple integral
Pot
(71)
One
of the integrations
may
be performed
yi ,^)
,
PotVdv,
(
* 2 y*
* 2>
Pot
Ud **
(T2)
In a similar manner the mutual potential or potential product
of
two vector functions
W, W" is
(71)
This
is
also a scalar quantity.
One
integration
may
be car
ried out
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Pot (W, W")
=w
or
241
(x v
yv
.
,)
Pot W" dv t
The
mutual
Laplacian
Laplacian
product
is
of
two
vector functions
integral
W
,
W"
of position in space
the sextuple
Lap(W ,W")
=ffffffw
One
integration
(*! yi
*i)
x
;nr
w" (** y* *) <*i <*"
2
(73)
may
be performed.
Lap (W, W") =
f ( fW"
v yi
(^ 2 , ya , * 2 )
Lap
W
rf
va
(T4)
*i)
LaP
w
"
d r
The Newtonian product
function
of a scalar function F,
is
and a vector
W of position in space
the sextuple integral
rf* 2
.
(75)
By
performing one integration
New ( F, W)
=///W (*
2,
y2
,
* 2)
New Frf
t,
a
.
(76)
W
In like manner the Maxwellian product of a vector function and a scalar function F of position in space is the
integral
Max (W,F)
=/////JV(*i^*i) J W0r2
16
,2/ 2 ,*2 )rf
W
(77)
47rW". [Ne + C f CtfewU. 93. 93. the surface integral must vanish. PotW . If the functions and vanish identically for all points out U F side of certain finite limits. (79) By (54) Art. F) = f f fNew U New Vd v. The As this region of integration is " all space. (78) (53) Art. V UPotr = ." the surface S may be looked upon as the surface of a large sphere of radius R.New ( F.NewF Integrate : 47r ff VpotFdi>= f f fv.(V New CO PotF. W). . F) By =fff V(xv y v zj Max W d v 4?r 1 = . Hence 4 TT Pot ( U. = V x Lap W" Pot W . (V.NewFdv. [New U Pot F] = (V New V) Pot F + (New IT) V Pot F. (79) surface integral is to be taken over the entire surface S bounding the region of integration of the volume integral. F)= f f fNewT.NewOPotF=V.242 VECTOR ANALYSIS integration yields One Max (W.V Max W" Pot W . NewFdv  Tf Pot F New Z7 rf a. 4Tr Pot IT.[NewPTotF]+NewtT.
] There are a number of useful theorems of a function theoretic nature which may perhaps be mentioned here owing . 4 TT Pot (W. (80) * 96. . W") = f f fLap W + 11 fMax J J J Lap W" dv W Max W" d v. and [Max W" Pot Hence V x W] = Pot W V Max W" + Max W" V Pot W.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS But 243 V V . W") = + ff fLap W / I Lap W" dv r c r Max W Max / J J J / / W dv (80) I I PotW x Lap W" da Max W"PotWWa. Lap W" Pot W = V [Lap W" x Pot W] + Lap W" Lap W . and V Max W" substituting: Pot W=V  [Max W" Pot Max W" Max  W] W Hence 4 ?r W" Pot W = Lap W + V [Lap Lap W + Max Pot ] W Max W" W V [Max W" Pot W W" X ]. [Lap W" x Pot W = Pot W V x ] Lap Pot W"  Lap W" V x W . Integrating . and W" exist only in finite space these surface taken over a large sphere of radius B must vanish integrals and then If now W 4 TT Pot (W.
If y. z) be a scalar function of position V in space which possesses in general a definite derivative and if in any portion of space. y. To show F= const.dr =f<) F(#. and if furthermore the derivative V V vanishes V any finite volume or of any finite portion of surface in that region or bounding it. the divergence of that derivative exists and is zero through out any region of space. The theorems are often useful in practical applications of vector analysis to physics as well as in purely mathematical work. Given VF=0.) F" (#. Theorem : If (#. = V (xv y v zj = const. y.244 VECTOR ANALYSIS to their intimate connection with the integral calculus of The proofs of them will in some instances be given vectors. 2. then the derivative vanishes throughout all that region and the function re at every point of duces to a constant by the preceding theorem. then the function V V V constant throughout that portion of space. 180 y> * V F. finite or infinite but necessarily is continuous. that derivative vanishes. d r = V(x. be a scalar function of position which possesses in general a definite derivative VV . y. dr = 0. By (2) page Choose a fixed point (#15 y v zj in the region. . 1 finite or infinite but necessarily continuous .z)V (xv y v zj. z) . u ft* *i But Hence Theorem in space if : fvr. The term throughout any region of space boundaries of the region as well as the region 1 must be regarded as including the itself. and in some not.
The supposition must there fore have been incorrect and V must be constant not only in It V V V S but in all portions of space near to $ in the region T. To show Since V Evanishes for the portion of surface V S S. By . vrd*=o. Suppose that. that portion of da.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS Given 245 V V V= V F= J^= for a region T. in the surface integral all have the The is S which same sign and cannot surface integral of over the spherical sur intercepted by VV face vanishes because integral of V V is zero. upon one side of S and in the V upon The derivative were not constant. as is in the main normal VV S 9 it must be nearly parallel to the normal to the portion of spherical surface under consideration. Hence f /Vr da = 0. and for a finite portion of surface S. But f r vrda= f r fv. Consequently the surface V V taken over the entire surface of the spherical is segment which projects through S not zero. For. region T. therefore appears that the supposition that is not constant upon one side of S leads to results which contradict the given relation V 0. Vis certainly constant in S. the surface S. VF surface to the small portion of the sphere which projects through the S cannot be zero. Hence the terms VTcancel each other out. V this side of has in the main the direction of the normal to Consider a sphere which lies for the most part upon the outer side of S but which projects a little The surface integral of over through the surface S. const.
and at to c infinity and furthermore and upon the boundaries of T V be constant and equal upon all the boundaries of T and at infinity . of and the divergence [ V~\ of the product if V UV if U VV exists and is zero throughout . y. continuous or discontinuous.246 VECTOR ANALYSIS an extension of the reasoning V is seen to be constant throughout the entire region T. z) be a scalar function of position in and if through space possessing in general a derivative V VV out a certain region exists 1 T of if space. the divergence and is zero . finite or infinite. z) V as a limit when W vanishes. the divergence V VV of that derivative and is zero. if U (x. z) be any scalar function of position in space possessing in general a derivative V V. y. and c furthermore the function V possesses a constant value in all the surfaces c bounding the region and the point (x. differ essentially The proof does not eralized as follows : from the one given in the case of the last theorem. y. The theorem may be gen Theorem: If V(x. Theorem : If (x. continuous or of this derivative exists discontinuous. then throughout the entire region T the function has the same constant value c and the derivative V (x. z) be any scalar function of position in space possessing in general a derivative W. finite or infinite. finite or infinite. z) approaches recedes to infinity. T y. y. then the function is V is c. continuous or discontinuous. constant throughout the entire region T and equal to Theorem : If V (#. if through out any region of space.y. z) be any other scalar function of position which is either posi tive or negative throughout and upon the boundaries of a region T. and if in all the bounding surfaces of the region V VV T the normal component 1 of the derivative VF" vanishes and at infinite distances in T (if such there be) the product its The region includes boundaries. .
then from only by a constant at most.VF V V. V U = V V. If VZ7 = VF = V V at all VU if in any finite points and V and if V in all the bounding surfaces of the region and at infinity (if the region extend thereto). the derivative of V Evanishes and in each continuous portion T V is constant. and if moreover divergence for finite any region I W W" W the two functions any W and W" is are equal to each other at in every point of in finite volume T or of Tor bounding it. then W any finite surface equal to W" at every point of the region T. If V= V V 7 = V V F and then if in all the the region the normal components of VZ7 2 equal and if at infinite distances r (3 U/Sr of zero. . This theorem may be generalized as the preceding one for VVF=Oand Ur*3V/3r = As corollaries of was by the substitution of the relation U V F) = r^SV/Sr = 0. bounding surfaces and VFare 9 F/5r) is Fare equal at all points of the region and U differs from F only by a constant. the curl of is equal to the curl of and the divergence of is equal to the of W". If VV7=V. . then U and V differ at most by a constant. but will perhaps be under statements stood If when they are borne in mind.VJ7= V. The language is not so precise may as in the theorems themselves.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS r2 247 9 Vj 3 r vanishes. then at all points 7 and Fare equal. where r denotes the distance measured from any fixed origin then throughout the entire region T .VF and differs portion of surface S. although for different continuous portions this constant may not be the same. or infinite but necessarily continuous. V ( for the foregoing theorems the following be made. and W" are two vector functions of position Theorem If in space which in general possess curls and divergences if ?7and : V V W 7 .
W is equal to W" and Theorem: If tion in space W throughout the aperiphractic region T.248 Since VECTOR ANALYSIS V x W = V x W". throughout any aperiphractic* region T. and if in all the bounding surfaces of the region that V V W W" and V V W" W two vector functions such and is and are equal . therefore becomes a corollary of a preceding one. but not necessarily continuous. If and are two vector functions of posi W W" which in general possess definite curls and divergences finite . tions The proofs of these two theorems are carried out by means W". the curl of W is W" and W". region then the divergence of and if furthermore in W equal to the curl of equal to the divergence of all the bounding surfaces of the is T . W" are two vector functions definite of posi which in general possess if curls and W" acyclic region T. A region which If it encloses no region aperiphractic. have to be made acyclic by the insertion of diaphragms. and are Theorem: If have in general definite values in a certain region T.W") = Let 0. W of the device suggested before. finite or infinite. Then V V V= The theorem Theorem tion if : owing to the equality of the divergences. A vec * tor function is equal to the derivative of a scalar function V (page 197). V x whose curl vanishes (W . . and if in all the W . throughout any W W bounding surfaces of the region T the and W" are equal then the func normal components of and W" are equal throughout the region acyclic T. then the entire region T. and the divergence of is equal to the divergence of divergences . the tangential components W 7 and W" are equal. throughout equal to The proof is given by treating separately the three com at infinity the functions W W" W W" ponents of 1 W and W". VF=W W". encloses within itself another region is said to be periphracit is The region T may 2 tic. continuous or discon tinuous . finite but not the curl of is equal to the curl necessarily continuous.
W is the derivative f ri / TO (2) J and if f 0. (3) C W dr = Jo then W = VF. then V V of some scalar function V. and con versely if the line integral of a vector function W taken around any closed curve vanishes. W Illustration of the The S is theorem by application to mechanics. (1) line integral of the derivative V V of a scalar function along a curve C from r to r is equal to the difference at the points r and r and hence the between the values of V V line integral taken around a closed curve is zero .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS SUMMARY OF CHAPTER IV The line integral of a vector function 249 W along a curve C is defined as f Jc The Wdr=f J c [Widx + W^dy + W.dz]. surface integral of a vector function over a surface defined as = ff Theorem The surface integral of a vector functiorTtaken over a closed surface is equal to the volume integral of the divergence of that function taken throughout Gauss s : the volume enclosed by that surface .
is Application of the theorems of Stokes curl of and Gauss to the proof that the divergence of the a vector function a scalar function zero and the curl of the derivative of zero.250 VECTOR ANALYSIS = f f {Xdydz+ Ydz if 7 X. integral of the curl of a vector function taken over any surface is equal to the line integral of the function taken around the line bounding the surface. //. then TI =V x W. of the vector function (8) Z be s Stokes the three components Theorem: The surface W. dx + Zdxdy]. I .*r.=/o W. then U is the curl of W.*. and if (11) ffjj da =f W rfr.VxW. (14) JJ8 I t / ff r t/O rr JJS I */ */ cc ^ vwXv yaa=ic i6v yar = o 8 */ t/O r vVu a r. (16) . (12) Application of the theorem of Stokes to deducing the equations of the electromagnetic field from two experimental facts due to Faraday. And TJ function conversely if the surface integral of a vector taken over any surface is equal to the line integral of a function W taken around the boundary. is Formulae analogous to integration by parts I w Vv di = T \u v~] / v Vu rf r.
Vw)rfi. (21) The integrating operator known by the equation Pot as the potential is defined r= V(xyv Z^ yy * dxt dy 2 dz y (22) Pot w =*? ^^2 ^y 2 ^^ (23) VPot T=PotVF.i. (i8> Theorerii: I V u V v dv = / f ttVy da I f T TwV V v dv = if v V ^ da I I vV *V udv. V V Pot F= Pot V VF. A/!* . da=. (29) (30) . (17) /Y vu Green / / s x v .THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS I 251 C CuV *vdv = I uv d&I ii fV u*vdv. (27) (28) V x Pot W = Pot V x W.Vi.= __  f C (uVv t?Vw). (20) Kelvin s generalization: i I Tw^7u^vdv= I I w^Vvrfa // / ^ = / / i? wV i^ da T T TV V [w V w] rf v. (19) .rfa. V Pot W = Pot V W.r r v x * dv.V.
the Laplacian. of the Maxwellian on the assumption that W W intensity of magnetization. Pot VV The integrating operator Pot and the differentiating operator three additional integrating operators V are commutative. (42) Lap W =j f* f* I f* Y \XT ^7* 12 2 ?y 2 2 ^ 2 I J J I / ^^2 ^2/2 dzv ( 43 ) Max W= 2> I I 2* 2 q rf^2 rfy d^2 . (44)". and the Maxwellian. of the Laplacian on the assumption that is the flux. (43) . (31) (32) (33) W = Pot VV W. (46) (47) (48) . V x Lap W = Lap V x W. formulae (42) . (45) The interpretation of the physical meaning of the Newtonian on the assumption that V is the density of an attracting is electric body. __ New T= __ f f / / / *19 ^ \ Ay * fO? ^9 / ^^ r o ^^ rf^2 dy 2 dz2 ^ / . y. (43)". V Max W = New V W. i ***. The known as the Newtonian. The expression of these integrals or their components in terms of a?. V New F= Max V F. V x V x Pot W = Pot V x V x W. % . If the potential exists these integrals are related to it as fol lows: V Pot F= New V.252 VECTOR ANALYSIS V V Pot W = Pot V V W. (44) and (42)". V x Pot W = Lap W.
=V 4?T New W2 = W2 . (55) and which state that certain operators.V x Lap W. VPotF=47rW. 7T (55) W is divided into two parts of which one is irrotational. A 47T Lap V W  4 New V W. (52) (53). VPotF = 47rF. (62) . and V. New V = Lap V V= 0. F= V.NewF.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 253 (49) V V V V Pot Lap x W = Max V x W = 0. x (53) W= Hence solenoidal exists. equations (52). A list which both the divergence and the curl of theorems which follow immediately from . W. V. provided the potential In case the potential does not exist a third term 3 and the other of W must be added vanish. integrating operators are inverse to certain differentiating Let V be a scalar function. That (52) (52) is. V x W = 2 (61) 47T New V. and W 2 an irrotational vector function. x a solenoidal vector W function. Then 47T Lap V x Wj = V x 4 7T Lap W l = Wr (60) 4 7T Lap W 2 = 0. (50) W = New V W Lap V X W = V Max W . (51) The potential is a solution of Poisson s Equation.
(67) 2 2 (68) V = . vr=. 4 TT Pot (69) (70) Mutual potentials Newtonians.Max New V 4 TT Pot W = Lap Lap W . performed immediately but the first three Formulae (71) to (80) inclusive deal with these inte The chapter closes with the enunciation of a number . . the exercises Among tion.r.V V 4 7T . The integra tions cannot all be may be. .. By means of these theorems certain facts concerning functions may be inferred from the conditions that they satisfy Laplace s equa tion and have certain boundary conditions.V V ! Pot W = W. (64) . They are sextuple integrals. grals.New Max W. 7T Pot 47T 1 V x V x W 2 t =V V x Pot W x = W. number the text The work done in worthy of especial atten has for the most part assumed 6 is But many of the formulce connecting Newtonians. Laplacians. and Maxwellians hold when the poten tial does not exist. 4?r (66) VVWj^VxVxWj V V W = VV W . Pot 4 W 7T 2 2 (65) [4?r 1 Pot v. that the potential exists.254 VECTOR ANALYSIS f_V A NewF = V (63)  l 4 Max VF= x V.vv 4?r L. and Maxwellians may be formed.Pot VV W = . Laplacians. These are taken up in Exercise 6 referred to. of theorems of a functiontheoretic nature. =W .Pot 4?r V V W = .
show that if the integral be taken around a closed curve H 1 c = / / (cVW cVW) da = c/ Wxdr. closed curve the line integral of a scalar function around a is equal to the skew surface integral of the deriv ative of the function taken over any surface spanned into if the contour of the curve. : Hint it 2. Maxout. Show further that V is constant the integral around any closed curve is zero and conversely if the integral around any closed curve is zero the function V is constant. The first four exercises are taken from Foppl s Einfiihrung in die well sche Theorie der Electricitat where they are worked . Instead of treating the integral as it stands multiply (with a dot) by an arbitrary constant unit vector and thus reduce it to the line integral of a vector function. It may of the function W. If c is be called the skew line integral any constant vector.THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS 255 EXERCISES ON CHAPTER IV I. 1 If V is a scalar function of position in space the line integral is a vector quantity. If W is a vector function the line integral =/w x dr J c is a vector quantity. Show that That is .
256 VECTOR ANALYSIS and Hc = c. the surface integral T= f C d&x W may be called the skew surface integral. If W be a vector function. ]JJ V Wda. The surface integral of a scalar function is W W V This of is a vector quantity. 4. That is Hence conclude that the surface integral over a closed sur if V be constant and conversely if the surface integral over any closed surface vanishes the function V must face vanishes be constant. Show that the skew surface integral of a vector . Show that the surface integral taken over any closed surface is equal to the volume taken throughout the volume bounded by integral of V W that surface.J J V (W 8 s d a) j In case the integral surface S is taken over a plane curve and the the portion of plane included by the curve is Show when that the integral taken over a plane curve vanishes is constant and conversely if the integral over any must be constant. It is a vector quantity. plane curve vanishes 3.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
function taken over a closed surface
is
257
equal to the volume
integral of the vector function taken throughout the
volume
bounded by
the surface.
That
is
Hence conclude that the skew surface integral taken over is an any surface in space vanishes when and only when That is, when and only when the line irrotational function.
W
integral of
5.
W for every closed circuit vanishes.
in the text assumes for the
Obtain some formulae for these integrals which are
analogous to integrating by parts.
6.
The work
most part that the
potentials of
Fand
W exist.
Many
of the relations, however,
be demonstrated without that assumption. Assume that the Newtonian, the Laplacian, the Maxwellian exist. For
may
simplicity in writing let
Then
New V =
Lap
V Pn V(x v y y *
t
2)
d t> 2 ,
(81)
W
=i^
i
12
X
W (x v y v
2,
2)
dv v
(82)
Max
W =fffv
pu
W (z
yv
z^dv v
(83) (84)
JJJr^rdvr
17
c c r
258
VECTOR ANALYSIS
exercise ( 3
By
)/// V
if
2
(Pit
v)
d v*
It can be
exists,
shown that
V is
such a function that
New V
radius
then this surface integral taken over a large sphere of R and a small sphere of radius R* approaches zero
when
small.
R
becomes indefinitely great; and
R
f
,
indefinitely
Hence
or
NewF=PotVF.
(85)
Prove in a similar manner that
Lap
W = Pot V x W, Max W = Pot V W.
it is
(86)
(87)
By means
of (85), (86), (87)
possible to prove that
V
x Lap
W = Lap V x W,
VNew F=Max VF, V Max W = New V W.
Then prove
/*/*/*
VxLapW=i
and
%} <J *J
/
I^ 12 VVW
f*
di? 2
I
*J
VVWdi l J *Jf^ 12
dvv
f*
f*
V Max W = f/JJPii V V W
V
x Lap
Hence
Hence
7.
W  V Max W = ffffv V V W d v W  V Max W = 4
by Helmholtz
is
TT
V
x Lap
W.
(88)
An
integral used
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
or
if
259
W be a vector function H (W) =///
that the integral converges
if
Wd
K
"2"
<9
)
Show
that
V diminishes
so rapidly
when
r
becomes indefinitely great.
2 Vtf(F) = #(VF) = New(r
F),
2
(91) (92) (93)
# (W) = # (V W) = Max (r W), V x H (W) = 5" (V x W) = Lap (r W),
V
2
=Jff (V.
VP) = Max(r 2 VF) = 2
Pot
.
F
(94)
(95)
H ( F) =  L Pot Pot PI J
7T
(96)
^ (W) =  ? Pot Pot W. 2
7T
(97)
~2W = VxVx^T(W) + VV.^r (W).
8.
(98)
Give a proof of Gauss
s
Theorem which does not depend
upon the physical interpretation of a function as the flux of a The reasoning is similar to that employed in Art. 51 fluid.
and
9.
in the first proof of Stokes s
Theorem. two
parts,
Show
that the division of
W into
page 235,
220,
is
unique.
10.
Treat, in a
manner analogous
to that
upon page
the case in which
V
has curves of discontinuities.
CHAPTER V
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
97.]
AFTER
the definitions of products had been laid
and applied, two paths of advance were open. differential and integral calculus the other, higher algebra
;
down One was
in the sense of the theory of linear
homogeneous substitutions.
The treatment of and new symbols
and vector
the
first
of these topics led to
new
ideas
to the derivative, divergence, curl, scalar
is,
potential, that
to
V,
V, Vx,
and Pot with the
auxiliaries, the Newtonian, the Laplacian, and the Maxwellian.
The treatment
of the second topic will likewise introduce
the linear vector novelty both in concept and in notation function, the dyad, and the dyadic with their appropriate
symbolization.
simplest example of a linear vector function is the The vector r product of a scalar constant and a vector.
T
is
The
= CT A
(1)
r. more general linear function be obtained by considering the components of r individ may Let i, j, k be a system of axes. The components of ually.
a linear function of
r are
i
r,
j
r,
k
r.
Let each of these be multiplied by a scalar constant which
may
be different for the different components.
cl i
r,
c2 j
r,
c3
k
r.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Take these
r
261
as the
components of a new vector
(c a
r
=
i
(Cji^ + j
is
jr)
+
k
(c 8
kr).
Its
(2)
The
vector r
then a linear function of
are always equal to the corresponding
components components of r each
r.
multiplied by a definite scalar constant. Such a linear function has numerous applications in geom If, for instance, i, j, k be the axes of a etry and physics.
homogeneous
axes, a point
strain
and c v
r
c 2, c , 3
the elongations along these
= ix + j
l
y
+ bz
y
becomes
or
r
r
=
l
i c
x
f j c 2
+
r
k
c
3 z,
=
i c
i
r
+j
<?
2 j
+
k
c
3
k
r.
This sort of linear function occurs in the theory of elasticity and in hydrodynamics. In the theory of electricity and
magnetism, the electric force
electric
E
is
a linear function of the
For isotropic bodies displacement the function becomes merely a constant
in a dielectric.
D
But
in case the
body be nonisotropic, the components of the
force along the different axes will be multiplied
by
different
constants k v & 2 , & 3
.
Thus
1
E
The
the
= i%
i*D +
j
2 j
.D + k&gkD.
linear vector function
is
indispensable in dealing with
phenomena
It
is
of electricity,
magnetism, and optics in non
isotropic bodies.
98.]
possible to define a linear vector function, as has
been done above, by means of the components of a vector. The most general definition would be
262
Definition
:
VECTOR ANALYSIS
A
vector r
is
said to be a linear vector func
tion of another vector r
when
the components of r
along
three noncoplanar vectors are expressible linearly with scalar coefficients in terms of the components of r along those same
vectors.
If
r
and
and
if
= XB, + yb + zc, where [abc] r = # a + y b + z x = a x + b y + c z y = a^x + 6 2 y + c z, z = az x + lz y + c
c,
f
^
0,
l
l
l
f
r
2
(3)
f
3 z,
(The constants a^ l v c v etc., have no connection with the components of a, b, c par allel to i, j, k.) Another definition however is found to be more convenient and from it the foregoing may be deduced.
is
r.
then r
a linear function of
Definition
:
A
continuous vector function of a vector
is
said to be a linear vector function
when
the function of the
sum
of
vectors.
any two vectors is the sum of the functions of those That is, the function /is linear if
/(r 1 +
Theorem
:
r2
)=/(r )+/(r a ).
1
(4)
a be any positive or negative scalar and if / be a linear function, then the function of a times r is a times
If
the function of
r.
/0r) = a/(r),
And
hence
(5)
/(a
1
r1
=
The
obvious
i
f<Ji)
+ .) + <**f (r a )+ 8 /(*8) +
a 2 r2
+
+
a3 r3
(5)
proof of this theorem which appears more or less is a trifle long. It depends upon making repeated
use of relation (4).
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Hence
In like manner
263
/(2r)
/ (n r)
= 2/(r). = nf (r)
Then by
the relation
where n
Let
is
any positive
integer.
be any other positive integer. obtained just
m
Hence
That
is
/ (.i) =/( i r )=?./ (,). m \ m \ w/ /
equation (5) has been proved in case the constant a
the relation for negative numbers note that
is,
a rational positive number.
To show
/(0)=/(0 +
Hence
But
0)
= 2/(0).
+(r)) =/(r)
/(0)
/(O) =/(rr)
= 0.
=/( r
Hence
r=
(5) for incommensurable values of the constant
To prove
a, it
becomes necessary to make use of the continuity of the function /. That is
Let x approach the incommensurable number a by passing through a suite of commensurable values. Then
Hence
*****.
x
=a
J ( xi} v
+
=a
~
264
VECTOR ANALYSIS
LlM
#
=a
v (ar)=ar.
Hence
/(") = / 00
linear vector f unction /(r) is entirely deter its values for three noncoplanar vectors a, b, c are
which proves the theorem.
Theorem:
A
mined when
known.
Let
l=/(a),
m=/(b),
n=/(c).
Since r
is
any vector whatsoever,
r
it
may
be expressed as
Hence
99.]
= #a + yb + 3C. / (r) = x + y m + z n.
1
In Art. 97 a particular case of a linear function was
r
expressed as
=
i c
l
i
r
+
j
c
2 j
r
+
k
c3
k
r.
For the sake of brevity and to save repeating the vector
which occurs in each of these terms in the same way may be written in the symbolic form
r
this
In like manner
b3
,
if
ap a 2 , a 8
be any given vectors, and b p b 2
,
another set equal in number, the expression
r
= a! b
x
r
+
a2 b2
;
r
+
a3 b3
r
+

(6)
is
a linear vector function of r
for
owing
to the distributive
character of the scalar product this function of r satisfies For the sake of brevity r may be written sym relation (4).
bolically in the
form
( ai
r
=
bx
+
aa b2
+
a3 b3
+
.)
r.
(6)
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
particular physical or geometrical significance attributed at present to the expression
265
is
No
to be
(a^ +
It
a^ + agbg + .)
(7)
verts
should be regarded as an operator or symbol which con the vector r into the vector r and which merely
affords a convenient
and quick way
of writing the relation
(6).
expression a b formed by the juxtaposition of two vectors without the intervention of a dot or a cross is
Definition
:
An
called a dyad.
The symbolic sum
;
of
two dyads
is
called a
dyadic binomial of three, a dyadic trinomial ; of any num For the sake of brevity dyadic ber, a dyadic polynomial. binomials, trinomials, and polynomials will be called simply
vector in a dyad is called the antecedent ; and the second vector, the consequent. The antecedents of a
dyadics.
first
The
dyadic are the vectors which are the antecedents of the
individual dyads of which the dyadic is composed. In like manner the consequents of a dyadic are the consequents of
the individual dyads. Thus in the dyadic (7) a p a2 a3 the antecedents and b r b 2 , b 3 the consequents.
, 
are
Dyadics will be represented symbolically by the capital Greek letters. When only one dyadic is present the letter will generally be used. In case several are under consid
eration other
Greek
capitals will be
employed
also.
With
this notation (7)
becomes
and (6) may now be written
r
briefly in the
d>
r.
form
(8)
=
x
By
definition
r
= aj b
read
r
+
a2 b2
r.
r
+
a3 b 3
r
+

The symbol
product of
<Pr
is
dot
It is called the direct
into r because the consequents bj, b 2 , b 3
are
multiplied into r as r is multiplied in r. another is denoted by affixing a subscript C to either. (9) Definition : Any two dyadics and W are said to be equal when or or r r B when when = W r =r W W r =B for all values of for all values of r r. (9) Evidently the vectors Definition is and r are in general different. for all values of and . a x bj a2 b2 + is r  a3 b3 + . said to be a post/actor to used either as a prefactor or as a postfactor to a dyadic vector r determines a linear vector function of r. r. are called conjitr The fact that one dyadic is the conjugate of gate dyadics. =b may x ax + b2 a2 + . (a a ^+a + r r 2 b2 + a3 b 3 + . When the dyadic r. They are called conjugate linear vector func tions. A dyadic used as a postfactor gives the same result as its conjugate used as a prefactor.] That is = C r.. Thus Theorem: = C = c . said to be a prefactor to is When r. The two linear A vector functions thus obtained are in general different from one another.266 VECTOR ANALYSIS The multiplied into r by direct or scalar multiplication. The direct product of r r into <P is =r =r : . r 100. be obtained from the other by inter changing the antecedents and consequents. . s (10) r.. . as r <#. ) . order of the factors and r is important. The two dyadics ^ajbj + ajbg + and each of which agbg b3 a3 + + .
the scalar into and like manner *T are equal. . the vector scalar products of any them must be equal.(#a + 2/b + zc)==# a + ?/*bMc. then those vectors must be equal.a. by a dyadic which is the conjugate of 0. if equivalent to the first. And conversely if the r product of any and every vector s into the vectors s and W r are equal. / and W are equal provided equa Consequently two dyadics tions (10) hold for three noncoplanar vectors r and three noncoplanar vectors s. where a. j. Hence is all three are equivalent. r = 0.b. .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS The vectors third relation r is 267 For. to be used as a postfactor. 0. Theorem : Any linear vector function / may be represented to be used as a prefactor and by a dyadic . The linear vector function is completely determined when its values for three noncoplanar vectors (say 264). This follows immediately from the fact that a dyadic defines are If a linear vector function. used as a prefactor.c. and to the dyadic = to be <P (7 = ia + jb + kc. Theorem values : A dyadic completely determined when the 0. k) are known (page Let Then the linear function / is equivalent to the dyadic to be used as a postfactor. any three noncoplanar vectors. b. are known. i. In it may be shown that the third relation is equiva lent to the second. c 0.
268 VECTOR ANALYSIS The study of linear vector functions therefore is identical with the study of dyadics. is said to be multiplied by the scalar a when dyadic each of its dyads is multiplied by that scalar. dyad a b is said to be multiplied by a scalar Definition : A that scalar. The dyadic a $ applied to a vector r either as a prefactor or to r r as a postfactor yields a vector equal to a times the vector obtained by applying that is (a 0) = a (0 r). Hence each of which follows that a dyad which consists of two factors. Theorem utive. [(a For + b) c] r = (a + b) c r = ac r + b c r = (a c + b c) r and [a(b + c)] it r = a (b + c) r = ab r + ac r = (ab + ac) r. is the sum of a number of vectors.. may be multiplied out according to the law of ordinary algebra except that the order of the factors in the dyads must be maintained. The product is written A a or <Pa. or a when the antecedent or the consequent is multiplied by when a is distributed in any manner between If the antecedent and the consequent. .. : The combination is of vectors in a dyad is distrib That (a + b) c and a (b + c) = ac + bc = ab + ac. . a =aa 11 a (ab) = (a a) b = a (a b) = (a a) (a" b). This follows immediately from the definition of equality of dyadics (10).
If all the antecedents kj. = a n ii + a 12 ij + + iJi +a 22 jj + 2 a 13 ik a23 jk (13) + This is a 31 ki + a 32 kj + a 33 kk. when expressed in nonion . called the nonion : form of 0. ji. pressed in terms of simplified distributive i.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 269 bn+ + clf cmf cn+ The dyad which tic . From the three unit vectors be obtained by combining two at a time. law of products This is a justifi a dyad with the antecedent and conse cation for writing quent in juxtaposition as in ordinary algebra. ii. j. jk. is customary in the case of products The 10L] Nonion Form of a Dyadic i. by performing the multiplications according to the law (11) and if the terms be collected. k nine dyads may These are ij. the dyadic may be reduced to the sum of nine dyads each of which is a scalar multiple of one of the nine fundamental dyads given above. and consequents in a dyadic be ex and if the resulting expression be k. inasmuch as it obeys the characteris the distributive law.. kk. sufficient condition that Theorem dyadics 4> The necessary and two and W be equal is that. (12) ki. (11) therefore appears as a product of the two vectors of it is composed. jj. ik. j..
n.j =j. (15) +a m + ^33 As a dependent.i. = k. ?F. b. i . then obviously <P. c . j. k. . The dyadic may then be reduced to the form = an + f1 fflai al + + & 12 22 32 a 21 bl c 1 am + bin + c a 13 a 23 an bn c n.k. j. a. </. k k = i <P. corollary of the theorem it is evident that the nine dyads (12) are in None of them may be expressed linearly in terms of the others.0 j = k ?F.i. If the coefficients be equal.j. statement of the equality of two dyadics can some analytic times be used to greater advantage than the more fundamental But coefficients are definition (10) based upon the conception of the dyadic as defining a linear vector function. these quantities are precisely the nine coefficients in the and W. i . = s s W r r for all values of i.j.k r. j. c 1. be expressed in terms of a.k = j. d> i = i  i. and the dyadics by (10) must be equal. 0. <Pi W. Hence the corresponding expansion of the dyadics 1 This equal and the theorem is proved. the scalar coefficients of the corresponding dyads be equal. 0. n. m. i j . s and Let and each take on the values (14) Then . in terms of 1. b. j = i . the dyadics and W are equal. and the consequents any three given m. k. then by (10) s r r. j. r for any value if of r Conversely.270 VECTOR ANALYSIS form. noncoplanar vectors Every antecedent may and every consequent. dyadic may be expressed as the sum of nine dyads of which the antecedents are any three given non Theorem : A coplanar vectors.k.k = k iT k ?T. .i=j. W . r= W .
(16) for which have the same three noncoplanar ante dyadics The cedents.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 271 This expression of <P is more general than that given in It reduces to that expression when each set of vectors (13). k. (16) In like manner if it be required to express $ as the 1. be arbitrarily chosen provided they be non Let of it which be required to express 4> as the sum of three dyads Let 1. c are the antecedents. n are = Ll + Mm + a 2l b 22 Nn. (16) where = an a + M = a 12 a + N = a lB a + L + b + + a 32 a ZB c> c. C . m. sum of three dyads of which the three noncoplanar vectors the consequents m. a. with i. a 23 b are unique. may then be expressed as in Hence 1 = a (a n + or 12 m+ <P a 13 n) + b (a 21 c + + Osi 1 + 1 m + 23 n) m + a 32 n). n. three noncoplanar vectors. m. have the same three antecedents. j. 102. . c. ] Definition: The symbolic product formed by a. b. these however need not be noncoplanar. c and 1. Two equal expressions (15). n coincides Theorem : Any may dyadic <# may be reduced to the sum of three dyads of which either the antecedents or the consequents. position of or a cross two vectors the juxta b without the intervention of a dot is called the indeterminate product of the two vectors a and b. (15). n be any other a. a. have the same consequents A. And two equal dyadics which have the same three noncoplanar consequents 1. b. B. (16). coplanar. but not both. m. 32 22 = aA + bB + cC. a 31 c. b.
Certainly no product could be more general. the vectors com posing the product are other words known when the product is known. On the other hand the product ab is neither vector nor scalar it is purely symbolic and acquires a determinate physical meaning only when used as an operator. TJieorem : The indeterminate product a b of two vectors is is the most general product in which scalar multiplication associative. One is a certain scalar. In two indeterminate products a b and a b are equal. The two products a b and a x b have definite meanings. positive or negative sign according as a tively equal or opposite directions to product of the lengths of a and b . The most general product conceivable ought to have property that when the product is known the two factors also the are known. is Inasmuch as scalar multiplication is to be associative. Apart from and b when may this possible transference of a scalar factor. The product a b does not obey the commutative law. b l i j 6 3 k. Any scalar factor be transferred from one vector to the other. that a (ab) it = (a a) b = a (a b) = (a* a) (a"b).272 VECTOR ANALYSIS for the The reason term indeterminate is this. and b have respec a and b ) is equal to the Let a =a =l l i + + &2 &2 j + + a3 k. will be impossible to completely determine the vectors a their product a b is given. . the other a certain vector. the vectors a and a b and b must be collinear and the product of the lengths of a and b (taking into account the Theorem : If the . It does however obey the distributive law is (11) and the associative law as far as scalar multiplication concerned (Art 100).
Since ab is equal to a V r ab for all values of =a b r Let r be perpendicular to b. In like manner by using a b Also as a postfactor a and a are seen to be parallel. And &1 :. This is true for any vector r in the plane perpendicular to b. which shows that the vectors a and a are collinear. &/ ii + a/V . Then &b * a1 b3 =a 1 ii + a^^ a2 &3 ij + + + + + + ik jj a 2 6 3 jk a 3 6 3 kk.:6 8 = V /  V. aj 6 3 ik <V ji + &.&. Then b r r. . Hence b and b are perpendicular to the same plane and are collinear. Hence a 1 :a 2 :a s =a 1 :a 2 :a 3 . This shows that the product of the lengths (including sign) are equal and the theorem is proved. kj ij and a V= + + . The proof may be carried out geometrically as follows.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS a 273 =a b1 1 i + a2 j + a3 k. But al bl = a/ &/. which shows that the vectors b and V are collinear. v = Vi + yj + &. which shows that the products of the lengths are the same. Since ab =ab corresponding coefficients are equal. abb = 18 a b b. kj kk. a. 6t jj a 2 6 3 jk a3 &3 o 8 6j ki + o. vanishes and consequently Vr also vanishes.
a jxk= kxj. a b. . (17) not hold conversely that if a b and a x b are known for taken together a b and a X b impose upon the vectors only four conditions. a b =a b and a x b =a x b . Hence It does is ab fixed . That is to say. For these products depend solely upon the directions of a and b and upon the product of the length of a and b. a b and a x b are determined. a and being a scalar quantity.i=j.j=j. k themselves are independent. being a vector quantity. The nine vector products ixi = jxj = kxk = and ixj = jxi. b and a x b obtained respectively from the indeterminate product by inserting a dot and a cross be The two products tween the factors are functions of the indeterminate product. imposes three conditions.274 VECTOR ANALYSIS The indeterminate product ab imposes Jive conditions upon the vectors a and b. and i. The normal to the plane of a and b is fixed and also th e area of the parallelogram of which they are the side. Their functional nature is brought out clearly by the notation of the dot and the cross. The nine scalar products Only two of are not independent. kxi ixk. The directions of a and b are fixed and The scalar product likewise the product of their lengths. a b appears not only as the most general product but as the most fundamental product. all of which are if known when ab ab is known. b. The others are merely functions of it. are mot independent either. whereas a b imposes five. them are different. for 0. into The nine indeterminate products (12) of i.k = kj=ki = ik = 0. imposes only one condition upon The vector product a x b.j. when ab is given. That is =a b .
i. (20) j =(j (Pkk* ^. #x = ( Or <? x .i)k. (18) In like manner a vector known as the vector of may be obtained by inserting a cross between the antecedent and con sequent of each dyad in 0. + . j.  (19) k. . S = s and and X X = yx are .a !3) (20) J k  ( 21 ) <Pj + k.0. This scalar will be denoted by a subscript S attached If to 0.. If be expanded in nonion form in terms of s .k) + (i 0jj. the scalar of vector of If is equal to the scalar of equal to the vector of is . Hence if and W are two equal dyadics.(Pii.a 2l) + 0*31 . b2 + a3 .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS Definition: 275 A scalar known as the scalar of may be ob tained by inserting a dot between the antecedent and conse quent of each dyad in a dyadic. X = aj x b x + a2 x b2 + a3 x b3 + . and sometimes not. (22) From appears that S functions of is uniquely determined when They may sometimes given. (P. (?k. This vector will be denoted by attaching a subscript cross to 0.. (21) In equations (20) and (21) the scalar and vector of are in terms of the coefficients of when expanded expressed in the nonion form.0i + jS ) .a 32 * 28 = i.j) i+ (k. A subscript dot might be used for the scalar of * if it were sufficiently distinct and free from liability to misinterpretation. and the = this it W. . l =a = &1 8 <P 1 b1 bx + + a2 b 2 a2 + a3 b 3 + b3 . be obtained more conveniently from (20) and (21) than from (18) 1 and (19). = a n + a^ + a BZ + (^12 .
.. . .276 VECTOR ANALYSIS Products of Dyddics In giving the definitions and proving the theorems concerning products of dyadics. 1 b 1 + a 2 b2 c2 r^CCjdj + ?T=(a 1 b 1 (c^j + 1 d2 + + a3 b 3 c3 + .c)d = bc first ad. defined as the formal expansion (according to the distributive law) of the product into a sum of products of dyads. (23) That is. the dyad is made the under 103. true for the dyad is true for the dyadic in general owing to the fact that dyads and dyadics obey the distributive law of multiplication. Thus a direct new The *=(a and d>.] lying principle.) d3 + +a 2 b 2 + c2 a3 b3 + C3 ) + C3 d3 = a b c 1 d + a b *e 2 d a + a x b x + a 2 b 2 c d +a 2 b 2 . Thus the two vectors which stand together in the product (ab). ab into the dyad and c d is written . (cd) are multiplied as they stand.c 2 d 2 + a 2 b 2 + agbgc^ + a 3 b 3 c 2 d 2 + a 3 b 3 + d2 1 1 1 +) d3 d3 C3 c3 1 1 1 + + (23) d3 H 1 The parentheses may be omitted in each of these three expressions.. The other two are left to form product of two dyadics may be dyad.) . 1 (ab)(cd) = a(b.. (ab) is (cd) by definition equal to the dyad (b c) a d. x . the antecedent of the second dyad are taken for the antecedent and the consequent of the and consequent respectively of the product and the whole is multiplied by the scalar product of the consequent of the first and the antecedent of the second. is What Definition: The direct product of the dyad .
r) = (b c) (d r) a. Consequently by virtue of it holds true for dyadics in general.c 2 a 3 d 2 + b2 a^j d3 + b 3 c 3 a 3 d 3 (23)" The product Theorem : of two dyadics and W is a dyadic W. f carries P into P ff . W defines a trans formation of space such that the points P go over into the defines a transformation of space such that the points P P go over into the points P". The single operation W also carries PintoP". the position vector of will be the position That is to say. r . regarded as W of two dyadics (P and W when The product an operator to be used as a prefactor is equiva lent to the operator W followed by the operator 0. dis* That is . Let =&.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS x 277 ax d3 ajdj a2 d x + bj c2 ax d2 f bx c3 c3 + f l + b 2 c 2 a 2 d 2 b 3 . Hence W followed by points . Q ((? r To show or = d> ( W r). (c d r). another point P and r" vector of a third point P n f = W r will be = (^(3 r) r . W)*T <? = c 0. (a b is d) r = ab The theorem the distributive law true for dyads. Theorem: Direct multiplication of dyadics obeys the tributive law. If r denote the position vector drawn from an assumed origin to a point P in space. r) =b = ab c (ad c (d ab Hence r) = (b c) (d r) a..(^ 0 (24) Let ab be any dyad of (ab cd) (c d r and c d any dyad of W.
(abcd) ef ab (cdef) The proof may as operators = (bc) ad ef = (bc) (d.( W+ + ?F"+. Theorem : The product of three dyadics <P.e) af. Q. F) Q\ r = {(? (V T)\ r for all values of Consequently .. (25) Hence in general the product (4>+ 4> + 4>" + . be expanded formally according to the distributive law. = (d^e) ab cf = (d e) (b c) af. The proof consists in the demonstration of the theorem for three dyads ab. Hence {(* r. as either product be written without (26 ) V .. .. J2).). W. W. W+ + .. (ma> may . cd. J)} . by considering 0.278 ( VECTOR ANALYSIS + 0) and (0 f + = W= f ) . Q. .(f. (26) and consequently parentheses.) may tive. Q is associa Thatis ( t. f . r = *. [(f.r]. ef taken respectively from the three dyadics 4>. o= t. also be given and Q Let Let Again {^. W.r).
(27) Let ab be a dyad of $. c) d (r a (ab d be ab (r cd). (  r) = <P V r. (#. dyadic is not associative. a vector. The direct product Parentheses may of any number of dyadics is associative.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 279 The theorem may be extended by mathematical induction any number of dyadics. . The results of this article may summed up as follows : or of any Theorem: The direct product of any number of dyadics number of dyadics with a vector factor at either at end or laws of both ends obeys the distributive and associative multiplication parentheses may be inserted or omitted at pleasure. It was shown above (24) that (<P T) r = . But the theorem is untrue when the vector occurs between The product of a dyadic. V c 0. and (a b r) (r c d a dyad of d ab Hence c d) = b r (a c d) = (b = ab d (r c) = b r) c r) (a c) d. But the direct product of any number of dyadics with a vector factor at some other position than at end is not associative parentheses are necessary to the expression a definite meaning. give Later it will be seen that by making use of the conjugate either dyadics a vector factor which occurs between other dyadics may be placed at the end and hence the product may be made to assume a form in which it is associative. The theorem is true in case the vector precedes the dyadics and also when the number of dyadics is greater than two. . and another the dyadics.(r ).r). to the case of be inserted or omitted at pleasure without altering the result. (24) Hence the product of two dyadics and a vector is associative.
. (29) .) a3 b3 + . Furthermore the expressions s x <P and <P x r s can have no other meaning than s r x <P =s (r x <P). (28) x = r x (a b + a 2 b + a b + = r x ajbj + r x a 2 b 2 + r x a . The obvious extension to dyadics is either end is a rrrajbj r x r + a a2 b2 xr + 2 a3 b 3 3 3 x . Theorem: The direct product of any number of dyadics multiplied at either end or at both ends by a vector whether the multiplication be performed with a cross or a dot is associative.. r + .. (rx = rx(0. But in case the vector is occurs at any other position than the end the product Sr not associative. <P) r ( s. .280 104.] VECTOR ANALYSIS Definition: a vector r respectively and of The skew products of a dyad ab into a vector r into a dyad ab are defined (ab) x by the equations = a(b rx(ab) = (r x r x r). That is. ..? xr.(?P xr) =r x = r x <P s) (r x #) s r (0 x s) = (r x s = r <P x rx($xs) = (rx $)xs = rx $xs. . a)b. The skew product of a dyad and a vector at dyad. </>) s. but !P (rX^)^(S r jr r) X*. (<P ?F) xr=(P.y)=rx <P = <P.
furnishes about as great a generality as is ever called for in practical applications of vector methods. the theory of these higher combinations of The dyadic vectors will not be taken up in this book. connected with the theory of linear vector functions In a similar manner by going a step higher tetrads and tetradics may be formed. and finally polyads and polyadics. >).LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS since the product of a dyadic 281 s with a cross into a scalar r Moreover since the dot and the cross may is meaningless. (sx r). just as the theory of of a vector. called a triad . <p. The formal skew product two dyads a b and c d would be (ab) x (cd) In = a(b x c)d. an expression rst is (32) triadic. d are placed side by side with no sign of multiplication uniting them. (31) V. = = x r) s). and 0(r x 5F) (</> x The parentheses in the following expressions omitted without incurring ambiguity. and a sum of such expressions. a is The theory dyadics is of triadics intimately connected with the theory of linear dyadic functions of a vector.(r cannot be x s) (0r) x s. 0*sx(r0). b x c. But . be interchanged in the scalar triple product of three vectors it appears that s r <p x ^ x r = s (s 4> x r) (r 0. Such this expression three vectors a. * of (31) (0r) x x(r.
n were all collinear the dyadic would reduce to a single term and if all vanished the dyadic would vanish. c en to be noncoplanar. m. 1. b. The proof of the first part of the theorem has given. may be expressed m. To prove the second part suppose that the dyadic could be reduced to a sum of two terms $ = dp + eq and that the consequents were noncoplanar. m n be the system reciprocal to 1. = (a# + b)m + (ay + c)n. If 1. For let 1 . n. Thus let <P = al + bm + cn. way when the antecedents it In particular cases may be possible to reduce the dyadic further to a sum of two terms or to a single term or to zero. and this reduction can be accomplished in only one or the consequents are specified. The dyadic has been reduced to two terms. 1 = x m + y n. n of This supposition leads to a contradiction. they Theorem terms <p : If a dyadic be expressed as the sum of three = al + bm + a.] It was shown (Art. n are coplanar one of the three in terms of the other two as If 1. . m. That is.282 VECTOR ANALYSIS Degrees of Nullity of Dyadics 105. m. Then $ = a#m + ayn + bm + cn. 101) that a dyadic could always be reduced to a sum of three terms at most. of which the antecedents are known then the dyadic may be reduced to the sum of two dyads just been when and only when the consequents are coplanar. _ mx n = [Tmn] n x 1 1 x m .
when and only The proof of the first part was given above. must be coplanar with d and e. n are collinear. m. n are noncoplanar leads to a contradiction. may be expressed in terms of them as Any vector r But and 1 = xl + ym + zn/ <p. n must be coplanar and the theorem is proved. 1 = m 1 r f 1 zn ).r = (al + bm + en) (xl + ym + m = n n = 1. n exist and are noncoplanar because m. Hence 1. m. c are known to be noncoplanar. This shows that Theorem : If a dyadic terms be expressed as the sum of three of which the antecedents a. n have been assumed to be noncoplanar. b. Hence = xa + giving to r a suitable value the vector equal to any vector in space. the second part suppose <P could be expressed as To prove Let . the dyadic can be reduced to a single dyad when the consequents 1.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS The 1. By d> r may be made But r = (dp + r e q)  r = d (p r) + e (q r). m =1 m=m $ r n =m n yb =n + z. m. Hence r can take on only those vector values which lie in the plane of d and e. m f . Thus the assumption that 1.e. 283 vectors 1 . 1 =n 1 = 0.
z. Definition: A A dyadic which may be reduced to the sum of two dyads. mxp = 0. 106. that is. c gives From the first expression r = 0. for every value of x. the statement of would have to be altered by interchanging the words antecedent and consequent throughout. c is the reciprocal system to a. V. m. b. m. There is a fur ther theorem dealing with the case in which both antecedents the and consequents of are coplanar. the dyadic is said to be uniplanar. and n are all parallel to been demonstrated. Hence must be zero Hence y. where a . but cannot be reduced to a single dyad is said to be planar. dyadic which may be reduced to a single dyad is said to be linear.284 VECTOR ANALYSIS it is the second equation postfactor for any vector r From evident that W used as a = x a + y b + zc . when A In case the antecedent and consequent of that dyad are col . nxp = 0. n had been known to be non the theorems coplanar instead of the three antecedents. x p = 0. 1 #lxp+ymxp + znxp for every value of r.] Then is reducible to the sum dyadic which cannot be reduced to of fewer than three dyads is said to be complete. If the three consequents 1. sum of two dyads. p and the theorem has Hence 1. In case the plane of the antecedents and the plane of the con sequents coincide the dyadic is expressed as the sum of two dyads.
plane of the antecedents and t any value in the plane of the consequents The dyadic but no values out of those planes. If is complete s may be to take on any desired value by giving r a suitable value. c . to the plane of the consequents of is reduced perpendicular used as a postfactor reduces every to zero. In like manner a. when . As is complete 1. f (xl + ym + zn f ) =#a + yb + zc. If a dyadic may be its terms vanish the dyadic is said to In this case the nine coefficients of the dyadic as expressed in nonion form must vanish. A complete dyadic applied to a vector r cannot give zero is unless the vector r itself zero. linear. . yb + zc = xl + ym + zn. of as a prefactor reduces every vector r in space to a vector used If is planar the vector s may take on any value in the In particular any vector r in the plane of the antecedents. c possess a system of reciprocals a ) V. planar. = . uniplanar. is linear the vector s may take on any value collinear If with the antecedent of and t any value collinear with the con . n are noncoplanar and hence have a m n . . the 285 dyadic is said to be unilinear. and when regarded as operators are as follows. . In case the dyadic the antecedents of is uniplanar the same statements hold. is reduced to zero. The Let unilinear dyadics properties of complete. s = and t r and t =r made <P.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS linear. b. The dyadic vector r in space to a vector in the plane of the consequents In particular a vector perpendicular to the plane of of <P. reciprocal system s l f m. so expressed that all of be zero.
VECTOR ANALYSIS but no other values. nullity. linear. Theorem: The product of two planar dyadics except when the plane of the consequent of the is is planar in the product dyadic perpendicular to the plane of the antece dent of the second dyadic. cedent of are thus reduced to zero. The dyadic are reduced to zero. 107.286 sequent of . If is and t are loth zero no Definition nullity. . In this case the product reduces and only in this case. s takes on the values (b x (b2 = c x) s =x + x c ) x C l) ax a2 + + y (b x y 0>2 c x) c2) C) ax E 2> (b 2 c 2 )} s = \x (bj +y (bj c 2 )} ax + {x (b 2 + y a2 .] Theorem : The direct product of . lity A A said to possess one degree of linear dyadic is said to possess two degrees of zero dyadic is said to possess three degrees of nul : A planar dyadic is or complete nullity. s a zero dyadic the vectors matter what the value of r may be. s = W r takes on all values in the plane of Cj The vector g s f = . of a complete dyadic and a planar dyadic. two complete dyadics is complete. a 2 b 2. The dyadic used as a reduces any vector r to the line of the antecedent prefactor In particular any vectors perpendicular to the con of 0. Q= The vector and c 2 W. I \) I + . planar of a complete dyadic and a linear dyadic. to a linear dyadic first Let B. used as a sequent of postfactor reduces any vector r to the line of the consequent In particular any vectors perpendicular to the ante of 0.
The theorem is therefore proved.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS Let s 287 = x &i Cj) where x y 1 = x (b x x (b 2 +y +y a2 . plane of a x Consequently may the planes are per take on any value in the when is therefore a planar dyadic unless the planes of b x and b 2 . and cl perpendicular to the plane of the con x c 2 to the plane of the antecedents of . II. Theorem : The product except when and only in this case. Their scalar product vanishes when and only that s is. (b l c2 ).. and 1 Cj) 4 y (b 2 c 2 ). perpendicular to the antecedent of the linear In this case the product is zero and only in this Theorem: The product of a linear dyadic into a planar dyadic is linear except when the consequent of the linear . when the vectors are perpendicular pendicular. case. of two linear dyadics is linear the consequent of the first factor is perpen In this case the dicular to the antecedent of the second. Chap. this is merely the product ( ci 0>i x t> 2) x C 2) =  The . product is zero Theorem : The product of a planar dyadic into a linear linear except is when is the plane of the consequents of the planar dyadic dyadic. Cj and c 2 are perpendicular s can take f and a2 and on only values in a certain line of the plane of a x and a^ and hence <P W is linear. b2 c2 But by (25). c x and c 2 are perpendicular. when s has any desired values x and y are given 1 any desired value in the plane of determinant EJ and a2 unless the V^ b2 cx bjc. If however b x and b 2 . These equations may always be solved for x and y when that is. vector \xb 2 is sequents of <P.
then an idemfactor. The Idemfactor. . immediately evident that in the cases mentioned the products do reduce to zero. 1 ordinary algebra. or r is =r for all values of r. 1 Let = a n ii+ ki 12 ij + a 13 ik + a 32 kj + a 33 kk. The capital I is used as the sym The idemfactor is a complete dyadic. bol for an idemfactor. also left to the reader. (33) idemfactors are equal. Theorem : When expressed in nonion form the idemfactor I = ii + jj + kk. To prove that the idemfactor takes the form (33) it is merely necessary to apply the idemfactor I to the vectors all i. is For there can be no direction in which I r vanishes. That is 108.] Definition : If a if r if = r for all values of r. 1 Reciprocals and Conjugates of Dyadics dyadic applied as a pre factor or as a postfactor to any vector always yields that vector the dyadic is said to be an idemfactor. In the theory of dyadics the idemfactor I plays a role analogous to unity in The notation is intended to suggest this analogy.288 dyadic is VECTOR ANALYSIS perpendicular to the plane of the antecedents of In this case the product is zero the planar dyadic. The proofs are similar to the one given above in the case of two planar of dyadics. page 286. first They are left to the reader. It is not quite so apparent that It is they can reduce to zero in only those cases. k respectively. Hence j. and only in this case. is The proof the theorem stated.
. = 1 and a 21 = a 31 = 0. c.c : . may . I = r and 10 = 0. Hence the expressions must be idemfactors by Theorem Conversely if definition. page 266. be shown that all of the coefficients vanish except a n a 22 a 33 I which are unity. c be two reciprocal systems of vectors the expressions I I = aa + bb + cc =aa+b b+c c II. (34) are idemfactors. b. may V. . m. n must be the reciprocal system of 19 a.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS I If . In like manner it . Hence (33) = ii + jj + That is. all In like manner it . b. Theorem factor is : The direct product of any dyadic and the idem that dyadic. c be shown that I = 0. For by (30) and (31) Chap. kk. For (0 I) = r (I = r. the expression = al + bm + is en an idemfactor 1. . Theorem: If a and a. i 289 = an + i a 21 j 4 a 31 k. r) be. Ii an = i. r and = raa + r*bb + r cc r = ra a + r b b + r. c. no matter what the value of may Hence.
As complete r must take on all desired values. is may product of two dyadics be taken in either order. Then = xl + ym\zn = xsi + y b + zc is. z. for all values of r. that product 109. noncoplanar and possess a set of reciprocals a r b . W)  = all (r 0) ( W (?) =r is 0. is equal to the idemfactor the factors are taken in the reversed order. By hypothesis r <P = #a + y V + 20 r $ = r. place since (P is the idemfactor. Let . y. For the product incomplete and hence could not be equal to the idemfactor. (0 . equal to the idemfactor. an idemfactor. and if the product l then the product W 0. Hence by definition W If the = I. Hence the is. That Theorem <? W when be any two dyadics. This relation holds for values of r. is also : If (Pand . c are it is a complete Hence the antecedents .] Definition: When two dyadics are so related that their product is equal to the idemfactor. Let V=L To show W =L r . a. b. c .290 VECTOR ANALYSIS first In the dyadic. they are said to be 1 This necessitates both the dyadics * and is of two incomplete dyadics V to be complete. that for all values of x. . corresponding coefficients must be equal.
Hence = 0i = I. W~i = 0i = ~\ is the dyadic whose antecedents are the and whose conse reciprocal system to the consequents of are the reciprocal system to the antecedents of 0. be two given equal dyadics. By hypothesis Let and W 0= and W. Theorem into If the direct products of a complete dyadic two dyadics 1 W and Q are equal as dyadics then (finite) reciprocal. = a +mV+n 1 c . 1.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 1 291 reciprocals. W. ~i = l. = ~i.1 As 0=.0~i=0.0i 0. W and Q An incomplete dyadic has no . To show 0. (36) For (al + bm + cn) : (1 a + n V+ n c ) =aa + bV + ce .y=I. 0. I.0 = I. The notation used to for reciprocals in ordinary algebra if is employed denote reciprocal dyadics.\ 01. 1. 01 = 1= 0. Theorem: = ?Fi =1 W and 5T= 0i=L (35) Reciprocals of the same or equal dyadics are equal. That is. quents reciprocal of If a complete dyadic The be written in the form its reciprocal is 0"1 = al + bm + en. <J>~ 1 and JT"1 their reciprocals as defined above.
then the vectors r and s are equal.] Theorem: of dyadics The is reciprocal of the product of any number equal to the product of the reciprocals taken in the opposite order. be any vector. 110. As t is any vector.292 are equal. Hence t x r =t s. Complete dyadics may be canceled from either end of an expression just as if they were scalar quantities. x s.  and and if if x = d> J2. It will be sufficient to give the proof for the case in which the product consists of two dyadics. Let t To reduce the last equation proceed as follows.0. 01. 01. s. To show . It corresponds to the cancelation of a zero factor in ordinary algebra. = 0i r = r = 0~! 1  Q= s s. r = r = x s. tIxr = tIxs. . then s. for r is equal to is Equations (37) give what celation equivalent to the law of cancomplete dyadics. . or s and That if is. (37) This may be seen by multiplying each of the equations through by the reciprocal of 0. t I = t. 0xr = IXr=0" = 0X8 = 1X8. r If the VECTOR ANALYSIS product of a dyadic into two vectors (whether the multiplication be performed with a dot a cross) are equal. then r = then r = s. = Q. W = 0i . The cancelation of an incomplete dyadic is not admissible.
: Theorem The reciprocal of a <P. V 5F1 0~l (0 = ?F) l ( ?F ( y1 } .1 1 0. The proof for any number of dyadics may be given same manner or obtained by mathematical induction. The symbol <P" n may be interpreted as the ing or as the reciprocal of nth power of the reciprocal of the nth power of 0. 0l = I. If be interpreted as an operator determining a trans formation of space. = . For instance the idemfactor 1. That Hence Hence ?T JF. . = 02 0^ of <P is and so forth. The fractional and irrational powers of CP will not be defined.1 ) = I. no trans corresponds to the identical transformation formation at all. and W~ (P" must be reciprocals. The negative powers of The idemfactor that is. of times. 0~ l = 0. . 0*. power the power of the reciprocal of (0)i = (0. They are seldom used I and are not has the two singlevalued.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 293 . . the positive powers of correspond to The repetitions of the transformation. correspond to the inverse transformations. by itself are called powers of taken any number and are denoted in the customary manner. Definition : in the The products of a dyadic <P. square roots infinite But in addition to these it has a doubly system of square roots of the form <P = ii + jj + kk. is. .)" = 1 0 (37) proof follows immediately as a corollary of the preced theorem.
The idemfactor has also a doubly infinite system of square roots of the form Geometrically the transformation r = V. (d> T) =0 C Wc . The idemfactor thus possesses not only two square roots but in addition two doubly infinite systems of square . it will be seen (Art. its figure of by 180. The equation r .T is a reflection in the iaxis. Theorem : The conjugate . The trans is formation is sometimes called perversion. Theorem dyadics is The conjugate equal to the sum : sum or difference of two or difference of the conjugates. 129) that these are by no means 111. all. The following theorems concerning of the conjugates are useful. symmetrically situated upon the opposite side of the j kplane. This transformation replaces each figure by a symmetrical figure. = 4> r (9) has been demonstrated. . 99) as the dyadic obtained consequents of a given dyadic by interchanging the antecedents and and the notation of a subscript C has been employed.294 VECTOR ANALYSIS Geometrically the transformation a reflection of space in the j kplane. of a product of dyadics is equal to the product of the conjugates taken in the opposite order. This transformation replaces each rotated about the iaxis through an angle equal roots and.] The conjugate of a dyadic has been defined (Art.
T)c =W c . (r . = <P C . own conjugate as be seen from I = ii + 1 j j + kk Hence Hence (^c)" *c 1 C^) = (*"% The expression ^ c1 may of two equivalent ways Definition: If a therefore be interpreted in either as the reciprocal of the conjugate or as the conjugate of the reciprocal. ^ <^. W = Vc (4> (r <P) = .0 Ct (0 . r = r (0 W) . <P) .4> c The conjugate of the power of a dyadic is the power of the conjugate of the dyadic. Hence Theorem : V) c = c . (r r . W) c . (d>. If it is equal to the negative of con . r. = For ^ = Ic = Imay (42) (@~ is l )c its c = (& 0~ 1 )c The idemfactor the nonion form.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS It will be sufficient to demonstrate the theorem 295 in case the product contains two factors. To show (40) 4>) 5F. dyadic is equal to its conjugate. This n a corollary of the foregoing theorem. Theorem The conjugate of the reciprocal of a dyadic is is : equal to the reciprocal of the conjugate of the dyadic. The expression c may be interpreted in either of two equal ways. it is its said to be selfconjugate. = r.
0<. dyadics. For But and 0=5(0+0. = (0 + J2) + (0"). Thus and the part the division has been accomplished in one way. . it is VECTOR ANALYSIS said to be antiselfconjugate.) + 2 (00c). = r. fi is selfconjugate. + &c) is Hence the part (0 selfconjugate. Let and in another way were possible to decompose into a selfconjugate and an antiselfconjugate part. antiselfconjugate. = For antiselfconjugate dyadics r = dyadic of r. Theorem : Any may way into two parts which one be divided in one and only one is selfconjugate and the other antiselfconjugate. (& + c) c = c +<p cc =: 4> c + (0 (43) d>.) c = $ . = 00. + c= + 0) = (0 + ). . Hence if (0" J2) is antiselfconjugate is antiself conjugate. (^~ 4> c ). Let Suppose it then Where Hence if (0 (0 .<P CC = 0<. _ 0.296 jugate. r For se//conjugate C. = f J2) is f + ^ selfconjugate.
r = . antiselfconjugate dyadic and the vector r is equal to the vector product of minus one half the vector of that dyadic and the vector r. = 0" c : .0" = I0 X x r =. x m) x r. definition <P x = axlfbxm4cxn. .c x n) x r. 112. =a 1 larhbmr a r a r = bm r mb r = nc r = cn r r 1 1 mbr + cnr (a (b 1) nc r.\ r x X. of into equal to its Hence unique. r Hence r 0" 0" =~ r X x r. Suppose <P = alhbmfcn.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 297 Any gate dyadic which is is both selfconjugate and antiselfconju negative and consequently vanishes. antinselfcon jugate Let therefore tirely be any antiselfconjugate dyadic. r. Hence But by 0" r = ~ (a x 1 + b x m 4.] The Vector Product In case is any dyadic the expression If should be en gives the antiselfconjugate part of 0. n is equal to 0". The may be stated in a theorem as Theorem The direct product of any results follows. Q is zero and the division two parts is Antiselfconjugate Dyadics. la $c = 20" But r al + bm mb + x x cn nc. (cxn)xr.
r = <P r r ^ <P X x r. degree : Theorem Any !f whose consequents and antecedents the vector of <P. r r. . so that The dyadic may be found as follows By (31) (I I. (45) Any vector c used in vector multiplication defines a linear vector function.  x c) r = r \ (I (c x x c) = {I x (c x I)} r =I Hence and This c I) c) r = (c I) r. it must be possible to represent the operator c x as a its it This dyadic will be uniplanar with plane of to c. Hence dyadic.] $ = For \ #x X.(c x !) = I} (! r x c)  1. This theorem follows as a corollary from equations (44). or symbolically 113.VECTOR ANALYSIS antiselfconjugate dyadic <P possesses one It is a uniplanar dyadic the plane of of nullity. Theorem : Any dyadic may be broken up into two parts which one is selfconjugate and the other equivalent to used in cross multiplication. antecedents and consequents perpendicular will reduce all vectors parallel to c to zero. cx(r + s)=cxr + cxs. is perpendicular to <P X ". x x r = (I c = r x (I x = (e x I) c) = r (c x I). minus one half the vector of of <p . (46) may be stated in words.
c c. I. used in vector multiplication with x c or c X I used in direct as postfactors. It thus appears that the dyadic I c or c obeys the same law as far as its powers are concerned as the scalar imaginary quadrantal versor only for parallel to c it acts V 1 in algebra. For vectors To avoid this effect and obtain a true . The dyadic c X I or I x c where c is a unit vector to X therefore turns any vector r perpendicular to right angle about the line c as an axis. multiplication with If c precedes r the dyadics are to be used as prefactors I . x c (47) x c) = (c x I) =I x =c x I x I.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS Theorem : The vector a vector r is 299 c equal to the dyadic I r. Applying the operator I x c or c X I four times brings a vector perpendicular to c back to its original position. vectors perpendicular to as an annihilator. The dyadics X c and c X I are antiselfconjugate. The powers (I of the dyadic are therefore x c) (c 2 = 4 (c 3 x 2 I) =x I) 4 (I . The dyadic Ixc orcxlisa c. In case the vector operator c c is a unit vector the application of the any vector r in a plane perpendicular to c is to turning r through a positive right angle about equivalent the axis c. If the dyadic be applied twice the vectors perpendicular to r are rotated through two right angles. They are reversed in direction. If it be applied three times they are turned through three right angles.cc). (I x 3 c) = x I) =I (c c (I (I x 5 c) = x 6 =c x = I . If r c through a were a vector lying out of a plane perpendicular to c the effect of the dyadic I X c or c x I would be to annihilate that component of r which is parallel to c and turn that component of r which is perpen dicular to c through a right angle about c as axis. if c follows r.
a scalar algebra. jx. (49) Ixk=k x I=ji as may be seen by multiplying the idemfactor These expressions represent quadrantal versors about the axis i. ij. In a similar (I x k) 4 is i and man ner the dyad k k is an idemfactor for the direction k. k X respectively. in direct multiplication. X therefore The quadrantal 1 of appears as a fourth root of the versor is analogous to the X imaginary plete V . They are equivalent. The expression j. j. selfconjugate. with annihilators along those axes. and If consists of two parts of which I The dyadic X is com x c is antiself conjugate 114.300 quadrantal versor for VECTOR ANALYSIS all vectors r in space it is merely neces sary to add the dyad c c to the dyadic I X c or c X I. j. iXc + cc. (48) The dyadic idemfactor. and k successively. c c. If X = Ixc + X 2 cc I = cxI + cc. X 3 = = + 2cc.j.] and i. an idemfactor for the plane of but an annihilator for the direction k. when used jj. k are three perpendicular unit vectors Ixi = ixl = kj I jk. k respectively combined into i. xjj x I = ikki. but an . to i x.
If the vector is The used as a prefactor the dyadic must be so used. in the plane of a direction c . Used as a postfactor it is an idemfactor for all vectors. but for vectors in the plane of a and b it is an annihilator. (51) This is a symmetrical and easy form in which to remember the formula for expanding a triple vector product. vector a x b in cross multiplication is therefore equal to the dyadic (b a a b) in direct multiplication. . If a. (a xb) r x r = (b a  a b) r. 301 These partial the reciprocal idemfactors are frequently useful. for vectors perpendicular If a and b are any two vectors (a x b) x I =I x (a x b) r = ba . c are any three vectors and a . ab (50) For {(a x b) x I}r = (a x b) x = bar T = (ba ab>r. that is. and V. but an annihilator for vectors In like manner the expression cc in the used as a prefactor is an idemfactor for vectors in the direction c. b.ab. it is an idemfactor for vectors in the direction c but an annihilator for vectors in the plane of a of c. and V.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS annihilate! for the plane perpendicular to k. but an annihilator for vectors in the direc tion c.ab). Used as a postfactor . x (a x b) =r (ba . c system. aa + bb used as a prefactor is an idemfactor for all vectors in the plane of a and b. V.
: It is in fact an 1 ellipsoid. Let this direction of r be called i. r^*1 (* e  r / = r . The corresponding values (P of r lie in a plane 1 owing to a fact that : r is a linear vector This may be proved as follows r = * r r. the equation r describes a quadric surface. and let the corresponding direction of r r a maximum the direction in which r takes on a value at least as great as be called a. =r V r r = is seen to be of the second . ally perpendicular. is nonion form.1) r By expressing degree.] Let vector. To by demonstrate the theorem consider the surface described r = 0r. <P = ai i + bj j + ck k.r=l=: i. 1 Hence The only closed quadric surface the ellipsoid.302 VECTOR ANALYSIS Reduction of Dyadics to Normal Form 115. varies continuously and its terminus describes a surface.* . Consider next all the values of r which any lie in a plane perpendicular to i. when the terminus being a unit vector the vector r of r describes the surface of a unit sphere. . Theorem to a sum always possible to reduce a complete dyadic of three terms of which the antecedents among It is themselves and the consequents among themselves are mutu This is called the normal form of 0. . When r takes on all values consis tent with that is. Hence r in r . Then be any complete dyadic and let r be a unit the vector r is a linear function of its r. As this is a closed surface there must be some direction of r which makes or at any rate gives r as great a value as it is possible for r to take on.*c l 1 . This surface is closed.
maximum and is hence must be perpendicular to di perpendicular to r r. a maximum and perpendicular to dr Since r is a unit vector it is . Since r a unit vector r is parallel to di i is always Hence when b is jdr + r c kdr = 0. r is perpendicular to both b and c. c it may be expressed in the form changes <P r = k. perpendicular to k. c vanishes. r dr r = = (bj (bj j + ck)r. i. and if Hence when r is But when parallel to i. ck) dr. in this plane When hence r takes the is r is f . plane of b and c. r is parallel to i. a. 303 must be at least as great Call this b and let the corresponding direction any of r be called j. c It remains to show that the vectors as determined above are mutually perpendicular. b. c dr =r value b j. Hence a is perpendicular Consider next the plane of j and k and the to b and c. b. If further is dr perpendicular to j. Finally choose k perpendicular to i and j these values of r one as Of other. When r is parallel to r . Let c be the value of r which corresponds to Since the dyadic i. r is parallel to a. r b vanishes. r dr r f = (ai + = (ai ai bj bj r + ck)r. upon the positive side of plane of i and j. f + dr r = r di r is + a bj di + r  ck dr. + ck) dr f r dr r r dr. kdr. = ai + bj + ck. j. k into a.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS function. Let r be any vector in the plane of j and k.
the directions of the two vectors to which they belong may are all positive. may two negative. and that b perpendicular to c. r takes the Consequently b is perpendicular to c. Hence value r c is zero. is c. <? 116. is parallel to j.304 VECTOR ANALYSIS Hence when and r is perpendicular to dr. If then one of the coefficients in (52) other two axes are negative. Then all the coefficients is If of the coefficients in (52) are negative. J. the directions of the be reversed. Then the dyadic $ takes the form k. It has therefore been shown that a is perpendicular to b and b. 4> = ai i +bj j +ck (52) where a. be reversed and then the coefficients in Hence the in coefficients any case the reduction to the form in which all are positive or all are negative has been performed. c are scalar constants positive or negative. but if two be reversed the system remains righthanded. . But when r is parallel to j. &= The proof of made on page 20 (ai i + fcj j + ck k). As a limiting case between that in which the coefficients are all positive and that in which they are all negative comes . Consequently the three antecedents of are mutually perpendicular. j k .] Theorem: The complete dyadic may always be reduced to a sum of three dyads whose antecedents and whose consequents form a righthanded rectangular system of unit vectors and whose scalar coefficients are either all positive or all negative. They may be denoted by i . (53) that the theorem depends upon the statements if one or three vectors of a righthanded system be reversed the resulting system is lefthanded. dr perpendicular to j.
By a proof similar to the one given above it is to show that any planar dyadic may be reduced to possible The vectors i andj are perpendicular. If two of the coefficients (say a and 6) are equal the reduction may be accomplished in an ways in which the third vector k is always the same. to the have the same values as in any one of them. (52) + 20 6jj + ckk . &. vectors i and j are likewise perpendicular. positive or negative. number of may be accomplished The three vectors ways. &. The dyadic then (54) takes the form <P = ai +&j a and j and is planar. but the two vectors i j to which the equal coeffi cients belong may be any two vectors in the plane per infinite number of . These statements will not be proved. the reduction normal form in a doubly infinite i . It might be added that in case the three coefficients a. The coefficients b may always be taken positive. 6. They correspond to the fact that the ellipsoid which is the locus of the terminus of r may have three different principal axes or it maybe an dyadic ellipsoid of revolution. c in the reduction (53) are all different the reduction can be performed in only one way. pendicular to k. <P = ai i f Jj j +ck k. j .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS the case in which one of 305 them i is zero. coefficients will In all these reductions the three scalar If the three coefficients a. or finally a sphere. are scalars. k may In space. c are all equal when $ is reduced (53). Theorem the form : Any self con jugate may be expressed in (55) = aii + and c &jj + ckk where Let a. and the this form. . all of be any righthanded rectangular system in these reductions the three scalar coefficients are the same as in any one of them.
n +j j were not parallel (& 2 a 2 !) would annihilate two vectors i and i and hence every vector in their plane. J.306 VECTOR ANALYSIS 0. 0= where aii + bjj + ckk a. c are positive or negative scalar constants. . c are different this dyadic is not linear. be parallel. 6. Double Multiplication * Definition : The double dot product of two dyads is 117. manner. The product is denoted by inserting two dots between the ab:cd = ac bd. Hence i and i must planar.0 c =a*i Since f i + &2j j jj +c a k k + c 2 kk. + j j + kk 0= 0*.it may be shown that j and j The dyadic therefore takes the form . a 2 I) would therefore possess two degrees of (0* nullity If i i and and be linear. = cd:ab. (56) This product evidently obeys the commutative law ab:cd 1 The printed for the researches of Professor Gibbs upon Double Multiplication are here first time.] the scalar quantity obtained by multiplying the scalar product of the antecedents by the scalar product of the consequents. In like k and k are parallel. But it is apparent that It is if a. = 0^ 0* I ** C = C .
c 3 b2 d3 + +  + a 3 c 1 + Definition: of ......d 3 (66)" is two dyads the the vector product of the dyad antecedents of the two dyads and of which the consequent is the vector product of the consequent of the two dyads.. . . + aab^Cjdj + a 3 b 3 :c 1 d 1 + + a 2 b 2 :c 3 d 3 a 3 b 3 :c 3 d s + + + aa c1 bgd! f d2 c2 b 2 d2 b 3 d 2 + + a 2 c 3 a 3 . =* l }> l + a2 b2 c2 + + a3 b3 c8 + + ... The which the antecedent product is denoted by inserting two crosses between the dyads abcd = axc ab cd b x d.. and W = G! d + x d2 d3 =a + 1 b 1 :o 1 d 1 4 a 1 b 1 :c 2 d 2 a 2 b 2 :c 2 d 2 a 3 b 3 :c 2 d 2 + a 1 b 1 :c 3 d 3 + + (56) . The double dot product of two dyadics is obtained by multiplying the prod uct out formally according to the distributive law into the sum If of a number <p of double dot products of dyads.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS and the distributive law both with regard 307 to the dyads and with regard to the vectors in the dyads..C2 b 3 . The double cross product of is bg..djHa3.... (57) This product also evidently obeys the commutative law = cd * ab...
) + c3 a3 + =a + + b1 * Ojdj * + ax bx a2 b 2 a3 b3 * c2 c2 + + + ajbj a2 b2 a3 b3 * c3 c3 d3 d3 + + .. If <P and * =a *F = c 1 b1 &1 + a2 b 2 c2 + + a3 b3 C3 + + .... a2 b2 aa b3 cjdj x + (57) M! + * c2 ^ c3 d3 + c! b2 b3 xd 1 fa 2 xc 2 b2 xd2 + a2 xc 3 ba b3 + a 3 xc 3 xd +a3 xc 2 bgXdj +a 3 xc 3 x + . : ... d> : W :0 (58) $>*=*$ * (<P T) I Q* I (^x)without demonstration... The theorem is sufficiently evident .... The double cross product of two dyadics is therefore defined as the formal expansion of the product according to the distributive law into a sum of double cross products of dyads.... dyadics (whenever they have any meaning) do not obey the associative law... (57)" Theorem The double dot and double cross products of two dyadics obey the commutative and distributive laws of But the double products of more than two multiplication.. l + d2 3 d3 ) x y= (a^ + 1 a2 b 2 + a3b + d2 d2 d2 (c^ + * C2 d2 ...308 VECTOR ANALYSIS and the distributive law both with regard to the dyads and with regard to the vectors of which the dyads are composed.
But neither antecedents nor con sequents are equal the product is equal to one of the funda mental dyads taken with a positive or a negative sign. or if the dots and crosses be interchanged the order of the factors be permuted cyclicly the two For if scalar triple products are not altered. Let <P. and ef be ab*cd:ef=[ace] That is. three dyads. dependent of the order in which the factors are arranged or Let ab. a scalar triple product of three dyads in which the multiplications are double. Q be any exists There three dyadics. cd. If the cyclic order of . [bdf]. 5T. The multiplication with the double must be performed first. ij:ki = ik j i = 0.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS Theorem : 309 The double dot product of two fundamental dyads is equal to unity or to zero according as the two dyads are equal or different. (59) and a double dot the product of three dyads united by a double cross is equal to the product of the scalar triple product of the three antecedents by the scalar triple product From this the statement made of the three consequents. above follows. This product is entirely in the position of the dot and crosses. That is ij *ik =ix i j x k i = ij *ki =i x k j x = +jk. Theorem: The double cross product of two fundamental dyads (12) is equal to zero if if either the antecedents or the consequents are equal. The expression * WiQ is cross a scalar quantity.
m. c Ixm). = al + bm + en) * en * = ss= (al + bm + 1 (alf bm + en) a x a i x 1 + a x b Ixm + axc Ixn x c c +bxa mxl+bxb m x m + b + cxa nxl + cxb The products in the mxn n x n. (60) and 1. b. The notation $2 will be to represent this product after the scalar factor 2 has 2 = 0*0 = (bxc mxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm) (61). n are noncoplanar this may be written c + b/m + The product fl> n > (60) $ is a species of power of 0. 118. A dyadic Let may <P be multiplied by itself with double cross. In expanding this product every term in which a letter is repeated vanishes. ^ J triple product of a dyadic expressed as the three dyads with itself twice repeated is </>*$: <P 2 The sum of = 2 $2 : <P :0=(bxc mxnfexa nxl + axb Ixm) : (al + bm + en). For a scalar triple product of three vec .] is VECTOR ANALYSIS reversed each scalar triple product changes Their product therefore is not altered. main diagonal Hence vanish. It may be re employed been garded as a square of stricken out.310 the factors sign. The others are 0<P = 2(bxc mxn+cxa nxlfaxb If a. n x m+ c x equal in pairs.
<*.] If 2 be called the second of .)>*. Theorem: The second and third of the reciprocal of a dyadic are equal respectively to the reciprocals of the second and third.Let <p. Hence the product 2 :0=[bca] [mnl] + : [cab] [nlm] + [abc] [linn] or = 3 [a b c] [Imn] 2 0*0:0 = 6 [abc] pmn]. reciprocals.1 = al + bm + cn = a + m b +n c l (36) a l +bm +cn n ] . <*1 ). It will be denoted by 8 after the scalar factor 6 has been stricken out. the following theorems may be stated concerning the seconds and thirds of conjugates. and products.* (f ).). = (*. is a species of cube. 0*0:0 (62) 119. The third of the conjugate equal to the third of the dyadic.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS tors two of which are equal reduces to three terms only is 311 zero. = (*.= <.). The triple product of a dyadic by itself twice repeated is equal to six times the scalar triple product of its antecedents The product multiplied by the scalar triple product of its consequents. the third of 0. and 8.)!=*. Theorem : The second is of the conjugate of a dyadic is equal to the conjugate of the second of that dyadic.
( W\ =bxc exf + cxa fxd + axb dxe. *). m. ?T = d + m e + n r = ad + be + cf. n as consequents and let 1 m n be the antecedents of W.*. m n] = 1. . (0. (f.*.= (*). 2 2 2 . JT) 8 = [abc] [def] <P l f. [abc] [Imn] Hence C^Oa = IX W] [1 m n ]. ^3 (0.= *.f). [1 m n ] [Imn] = 0. = 0. <P = bxc mxnfcxa nxl + axb Ixm.)* = 8 and (0 1 ).812 VECTOR ANALYSTS (*) 1 [a b c ] [! m n ] (1 a + m b + n c) [a b c] But [a b c ] [a be] Hence =1 (0. . = *.). = bxc exf + cxa fxd + axb dxe. 1 Theorem: The second and third of a product are equal respectively to the product of the seconds and the product of the thirds.. . of Choose any three noncoplanar vectors 1. [1 =[abc] [Imn]. Hence 2 2 ?F Hence (# 5T) = <? (^.. ?T = m x n e x f + n x f x d + x m dxe.*. 2 2 1 1 5P* . = al + b m + en.
. third of a equal respectively to the the dyadic. [ab c] (a a +V b + c c) = Hence 120.] 2 [abc] <& c = ^> 3 1 . Theorem: The product of the second and conjugate of equal to the product of . Let a dyadic three dyads of be given.= Ixm. (68) =b $<. = [a be] [def]. c of the dyadic may be assumed to Then a b x c a + c x + a x b c) = I. of the second power of a dyadic are and third of (*"). .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 313 Hence Hence Theorem : = [abc] [Imn]. <P 2 = [1 m n] (b x a + c x a b+ a c).F)." = (0 Theorem : )8 W is = B 03 is The second of the idemfactor unity. x b la + mb + c nc. x c mxn + cxa nxl + axb C . The antecedents be noncoplanar. the third and the a <P 2 0. The third of the idemfactor I =I (6T) 1. 8 z 8 (0. b. = W=0.= The second and powers 8 y. 1=1 lg a dyadic is idemfactor. (b a.= 8 I. Let it be reduced to the sum of which the three antecedents are noncoplanar. rg = P m n ] [defj. the idemfactor.
c <P 8 is planar. vanishes. Theorem: The necessary and sufficient condition that a be complete is that the third of be different from dyadic zero. Since a. . For if be linear the consequents m. of Hence <P 2 their vector products vanish and the consequents each of of its vanish. was shown (Art. If conversely <P2 vanishes. 8 Hence two scalar triple products which occur in cannot vanish. But $2 cannot vanish. m. consequents must be zero and hence these consequents are collinear. Ixm vanishes But linear. Hence for a planar must vanish. n are is col this is impossible since the dyadic planar and not Theorem: The necessary and sufficient condition that a nonvanishing dyadic be linear is that the second of 0. The vanishing of the second implies two degrees of nullity. m.314 VECTOR ANALYSIS = al + b m + 2 cn. have been assumed noncoplanar. 1 =b x c mxn + cxa nxl + axb [Imn]. 106) that if a dyadic be planar its con 1. c x a. Theorem: The necessary and sufficient condition that a shall vanish but the dyadic $ be planar is that the third of second of <P shall not vanish. 106) that both the antecedents and a complete dyadic are consequents of the noncoplanar. are collinear. implies one degree of nullity. The vanishing of the third. unaccompanied by the vanish ing of the second of a dyadic. mxn. 1. For the it was shown (Art. the vectors b x c. that is. n. a x b are noncoplanar. and consequently the third of 0. Hence if 2 vanishes each of the vectors linear. n must be planar and conversely if the conse sequents It quents be coplanar the dyadic dyadic b. x m. 1. nxl.
term. k and iJ i. is <P = 0. 8 2 </> 0. Take. has the same scalar coefficients as 0. 8 ^0. but they are arranged symmetrically with respect to the main Thus ( 70 ) The second of $ may be computed. of <P a 12 i j + a 18 ik (13) a81 ki + a 32 kj + a 33 kk. for instance. dyadic is planar but cannot be linear. 1 The results hold only for determinants of the third order. The extension to . determinants of higher orders is through Multiple Algebra. any antiselfconjugate For any such Nonion Form. terms in What The antecedents must be j and k . is complete. 1 Invariants of a Dyadic If be expressed in nonion form = au ii + + The conjugate diagonal. is linear.] Determinants.a2l a 33 k = a 31 a 23 i j. 121. It follows immediately that the third of dyadic vanishes. but the second does not. = 0. <P planar. one C? . 2 Let it be required to find the coefficient of ij in can yield a double cross product equal to vector product of the antecedents must be i and ij? Hence the the vector product of the consequents must be j.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS The vanishing results 315 of the dyadic itself is complete nullity. and the consequents. The may be put in tabular form. These terms are 021J 1 x33 kk J a 31 k i a 23 j = . (69) * 0. #2 * 3 = 0.
316 VECTOR ANALYSIS in ij Hence the term in $2 is This is the first minor of a 19 in the determinant *12 ai a* a t taken with the negative sign. The co the first coefficient of ij in the determinant. the coefficient of i j in 2 is what is termed the cofactor of the is This minor merely minor taken with the positive or negative sign according as the sum of the subscripts of the term whose first minor is under consideration is even or odd. That is. 33 n With this notation the is the cofactor of a 32 . The cofactor is efficient of the any dyad in 2 is easily seen to be the cofactor of corresponding term in $. second of becomes ik kk (71) as the The value of the third of sum of three dyads <P may i be obtained by writing = (a n i + a 21 j + a sl k) + (a 12 i + a 22 j + + (a 13 i + a 23 j + a 32 k) j a 33 k)k . is the cofactor of a* is the cofactor of a 12 . The cofactors are denoted generally by large letters.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS ^3 317 = [Oil i + 21 J + "31 k) (21 * + 22 J + a 33 k ) This is easily seen to be equal to the determinant a1 2 ai az a* (72) aQ For and this reason is 3 is frequently called the determinant of <P 3 written = I I (72) The idea of the determinant is very natural when is regarded as expressed in nonion form. unless the third of $. more natural. The most reciprocal of a dyadic in nonion form may be found easily by making use of the identity .</> c 2 =0 3 I (68) or or Hence 0"1 = (73) . is On the other hand be expressed in that form the conception of $3 .
W of = On + 6 U+ 6 a 12 621 + a 18 a 6 81 ) ii + (a u 6 6 12 + a la 622 iJ + 6 + a + ik 6 32) : kJ + ( a 31 6 12 + a 32 6 23 + a 33 & 33> kk W = an in + 6 21 31 a 12 6 12 + o 18 J 18 Since the third or determinant of a product is equal to the product of the determinants. . the two dyadics may readily be found by actually performing the multiplication .318 If the VECTOR ANALYSIS determinant be denoted by D . (73) If is a second dyadic given in nonion form as + the product 6 31 ki + & 32 kj + & 33 kk. the law of multiplication of determinants follows from (65) and (74).
] is of the cofactors of a given determinant of equal to the square of the given determinant. first determinant and nth = al 2 = bxc mxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm. A ^ is dyadic has three scalar invariants of the that is three scalar quantities which which are independent expressed. and the third form these or determinant of 0. Hence *ia "22 33 a2 a (77) The determinant the third order 122. These are form in the scalar of <P. quantities are be expressed in nonion . 22 "11 "13 a 12 22 32 !3 23 *21 K & 13 23 (76) a 32 6 22 6 31 13 The rule may be stated in words.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS "11 319 !3 a. To multiply two deter minants form the determinant of which the element in the mth row and nth column column If <? is the sum of the products of the elements in the rath row of the of the second. i "11 &12 &22 13 "21 a 22 Ojrtn a23 dinn 6 23 "21 "31 & 32 6 33 ^31^ *32 ( 4 a 33 an 6 19 "12 + io &. the scalar of the second of If <P. [bxc I Then I 2 I =(^2 ) 3 = I cxa axb] 3 [mxn nxl Ixm] Hence <P 2 = (<P2 ) = n 22 [a b c] 2 [1 m n] 2 = <P 2 3 .
in place of the scalar x. in the The scalar of is the sum of the three coefficients is main diagonal. The third of is the determinant of the These three invariants are by far the most coefficients.320 VECTOR ANALYSIS (78) *11 *18 hi 32 33 No of these unit vectors matter in terms of what righthanded rectangular system may be expressed these quantities are the same. This equation scalar x. __ (<p x i) 2 . the first The scalar of the second of the sum of minors or cofactors of the terms in the main diagonal. = if Z x 0^ + x2 S x*. f<p _ x !)<. the dyadic which depends upon nine scalars be substituted. By (68) (0xI\*(0xY) c = (0xl\ #n 21 x a 12 #22 a 13 X #23 #33 #31 #32 X x* Hence as (# x I) 3 = Z x 2S + x2 S may be seen by actually performing the expansion. satisfies a (P 3 0%& cubic equation of which are the coefficients. Hence . is an identity holding for all values of the It therefore holds. That is But the terms upon the left are identically zero. important that a dyadic Theorem : Any dyadic the three invariants S . possesses.
equation of the nth degree. The analogy between the theory In fact. function of dyadic determines a linear vector a vector by direct multiplication with that vector A = &1  bx r + + a2 b2 + r a3 b3 +  (7) (8) r =a x bj a2 b2 21 + a3 b3 r H . linear vector function of r when the function of the sum of two vectors is the sum (ri of the functions of those vectors. of dyadics and the theory of matrices is very close. A sum of a number of symbolic products of two vectors.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 321 This equation may be called the HamiltonCayley equation. The A dimensions than the third leads to Multiple Algebra and the theory of matrices of orders higher than the third. ra + )=f(r 1) + f(r a ). (4) These two ideas of a linear vector function are equivalent. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER V A when vector r is said to be a linear function of a vector r the components of r are linear homogeneous functions Or a function of r is said to be a of the components of r. of higher generalization of the idea of a dyadic to spaces a dyadic. capital. which are obtained by placing the vectors in juxtaposition without intervention of a dot or cross and which are called is called a dyadic and is represented by a Greek dyads. a dyadic may be regarded as a matrix of the third order and conversely a matrix of the third order may be looked upon as addition and multiplication of matrices and dyadics are then performed according to the same laws. Hamilton showed that a quaternion satisfied an equation analogous to this one and Cayley gave the generalization to A matrix of the Tith order satisfies an algebraic matrices.
) = al + am + an+ + + bl cl + bm + bn + + cm + en + (11) Multiplication by a scalar is associative. ji. Jk. (12) ki. ik. In virtue of these two laws a dyadic may be expanded into a sum of nine terms by means of the fundamental dyads. That is. Jj. the distributive law of multiplication with Dyads obey regard to the two vectors composing the dyad Any linear vector function (a + b + c+ ) (1 +m+n+ . kj. = ai + <*22 + k = a 31 k + a 82 k + a 33 k k.. =s W r for all values or for three s. ii. kk. ij. J * JJ <*23 J ( 13 ) i j two dyadics are equal the corresponding coefficients in their expansions into nonion form are equal and conversely If . ij as = a n ii + a 12 + a 18 ik. non coplanar values of r and may be represented by a dyadic. (10) =r r for all values or for three non coplanar values of or s r. Two when <P i = W r for all values or for three non coplanar values of or r r.322 VECTOR ANALYSIS dyadics are equal when they are equal as operators upon all vectors or upon three noncoplanar vectors..
It is called the indeterminate product. into the according to the distributive law.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS Any dyadic the 323 which may be expressed as the sura of three dyads of antecedents or the consequents are any three This expression of the dyadic is given noncoplanar vectors. first dyad and (ab) (c d) = (b . of the product The direct product of two dyadics . The symbolic product ab known general product of scalar is two vectors in as a dyad is the most which multiplication by a associative. The scalar and vector products indeterminate product. A scalar and be obtained from any dyadic by inserting a dot may and a cross between the vectors in each dyad.i + j*0j + k 0*k = a n f a 22 + #339 i . five conditions The product imposes b. = i0. unique. This scalar are functions of the a vector and vector are functions of the dyadic.i kk j) i + (k i a a 8 (18) (19) 2 2 3 3 (20) . upon the vectors a and Their directions and the product of their lengths are determined by the product. k) j + (i 0j j 0i) k (21) The direct product of two dyads is the dyad whose ante cedent and consequent are respectively the antecedent of the first dyad and the consequent of the second multiplied by the scalar product of the consequent of the the antecedent of the second. = b8 + b + a *! + a x b + a x b + X = &1 x bj + a 0. c) is a/ *T JL (23) the formal expansion. 0* X = (j .
for parentheses may be inserted at pleasure without altering the value of the product. dyad and a vector may be defined r (ab) x r x (ab) = a b x r. r $ x s. sum Direct multiplication of dyadics or of dyadics and a vector at either end or at both ends obeys the distributive and associative laws of multiplication. The statement made concerning the associative law for direct products holds when the vector is connected with the dyadics in skew multiplication. when expressed as the sum of three dyads of which the antecedents (or consequents) are known . (31) But the parentheses cannot be omitted. <p. $>.r.(rx ?P) = (0 x r) W. (<P x r) s = (r x s). The necessary and sufficient condition that a dyadic may be reduced to the sum of two dyads or to a single dyad or to zero is that.^.W.0? 7 *. r x$ s. and a vector is (28) equal to the The skew product of a dyadic formal expansion of that product into a sum of products of dyads and that vector. In case the vector occurs at other positions than at the end the product is The skew product by the equation of a no longer associative.W. s. Con sequently such expressions as Q.T. r x <P x s (29) be written without parentheses and parentheses may be inserted at pleasure without altering the value of the product.324 VECTOR ANALYSIS of products of dyads.Q (24)(26) may be written without parentheses. s. = r x a b. expressions r The x ?F.^. may Moreover s (r x <P) = (s x r)  <P. ^ x r.
A linear dyadic possesses two degrees of There are two independent directions in space for which it is an annihilator when used as a prefactor and two directions when used as a possesses three degrees of nullity It annihilates every vector in space. the consequents (or antecedents) shall be respectively coplanar or collinear or zero. The product of any dyadic by a zero dyadic is zero. A zero dyadic or linear dyadic are respectively complete. A dyadic which when applied to any vector in space re produces that vector is called an idemfactor. except in certain cases relations of perpendicularity linear dyadic by a linear dyadic is in general linear . The products of a complete dyadic and a complete. The products of a planar dyadic with a planar or linear dyadic where between the consequents of the first dyadic and the antecedents of the second introduce one more degree of nullity into the product. nuljity. one A is complete dyadic possesses no degree of nullity. postfactor. The product of a are respectively planar or linear. planar. but in case the consequent of the first is perpendicular to the ante cedent of the second the product vanishes. A planar dyadic is one which can be is reduced to a sum of just two dyads. or complete nullity. There is one direction in space for which it is an annihilator when used as a prefactor and one when used as a postfactor. A linear dyadic which can be reduced to a single dyad. or linear. . There no direction in space for which it is an annihilator. All idemfactors are equal and reducible I to the form jj Or The product of = ii + I = aa + + kk. .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 325 to be noncoplanar. planar. A complete dyadic is one which cannot be reduced to a sum of fewer than three dyads. (33) (34) is bb + cc any dyadic and an idemfactor that dyadic. A  planar dyadic possesses one degree of nullity.
They correspond of a product is equal to the ordinary algebra. C. (44) x c is antiselfconjugate and used in direct multiplication used in skew multiplication. A Incomplete to zero in dyadics possess no reciprocals. is equivalent to the vector o . The reciprocal (0. The conjugate 1 5F) = 5F1 0i. T=j0 A dyadic of the form c X I or I x xr.326 If the VECTOR ANALYSIS product of two complete dyadics is equal to the idemfactor the dyadics are commutative and either is called the reciprocal of the other. part of antiselfconjugate dyadic or the antiselfconjugate any dyadic. dyadic may be divided in one and only one way into the sum of two parts of which one is self A conjugate and the other antiselfconjugate. (0. product of the reciprocals taken in inverse order. (38) of a dyadic is the dyadic obtained by inter the order of the antecedents and consequents. is equivalent to minus onehalf the vector of that dyadic used in skew Any multiplication. complete dyadic may be canceled from either end of a product of dyadics and vectors as in ordinary algebra . 9%= Wc . for the cancelation is equivalent to multiplication by the reciprocal of that dyadic. (40) The conjugate of the reciprocal is equal to the reciprocal of the conjugate. The changing conjugate of a product is equal to the product of the con jugates taken in the opposite order. used in direct multiplication.
S. The reduction c are different. An incom plete dyadic may be reduced to this form but one or more of the coefficients are zero.ab). (51) complete dyadic may be reduced to a sum of three dyads of which the antecedents among themselves and the a righthanded rectangular system of three unit vectors and of which the scalar coefficients are all positive or all negative. quadrantal versor for all vectors. Applied to the unit vectors i. (55) in which the constants are not necessarily positive. c 6jj + ckk. unique in case In case they are not is different the reduction one way. (ax b) x x 1 =1 x r x (ax b)=baab (50) (a r b) x (a x b) = (b a a b) r = r (b a .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS Also c c 327 (46) 0. is (49) equivalent to The vector a x b in skew multiplication (a x b) X I in direct multiplication. . as ma y be seen from the geometric interpretation. etc. Any be accomplished in more than selfconjugate dyadic may be reduced to may the normal form 4> = aii + a. (53) called the normal form of the dyadic. The dyadic c X I or I x c. the constants a. The dyadic Ixc + ccisa true The powers of these dyadics behave like the powers of the imaginary unit V^l. where c is a unit vector is a quadran tal versor for vectors perpendicular to c and an annihilator for vectors parallel to c.j k. A consequents among themselves each form 0= This is (ai i + ftj j + ck k). 6. x x r = (I x c) <P = (I x c) r = (c x I) = (c x I) r. j. k I x i = i x I = kj .
into a sum of products of dyads. and the 0a = \0$ 0: <P=[abc] [Imn]. and is (61) Onethird of the double dot product of the second of is and scalar called the third of equal to the product of the scalar triple product of the antecedents of triple product of the consequent of 0. (57) cross multiplication of dyadics obtained by expanding the product formally.)* (65) . is is (62) The second The third of of the conjugate the conjugate the conjugate of the second. according to the distributive law. by itself is <P 2 =i <Px <P = b xc mxn + cxa nxl+axb Ixm.d. (56) abcd = axc is bxd. The second and third of a dyadic. (*c\ = (*. the reciprocals of the second and third of the second and The second and third of a product are the products of the seconds and thirds. The double dot and double cross multiplication of dyadics is com mutative but not associative. Onehalf the double cross product of a dyadic If called the second of 0. equal to the third of the third of the reciprocal are original dyadic.328 VECTOR ANALYSIS cross multiplication of dyads The double dot and double is defined by the equations ab:cd = The double dot and double ac b.
(69) <P = 0. planar is linear. EXERCISES ON CHAPTER 1. V Show Show that the two definitions given in Art. $2 = 0. 2 * 0. Show Show zero. 1. are given. b. 98 for a linear vector function are equivalent that the reduction of a dyadic as in (15) can be accomplished in only one way if a. <P is complete is 8 = 0. 3. They also contain the cubic equation which is satisfied by a dyadic 4>. S. 03 This cients is _ Qa 3 02 + 0^ 03 + ^ _ [ (79) called the HamiltonCayley equation. (<P x a) c = a XT ?P x (1> C .LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS The product to the 329 is of the second and conjugate of a dyadic equal product of the third and the idemfactor. = 0. are and the line of their if consequents for parallel to Show then that r = any three noncoplanar values of r. m. 3 * 0. 2. n. then must equal unless both and r. c. <P<i The coeffi S. 3 may be * 0. and are the three fundamental scalar in variants of <P. . that if <Pxr= for any value is of r different from linear 5. 1 ^^c=^ The 4> (68) conditions for the various degrees of nullity expressed in terms of the second and third of 0. closing sections of the chapter contain the expressions (70)(78) of a number of the results in nonion form and the The deduction therefrom of a number of theorems concerning determinants. 4.
by ?F. Hence the algebra and higher analysis of homologous dyadics is practically identical with that of scalar quantities. 106 and the con verse of the statements. the law of sines for the triangle and to obtain the relation with scalar coefficients which exists between three coplanar vectors. b. This may be done by multiplying the equation by a unit normal to the plane of a. 8. Show that whether or not be coplanar abxc+bcxa+caxb = [abc]I and bxca+cxab+axbc=[abc]L If a. rules homologous to each other and to the given dyadics. multiplication and division of homologous dyadics are identical with the rules it being governing these operations in ordinary algebra understood that incomplete dyadics are analogous to zero. that (I X c) c X $ and a. and the idemfactor. are also that the reciprocals of gous. any other dyadics which may be obtained from them by addition. 12. be called the quotient of governing addition. VECTOR ANALYSIS Prove the statements made in Art. and c. is Definition : Two = that two dyadics that are commutative are said to be Show that if any number of dyadics are homo homologous. <P Show that if Q is complete and if Q= W Q . Show 10.330 6. b. then the subtraction. c (c X I) & = c X #. b. Show homologous dyadics are homolo ~l ~l the statement that if Justify or (P. 9. logous to one another. and direct multiplication to say. which are equal. 7. 109. c are coplanar use the above relation to prove 11. What is thecondition which must subsist between the coefficients in the expansion of a dyadic into nonion form if . subtraction. Give the proof by means of theory dyadics such that ?r developed prior to Art. then and W are equal. to unity.
if the dyadic be anti number Prove the statements made in Art. by for a linear dyadic in the f orin condition itself vanishes. ? ? 331 What. 15. Hence obtain the <P 2 : 2 f. Show that if be any dyadic the product <P C is selfconjugate. Show how to make use of the relation $x = to demonstrate that the antecedents and consequents of a self conjugate dyadic are the same (Art. 16. (0 Show that + W\ = + 4>*V + ^ : if the double dot product of a dyadic the dyadic vanishes.LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS the dyadic be selfcon jugate selfconjugate 13. = 0. Show = <P3 + e. Show . Show that 2 <P 2 </> = 2 2 & 3 and 18. The necessary and sufficient condition that is an anti selfconjugate dyadic be zero that the vector of the dyadic shall be zero. 17. 14. 116 concerning the of ways in which a dyadic may be reduced to its normal form. + V* un 19. 116). That is 21. Show that that 20.2 (0 + ?T) 3 = 8 + <P V + (<P + ef) 3 2 : d> : ?F 2 that the scalar of a product of dyadics is changed by cyclic permutation of the dyadics.
Moreover it was for the sake of the applica tions of dyadics that the theory of them was developed.CHAPTER VI ROTATIONS AND STRAINS 123. r Let now = 0r. and r as drawn from the same origin. That the dyadic $ may be used to deuote a transformation of space has already been mentioned. as far as may appear necessary. A knowledge of the precise nature of this transformation. however. r Any point upon a line becomes a point rf =b+ xa =$ b+#$ * . The origin remains fixed. the further analytical theory of dyadics. There are.] dyadics has IN the foregoing chapter the analytical theory of been dealt with and brought to a state of is completeness which nearly final for practical purposes. situated at the terminus of r finite . Points in the regions of space remain in the finite regions of space. Consider r as drawn from a fixed origin. This equation therefore may be regarded as defining a trans formation of the points P of space situated at the terminus of r into the point P . a number of new questions which present themselves and some old questions which present themselves under a new form when the dyadic is applied to physics or geometry. however. was not needed at the time. It is then the object of the present chapter to supply an extended and strains application of dyadics to the theory of rotations and to develop.
$2 Hence due to =r b x c mxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm. For the deformation of the infinitesimal sphere in a fluid instance. The dyadic which accomplishes this result is a. which is gives the transformation due to a homogeneous strain. 1 transformed into the planes determined by b and c. the second of 0. the transformation replaces s by the area s such that . gives the transformation of plane areas 2 which is due to that strain and all volumes are magnified by that strain in the ratio of to unity. 3. In like manner planes over into planes and the quality of parallelism is invariant. . The equa tions of such a transformation are = an x + y< = x 1 l2 13 124. 76) is a homogeneous strain. It is called an affine collineation with the origin fixed. b. (Art. . into a. 1 . if s denote any plane area in space. c. Or it is known as a linear homogeneous transformation.] Theorem : If the dyadic of the points of space . go parallel to the same line a Such a transformation strain is is known as a homogeneous strain. the third or determinant of = al + bm + cn r = <P. is geneous strain generally known by In geometry the homo different names. Hence The vectors 1 m n are changed by and m are the planes determined by m and n n and Let <P . of frequent occurrence in Homogeneous physics.r = alrf bm r f cnr.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS Hence straight lines go over into straight lines 333 and lines go over by the transformation into lines parallel to the same line a. c and a and b.
Hence all volumes are changed by ratio of the The But the vectors the action of in the same ratio and this ratio is as 3 is to 1. k k (1) j . Versors Theorem : The necessary and sufficient condition that 125. e. . e. Let r = #iff3k . This s is evident from the fact that in <P 2 the latter case acts on whereas in the former case acts upon s. that volumes are magnified in the ratio of <P Z to choose any three vectors d.] a dyadic represent a rotation about some axis is that it be reducible to the form = i i+j j + where i . k and i. k are two righthanded rectangular systems of unit vectors. The dyadic from the changes d. Eotations about a Fixed Point. Express with the vec tors To show which form the reciprocal system to d. e. j. c (which are different m n ). Hence = [abc][dVf] [d e fr^Cdef]. f which determine the unity volume of a parallelepiped [d e f]. f as consequents. e. b. c above unless d. f were any three vectors which deter mine a parallelepiped. f into a. <P . e. b. = [d e f] $3 [a b c] 8 . a. f are equal to 1 Hence the volume [d e f ] is changed into the volume [a b c]. d. volume [a b cj to [d e f] is as <P3 is to unity.334 It is VECTOR ANALYSIS important to notice that the vector s denoting a plane not transformed into the same vector s as it would area is be if it denoted a line.
Hence aa4bb . form = : i i + j j+k is k. <p c = i*+j b + kc. reducible to the given form the vectors i .k are changed into the vectors . To prove the let = ai + b j + ck. if and conversely multiplied by the negative sign. k The dyadic <P may therefore be reduced to the . k into the same posi changed from Hence by the transformation no tion relative to i . . . The vectors i. k and any vector r is j its position relative to i. j. j. k must be carried into another righthanded rectangular system of unit vectors. Definition A dyadic which i i reducible to the form +jj + k k is and which consequently represents a rotation versor. k change which carries of shape is effected. body suffers no change of shape suppose it subjected to a rotation. 4>i If =<P C . Let = i+j i j +k k. k Conversely suppose the that is. Hence the second part first part of the theorem is proved. j. called a Theorem: The conjugate and reciprocal of a versor are the conjugate and reciprocal of a dyadic are equal the dyadic reduces to a versor or a versor equal. strain reduces to a rotation . The j .ROTATIONS AND STRAINS Hence if C? is 335 i. k into i .j . j. i. Let these be i j .
108) the antecedents a.336 VECTOR ANALYSIS Hence (Art. must be either a righthanded or a lefthanded rectangular system of unit vectors. 1 (3) j _j_ k k) The transformation due reflection in the origin. The negative then reverses the direction of every vector in space and sign replaces each figure by a figure symmetrical to it with respect rotation about a definite axis to the origin.(i i + j j +k k). c and the consequents Hence (page 87) they a.*rff. 3> n 3 = I I =1 (%\ \ / as the determinant of is plus or minus one only necessary to state that if C 3 \. the criterion for a versor may be stated in the form $ Or inasmuch if (P* (P C =I. = i+j jk i k. The lefthanded system may be changed to a righthanded one by prefixing the negative sign to each vector. . or <P = (i i +j j k k ) . . c must be reciprocal systems.tnt). b. to is one of rotation combined with i The dyadic i+j j +k k causes a it is a versor. it is {/ = I. By reversing the directions of i and j the system i j k still remains righthanded and rectangular. third or determinant of a versor Hence is evidently equal to that of the versor with a negative sign. / $ is a versor. to minus one. There are two geometric interpretations of the transforma such that tion due to a dyadic 9 @ __. Then (iy #. j (J/ 1 _j_ = j  1 = . but the dyadic takes the form . The unity . b.
= I. A a symmetrical figure is called a perversion and the dyadic which gives the transformation is called a perversor. j. from geometrical considerations that the prod uct of two versors is a versor of two perversors. 4>.k i = i j = k = +j j cos q j + k sin y. metrically situated to it with respect to the plane of i and j Each figure is therefore replaced by a symmetrical figure. . the determinant (3) Or inasmuch as if C? c must be plus or minus one the criterion  take the form I I C = I.j .<P C = I. may I0I=1. a versor It is evident . The dyadic $ tion is = i i j + k k which accomplishes this rota . . but of a versor and a perversor taken in either order. 126. sin q + k cos q.] If the axis of rotation be the iaxis and if the angle of rotation be the angle q measured positive in the positive trigonometric direction. a perversor. k are changed into the vectors i . then by the rotation the vectors such that i.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS Hence i 337 the transformation due to is a rotation due to a reflection in the plane of i and j + k k followed by k k causes such a transfor For the dyadic i i + j j j mation of space that each point goes over into a point sym i+j . is < 0. The criterion for a perversor is dyadic shall be equal to its reciprocal that the conjugate of a and that the determi nant of the dyadic shall be equal to minus one. transformation that replaces each figure by Definition : . (3) a perversor.
but r be parallel to an annihilator for vectors parallel to a a. (4) jj +kk = Iii. The dyadic I x a a quadrantal versor (Art. . The dyad a a is an idemfactor for all vectors parallel to a.jk).338 VECTOR ANALYSIS = ii + cos q (jj + kk) + sin q (k j . r. but an annihilator for vectors a a is an idemfactor perpendicular to a.( 5 ) more generally in place of the iaxis any axis denoted the unit vector a be taken as the axis of rotation and if as by before the angle of rotation about that axis be denoted by q. Let a be given in terms of i. leaves unchanged which are parallel to vectors) . 113) for vectors perpendicular is to a. the dyadic which accomplishes the rotation is =aa + To show rotation apply it cos q (I a a) + sin q I x a. Hence vectors (or components of If r is perpendicular to a r = cos q r + sin q a x r. but an annihilator for all vectors parallel to a. but its component perpendicular to a to a suffers no change The whole is rotated about a through an angle of q degrees. j. kjjk = I x i. vector therefore rotated about a through that angle. If then 0. k as is a l a z ik . (6) that this to a vector dyadic actually does accomplish the r. The dyadic I for all vectors in the plane perpendicular to a. its plane through the were any vector in space its component parallel angle q. Hence If = i i + cos q (I i i) + sin q I x i. Hence the vector r has been rotated in If r .r = aar = all a.
X a = 0iia + 2 ik. + I + 8 2 + a3 2 = ii + jj + 3 ij kk. The axis of rotation i is seen to have the direction of <P X . i i $ = {&J 2 (1 cos #) + cos #} ~~ + + S a i a 2 (1 i cos 2) c s ?) a3 S i n 2} lj {a { a s (1 a 1 (1 + a a sin ^^ ik + + + + 2 2 cos^) + a 3 sin q} ji jj { 2 . If X = i x i + cos q (j xj <P X +k x k) + i sin q (k x j  j x k) = 2 sin q <2> s = i  i + cosg (j j+k k) +sing a = 1 + k cos q.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS r 339 a 2 a x ji a z a l ki I + a2 2 j j + kj a2 a3 jk kk. The proof of this statement depends on the invariant property of $ x Any versor may be reduced to the form (4) by taking the direction of i . (k j j k). This is true in general. be written as in equation (4) the vector of and the scalar of may be found. The direction of the axis of rotation of any versor is the negative of the vector of (P.] (1 cosg) + cosg} kk.cos 2) + C1 ! cos q} "" COS ( a 2 a 3 (1 2) { 3 al S l n 2l J * (1 cos ^) cos q) 4 a 2 sin q} ki + {^3^2 (1 2 ajsin^} kj (7) <P + {3 127. the negative of the vector of 0. ~a Hence 2 ki + a x kj + Okk. .
Hence if ft be the vector semitangent of version There is a more compact expression for a versor in terms of the vector semitangent of version. The vector $ x and the scalar (P s .340 VECTOR ANALYSIS After is coincident with the direction of the axis of rotation. <p = aa + cos q (I a a) + sin q I x a. The vector ft determines the versor <P completely. Let c be any vector in The version represented by ft carries space. which are invariants of <?. the direc tion of the negative of the vector of The tangent of onehalf the angle of version q sin q 1 * x 4> s . the axis of rotation is always coincident with <?. ft will be called the vector semitangent of version. Let the magnitude be equal to the tangent of onehalf the angle q of version. deter mine completely the versor of ft Let ft be a vector drawn in the direction of the axis of rotation. <P. $x is . seen But <P X is not altered by the to be the negative of <P X nor is the axis of reduction of <P to any particular form Hence the direction of rotation altered by such a reduction. this reduction has been made the direction of the axis . . ON + cos q 1 + (8) The tangent of onehalf the angle of version is therefore determined when the values of <# x and <P S are known. c ft x c into c + ft X c. By (6) a versor $ was expressed in terms of a unit vector parallel to the axis of rotation.
c. is In the q. The term c X c vanishes. 341 show this in case c is perpendicular to For if c (or any result of multiplying by component of it) were parallel to ft the ft x would be zero and the statement In the first would be that c is carried into c. Hence the cosine and and c + ft x c are equal the angle q : sine of the angle between c ft X c and sine of respectively to the cosine and consequently the angle between the vectors q. and c are by hypothesis perpendicular (l cc + ftxc. must equal the angle Now . (c (c ft For x x c) c) (c (c ft x c) =c c +ftxcftxc 2cftxc + ft + ft x c)= cchftxc ftxc + 2cftxc ftft c cc + ftxcftxc = cc + Since ft c ft c ft.ftxc=:c 2 ft + tan 2 \ q).q) 2 2 = cos c 2 q (1 + tan 2 i q) 2 c c 2 (c c 2 ft x c) x (c + ft x c) 1 _ x (ft x 2 c) (1 + tan 2 2 2 2) (1 + tan I j) * 2 c tan i 2 = sin j. second place the angle between the two vectors (c equal to ftxc)(c + ftxc)_cc ft x c ft x c 2 2 c c* (1 + tan 2 i j) (1 + tan .ROTATIONS AND STRAINS It will be sufficient to ft. place the mag nitudes of the two vectors are equal. Hence the equality.
342 C VECTOR ANALYSIS ftXC=(I +a x c) Ixft)C and (I (c = (I 1 + I x ft) c I + I x Q) (I  I x tt) (IIxft) = + Ixft. version due to the vector semitangent of version The dyadic I + 1 x ft carries the vector c (I ft x c into + ft. x Q). Hence the dyadic = what the value (I I x tt) (I I X Q). Hence the dyadic 1 carries the vector c + ftft ft x c into the vector c.ft)c.1 (c Q x c) =c+ a x c. Q v "l *Q + Q . Multiply by c (I + I x a) (I I + ft c. if c be perpen dicular to ft as has been supposed. it be applied to a vector x ft parallel to ft the result is not equal to x ft. however. + I (I x ft) (c ftxc) =c+ c) ftxc ftxc ftx(ftxc) (I + I X Q) (c QX =c+Q Qc= (1 +Q Q) C .1 (10) carries the vector c of x c into the vector c + ft X c no matter Hence the dyadic determines the ft. Consequently the dyadic (I + Ixft) 2 1 + ftft produces a rotation of all vectors in the plane perpendicular to ft. + IXQ)(I + IXQ) *V* i + OO (I I + IXQ) + Q.Q . If.
may be added to the nu merator. ft.ftl.ft)I 1 + + 2ftft ft ft This may be expanded in nonion form. + 2Ixft Let ^(lft. That is. Theorem: The product of two biquadrantal versors is a versor the axis of which is perpendicular to the axes of the . (i x ft) (Ixft)(I xft) Hence substituting : = (I xft) x = l. points This may be seen by setting q equal to expression for a versor TT in the general = or aa 4 cos q (I a a) + sin q I x a. 343 is which an annihilator for all vectors perpendicular to ft. (11) 128. The versor (P may then be written ftft+CI 1 (i + IXft)* + ftft + 1 x ft) (i + 1 x ft) =i+ 2 1 x ft ft + (i x ft) . it may be seen directly from geometrical considerations. the dyadic turns the of space about the axis a through two right angles.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS To obviate this difficulty the dyad Q. The dyadic <P leaves a vector parallel to a unchanged but re verses every vector perpendicular to a in direction.ftftft. ] If a is a unit vector a dyadic of the form (12) = 2aaI is a liquadrantal versor.
For let Q be the given versor. a). The resolution of versors into the product of (14) two biquad rantal versors affords an immediate and simple method for compounding two finite rotations about a fixed point. is a versor.1 = cos 2 (b.(2aaI) is certainly a versor. of this versor. (2bb I) again reverses it in direction and con sequently brings it back to its original position. a = 2 (b is a) .(2aaI). any two versors Consider the common perpendicular to a and b. Let d> and be two given versors. Hence the angle from a to b. Let b be a unit vector per . Q is therefore a rotation about this line as axis. for the product of The biquadrantal versor 2 a a I reverses this perpendicular in direction.344 VECTOR ANALYSIS biquadrantal versors and the angle of which is twice the angle from the axis of the second to the axis of the first Let a and b be the axes of two biquadrantal product versors. of which the axes and include between them an angle equal angle of the given versor. J2=(2bbI). : of the versor Q equal to twice the angle Theorem lie in Conversely any given versor may be expressed as the product of two biquadrantal versors. The a cosine of the angle from a to Q a is 2 Q a = 2 b  a b a a . The =(2bbI). J? x the plane perpendicular to the axis of the given versor to one half the Let a and b be unit vectors Furthermore perpendicular to the axis let the angle from a to b be equal to one half the angle of Then by the foregoing theorem this versor. Hence the product Q leaves the common perpendicular to a and b un changed.
I).b bb4bb + W <P = (2 c c . But (2 = 2 (2 cc bb  1)2.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS 345 and W. . Hence The product of I = I.I) (2 a a .(2bbI) V. and 0=(2bbI) (2aaI) = (2 c c . <P = (2ccI) (2aaI).I). . bb I) it is the fact that equal to the idemfactor. Let a be a unit vector pendicular to the axes of perpendicular to the axis of <P and such that the angle from a to b is equal to one half the angle of 0.I) (2 $T=(2ecI).(2aaI) . as may be seen from represents a rotation through four right angles or from the expansion (2bbI).I) (2 bb . equal to and tangents of two versors of which the vector semiversion are respectively QJ and ft^ the vector are W semitangent of version Q3 of the product <P is a ~ Let q 1 + a 2 +a 2 xa 1 ia. W into c is a versor the axis of which is is perpendicular to one half the angle from a to If a and and the angle of which c. (2 aa . * ~y ba x iff x (V b <?) 2aa 2b b b = 4a X a. Let c be a unit vector perpendicular to the axis of W and such that the angle from b to c is equal to one half the angle of Then .a.I). .(2bbI) = 4b. </> = (2bbI).
346 VECTOR ANALYSIS 5 = 4(a. .b) c 2 l. rx = 4 ?r5 b c = 4(c. 2 0)^ = 4 (ca) l. ?T =4c b cb 2 bb x 2 c c b. <p) x Hence t = axb . = 4 ca c x a. Q . a  b ^=T b bx c .b) 2 l ca 2 cc 2 aa JF <p =4 c a + I (?F. c 3 = axe a c [abc] b J a b b c x Q But [abc] r = (bxc) a x (axb) b b c = bxc a r +cx a b r + a xb c r. bxc b c axb a axe a b b b c Hence Q 2 x Qj = C^ ft 2 + 8 a b b c)  c Q2 Hence = (a x b) " (b x _a b b c a c b b abbc r^r abbc ft a*bb*c =1 c . (ST. a* b b Qr . = . + 1.
of rotation about that Let be another versor with the same axis and an angle of rotation equal to q = ii + Multiplying . i i + cos (g (16) This is the result which was to be expected of the product of is two versors which the axes are coincident a versor with the same axis angles of If a versor be multiplied by itself. The subject was treated from different 60. axis of rotation and the angle . Neglecting infinitesimals of the second order the for to mula reduces The infinitesimal rotations vector addition. 51 and icSy Right Tensors. and Cyclotonics <P 129. and Q^ are both infinitesi mal. . geometric and analytic considerations alike make it evident that 2 and with an angle equal the two given versors.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS This formula gives the composition of two If the rotations be infinitesimal ftj 847 finite rotations.jk). j and 4> = ii + cos nq (j j + kk) + nq (kj k). to the sum of the = i i + cos 2q (j j + kk) + sin 2 q (k j sin .j k). combine according to the law of This demonstrates the parallelogram law for angular velocities. cos q (jj is i + kk) + sin q (kj . y= = + ? ) (j j + k k) + Bin(j+ 9 )(kjjk). standpoints in Arts. Tonics. : cos q f (j j + kk) + sin q r (kj jk).] If the dyadic be a versor it may be written in the form (4) = ii + The axis is q.
b. raised to the fifth power.71 : ! ~~^TI 1) o " COS>1 ? sin q + (711) (712) cos n "3 "# sm^ + Thus the ordinary expansions for cos nq and sin 715 are obtained in a manner very similar to the manner in which they are generally obtained. the negative of <P2 . 2 power gives the negative raised to the third power. = <Pr of on (Art. c be may be generalized as follows.348 VECTOR ANALYSIS other On the kjjk. three noncoplanar vectors and a V. <PZ and so l <P The dyadic The dyadic . ^ raised to any power reproduces raised to the second . Hence 4> ii into either or is zero and into itself n 2) <P 2 is n = ii + (cos q d> l + sin q n = ii + cos n q (PS +n cos 11 ^1 1 q sin # fl^"" + (Pf . the any . reciprocal system. and <P 2 equal Then <p = (i i + cos q l l + <P sin q 2 The product of ii. The expression for a versor Let a. <P . (17) . But Equating for n 2 &n = i i + cos <P n q l + sin nq <P y coefficients of l and $2 in these two expressions 2 cos n q = cos n n (n q sm 7i q = TI cos "^ j sin q . hand let 4> l equal jj + kk. 114). c . . raised <#! to the fourth power. <p Consider the dyadic = aa 4 cos q (bb + cc ) + sin q (cb be ). $ 2)n . itself. 2 The dyadic i i l multiplied by cos n 2 is equal to Hence <p n = + cos n q l +n ~l q sin q <P% nfnl) V .
This transformation may interpretation as follows. ject into the conjugate semidiameters a and b vector r in the ellipse projects into the radius vector f in the unit circle. the ellipse and the circle i are cut from the same cylinder. The radius vector f then describes a sector of the is ellipse. The area of this sector TT.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS 349 This dyadic leaves vectors parallel to a unchanged. The two semidiameters and j of the circle pro of the ellipse. Let r r = cos p b + (p sin p c. That is. projects into a radius vector r in the circle i such that = cos (p + q) + sin (jp + q) j. as a variable scalar parameter. when p is regarded which Let b and c are two conjugate semidiameters (page 117). changed in a The vector r in the unit circle may be regarded as describing a sector of which the area is to the area of the whole circle as q is to 2 TT. to the area of the whole ellipse as q is to 2 to Hence the dyadic $ applied as a prefactor a radius vector r in an ellipse of which b and two conjugate semidiameters advances that vector through a sector the area of which is to the area of c are . describes an ellipse of be given a definite geometrical The vector r. = <P r = cos + q) b + sin (p + q) c. Thus the vector tion of is r in the ellipse is so changed by the applica as a prefactor that its projection f in the unit circle rotated through an angle q. This statement may be given a neater form by making use of the fact that in parallel projection areas are definite constant ratio. The radius vector r in the ellipse which is The radius equal to f r. this ellipse be regarded as the parallel projection of the r unit circle = cos p + i sin q j. Vectors in the plane of b and c suffer a change similar to rotation.
It is evident from geometric or analytic considerations that the powers of a cyclic dyadic are formed. that it becomes the idemfactor may then be regarded as the if mth root of the idemfactor. . 1 It is evident that fixing in ellipse practically fixes vector in that plane may be an the result of the application of to all radii vectors it for all vectors in the plane of b and c. that is. to it is possible to raise the dyadic such an integral power. if = m.350 VECTOR ANALYSIS 2Tr. q and 2 TT are commensurable it is possible to raise to such a power that it becomes equal to the idemfactor and even if q and 2 TT are incommensurable a power of d> may be found which differs by as little as one pleases from In like manner the idemfactor. If the scalar q is an integral submultiple of 2 27T 1 TT. Hence any cyclic dyadic may be regarded as a root of the idemfactor. by multiplying the scalar q by the power to which the dyadic is to be raised. : Definition A dyadic cos q (bb of the form = aa + is + cc ) + sin q (c is V . The versor a special case of a cyclic dyadic. as the powers of a versor were formed. 1 the whole ellipse as q is to Such a displacement of the radius vector r sector q from it is may be called an elliptic rotation through a its similarity to an ordinary rotation of which the projection. namely. For any < regarded as a scalar multiple of a radius vector of the ellipse.be ) (17) called a cyclic dyadic. the power w. n = aa + cos nq (b b + c c ) + sin nq (c V bc ).
The transformation is such that the i and j components of a vector remain un is altered but the kcomponent altered in the ratio of c to 1. than unity the elongation in that or those directions becomes a compression. The transformation due as to the dyadic may the successive or simultaneous elongation of the i. 115 reducible to was seen that any complete dyadic was the normal form it . 6. constants #. c are positive scalars called a ^rare strain. The transformation may therefore be described as a stretch or elongation along the direction k. b to 1. j. If one or more of the constants is is less unity. k are called the principal axes of the strain. scalars a. If the constant c is greater than unity the elongation is a true elongation but if c is less : than unity the elongation is really a compression. c ponents of r parallel to a to 1. The itself is called rt^Atf tensor. In Art. &. The lengths be regarded of the kcomponents are then not altered. 6.] 351 the Definition: <Z> The transformation represented by = a ii + &jJ+ckk is (18) where dyadic a. j. for the ratio Between these two cases of elongation is less than unity. if Their directions are not altered by the strain whereas. c are known as the principal ratios of elongation. c the The be different. i. comes the case in which the constant is unity. c to 1. A right tensor may be factored into three factors The order in which these factors occur is immaterial. 6.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS 130. The directions components parallel to that direction are not altered. every other direction is altered. and k respectively in the If one or more of the constants com ratios a.
j . k for principal axes: in the second. (19) 0= factor is i+j + i k k) (aii 6jj + ckk). j . J. a perversion. tion or version about a definite axis In the two cases the rotation and the ratios of elonga tion of the strain are the same . c to 1. 1. the product the version and pure strain must have associated with them a reversal of directions of all vectors in before space that is. c are positive where constants. k. is Hence reducible to the product of a Any dyadic versor and a right tensor taken in either order and a positive or negative sign. k) (i i 0= or (ai i + (i ftj j + ck j +j + j + k k). but the principal axes of the strain differ according as it is performed before or after the . The vector semitangent of the versor i>i + ^ + k kls ixi + i i.352 VECTOR ANALYSIS a. In the first case the strain has the lines i . j. k . The rotation and strain may be performed in either order. the same. aii a right tensor and represents a pure strain. a to In both cases the ratios of elongation are If the negative sign occurs b to 1. turns the vectors j. This expression may be factored into the product of two dyadics. a versor. The i +j j + k k is which It the same in either method of factoring i. k into the vectors i .k" The other factor ai or is i + l j j + ck k . Hence the most general transformation representable by a dyadic consists of the product of a rota Theorem: through a definite angle a pure strain either with or without perver accompanied by sion.j + k. i.i +j xj + k xk +j .
b. respectively these . therefore reduces to the simpler problem of find The general problem ing the principal ratios of elongation and the principal axes of a pure strain.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS rotation. normal form. (20) c 2 of finding the principal ratios of elonga the antecedents. . a. sarily a. c coplanar into its components parallel to 23 directions a. either 353 system of axes being derivable from the other by the application of the versor as a prefactor or postfactor respectively. c and a : . c Neces are two reciprocal systems of vectors.] The natural and immediate generalization of the right tensor is the dyadic a. 6. b . j . The effect of a tonic is to leave unchanged three nonIf a vector be resolved b. (ai C i + + 6 j j + ck k). c . <P = aaa + &bb + ccc (21) where and a b . and its conjugate be given the product of ratios of elongation of which are the is a right tensor the squares of the ratios of elongation of (P and the axes of which If a dyadic are respectively the antecedents or consequents of accord ing as C follows or precedes 4> in the product. = a i i + + c 2 k k kk. and consequents of a dyadic in its tion. b. = C (aii 6 jj 62 j + ckk ). Definition A dyadic that may be reduced to the form (21) is called a tonic. c in space. b. c are positive or negative scalars and where a. 131. c are each three noncoplanar.
c any three vectors respectively which collinear with them be sub provided of course that the corresponding changes are necessary be made in the reciprocal system a .be ).354 VECTOR ANALYSIS If one or components are stretched in the ratios a to 1. c. b. The tonic may be factored into three factors of which each a. c are re versed in direction as well as changed in magnitude. c are the commutative and a tonic with these axes and with scalar coefficients equal respectively to the products of the corresponding coefficients of the two dyadics. =a 0. c stretches the components parallel to one of the vectors but leaves unchanged the components parallel to the other two. If two of the constants say J and c are equal. Any three The product same is of two tonics of is which the axes a. c . 6. any two vectors coplanar with the corresponding vectors b and c may be substituted in place of b and c. c to 1. y = The <? x aa + \bV + ^ cc c2 cc . more of the constants a. b. & to 1. If all the constants are equal the tonic reduces to a constant multiple of the idemfactor. =a 1 a 2 aa + ^^bVf c^cc (22) generalization of the cyclic dyadic aa is + cos q (b 1 V+ c c ) + sin q (c b bc) (23) = a aa 1 (b V+ cc ) + c (c V . of a tonic in place of a. b. cc ) (aa is + &bb + ccXa not altered if The value stituted. a dyadic But with the exception which is expressible in the form of a tonic is so expressible in only one way if the constants a. b. of this change. b . . c are negative the com ponents parallel to the corresponding vector a. noncoplanar vectors may be taken for a. c are different. &. b.
If a is which leaves unchanged vectors negative the stretching must be accompanied by reversal in direction. V. The a Vectors parallel to a remain unchanged . .ROTATIONS AND STRAINS where is 355 a. are This dyadic may be changed positive or negative scalars. The second factor is also a tonic. is. (24) That and tan 2 =. into a more convenient form by determining the positive scalar the positive or negative scalar q (which TT) so that always be chosen between the limits p and may and c=psinq. c.o c is + sin q . first is The order of these factors immaterial. b. ) (24 y Then + This cc + p sin q (cV be ). parallel to a but stretches all vectors in third is the plane of b and c in the ratio radii vectors in the ellipse of p to 1. 6.be )}. (25) may be factored into the product of three dyadics ) 0= (aaa + bV + cc {aa (a a ) + p bV + jpcc ) (cV + cos q (b b 4. c are three noncoplanar vectors of which a r . Other vectors in the plane of b and c may be regarded as scalar multiples of the radii vectors of the ellipse. The a tonic parallel to b and c but stretches those parallel to a in the ratio of a to 1. It leaves unchanged vectors cyclic factor. but which b and c are conjugate semidiameters are rotated through a sector such that the area of the sector is to the area of the whole ellipse as q to 2 TT. c the reciprocal system and where the quantities a.
b c ). b. a. The method of proving the theorem in general however is If three directions a. cc 5F ) +p f l sinq l (cb sin q 2 (cb be ) be ) = a2 aa 5P*= +jp2 cos j2 (bb <? f + l cc ) + jpa 0.] to Canonical Forms Theorem : In general any dyadic is may be reduced either to a tonic or to a cyclotonic. the reduction which may The dyadics for which be regarded as limiting cases impossible may be represented to any desired degree of approxi mation by tonics or cyclotonics. The proof of the theorem. may arise. . W* =a 1 a 2 aa + Pi P* + p p 2 cos (q l + j a ) (bb + cc ) sin ( 2l + & (c b . b. c as antecedents and the reciprocal system a . From this theorem the importance of the tonic and cyclo tonic which have been treated as natural generalizations of the right tensor and the cyclic dyadic may be seen. If only one such direction can be found. c may be found which are patent. The product of two cyclotonics which have the same three vectors. there exists a plane in which the vectors suffer a change such as that due to the cyclotonic and the dyadic indeed proves to be such. (25) the owing to the fact that it combines the properties of cyclic dyadic and the tonic is called a cyclolonic. (26) ) Reduction of Dyadics 132. is left unchanged by the application of $ then <P must be a tonic. including a discussion of all the special cases that long and somewhat tedious.356 Definition : <P VECTOR ANALYSIS A dyadic which q is reducible to the form = a aa + p cos (bb + cc ) +p sin q (c V be ). c for consequents is a third cyclotonic and is com mutative. b .
(28) 2 : (0 + <P W) z Z = <Z> <P B + 1 <P W+ : : W^ + z . If the direction a is unchanged.a3 1 8 = I and I3 = 1. The cubic equation becomes x* . the dyadic may be linear or zero.a = 0.x* d> 3 + x 2S  8 = 0. (0aI) 8 = Now (page 331) (4> 0. In in the direction a to zero. the condition that (29) The value of a which satisfies is a solution of a cubic equation.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS The question is 357 to find the directions which are unchanged by the application of the dyadic 0. any case if the dyadic <PaI reduces vectors collinear with a to zero it possesses at least <P one degree of nullity and the third or determinant of vanishes. a it (27) The dyadic therefore planar since reduces vectors In special cases.a I) 8 = I2 a 2 : + a2 ^ . Hence . (29) . Let x replace a. then or (0 aI is =aa al).a2 a + a 0^ 03 = 0. which are set aside for the present. : But 1 = Hence the equation becomes a3 .
That is (28) planar. =c be the three roots of the equation. Then = 0. b. <P a = a a. = 0.c = 0. the dyadic xI is A vector per pendicular to its consequents is reduced to zero. of the reduction of a dyadic to the form of a tonic or a cyclotonic depends merely upon whether the cubic equation in x has one or three real roots. <p b .] Theorem x* : If the cubic equation 4> s . (30) (30) If the roots a. (0cI). x = &. c are distinct the vectors a.x* + x 2* <P  8 = (29) has three real roots the dyadic to a tonic. &. 61. c are non coplanar. b. Let a. 133. cl be respectively three are in general planar. For suppose c = ma + ?ib . c = cc. <P The dyadics <P a I. </>b = &b.\ 358 VECTOR ANALYSIS value of x which satisfies Any that this equation will be such (*aI). may x in general be reduced For let x = a. c vectors drawn perpendicular to the planes of the consequents of these dyadics. to say. Hence The further discussion leaves such a direction unchanged.
b. reciprocal to a. c This being tions (30) hold. n (b b c) = 0. it is In case the roots are not distinct still noncoplanar vectors a. c into a a.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS 359 m$ But Hence and a racaffl>0b a ncb = 0.x* 4> a + x d> 2S  3 = (29) has one real root the dyadic a cyclotonic. to the plane of the root be a. may in general be reduced to The cubic equation has one tive or negative according as real root. b. Hence m= or a = c. c a. b b. the are necessarily noncoplanar. This cannot be accomplished in the special case in which a let the lengths of and = . c) = n(b TI = 0.a I) = a and a be so adjusted that a a l. c c is the tonic Theorem : If the cubic equation x* . c) b = 6 b. Determine a perpendicular 4> the consequents of a I. <P B is This must be posi Let positive or negative. = a a. b. = 0. b. b . b. c always possible to choose three in such a manner that the equa so.a Determine a also so that a . c are coplanar. (0. (<PaI) . c and the dyadic which carries a. c) m (a m(a a + 0. the roots are the roots are distinct. if = or b = c. Consequently if the vectors not distinct. there exists a system a . and therefore vectors a.
^ = ai* Let also b1 b_! (32) =. s ..b] </> <Pb b]. b into b. 2 The dyadic a.r #b 1 1 b2 = /r #~ 2 2 # 2 b ? etc. $ b all lie in the same plane.360 . Their vector products are parallel to a and Hence (31)" a (0 2  b) x <P 3 (</>.a </> 2 b But Hence a a 2 (<P <0 2 b) x b.a I)  b = 0. b. Hence <Pb is 3 <P b.. $ b. (33) and p (& b b2 b_ 2 =p bx 2 b. let Inasmuch as a and have the same sign.b) = 3 ><Pb xb. + b Then b3 + b1 b_! = 27ib 2 = 27ib r b + b = 2nb 3 1 2 b x f =2nb b_! + b_ = 2 n b_ 2 x . The + b and b x are b2 parallel. Xb + x or (b 2 vectors b 2 b) x b x X b. etc. = 3 [a $a = aa. = 0. The volume of the parallelepiped spectively. etc. VECTOR ANALYSIS Let b be any vector in and a are mutually perpendicular. the plane perpendicular to a . The vectors <P b and b cannot be parallel or would have the direction b as well as a unchanged and thus the cubic would have more than one real root. etc. . perpendicular to a In a similar manner 2 </> [<p. (31) The vectors b. 0~ b. (0 b) = <P3 a </>. (31) (0 b) x b. to each other. and perpendicular to a l 2 <P~ b. will all be perpendicular to a and lie in one plane. a (0 . Hence (<P al)b is . Let (34) etc. <P b re changes a.
n q. is. b2 . & = a a = $ a. . ra = 0.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS Lay off 861 from a common origin the vectors b. c. (36) from the equation Then Let a . The value of Let therefore lie between plus one and minus one. b_j. b_j = cos q b bx c sible since a be the reciprocal system of a. a The dyadic a a a the vectors  +pW b. and b_ x respectively. etc. b_2. ?F. = cos q b + sin q c. bj. Let Then Hence = cos q (bV + ccO + sin q (c V . was so determined that a b. sin q c. etc. This is pos a =1 and since are noncoplanar.^? sin q (c V root in case the cubic equation has only one real reducible except in special cases to a cyclotonic. b a.. = (a aa + p The dyadic is W) = a aa + ^ cos j (bb + 4.be ). that since there no direction in the plane perpendicular to a which is left unchanged by takes these vectors b OT pass round and round the origin as m all positive and negative values. c f . (a aa + p W) b = p b = b_ =p b = d> b_r (a aa + p ) 1. (a *& + p b. on n must Then Determine c = cos bj + bj = 2 cos q b. changes the vectors a. is Since is not a tonic.})_ = b. b. l ) x  . The theorem that a dyadic in general is reducible to a tonic or cyclotonic has therefore been demonstrated. Hence cc7 ) b o ).b = b . b and b^ into a.
a.o=jt)c= pb 1 b= Hence <P = a aa + p (b V+ cc ) + p cb r may be (37) The transformation due factoring it order or arrangement seen best by into three factors which are independent of the to this dyadic . c. b_1 c 1 + b1 = 2b. b =b b_r b1 4 p o V *P b + pc  pbi JP = <P b.362 134.(aa + bb 1 + cc + cb 7 ). In one case two of them are equal and in the other case three of them.] is VECTOR ANALYSIS There remain two cases 1 in which the reduction impossible. In these cases it will be seen that the cubic equation has three real roots. In first the place if tonic form be 1 the reduction the constant n used in the reduction to cyclofalls through. Thus these dyadics may be regarded as limiting cases lying between the cyclotonic in and which two of the roots are imaginary and the tonic in which all the roots are real The limit may be regarded as taking place either by the pure distinct. If is impossible to determine a such that falls The reduction b_1 through. imaginary part of the two imaginary roots of the cyclotonic becoming zero or by two of the roots of the tonic approaching each other.a = aa=<P. ?p*. . n=l. In the second place if the plane of the antecedents of vectors a and the plane of the consequents are perpendicular the and a used in the reduction to cyclotonic form are perpendicular and it a a shall be unity. as can be seen by looking over the proof. Let + Choose Consider the dyadic =b W = a aa + p (bV + co ) y. pb = 2b.
= = The dyadic then becomes $ $= (a = a aa r . the result is much the same. Definition : A dyadic reducible to the form I + cb is called a shearing dyadic or shearer and the geometrical transformation which it causes is called a shear. (I + oV) a = #a.c V (b D (37) (I aa + bb + cc ) {aa p + cc )> + cV). (I + c V) x b = x b + x o. (I + c V) A dyadic of the form I + cb leaves vectors parallel to a and c unaltered. + oV (37) The trans will also be called a shearing dyadic or shearer. In other words the transformation of points in space is such that the plane of a and c remains fixed point for point but the points in planes parallel to that plane are shifted in the direction c by an amount proportional to the distance of the plane in which they lie from the plane of a and c. The c in second factor represents a stretching of the plane of b and the ratio t p to 1. The last factor takes the form I + cb .ROTATIONS AND STRAINS The ratio first 863 a to factor represents an elongation in the direction a in a 1. The plane of b and c is undisturbed.p (bV f + c<0 . . A vector #b parallel to b is increased by the vec tor c multiplied by the ratio of the vector # b to b. formation to which it gives rise is a shear combined with elongations in the direction of a and is in the plane of b and c. The more general dyadic <P = a aa + p (b V+ c c ) . x c = x c. If n 1 instead of n +1.
W = A D ki = ac c 2 . tion Suppose that the plane of the antecedents and the plane of Let the consequents of the dyadic are perpendicular. parallel to i. The dyadic then takes the form <p k and a I A j i +B j j + Ck +Dk i j. a new case occurs. an elonga combined with a reversal of direction in the plane of b and c. The shearing dyadic then represents an elongation in the direction a. But if B vanishes This may be reduced as follows to the form ab + bc where Square a V=a W =b c = and b V = 1. Hence a must be chosen parallel to k The dyadic W may then be transformed . .364 VECTOR ANALYSIS factors are the The same except the second which now repre sents a stretching of the plane of b and c combined with a reversal of all the vectors in that plane. into Then =AD*. 0al these planes be taken respectively as the plane of j and the plane of i and j. and a shear. Nothing new Let arises. With this root the reduction to the form of a tonic may be is carried on as before. The coefficient B must vanish. and c . For otherwise the dyadic j Bk) planar and the scalar a + B is a root of the cubic equation. b Di V= CiA+D j =A c = i.
. V. For r. The complex shearer as well as the simple shearer men tioned before are limiting cases of the cyclotonic and tonic dyadics. If which is changed by the addition of a term in direction equal to a and in magnitude propor b it is tional to the if magnitude of the vector is r. factor al represents a stretching of space in all directions in the ratio a to 1. A dyadic which <P may be reduced to the form = aI + ab + bc (38) is called a complex shearer.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS With this choice of a. c 365 reduces to the desired form ab + be the dyadic and hence the dyadic <P is reduced to (38) = al + or ab + bc = aaa + abb + This ace + aV + be . In like manner r is parallel to c it is which in direction changed by the addition of a term equal to b and which in magnitude is r. The second factor first The represents r what may be called a complex shear.zb= Q *xc = (I + ab + be ) xc = zb Definition : zb + a a xc 4 #b. = IT + ab r+ bc r= rtaVr + bc If r is parallel to a it is left unaltered r is parallel to by the dyadic Q. may be factored into the product of two dyadics the is order of which immaterial. proportional to the magnitude of the vector = (I + ab f bc ). b.
] VECTOR ANALYSIS A more systematic treatment which may arise of the various kinds of dyadics may be given by means of the HamiltonCayley equation 03 _  a 02 + 0^ <P _  3 i = and the cubic equation in x x* If a. .61) = 0.366 135. The following possibilities occur. (29) are the roots of this cubic the HamiltonCayley equation may be written as (0 If. (0aI) 3 = 0. I.2^0082 4> + p*I) = 0. VII. In general therefore one of the above equations and the corresponding reductions to the tonic or cyclotonic form hold. (<P V. II. (41) In general the HamiltonCayley equation which is an equa is the equation of lowest tion of the third degree in degree which is satisfied by 0.c I) = 0.JI) (0 . (<P al) 2 = 0. the dyadic may satisfy of lowest degree its characteristic an equation of lower degree. IV. (40) however. . (<P .<?I) = 0. &. VI. however.b I) ( .a !).(</>. c S x* + 25 x 8 = 0.al) (<P . the cubic has only one root the HamiltonCayley equation takes the form (0_al).a I) (  (0 . . In special cases. (<PaI) = 0.(0 2 . (0aI) III. That equation which may be satisfied by a dyadic is called equation.
and the cyclo tonic together with three limiting cases. Two of the ratios of elongation are the same. In the third case the dyadic reduced to the form </> a simple shearer and may be = aaa + 6 (bb is + cc ) + cb . may be accomplished in an infinite The following reduction number of ways. three tonics in which the ratios of elonga two alike. In the fourth case the dyadic again a tonic.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS In the to the first 367 be reduced case the dyadic is a tonic and may form 6bb + ccc In the second case the dyadic reduced to the form d> . the the one complex shearer. a complex shearer and f may be 0= al + ab is be . In the seventh case the dyadic is again a tonic which may be reduced in a doubly infinite number of ways to the form = al = a(aa + / bb + cc ). = aaa + In the case the dyadic so expressed that fifth is b (bb + cc ). is a cyclotonic and may be be = a aa +p cos q (bb + is cc ) +p sin q (eb ). or all equal. In the sixth case the dyadic may be reduced to the form 4> again a simple shearer which = al + cb =a (aa 4 bb + cc ) + cb . These seven are the only essentially different forms which a dyadic may take. There are then only seven really different kinds of dyadics tion are all different. two simple and .
(1) is called a versor one of the form a perversor.j k) = ii + cos q (I ii) + sin q I x j i. If the axis of rotation of a versor be chosen as the iaxis the versor reduces to or If = ii + cos q (j + kk) + sin q (kj . The second of the dyadic gives the trans points formation of plane areas.00 = 1. (6) The axis of the versor coincides in direction with .368 VECTOR ANALYSIS Summary of Chapter VI The transformation due to a dyadic is a linear homogeneous The dyadic itself gives the transformation of the in space. (3) A dyadic of the form (1) . ratio in which volumes are changed. The necessary and the form sufficient condition that a dyadic repre is sent a rotation about a definite axis that it be reducible to = i i + j j + 3 k k 1 (1) (2) or that 4> c or that =I c= I <P =+ 8 > The necessary and sufficient condition that a dyadic repre sent a rotation combined with a transformation of reflection figure is replaced by which each that by one symmetrical j to it is or that or that = (i + $ <P C = I* 0. (4) (5) any unit vector a <p is directed along the axis of rotation = aa + cos q (I a a) + sin q 1 x a X. i j + k k) 1 (iy ^3 = 3 <0. . The third of the dyadic gives the strain.
so to speak. <P = dft aft or + / cos q (I + aa\ \ aay I ) + sin q I x a (10) <D = (I x ft) (I I x Q). 2 (9) In terms of Q the versor <P may be expressed in a number of was. 24 The pro .1 (10) J^ + axQ) tf . of version The law of composition is for the vector semitangents A dyadic reducible to the form <P = aa + cos q (bb + cc + sin q ) (cb W) (17) is called a cyclic dyadic. It produces a generalization of simple rotation an elliptic rotation. the vector determines the rotation completely. This vector is called the vector semitangent of version.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS If a vector be 369 drawn along the axis and if the magnitude of the vector be taken equal to the tangent of onehalf the angle of rotation. Any versor may be resolved into the product of two biquadrantal versors and by means of such resolutions any two versors may be combined into is another. (loy = 1 + Qft If a is a unit vector a dyadic of the form <P = 2aaI (11) a biquadrantal versor.
idemfactor. j. Any dyadic may a right tensor. of elongation. A cyclic dyadic may be regarded as a root of the A dyadic reducible to the form = aii +bjj + ckk (18) It where ratio #. and a positive or negative sign. k in the a to 1. b. and is therefore a tonic. &. This transformation = or (a i (i i i + j &j j + c k k) (i i + j j + k k) (19) <P= +j + k k). Consequently any linear homogeneous strain may be regarded as a combination of a rotation and a pure strain accompanied or unaccompanied by a perversion. (24) dyadic in general may be reduced either to the form (21). The immediate generalizations of the right tensor and the cyclic dyadic is to the tonic = aaa + &bb + ccc and cyclotonic cc or <P ) (21) + c(cVbc) (23) = aaa + p cos q (bb + cc )+^sing (cV p be ) (25) where = + V 62 + c 2 and tan I q * =2? + . or to the form (25). represents a stretching along the principal axis i.(aii + Jjj + ckk). c and consequents a b c is obtained by adding their angles q. c to 1 which are called the principal ratios is a pure strain. and is The condition that a dyadic be a therefore a cyclotonic.370 VECTOR ANALYSIS duct of two cyclic dyadics which have the same antecedents a. be expressed as the product of a versor. Any tonic is that the cubic equation + 0^ x  <J> 3 = (29) . b to 1. c are positive scalars is called a right tensor.
(0 a I) = a I) (# . cases it may be written as 4> In these =aaa +jp (bb it + cc ) + cb (37) and is a simple shearer. or takes the form = al + and is ab + bc (38) be classified accord a complex shearer. Dyadics may ing to their characteristic equations (<PaI).(0&I).(<PcI) (# a I) 2 (<P 2 p cos q & I) + jp 2 2 =0 1) = tonic cyclotonic (0 = simple shearer special tonic (0_ <*!)($ &I) = 8 complex shearer (0 a I) = 2 special simple shearer (0 a I) = special tonic. dyadic be a cyclotonic is that this cubic equation shall have only one real root. There occur two limiting cases in which the dyadic cannot be reduced to cyclotonic form.ROTATIONS AND STRAINS shall 371 in have three real roots. Special cases which the reduction when may be accomplished in more ways than one arise The condition that a the equation has equal roots.
and hence the equation takes be divided into the dyadic is the form r r or r = 1. in case it be not zero. (2) The dyadic may be assumed to be For if W is an antiselfconjugate dyadic. (1) The constant. the quadric is sign is negative it is a real ellipsoid. self conjugate. By Art.] If be any constant dyadic the equation r .t If L l JJ Hence the equation r r =1 If the represents a quadric surface real or imaginary. may quadratic in r. signs are all positive. 116 any selfconjugate dyadic is reducible to the form . . the product r W r is The proof of this state identically zero for all values of r. if two are . If one an hyperboloid of one sheet. r = const. ment is left as an exercise.CHAPTER VII MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS Quadric Surfaces 136. The different cases which arise are four in number. r = 0.
where the a. But and (r r r a) (b =r I =r r) r. it is evident that these four sorts of terms are the only ones which can occur in a scalar expression which is quadratic in r. r c. e are constant vectors. d e. independent of r. quadric surface may Conversely any central be represented by a suitably chosen self conjugate dyadic in the r form r d> = const. Moreover. c* The most general the vector r scalar expression which and which consequently when quadratic in set equal to a con stant represents a quadric surface. The first are of the second order in r . c. Thus the equation r 0 r = const. ab r. They are This is #2 2 7/ a 2 z .QUADRIC SURFACES 373 all If the three signs are negative. two terms and . the third. contains terms like r r. d. a cone in case the constant is zero. (r a) (b r) . . c 2 2 6 J The corresponding dyadic <Pis $ = a* o* is . evident from the equations of the central quadric surfaces when reduced to the normal form. of the first order last. b.= const. The surface reduces to represents a central quadric surface. In like manner the the quadric is imaginary. a hyperboloid of two sheets. negative equation r is r = seen to represent a cone which may be either real or imaginary according as the signs are different or all alike.
The discussion and classification of the various quadrics here. is It will not be taken up of the theory The present to develop so much . untplanar or unilinear because the plane of or in the line In case is incomplete If is self conjugate. is an interesting object exercise. and third terms are selfconjugate the second Hence r r + 2 r (J At t) +C = f 0. if The dyadic may be regarded A. and as self a constant scalar. If now is complete the vector may 1 be chosen so that  IA = 0t L Hence the quadric is or t = 5 0L A. desired.A + (7=0. conjugate To be rid of the linear term r make a change of origin by replacing r (r by r t. t). noncentral The quadric surface is not a central surface.374 VECTOR ANALYSIS Hence the most general quadratic expression may be reduced to where is a constant dyadic. A a constant vector. and the reduction to central form is still pos But unless A is so situated the reduction is impossible. A lies in of as the case may be the equation is soluble for t sible. reducible to the central form r r it is = const. is r At. 0. (r t t) + (r t) <P A+ C=0 t r <P * r $ r r + t <P t + Since equal.
0r = 0. 0. p is parallel to n. p. Hence p =p . It is also equal to the square root of r p. r r = 1. normal be denoted by K and <P let the unit normal be BT = r r (6) n = r) r (0 r) Vr #2 r* Let p be the vector drawn from the origin perpendicular to The perpendicular the tangent plane. distance from the origin to the tangent plane is the square root of p p. <t> di Since <P is r + di = 0. selfconjugate these two terms are equal and (5) dr. r p = r cos r (r. perpendicular to <P r. Let n.QUADRIC SURFACES 375 of quadric surfaces as will be useful in applications to mathe matical physics with especial reference to nonisotropic media.p (T) . 137. JL = L p. Hence normal to the surface at the extremity of the vector The increment d r this is r is r. r0r = rH = p and IT are parallel.p = . Hereafter therefore the central quadrics and in par ticular the ellipsoid will be discussed.p l. p.r = !T=^. Or But Hence inasmuch as Ll! p. p) p = p2 . they are equal.] The tangent plane may be found by r <P differentiation.
but is also the coordinate of the plane. = #ityj+3k. Hence the desired equation H0iH = l. j. is. Then the ellipsoid may be are geometry. k.1 is If = JT 0" 1 H. ( r r = 1. the length of <P r is the reciprocal of the distance to the plane tangent to the ellipsoid at the extremity of the vector r. Hence the above equation shows that <P r is not merely normal to the tangent plane.N = a 2 wa + 2 Z> v2 + c2 w 2 = 1. r j w plane N upon written in either of the two forms familiar in Cartesian the reciprocals of the intercepts of the the axes i. That from the origin The equation of the ellipsoid in plane coordinates may be found by eliminating r from the two equations. N = ui + v + wk. or K 0. Let and where u. v.376 VECTOR ANALYSIS page 108 it was seen that the vector which has the direc tion of the normal to a plane and which is in magnitude equal to the reciprocal of the distance On from the origin to the plane may be taken as the vector coordinate of that plane. (8) *4 +y+" c 2 kk. Hence r r = H 0 1 0.1 . (10) .
The symmetry of this equation shows that a is a radius vector in the plane conjugate with b. # a = 1. It is parallel to the plane drawn tangent to the ellipsoid at the extremity of that one of the chords which passes through the center.. Let r = s + x a. Let r be any radius vector in the ellipsoid. This plane is parallel called the diametral plane conjugate with the system of chords.QUADRIC SURFACES 138. (s + Hence s $ + a + 2? a = 1. x a) Inasmuch as the vector s bisects the chord parallel to a the two solutions of x given by this equation are equal in mag nitude and opposite in sign. planes conjugate respectively with a and Then a . . Let c be a third radius vector in the ellipsoid and let it be chosen as the line of intersection of the diametral b. b b e . d> . a = 0. a = 0. . Consequently the vector locus of the terminus of s is perpendicular to The s is therefore a plane passed through a.] 377 The locus of the middle points of a system of chords in an ellipsoid is a plane. Let n be the vector drawn to the middle point of a chord parallel to a. If b is and parallel any radius vector in the diametral plane conjugate _ with a. = 0. perpendicular to to the tangent plane at the extremity of a. b a = A 0. c = 0. the center of the ellipsoid. Hence the coefficient of the linear term x vanishes. s . x <D If r is a radius vector of the ellipsoid r r s = (B + 2 # s a) . (11) . a.
b c form the system reciprocal to a c a. c = 0. c The are changed into <P a. b. pendent of the form in which 3 i=[abc] . may The volume of a parallelepiped of which three concurrent invariants of 0. and if in a similar manner the three tangent planes at their extremities be called a system of three conjugate tangent planes. a number of geometric theorems may be obtained from interpreting the system of three conjugate radii vectors be obtained in a doubly infinite number of ways. The dyadic may be therefore expressed in the forms and If for = a a + b b + cV. For let a. a. 0. Let a = . <D b. b. a =c o b = 1. b o V=b b = 1. c b c. c. be called a system of three conjugate radii vectors. and a V=a c =c b = 0. A edges constitute a system of three conjugate radii vectors is constant and equal in magnitude to the rectangular parallele piped constructed upon the three semiaxes of the ellipsoid.378 VECTOR ANALYSIS vectors a. c = b a = 0. 2 . 0" 1 is is an invariant and inde expressed. 0" = aa + bb + cc. a a =a = 1.1 = aa + bb + The determinant or third of cc. V= b. The For vectors a . c be any system of three conjugate axes. b. c. 1 (12) convenience the three directions a. <P c by the dyadic 0. b.
k be three mutually perpendicular unit vectors 4> s = i* i . . b. 0i +k 0"1 k. preting <P 3. +k j # k. c be three radii vectors in the ellipsoid drawn i. j. whose three concurrent edges are in the directions of the perpendiculars upon a system of three conjugate tangent planes and in magnitude equal to the reciprocals of the distances of those planes from the center of the ellipsoid. This demonstrates the theorem. If i. The volume of the parallelepiped. </> i +j <P j . respectively parallel to a . But k directions. constant and equal to the reciprocal upon the semiaxes of the The sum of the squares of the reciprocals of the three per pendiculars dropped from the origin upon a system of three conjugate tangent planes is constant and equal to the sum of the squares of the reciprocals^ the semiaxes. is of the parallelepiped constructed ellipsoid. a =b i Hence <P a = i a  a + j * the three terms in this expression are the squares of the reciprocals of the radii vectors drawn respectively in the i. In like manner by inter possible to <Ps~~\ and S it is The sum of the squares of the radii vectors show that: drawn to an is ellipsoid in a system of three conjugate directions constant and equal to the sum of the squares of the semiaxes. tf^i = 0i . Hence [a b c] =a6 c. . Let a. j. j.QUADRIC SURFACES But if 379 0!:=a 2 ii + & 2 jj + c 2 kk. i +j k. Hence : .
Hence the term vanishes. ellipsoid or hyperboloid. And The sum in a similar manner: the sum of the squares of the perpen diculars dropped from the origin upon three mutually perpen dicular tangent planes 139. s .] is constant. (13) For let s be the vector of a point in the polar plane. The equation of the polar plane of the point deter l mined by the vector a is s a = 1. or 1 s (P a = 1  z It is evidently immaterial whether the central quadric determined by * be real or imaginary. The polar plane becomes (p . Hence is s a =1 the desired equation of the polar plane of the terminus a. of Let a be replaced by z a.380 VECTOR ANALYSIS of the squares of the reciprocals of three mutually perpendicular radii vectors in an ellipsoid is constant. The vector of any point upon the line which joins the terminus of s and the terminus of a is y + #a x + y s If this point lies upon the surface x + y x + y 8*0*8+ If the terminus of 2 xy s lies in the polar plane of a the this equation of the ratio x:y determined by and opposite in two values must be equal in x y in magnitude sign. . z a = 1.
QUADRIC SURFACES 381 the polar plane of the terminus of z a approaches the origin. f Q Q the equation (r =T = T* r = rl = r 1 0.1) + k (r c P C) 2 = represents a quadric surface which passes through the curve and is tangent to Q along that of intersection of Q and curve. The polar plane may be obtained from another standpoint are given. If a quadric Q and a plane P and the equation (r P = r c C = 0. In case this equation is factorable into two r equations which are linear in r. the curves of intersection of Q and Q become plane and lie in those two planes. . Hence the polar plane of the point at infinity in the a is the same as the diametral plane conjugate with statement is This frequently taken as the definition of the diame In case the vector a is a radius tral plane conjugate with a. In like manner if two quadrics Q and Q are given. In the limit when z becomes infinite the polar plane becomes z When increases s a = 0. direction a. and which consequently rep resent two planes. r . which is important. 1) + k (r # r  1) = f represents a quadric surface which passes through the curves of intersection of Q and Q and which cuts Q and Q at no other points. The equation a =1 or s IT =1 therefore represents the tangent plane. vector of the surface the polar plane becomes identical with the tangent plane at the terminus of s <P a.
(a Hence (r a . (a a a .A) ii. It is expres sible in the form where A. The equation of any tangent plane to the quadric is s . If this plane contains the conditions which A. .1) (a . its equation is satisfied by a.1)  (a = 0. r = 1. = 1.] transforming the origin to the point whose vertex is at that point this is easily seen Let be any selfconjugate dyadic. 2 By to be a cone 140. A I) 2 through the point . Further A<B<G . For let a be the vector drawn to the point A. Hence must be satisfied by r if its tangent are plane passes through A a r <P . .382 If VECTOR ANALYSIS A is any point outside of the quadric and if all the tangent planes which pass through A are drawn. The quadric which passes through the curve of intersection of this polar plane with the given quadric and which touches the quadric along that curve (r If this passes is r . r . r . r = 1. more let C are positive or negative scalars.B) kk  (5 . This cone touches the quadric along a plane curve the plane of the curve being the polar plane of the point A. 5. these planes envelop a cone.Bl = (<7.I) = 0. r The points r therefore lie in a plane r (<P a) = 1 which on comparison with (13) is seen to be the polar plane of A.I) 2 = 0.1) + k r .1) + k (a 4.
r r 5r Let r + r p q p =n By r be any plane perpendicular to p. J. tacitly that the constants 4. r = and r p = n. If the equation of this sphere have be subtracted from that of the given quadric. the resulting equation that of a quadric which passes through the inter The difference section of the sphere and the given quadric. intersect in Hence the sphere and the quadric curves lying in the planes two plane q . from each other and from <P zero. Then Let 0. substitution B This r. is q r (r p n) = 0. (14) The dyadic $ has been expressed as the multiple of the idemfactor and one half sum of the sum a constant pq + The reduction has assumed are different qp. B.rftt q 1 = 0.QUADRIC SURFACES Let 383 i VC B k =c and VB A = q. = a. is a sphere because the terms of the second order all the same coefficient B. = 1 becomes r = 1. r Substituting the value of $. . This expression for is closely related to the circular sections of the quadric surface r r = 1.Bl = ccaa = \ c j(c + a)(ca)+(ca)(c+a) c + <P a =p and (pq a Then = 51 + + qp).
384 VECTOR ANALYSIS Inasmuch as these curves lie upon a sphere they are circles. The section is is therefore a circular section. The proof may be conducted r as .5 r r + p q r = 1. through the center p q r If r is a radius vector in the plane passed of the quadric perpendicular to p or q. B. Hence planes perpendicular to p cut the quadric in circles. The con A. (15) Then 0i =41 + I * > O v + vu). let the For convenience quadric be an ellipsoid. van Hence the vector r in this plane satisfies the equation B rr = l and is of constant length.d) d)j + (fd)(f + Let and d = v. B B Let 1 \B C and d \A B = 1* I = (f i. In like manner it may be shown that planes perpendicular to q cut the quadric in follows : circles. the term r ishes. The 1 reciprocal dyadic (P" may be reduced in a similar manner. . C are then positive.dd = \ + =u d j . + d) (f Then 1 ^ = f f . The radius of the section equal in length to the mean stants semiaxis of the quadric.
N. vanishes and hence the equation becomes N N = B. through the There are also two circular cylinders enveloping the ellipsoid. For If N N+N z> N= now N uv N be perpendicular to u or v the second term. The direction of the axes of these cylinders are n and v. One axis of this ellipse is the mean axis of the This remains constant during the rotation. ellipse. At this stage of . mean axis These results can be seen geometrically as follows.  That is. The ellipsoid. namely. the vector N is of constant length. Pass a plane through the mean axis and rotate it about that The section is an axis from the major to the minor axis. other axis of the ellipse varies in length from the major to the minor axis of the ellipsoid and hence at some stage must pass through a length equal to the mean 25 axis. The circles pass extremities of the mean axis of the ellipsoid. The normals to these planes are p and q. But the equation the equation of a cylinder of which the elements and tan gent planes are parallel to u. There are consequently two planes passing through the origin and cutting out circles from the ellipsoid. If then N N is constant the is The cylinder is a circular cylinder enveloping the ellipsoid.QUADRIC SURFACES 385 The vectors u and v are connected intimately with the cir cular cylinders which envelop the ellipsoid r r =1 or N uv (t>~ 1 N= 1. Two elements of these cylinders pass through the extremities of the of the ellipsoid. 1. radius of the cylinder is equal in length to the mean semiaxis of the ellipsoid.
to the same vector dr. is that a. r are all ortho These three equations show that a. r a r is to maximum be a major or minor axis of the section. the which the minor axis is perpendicular shadow and the projecting cylinder have the mean axis of the ellipsoid as one axis. mean At passes through a value equal to this stage the shadow and projecting cylinder are circular. gonal [a r 4> r] Conversely " if [a r <P = 0. As the ellipsoid is rotated about its mean axis. r. and Hence they are coplanar. = 0. for r is a or a mininum and hence is perpendicular to dr. and Let r <P r =1 and Differentiate : Furthermore if = 0. In like manner consider the projection or shadow of the ellipsoid cast upon a plane parallel to the mean axis by a point at an infinite distance from that plane and in a direction perpendicular to it. from the position in which the major axis is perpendicular to the plane of projec tion to the position in to that plane. The other axis changes from the minor axis of the ellipsoid to the it major and hence at some stage the of the rotation axis. necessary and sufficient condition that r be the major 1 or minor semiaxis of the section of the ellipsoid r $ r The = by a plane passing through the center and perpendicular to a r be coplanar.386 VECTOR ANALYSIS is the rotation the section a circle. d r $ r = 0. r. r] to their (16) dr may be chosen perpendicular common plane. d r r = 0. d r a = 0. .
. r (17) This may be done . r . may But a square root of and written as $*.r = .r.] It is frequently an advantage to write the equation of an ellipsoid in the form r ?T 2 <P instead of r = 1. other square roots of for and For this reason it is necessary to bear in is mind that the square root which meant by . is The equation of the sphere r r = 1.QUADRIC SURFACES Hence r is a 387 is maximum or a minimim and one of the prin a. Let be the radius vector of a unit sphere. are it be regarded as must be re <P membered that there example. cipal semiaxes of the section perpendicular to 141.+ jj + kk 2 ^ ir> is a dyadic such that W* <P is equal to <P. because if * ii = . <P* is that particular one which has been denoted by The equation of the ellipsoid may be written in the form or . r = 1.
by means of a homogeneous Let the equations of the ellipsoids be r <P and r = 1. a = 0. r . and vice versa. F2 * b =c c = c ^. They form a righthanded or lefthanded system of three mutually perpendicular unit vectors. = 0. = r . =V V=c V=V c =c a a . r. Theorem : ellipsoid Any ellipsoid may be transformed into any other strain. W c. 2 moment a a . which three conjugate radii vectors in the ellipsoid are trans ~ formed by the operator W 1 are mutually orthogonal. b . r. r = 1.0 = 1. the unit sphere into Hence the three radii vectors b . c are to each radius vector r ator = ?Trit becomes to each radius vector . .388 If r VECTOR ANALYSIS evident that an ellipsoid may be transformed into a unit sphere by applying the operator r. b. sphere are transformed in like manner into the radii vectors f Hence by the product r is changed f into f . (19) . W b. r radii vectors r of the first By means ellipsoid are of the strain 0* the changed into the r radii vectors r of a unit sphere = 01. c denote respectively c W a. of this unit By means of the strain ~l the radii vectors r of the second ellipsoid.r = l. a system of three conjugate radii vectors in an ellipsoid aa If for the ?F 2 2 a =b b =b a . a c of = 1. the unit sphere may be transformed into an ellipsoid by applying the inverse oper ~l Furthermore if a.
of the first ellipsoid may be carried over The strain into the semiaxes of the second. vectors in the sphere Hence the semiaxes by a suitable Any three mutually orthogonal unit may be changed into any three others.QUADRIC SURFACES than one. kk Tin ^ C 7l* 2 01 = = (a 2 .. 2 nl 62 TI I c 2 7& .71^11+ 7i 2 (& tti)jj 2 + ((^w^kk. is r =1 r = 1 <P that the reciprocals of and differ by a multiple of the idemfactor .n2 ) k k.r.. 389 The transformation may be accomplished in more ways The radii vectors r of the unit sphere may be transformed among themselves by means of a rotation with or without a perversion. + 2 yi Hence (a 1 2 2) i i + (& n 2) j j (c .74) (ii + j j + kk) two quadrics The necessary and sufficient condition that the r r and be confocal.] The equation of a family of confocal quadric sur faces is a* If r r n and iro* n r c* n = 1 r W = 1 are two surfaces of the family. 0. strain is then completely determined and the transformation can be performed in only one way. 142.1 ^ (7i 2 ..
1. = 0. Let the quadrics be and Let r s r = <P 1 . If the quadrics intersect at r the condition for perpendicularity is that the normals d> r and r be perpendicular. That is. where by the confocal property. . x s . r = 1. and the theorem is proved.P" s = 0. ) = 0. r and s = s and r = <P r r.1 I) S S l <P~l 1 Add: Hence 2 a s s =s (0~ s .1 .+ s = 1 ( x I) s # s.390 If VECTOR ANALYSIS two confocal quadrics r intersect.s .s . In like manner r = 0X 1 8 = FS = S f 1 s (P"" 1 = (0. If the parameter n be allowed to vary from oo to + oo the resulting confocal quadrics will consist of three families of which one is ellipsoids another. and s W~ l = l. hyperboloids of two sheets. ~l s . Then the quadrics be written in terms of s and s as s 0. they do so at right angles. s s But r = =s W~l s x s s W~l = 4> rl = ?ri s + rs .s <P~ S = S S s s = x s s l . = 0may = 1. 1 * s =1s 1 5T1 s . s = 1. r. and the third. 0i_ W~* = xl. hyperboloids of one sheet . By the foregoing .
For let any ellipsoid be given by the dyadic The neighboring dyadic ellipsoid in the family is represented by the = a " 2 11 JJ b 2 kk dn c 2 dn y\ dn = $i ldn. Therefore if terms of order higher than the first in dn be omitted. 8. 330) dyadics they may be treated as ordinary scalars in algebra. orthogonal system. these lines are called corresponding points upon the two ellip soids. and r By (19) f +# (0 + (# <Z> d n) d n)i 2 # r. hyperboloids) cut orthogonally the other family It may be shown that the ratios of the components of the radius vector of a point to the axes of the ellipsoid through that point are the same for any two corresponding points. 0+&dn. ellipsoids are The two neighboring then r r 2 = 1. f 1. Inasmuch as and are homologous (see Ex. p. r= f (I I + I<Pdn) T r ~ . The lines of intersection of two families (say the family of onesheeted and the family of twosheeted the family The points in which two ellipsoids are cut by of ellipsoids.QUADRIC SURFACES 391 theorem each surface of any one family cuts every surface The surfaces form a triply of the other two orthogonally.
] The electromagnetic equations of the ether or of any infinite isotropic medium which is transparent to electromag netic 1 waves may be written in the form following discussion must be regarded as mathematical not physical. sepa rated by a finite variation in the parameter n. The To treat . z Hence the ratios of the components of the vectors r and r drawn to corresponding points upon two neighboring ellip soids only differ at most by terms of the second order in d n from the ratios of the axes of those ellipsoids. like manner V& 2 by dn = y j V^ 2 ... *r =x /> dn 2 ft x a2 fj\ . only differ at most by terms of the first order in dn from the ratios of the axes of the ellipsoids and hence must be identical with them. The Propagation of Light in Crystals 1 143. Hence the termini of r and The perpendicular to r are corresponding points. i . This completes the demonstration. 2 The ratio of these components is X = i 1  A a are The axes of the a. ellipsoids in the direction is 2 Va2 x d n and Their ratio A/a dn = a  i i dn "l . the subject from the standpoint of physics would be out of place here. for they lie upon one of the lines which cut the family of ellipsoids orthogonally.392 VECTOR ANALYSIS vectors r and r differ r which is by a multiple of the ellipsoid 0. ~* dn c In T . The com ponents of r and f in the direction i are r i = x and f i =x=r dn i .and dn = z . It follows immediately that the ratios of the components of the vectors drawn to corresponding points upon any two ellipsoids..
Let r be the vector drawn from a fixed origin to any point of space. VD=0. VD = 0. .FD + VF=O. This function In case the medium For convenience then become selfconjugate as is evident from physical considerations. (2) Operate by V x V x. (4) Suppose that the vibration D is harmonic. it will be taken as 4 TT <D.THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS d2 393 Pot where V + .D = O (i) D is namic equation V D = ured in electromagnetic due to the function F. V The last x V x Pot CL t + 47rVxVx0. The equations 47T0.D = (page 167).D + U/ (/ VF=0.D VV $ D. constant is the electric displacement satisfying the hydrodya constant of the dielectric meas 0. 0. V. and VF the electrostatic force is E not isotropic the becomes a linear vector function 0. (3) But VxVx=VV.D = 0. E units.72 Tk dt* 0.V. V (t t Remembering that V D and consequently n _ V VTT vanish and that Pot V V is equal 2 a t and 4 TT to the equation reduces at once to .V. (3) term disappears owing to the fact that the curl of the derivative VF vanishes x The equation may also be written as Pot V V x ry + 47rVxVx<P.
wave advances in the direction m. The variables y z no longer occur in D. and VV D may be obtained most easily by assuming the direction i to be coinci r then reduces to i r which is equal to m m m x. of V D. the magnitude of the vector m. the wave is plane polarized. The the direction A. That is. vance is the quotient of Substitute the value of D in those equations. Hence if the harmonic vibration D is to satisfy the equa tions (4) of the medium n2 D and = mm <P D mm <P D (5) m A = 0. Moreover j^ = 7i a D.394 VECTOR ANALYSIS Then where D=A cos (m r n f) A and m are constant vectors and n a constant scalar The vibrations take place in represents a train of waves. V V and $ D.D = mm. VV* 0. Hence D = A cos (m x n f) V D=i d> 3D z = i dX A m sin (m x n f) n f) nf). If this wave is an electromagnetic wave in the medium considered it must satisfy the two equations of that medium. The velocity v of that ad n by m.D. The value dent with m. (6) . V V D = m2 A 4> cos (m x VV Hence # D = = m2 i i A (m cos r (mx nf) V D m A d> sin V V D = m m D </>.
(5) =n. (8) to the The equation (7) then becomes reduced a = sx (<2>*a) form (9) Xs = ss #a a a = 1. wave not plane polarized may be discussed by the wave into waves which are plane polarized. be put in the form m of D Introduce = <P n2 s D n 7i 2 4> D. ss#a (8) These are the equations by which the discussion of the velocity or rather the slowness of propagation of a wave in different directions in a nonisotropic medium may a a be carried on. may also be written as D = (s x s x D) =s x (0 D) x s. s. The magnitude the quotient of velocity of the wave. The vector s of s is is in the direction of advance m. decomposing Let a be a vector drawn in the direction A of the 144.THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS The latter equation states at be transverse to the direction 395 once that the vibrations must The former equation may propagation of the waves. m by This s The  vector the reciprocal of the may therefore be called is the waveslowness. a a =s s =s (10) .] of a The motion displacement and that let the magnitude of a be so determined a d> a = 1. (7) all wave slowness depends not at its upon the phase of the vibration but only upon direction. D This s s D s s D. Dividing by the scalar factor cos (m x n t\ A = sx(0A)xs = ss It is evident that the A s S A.
The wave however may advance in either direction along that line. therefore lies in a plane with the direction a of displacement and the normal a drawn to the ellipsoid a The waveslowness <P Since s is perpen a it is evidently com dicular to a and equal in magnitude to pletely determined except as regards sign when the direction a =1 at the terminus of a. plane of the section. If s is perpendicular to one of the circular sections of the ellipsoid a may have any direction in the . equation (11) is seen to be the condition that a shall be one of the principal axes of the ellipsoid formed by passing a plane through the ellipsoid perpendicular to there are s. in that axa = = ss a x <P a a x s s a a. to the minateness of s To these statements concerning the deterwhen a is given and of a when s is given just such exceptions occur as are obvious geometrically. [a Hence (11) a s = a] = 0. a is known. By reference to page 386. the velocity of the advance is likewise known. If a and a are parallel s may have any direction perpendicular to a. Hence for two possible lines of displacement. drawn a a =1 <P .396 VECTOR ANALYSIS s Hence the wave slowness direction a is due to a displacement in the ellipsoid equal in magnitude (but not in direction) to the in the radius vector direction. Given the direction of displacement the line of advance of the wave compatible with the displacement is com pletely determined. any given direction of advance These are the from the ellipsoid a principal axes of the ellipse cut a =1 by a plane passed through the center perpendicular line of advance. =s But the s(aX # a) # a <P aXs # s a s # first term contains a x s a twice and vanishes. This happens when a is directed along one of the principal axes of the ellipsoid.
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS 397 When slowness s the direction of displacement is allowed to vary the To obtain the locus of the terminus of s. number of transformations may be made. + + s  81. Hence Dividing out the selfconjugate. (P (14) Let . This gives immediately (I + 1 #) 8 1 = 0.8 S S 8 S r 8 = I 8 8 Hence s  1 8*8 = s = 0. This a scalar equation in the vector the extremity of s when a is given all possible directions. a varies. (<P A + ef) 8 = <P S + e <P a f = 8 + e 00 1 f </> 3 . it (12) annihilates The dyadic in the parenthesis is planar because vectors parallel to The third or determinant is zero.8 = 0. 19. s s <P a s s SB (P) a a + = 0. 331. must be eliminated from the equation or =s s (I a a. p. (13) It is the locus of s. or (0is  s s + ss) 3 = 0. By Ex. common s1 factor and remembering that $ is 1 + (CMs 1 si).
polarized in the direction a passes the origin at a s . (13) y z By means forms of the relation s 2 = x2 + i y 2 + assumes the n n I o o ~T~ n n ~~" ^ + "2 2 s c2 2 or This equation appears to be of the sixth degree. The vector plane wave Suppose that a represents the waveslowness.398 1 VECTOR ANALYSIS /^_W/_J_\ JJ+ + jj / i uk z 2. The terms of the sixth order cancel out. It is how ever of only the fourth. (14) The equation directly rp n f1 v f rr\ from in Cartesian coordinates m may be obtained The determinant a2 s 2 of this dyadic is + x2 6 2 x y s 2 x z z s 2 x y x z + y^ c 2 y = z 2 this 0.i*^_jj Let s [i_g and s2 [ir^J y* = xi + yj + zk = #2 + o + Then the equation of the surface in Cartesian coordinates ^ 20 2 j?/ is z* lfl 2 a i_ 72 = 0. ii.
They are connected with the coordinates of the points in the plane by the relation ux + vy + wz = If different plane \. These quantities are therefore the plane coordinates of the plane. WaveSurface. 399 At s. The equation of the wave surface in plane coordinates u. be in this position represented by the vector If s s = ui + vj + wit the plane at the expiration of the unit time cuts off intercepts upon the axes equal to the reciprocals of u. This may be written in any of the surface is forms given previously. The velocity of the ray . same as the direction of the wave s advance. The perpendicular upon a tangent plane of the wavesurface is the reciprocal of the slowness and gives the velocity with which the wave travels in that direction. The The equations known as FresneVs in vector s form are given on page 397 if the variable vector be regarded as determining a plane instead of a point. tion for the locus of the terminus of the slowness vector The equation is = (15) where s 2 =u 2 f v2 + w2 .THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS certain instant of time with this slowness. v.] In an isotropic medium the direction of a ray of It is the light is perpendicular to the wavefront. w. unit of time it will have travelled in the direction a distance will equal to the reciprocal of the magnitude of The plane (page 108). 145. This surface is known as the wavesurface. the end of a s. w is identical with the equa s. waves polarized in all possible different directions a be supposed to pass through the origin at the same instant they will envelop a surface at the end of a unit of time. v.
=s s <P a s s a. Then = and . Then s v =1 because the extremity of v lies in the plane denoted by s. the ray travels along the radius vector drawn to the point of tan gency of The wavepknes envelop the waveplane. Hence r = s v =1 s and 0.tfs<P.a sds s &  a. equal to the velocity of the wave. this is medium In a nonisotropic The ray does not travel per is. da = 2s. the termini of the rays are situated upon it. may be expressed in terms of a a. pendicular to the wavefront that in the direction of the the velocity with which the ray travels wave s advance. Thus in the wavesurface the radius vector represents in mag the dicular nitude and direction the velocity of a ray and the perpen upon the tangent plane represents in magnitude and If instead of the direction the velocity of the wave.400 is VECTOR ANALYSIS no longer true. whereas the is greater than the velocity of the wave. wavesurface. In like manner if a be the slowness of the 1 and the condition ray and v the velocity of the wave. = 0. d a and a a = s s. In fact. Moreover the condition that v be the point of tangency gives d v per pendicular to s. the slowness of the ray. and the perpendicular upon the tangent plane. s. And wavefront travels off always tangent to the wavesurface. s (16) and v s dv = 0. and <P as follows. Let v be the velocity of the ray. s Multiply by a and take account of the relations a a 4> . s  v s = 1. v d = v  d dv = 0. ^arfs + ss<?rfa ss # d a. wave surface the surface which is the locus of the extremity of the it is wave slowness be considered seen that the radius vector represents the slowness of the wave. s v of tangency gives d s perpendicular to v.
(18) x s x a v a =v =a 01 x a xv x s x a a a =1 a = 1. is perpendicular to a. =x s (s s a a a). the rayvelocity. The vectors a. the the tangent plane to the ellipsoid at the ray extremity of the radius vector a drawn in the direction of the displacement. ment. s direction. s.THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS s 401 ds a (s ds a s B a a) = 0. that is. Hence =s op . =xs s. and v therefore lie . tions take s a be replaced by a the equa on the symmetrical form . and v . to equal to the angle from a to $ a. in one a. = 1. s v = # (s v s . a x v and If a. <P or d since v s <P = 0. a. it is of the relations already found (8) (9) (11) easy to show that the two systems of vectors v . a dual relation exists between the direction of displace on the one hand . a. Making use (16) (17). s. In that plane s to s is The angle from v is perpendicular to a . . a have the same But ds = v 0. a) . and the ellipsoid 26 Thus . s.v =a s a a s . v and s a s s s . a a a v = 1. a a . Equation (17) shows that v is coplanar with Hence the ray velocity v velocity lies in a and plane. v f = a = a = s x a s = a x v a f B v =a . 8*8 a a s (17) v <P a = $ s a s $ a = 0. (<P a) x s are reciprocal systems.
In like manner v being coplanar with a and velocities [4> a v a] = [a v <P~l a ] = equation states that if a plane be passed through the center of the ellipsoid <P~l perpendicular to V. This plane is tangent to the surface along a curve instead of at a single point. then a a will be directed along one of the prin which is equal to last The Hence if a ray is to take a definite It is more con direction a may have one of two directions. [0 .402 VECTOR ANALYSIS and the normal to the ellipsoid. and the ~l on the other. the are those radii vectors possible directions of displacement two . Hence if a wave travels in the direction s the ray travels along the elements of the cone drawn from the center of the wavesurface to this curve in which the singular plane touches the surface. These are the axes of equal a 0. Hence the wavesurface has a singular plane perpendicular to s.] It was seen that if s was normal to one of the cir cular sections of direction in the plane of that section. the waveslowness. a v a] = states that a is the radius vector drawn in the ellipsoid to the point of tangency of one of the principal elements of the if by a principal parallel to v cylinder circumscribed about element passing through the extremities element is meant an : of of that cylinder. The first equation cipal axes of the section. The two directions s which are normal to the circular sections of are called the primary optic axes. this plane the the displacement a could take place in any For all directions in waveslowness had the same direction and the same magnitude. ellipsoid 146. the major or minor axes of orthogonal plane sections Hence given the direction v of the ray. venient however to regard v as a vector determining a plane. wave but unequal ray velocities.
] The Differential and Integral Calculus The Hitherto the dyadics considered have been constant. The wavevelocity may be equal in magnitude and direction to the perpendicular drawn from the origin to any of these planes. and furthermore variable dyadics become a necessity in the more advanced applications for instance. Variable Dyadics. 147. At this singular of the singular points of the wavesurface. leads to a simplifica and unification of the differential and integral calculus of vectors. der circumscribed about the ellipsoid parallel to v If the cylinder is one of the two circular cylinders which the direction of displacement may be circumscribed about may of the ellipsoid be any direction in the plane passed through the center and containing the common curve of tangency The rayvelocity for all these directions of displacement has the same direction and It is therefore a line drawn to one the same magnitude. of the cylinder with the ellipsoid.VARIABLE DYADICS of the ellipsoid 403 which lie in the principal planes of the cylin . which occurred in the expansion in nonion form For the elements of the theory and for elementary applications these constant dyadics suffice. vectors which entered into their make up and the scalar coefficients have been constants. there are an infinite number of tangent planes envelop point ing a cone. If a ray travels along one of the secondary optic axes the wave planes travel along the elements of a cone. in the theory tion of the curvature of surfaces and in the dynamics of a rigid body one point of which is fixed. The introduction of variable dyadics. however. . The directions of the axes of the two are circular cylinders circumscriptible about the ellipsoid the directions of equal rayvelocity but unequal wavevelocity. They are the radii drawn to the singular points of the wave surface and are called the secondary optic axes.
(1) dW = dr.+ kk^. j. VW = 11 3x + if ki . W a dyadic.VW.404 Let VECTOR ANALYSIS a vector function of position in space. ( dy is ) The expression enclosed in the braces is appears that the differential of the differential change of position. y. z. k. a linear function of The antecedents are i.9Y 3Z W . Let r be the vector drawn from a fixed origin to any point in space. dV=dr VF. analogous to del and will in fact be denoted by V =iThen This equation function F. and the consequents the first partial derivatives of W with re The expression is found in a manner precisely spect of x. If expanded into nonion form VW becomes . It thus c?r.5X ls +kj T. is +j + k. dz k. 5W 3W ^dx^ + dy c?y $# Hence d ( + 5W dzTi c/ . 3z z dz <y . (2) like the one for the differential of a scalar It may be regarded as defining VW. W be d r = dx i + dy j + . z W = d r H SW h 3W + k 5W) dx dz j = > . W.
V V are reduced to positions as functions of the dyadic V W.+ c/ y k^ <y x 32 o . This dyadic is self conjugate. i V V F= i i 75. On the other hand from the standpoint of physics nothing is to be gained and indeed much may be lost if the important in and as the divergence and curl x terpretations of V W V W of W be forgotten and their places taken by the analytic idea of the scalar and vector of If VW.+ kj g.+ k k dzdx 9zSy result of applying V twice to a scalar function is seen to be a dyadic. c/ z Qty 32 y z F" **dy dx + The is TT &y T dy d z kj . scalar V V and the vector of the dyadic div V W. Its vector Vx VV its scalar V V V is evidently 3 V 92 V 3 F VVF= (VVF)*= 02 + T2 + TT 2 2 2 * * . The dyadic ator analytic advantages of the introduction of the variable VW V may be function. the vector function W be the derivative of a scalar function V^ dW = dVF=e?r where VVF".VARIABLE DYADICS 405 and x which were applied to a vector The operators function now become superfluous from a purely analytic For they are nothing more nor less than the standpoint. zero .+ x <y ij = <y x =. (4) (5) W = V W = (V W)* curl W = V x W = (V W) x. In the first place the oper to a vector function just as to a scalar applied In the second place the two operators and x are therefore these.
In a similar manner if the operator V be applied twice to a vector function. the result will be a triadic and hence outside the limits set to the discussion here. 9z 30 (7) VIf 30 = i.+ dx 3x j x 50 ^. (7) (8) V 0= V W X)v ^ V i +V u +V w k w. 30 T. j + kk.etc. the result would be a sum of twentyseven terms like * r c/ * x r.406 If VECTOR ANALYSIS an attempt were made to apply the operator V symboli cally to a scalar function V three times. The result is in each case a dyadic. W if =i x* +j ** f Vx 0= i{ / w ^) + \ I* j^ ^ = * ++ < 8 >" In a similar manner the scalar operators (a V) and (V V) may be applied to 0. Such expressions will not be discussed here. The operators to yield may however be applied respectively a dyadic and a vector. 3z (8) =u i+v +w j where u. v._ + . w are vector functions $ of position in space. Three vectors are placed in juxtaposition without any sign of multiplication. Vx and Or T r =V x u u i + Vxvj v v j + Vx w k. or once to a dyadic func tion of position in space. This is a triadic.r . 6 vx dy &z ^r = . V x and V to a dyadic V x =i S x ^.+ Sy 30 dy k x ^. f k. .
The parentheses however may be removed without danger of confusion just as they were removed in case of a vector function before the introduction of the dyadic. and all <P V V V u etc. But when applied to a dyadic the operators cannot be inter preted as made up of two successive steps without making use of the triadic V 0. (9) (V The ators. differentiation V (u v) = >V u v + u V v. Formulae similar to those upon page 176 may be given for differentiating products in the case that the lead to dyadics. Vx V The w) =V x v w <P v x V w. <P.+ $ y* ^. Vx (v x w) = w V v V v w v V w + V w v. (v .VARIABLE DYADICS 407 5d> a8 (a. .V)<P = <P a1 . ^ o/ 30 + a2 + c? 30 ^. principle in these ciated before. (V W) = V V W. namely : similar cases is that enun sym The operator V may be treated . 0. V(vxw)=Vvxw Vwxv. (u #) <P =Vu + VxVx = VV. V (v w) = V v w + v V w. V) 32 =^ 32 f z2 + 32  d z2 (10) operators a V and V V as may applied to vector func as single oper tions are no longer necessarily to be regarded individual steps The be carried out by means of the dyadic VW. (a  (V W=a V) W = V V) (V W) = a V W. V (v w) = V v w + V w v.
In like manner Cd r Jc V W = W (r) . 79) that initial is r if C denote an arc of a curve of which the final point is r point the line integral of the derivative of a scalar function taken along the curve is equal to the difference between the values and the of that function at r and r . v Hence 148.W (r ).F(r ). F(r). (v x w) = [V x w)] T + [V x w)]^ [V (v (v x w)] w [ =Vv x w.[v x V w] v = . The it.VW are and thing. vector dx cannot be placed arbitrarily upon either side of . fvw dr is by no means the same VW a dyadic.] V (w x v)] = V w x V(vxw) = Vvxw v w x x w)] v = v. . It was seen (Art. which it implies must be to which carried out in turn it is applied. Vx V [V (v (v w) =V (v x vw v x V w.408 VECTOR ANALYSIS The differentiations bolically as a vector.v (v w)] v = V w. upon each factor of a product Thus (v w)] v V x (vw) = [V x + [V x (vw)]^ x [V x Hence Again [Vx (vw)] w = V xvw. v. It may be well to note that the integrals fdr. r* VF= . and Jo Cd r V W = 0.
fff dv VW=rfa W /// <* V x * . The differentials must be written necessarily precedes V formity of before the integrands in most cases. the following formulae.VARIABLE DYADICS Owing 409 to the fundamental equation (2) the differential di W. be mentioned. some which have been given before and some of which are new. may ff ax VW= fdr W ff da. Vx W= fdr* I r/daVx0= The like dr < line integrals are taken over the complete bounding curve of the surface over which the surface integrals are taken. Passing to surface integrals. In manner the following relations exist between volume and surface integrals. For the sake of uni they always will be so placed.
j. k and variable antecedents u. w. formulae of integration by parts like those upon The reader will rind no difficulty in for himself. W = Xi+ Fj + ^k as expressed with the constant consequents and the dyadic i. Pot added. These ex tensions differ so slightly from the simple cases which have . of a dyadic may be The Newtonian of a vector function and the Lapla cian and Maxwellian of dyadics may be defined. The object of en upon them at all was to indicate the natural extensions which occur when variable dyadics are considered. Pot <? = New W = // ^^I^> dV d. v.410 VECTOR ANALYSIS surface integrals are taken over the complete bounding which the volume integrals The surface of the region throughout are taken. r Max * = The analytic theory of these integrals may be developed as The most natural way in which the demonstrations is before. To integrating operators may the potentials of scalar </>. These matters will be tering left at this point. Numerous obtaining also be page 250 might be added. them The extended to other cases. or vice versa. and vector functions the potential. may sum be given by considering the vector function W as the of its components.
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES 411 gone before that it is far better to leave the details to be worked out or assumed from analogy whenever they may be needed rather than to attempt to develop cient merely to them in advance. ] metic form by three equations x =/i or <X v) y r =/a O> *0 * =/8 <X ")> =f (u. 155157. Moreover. especially true of the treatment of geodetics.z . v). derivative V^is collinear with the normal to the Moreover. lies in the surface or in the tangent plane r. It is suffi mention what the extensions are and how they maybe treated.y. The latter method of treatments affords a simple application of the differential calculus of variable dyadics. The Curvature of Surfaces 1 There are two different methods of treating the cur vature of surfaces. the to the most important results connected dyadics lead naturally with the elementary theory of surfaces. analogous to the method followed (Art. Arts. Let r be a radius vector drawn from an arbitrary fixed The increment d r origin to a variable point of the surface. . In one the surface is expressed in para149. inasmuch as F and the negative of F when This is 1 Much of what follows is practically free from the use of dyadics. thus z) = 0. In the second method the surface is expressed by a single equation connecting the variables x. 57) in dealing with curvature and torsion of curves and it is the method This is employed by Fehr in the book to which reference was made. drawn to the surface at the terminus of Hence the surface.
n be a unit normal drawn Then (1) If s is the vector drawn to any point in the tangent plane at r and n are perpendicular. V F lies upon that side upon which the constant Let V F be represented by N the magnitude of let which may be denoted by N. r.412 VECTOR ANALYSIS may be equated to zero give the same geometric surface. case the surface belongs to the family defined VF by F (#. The variation dn of the unit normal to a surface plays an important part in the theory of curvature. and in the direction of IT. or s = r + & V JP These equations may be where k is a variable parameter. perpendicular to n because n is a unit vector. In considered as the normal upon either side of the surface. dn is . translated into Cartesian form 150. s the equation of the tangent plane is the terminus of Consequently (sr) and in like manner the equation of the normal line is (sr)x VjF=0. the normal increases. y. z) = const.] and give the familiar results.
But Hanco = dr n n). . When applied zero. V^. Hence equal to 0.. 147 produces lie VV F to selfconjugate. (VV F) c (I .nn). . For (I N4> c = Evidently (I is (I .. The antecedents and the consequents in the tangent plane to . N Hence rf J N N VV . <* ~"> V ^ P").(Inn)=0.n n) <P C is and by (6) Art.F (I n = dr d r (I nn). a vector parallel to fore planar the dyadic It is there and in fact uniplanar because selfconjugate. Hence dn and (I n n) = d n.nn)^ . is a linear function of the variation of the The dyadic is selfcon jugate.n ri) c = n. <P. (2) Let > = (I.*. dn = dr (4) Then In the vicinity of any point upon a surface the variation d n of the unit normal radius vector r.THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES 413 N The dyadic dicular to I * is iv 2 nn an idemfactor for all vectors perpen parallel n and an annihilator for vectors to n.
indicatrix are known as the principal directions. cide with the directions of the principal axes i j of the . an ellipse. j and the scalars a. They are a The directions upon the In case surface which coincide with the directions of the asymptotes of the indicatrix are known as asymptotic directions. If r r be set equal to zero a pair of straight lines. the surface is convex at a and b the point but if an hyperbola. special case of conjugate directions. if imaginary. These are the asymp If they are real the conic is an hyperbola . coeffi may i then be reduced to the form = a(i +j j ) (5) . 116) to reduce i i to the form =a + b j j (5) and j are two perpendicular unit vectors lying in the tangent plane and a and b are positive or negative scalars. In special cases the dyadic may be such that the cients a and b are equal. that is.] The dyadic conic r r C? is variable. a and b have the same the conic is sign. VECTOR ANALYSIS It is possible 4> (Art. an ellipse. if . if have opposite signs the surface is concavoconvex. that is. totes of the conic. The = 1 is called the indicatrix of the If this conic is surface at the point in question. Two directions on the surface which con are parallel to conjugate diameters of the conic are called The directions on the surface which coin jugate directions. is the surface is convex. where i dn = dr The vectors i . The curve r . (a i i + b j j ). the indicatrix an ellipse and the asymptotic directions are imaginary. 6 vary from point to point of the surface. r = 1 may be regarded as approximately equal to the intersection of the surface with a plane drawn parallel to the tangent plane and near to the result is it. 151.414 the surface.
The indicatrix and j may be becomes a Any give principal called perpendicular diameters of this circle Such a point is directions upon the surface. an umbilic. The surface in the neighborhood of an The asymptotic directions are imaginary. The indicatrix of points upon them is an ellipse. linear and redu (5)" form <p = a i i The to i . a sphere is a circle. perpendicular directions. In another special case the dyadic cible to the $ becomes . The quadric surfaces afford examples of the various kinds The ellipsoid and the hyperboloid of two sheets of points. are convex. A sur is a pair of parallel lines. A line of principal curvature upon a surface is a curve which has at each point the direction of one of the prin The direction of the curve at a cipal axes of the indicatrix. The points are all of any point upon umbilies. point is always one of the principal directions on the surface at that point. Thus the lines of curvature divide the surface into a system of infinitesi mal rectangles. parabolic. The in The indicatrix dicatrix of points upon it is an hyperbola. The indicatrix of any point upon a cone or cylinder The points are parabolic. Such a The point further discussion of these and other special cases will be omitted. An asymptotic line upon a surface is a curve which has at each point the direction of the asymptotes of the indicatrix.] and umbilical.THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES in an infinite 415 number pair of of ways. The directions i any two circle. The hyperboloid of one sheet is concavoconvex. is umbilic convex. hyperbolic. face in general may have upon it points of all types elliptic. Through . The direction of the curve at a point is always one of the asymptotic directions upon the surface. Through any given point upon a surface two per pendicular lines of principal curvature pass. 152. indicatrix consists of a pair of parallel lines perpendicular is called a parabolic point of the surface.
. is Hence d r is an It asymptotic direction. dr x i + Then dr The is evidently d n and d r are parallel when and only when The statement is therefore proved. parallel to i or j . between the two asymptotic lines at any point is bisected by the lines of curvature which pass through that point. the increment of d n. differential equation of a line of curvature is dnxdr = 0. any given point of a surface two asymptotic imaginary they do not in general intersect at right lines are if These the surface is convex. dr dr = (a i i + yj b j j ) . (7) necessary and sufficient condition that a curve upon a surface be an asymptotic line. For = dr dn dr = dr dn If then <P dr. The necessary and sufficient condition that a curve upon a surface be a line of principal curvature is that as one advances along that curve. an element of a The differential equation then becomes [n dn rfr] = 0. Even when real The angle angles. is that as one advances along that curve the increment of the unit normal to the surface is The perpendicular to the line of advance. the increment d n of the normal. The statement therefore proved. and the element d r of the lie in one plane when and only when the element d r line of principal curvature. It is frequently taken as the definition of lines of curvature. For rfn= 0.416 VECTOR ANALYSIS lines pass. dn dr is zero dr tf> d r is zero. the unit normal to the surface is parallel to the line of advance. Another method of statement surface is is (6) that the normal to the surface.
This plane p is normal to the surface and cuts out a plane section.] normal to the surface at P. The curvature of the plane section lying in p is (Art. Hence dn d + n = dn r + n Since n and n are equal at P. the normal n to the plane section and the normal n to the surface will not plane coincide.THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES is 417 frequently taken as the definition of asymptotic lines. the quotient of d r by d s is a unit vector equal. d n and d n will also be different. But unless the p cuts the surface everywhere orthogonally. d2 r. ____ ds d s 2 As far as numerical value is concerned the increment of the unit tangent t and the increment of the unit normal n are Moreover. in the direction of dn . The differential equation of an asymptotic line is dn d r = 0. Consider the curvature of this plane section at the point P.. Pass a plane p through n. d (V d r) r = dn d2 r d r d2 r = 0. Let n be normal to the plane section in the plane of the section. Hence C= dn*dr = dr 2 ds^ . 57). n coincides with n at the point P. Consequently the scalar value of C is d n 1 ds dr ds dn dr f ds 2 By hypothesis n =n at P and ndr = n + n d  dr = 0.<P dr j^ ds 2 27 = dr3 <P dr dr dr 3 ( 9) . (8) Let P be a given point upon a surface and n the 153.
dr) & cos 2 Q . dr) + b sin 2 (i .418 C7 VECTOR ANALYSIS = a  dr ar + + + . di) a + + b cos 2 (i b . 154. dr). cos 2 (i . dr). dr). two normal sections at right angles to one another is constant and independent of the actual position of those sections. invariant $% s is equal to the pro duct of the curvatures a and b of the lines of principal curv It is easy to ature. rfr) b sin 2 (i . b ar ar Hence or tf= a (7= a cos 2 (i . (10) The interpretation of this formula for the curvature of a is normal section as follows : When i the normal to the surface from to j the plane p turns about C of the . that is. if the surface for is concavoconvex at Pj there exist two directions which the curvature of a normal section vanishes. Hence O l + C2 = show that the = 4> a (11) which proves the statement. the curvature plane section varies from the value a when the plane passes through the principal direction i . b If a and have unlike signs. to the value b when it The values passes through the other principal direction j of the curvature have algebraically a maximum and minimum . in the directions of the principal lines of curvature. dr). For the curvature in one section is Cl = and a cos 2 (i . in the section at right angles to this (7 2 =a sin 2 (i .] The sum of the curvatures in These are the asymptotic directions. 4>t S = ab x Hence the equation x* <P a + 0^ 3 = (12) .
N (Inn) N (nn Hence VV. . Let t be a unit tangent to the curve.F. y.V^ VFVF:WF .THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES is 419 the quadratic equation which determines the principal curv atures a and I at any point of the surface. (13) ** T. n a unit normal to the surface and m a 155. The vector expression may be obtained 2/5 as follows: (I nn) 2 = nn. The Cartesian expressions for are even longer.nn)^ = (nn nn 9. By means of this equation the scalar quantities a of and b may be found in terms F(x. Hence VV^)^ = nn: VVJ^=n. = V. VV F <^^ n. z). VV^ )^ = 7 (nn (VV^) = ^ (nn^ (nn.] . but they are extremely long. SIA\ Hence Given any curve upon a surface.^i CIS) These expressions may be written out in Cartesian coordinates.
Hence that plane is normal to the surface at every point of the curve and the curve itself is a geodetic line. Inasmuch as the its own string is at rest upon the surface the normal reactions of the surface must lie in the osculating plane of the curve. The vectors t and dt lie in the mine that plane. for a line of curvature t an i. Hence . geodetic line upon a surface A is plane at each point is perpendicular to the surface. m constitute The vector t is parallel to the element d r. the normal to the osculating plane lies in the surface and consequently is perpendicular to the normal n. k system. of The increments m and of n and of r are all parallel in case of a line of principal curvature. The three vectors n.420 vector defined as n VECTOR ANALYSIS x t. m t dm = 0. In case the curve osculating plane and deter is a geodetic. lie in the surface be stretched between any two points of The string acting under tensions will take a position of equili brium along the shortest curve which can be drawn upon the surface between the two given points. Hence the condition becomes (15) x d n = 0. geodetic line a curve whose osculating That the is the shortest line which can be drawn between two points upon a surface may be seen from the following Let the surface be smooth and considerations of mechanics. let a smooth elastic string which is constrained to it. Hence or x dm = 0. t. j. (16) (16) dmxdn = Q. Hence d (m n) Hence Moreover m d n= = = m dn + n d m = 0. n d m.
along a geodetic. amount from a straight d t. If one advances along a curve such that there is no turning to the right or left. Hence m dt is the proper measure of this part of the deviation from a In case the curve is a geodetic this term straightest line. Such is in fact the case. curve or surface 156. The second term represents the amount of turning up and down. Hence Since t is dt = tt*dt + nndt + mm*dt. n x or t d i = (17) m d t = 0. (18) Unlike the differential equations of the lines of curvature and the asymptotic line. line is The n. the third term. of a assumed. Since m form an k system I = tt + nn + mm. The differential equation of a geodetic line is therefore [n dr d 2 r] =0. but only the unavoidable turning up and down. from which the unit normal n at the point A P . first a unit vector the term vanishes. Through any two points of the surface one geodetic may be drawn. There may may not be any turning to the right or left. that is. one advances along any curve upon a surface there is necessarily some turning up and down. it is to be or expected that the advance that total t. vanishes as was expected. of deviation i. this equation is of the second order.THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES 421 n*tx<2t = 0.] A may be mapped upon a unit fixed origin is sphere by the method of parallel normals. is along the shortest possible route is. around the axis m. j. The surface is therefore covered over with a doubly infinite system of geodetics. the amount to the right or left. due to the fact that the surface is As curved.
was seen that the measure of turning to the right or left is m d t.422 given surface VECTOR ANALYSIS is laid off. are thus constructed from the trace a curve is same origin. Consider two curves C and near . normals to a surface at all points P of a curve the points P will sphere. (19) The its ratio of an element of surface at a point is P to the area of hodogram equal to the product of the principal radii of the reciprocal of the product of the prin curvature at P or to cipal curvatures at P. r c m dt. & j j f da = <P 2 =a <P 2 i i + f = a6 i x j i xj = ab nn. 1 T of the surface 1 may The region the sphere has been called the hodogram of the the surface. the corre is d*! where (Art. (20) For any closed curve this integral may be evaluated in a manner analogous to that employed (page 190) hi the proof of Stokes s theorem. The terminus If the P r of this normal lies upon the surface r of a sphere. If then is any curve drawn upon a surface the total amount of turning in advancing along the curve is the It integral. If d r be an element of arc upon the surface the T upon region T upon corresponding element upon the unit sphere is dn= If dr. da be an element of area sponding element upon the sphere upon the surface. d a. upon the surface of a unit This curve called the spherical image of the given curve. 124). In like manner a whole region be mapped upon a region T the sphere. Hence dd = ab nn d a.
423 The variation the curve of integration is which the integral undergoes when changed from C to C is S f m dt. S fm. t mdt= /(Smn n^t rfmn m n By differentiating the relations = and n = it is seen that c?mn=:m^n Hence 8 n . dt = dn t. . e2t 8m f or t c (2t = m = m nn t. dt. The integral of the perfect differential d (m when taken around a closed curve. t and S be effected upon the term S / m m vanish.C dm* + C d (m Si). Hence S I S t) vanishes mdt= is / Sm dt I dm Sk The idemfactor I = tt + I nn + mm. /m^t=/ (m Sn t*dn m dn I t Sn) Sim rft=/(mxt8nx^n)= n Sn x dn. A dm S similar transformation may Then nSt).dt= Cs (m  di)= fSm dt+ Cm*Sdt  d(m8t) = S dmSthmd St 81 Cm* dt= C Sm* dt.THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES together.
The total variation in the integral is f 8 fin. curve C start at size.dt27T. rft=f m. (22) or H+ The area of the Cm* = 27r. a point upon the surface and spread out to any desired quired in The total amount of turning which is re making an infinitesimal circuit about the point is 2 TT. is will appear positive when the curve upon the so described that the enclosed area appears positive. But Hence if H denote the total area of the hodogram. closed curve plus the total is hodogram of the region enclosed by any amount of turning along that curve convex the area equal to 2 TT.424 VECTOR ANALYSIS differential The the Sn x dn hodogram upon / represents the element of area in the unit sphere. the surface sphere will appear negative. / m dt = 2 TT JET. into account in the statement made . is however. If the surface in question is upon the sphere surface If. The integral n 8n x <J n = / n da represents the total area of the hodogram of the strip of surface which lies between the curves C and C Let the f . concavoconvex the area upon the This matter of the sign of the hodogram must be taken above. or iT=27r fm dt rft.
If the surface is is negative. Suppose that the polygon reduces to a triangle. is less than The sum of the interior angles is therefore greater than The sphere or ellipsoid is an example of such a surface. changed by that the total amount of turning along any curve or the area of the angles of of the hodogram of any portion of a surface are also invariant of the process of developing. surface is said to be developed A when it is so deformed that upon the surface retain their length. the exterior angles of a geodetic polygon and of the area of the hodogram of that polygon (taking account of sign) is equal to 2 TT. Examples of this surface are afforded by the cylinder. upon another when it can be so deformed as to coincide with lines the other without altering the lengths of lines. The sum than of the interior angles of a triangle is in this case less Such a surface There is is the hyperboloid of one sheet or the pseudosphere.] If the 425 closed curve is a polygon whose sides are geodetic lines the amount of turning along each side is zero. and plane. The sum any geodetic triangle remain un From this it follows the process of developing. Geodetics upon one surface are changed into geodetics upon the other. cone. concavoconvex the area of the hodogram TT. . If the surface is convex the area of the hodogram is positive and the sum of the exterior angles of the triangle 2 TT. The total turning is therefore equal to the sum of the exterior The statement becomes : the sum of angles of the polygon.THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES 157. TT. an intermediate case in which the hodogram of any geodetic triangle is traced twice in opposite directions and hence the total area is zero. Geodetics remain One surface is said to be developable or applicable geodetics. The sum to of the interior angles of a triangle upon such a surface is equal TT.
This represents a vibration back and forth along the Xaxis 0. y. but along the entire axis of At points x = Or. The equation represents a stationary is wave with nodes at these points. At points midway between these the wave has points of maximum vibration. where k a positive or negative integer. If the equation be regarded as in three variables x.] The is differential equation of rectilinear harmonic motion The integral of this equation may sin be reduced by a suitable choice of the constants to the form x =A n t. wave perpendicular to the axis of x but The vibration is harmonic and advances i along the direction with a velocity equal to the quotient of . cos D =i A n t m x. the displacement is at all times equal to zero. z it repre wave the plane of which is perpendicular to the axis of the variable x. Let the displacement be denoted by about the point x D in place of x.426 VECTOR ANALYSIS Harmonic Vibrations and Bivectors 158. in = . sents a plane The displacement given by the equation Dx is = i A l cos (m x n f) (1) likewise a plane not stationary. a displacement not merely near the point x x. The equation may be written = D Consider This is =i A sin sin n t.
427 p I the period. and / the wave v n = . A still r for more general form may be obtained by substituting m m x. the velocity. Elliptic har monic motion may be defined by the equation (p. before proceeds in the direction of x with the same velocity.HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS n by m. The discussion of waves may be carried through as pre elliptic viously. The maximum amount of that displacement is the magnitude of A. Hence the vibration is oblique to the wavefront. period. The wave advances along the direction of x. (3) This is a displacement in the direction A. The general wave of is harmonic motion advancing in the direction m seen to be . If v be the velocity. The general integral r is obtained as = A cos n t +B sin n t. m v = . So much for rectilinear harmonic motion. not in the direction i. = 2 TT . Then (m r D = A cos n t). By a simple extension it is seen that D is = A cos (m x n t) a displacement in the direction A. The wave advances in the direction m oblique to the displace ment. This vibration is transverse instead of longitudinal. length. 117). p / (2) The displacement D2 differs =j A 2 cos (m x nt) from Dj in the particular that the displacement takes The wave as place in the direction j. m ^p = 2?r n . and wavelength are as before.
real vectors very The any distinguishing character for bivectors just as it is need . An interesting result is obtained by adding up the dis placement and the velocity multiplied by the imaginary unit V 1 and divided by n. an imaginary vector. D H + = A cos 1 \ (m r n t) B sin (m r n f) n t) }. It is the sum of two real vectors of which one has been multiplied by the imaginary scalar 1. Indeed any undamped elliptic har monic plane wave may be represented as above by the pro duct of a bivector and an exponential factor. (4) } dV is n  A sin (m + B cos (m n t) j (5) the velocity of the displaced point at any moment in the This is of course differ ellipse in which it vibrates. entirely ent from the velocity of the wave. The The use found very convenient in the discussion of harmonic motion. 159.428 VECTOR ANALYSIS D = A cos = ( (m r n r t) B n t) sin (m r n r t). The real part of the product gives the displacement of any point and the displacement pure imaginary part gives divided by n.] the velocity of analytic theory of bivectors differs from that of much as the analytic theory of biscalars It is unnecessary to have differs from that of real scalars. V Such a vector of bivectors elliptic is called a bivector or imaginary vector. V A sin (m r n t) + B cos (m r The is expression here obtained. as far as its form is concerned. ordinary imaginary scalars is may be called biscalars.
Whenever it becomes especially convenient to have a separate alphabet for bivectors the small Greek or German letters may be called upon.HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS less to 429 vector have a distinguishing notation for biscalars. skew. formal sum of two real vectors which one has been multiplied by the imaginary unit 1. l l s. The bimay be regarded as a natural and inevitable extension It is the of the real vector. i r2 r  s = s2 + i s2 r = B and r 2 = s 2 r = x s = (x + i # 3 ) and I s . Let r if Then if = TJ + r = s. r = TJ + i i r2 and ri r =x =# * i or r = #i + yj + z. Two product of the other by a scalar (real or imaginary). bivectors are equal when their real and their imaginary Two bivectors are parallel when one is the parts are equal. A If bi vector may be expressed in terms of i. In other cases it has a complex or imaginary direction. The value of the sum. There The usual symbol i will be maintained for of V 1is V not much likelihood of confusion with the vector i for the reason that the two could hardly be used in the same place and for the further reason that the Italic i and the Clarendon i differ considerably in appearance. . k with com plex coefficients. direct. difference. These statements may be put into analytic form as follows. and indeterminate products of two bivectors is obvious with out special definition. j. If a bivector is parallel to a real vector it is said to have a real direction.
and hence the four products are unaltered by multiplying the bivector r by such a i r2 ). bivectors or biscalars are said to be conjugate when their real parts are equal and their pure imaginary parts differ is Two only in sign. 2 s = = <>! l B! . x s = (r x BI x s ) 2 i + i (r x x + ra x s x) rs (r l s l + r2 s2) + (T I s 2 + r 2 Sj).r2 r2 + i (r l s2 + s a r2 Sl ). i sin q (7) multiplied by a i 6. Thus if r TI = r/ + TI i r 2 = r2 (a + x iV) (r x T! + + *z =r + r2 r2 .i r2 ) = + 2 i r2 x TV ( r2 F l r2> ( r l ~ * F2> = = TJ (rl rl F2 r2> + * r l r2> multiplied by a root of unity or cyclic factor as it is frequently called. The conjugate of any sort of product of bivectors biscalars is equal to the pro statement similar duct of the conjugates taken in the same order. may A Oi + i r ) 2 * (r i .* r2 ) = r (r x x TJ + rt r2 . that is. a 2 + & 2 = 1. be made concerning sums and differences. etc. by an imagi nary scalar of the form 4. The conjugate and of a real scalar or vector equal to the scalar or vector itself. . factor. (r 1 + s 1) + i(r 2 s 2) + s ).480 r r r VECTOR ANALYSIS +s= .i r2 be* If the bivector r cos q + where the conjugate is = a + ib. Oi + Ol + * *2 ) X .
When the bivector has a real direction the directional ellipse reduces to a right line in that direction. is precisely the same as would be produced upon those vectors by a cyclic dyadic d> =aa + cos q (bb + c c ) . their plane. 129 in the real it will be seen that the change pro duced and imaginary vector parts of a bivector by multiplication with a cyclic factor.sin q (c b . collinear respectively with r x b and c are supposed to be two vectors and r2 a is any vector not in . + i ra) ( 8) Then rx ra =i cos ^ cos q = r2 + T I sin j.] 431 A bivector by closer examination of the effect of multiplying a a cyclic factor yields interesting and important geometric results. Such a change of position has been called an rotation through the sector q. The angular direction from the real part T I to the complex part r2 is considered as the positive direction in the directional If the real and imagi ellipse. Hence multiplication of a . ri Let + * r a = ( cos ? l + * sin 2) ( r i r2 sin .HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS 160. They to 2 from r 2 toward r 1$ by a sector of which the area as q is to the area of the whole ellipse ?r. . pair of conjugate semidiameters. Consider the ellipse of which TJ and r2 are a It then appears that r^ semidiameters of that are rotated in the ellipse is and r2 are also a pair of conjugate ellipse. When the bivector has a complex direction the ellipse is a true ellipse. nary parts of a bivector turn in the positive direction in the if in the negative direc ellipse they are said to be advanced tion they are said to be retarded. By reference to Art. and must always be known. elliptic The ellipse of which T I and r2 are a pair of conjugate semi diameters is called the directional ellipse of the bivector r.be ) used as a prefactor.
r circular. which for real vectors implies r = 0. Let =a+ = and tan 2 q . = 0. A a bivector whose directional ellipse lar bivector. . = (cos q + i sin q) (a + i b) where a : b = 0. Hence the angle q is indeterminate. a With this value of q the axes of the directional ellipse are given by the equation a f i b = (cos q i sin q) r. The directional ellipse is is a circle. r = zi + 2/j + *k. It is always possible to multiply a bivector factor that the real with the axes of r by such a cyclic and imaginary parts become coincident the ellipse and are perpendicular.432 bivector by VECTOR ANALYSIS a cyclic factor retards it in its directional ellipse by a sector equal to the angle of the cyclic factor. If a b = 0. 2 r = x* + y* + z = 0. a b b). r = (cos 2 q r + r i sin 2 q) (a i 6. The not sufficient to ensure the vanishing of a bivector. In case the real and imaginary parts a and b of a bivector are equal in magnitude and perpendicular in direction both a and b in the expression for r r vanish. Form To accomplish the reduction proceed as follows r r = r (cos 2 q + i sin 2 q) (a + i b) (a + i b). r The is condition r r = 0. a circle is called a circu The necessary and sufficient condition that is nonvanishing bivector r be circular r If r .
condition r s = in the direction of ra The then gives 82 ra = and rx 28 s2 + ra nl = 0. it In case the bivector has a real direction its becomes equal to r r. the modulus of the biscalar. not necessarily zero. that the direct product of by its con Oi + then i r2 ) (r x . conjugate and 161. first the case in which the planes of the bivectors Let r = a (TJ + i r2 ).] is their product becomes equal to The condition that two bivectors be parallel is that the product of the other by a scalar factor. A circular vector and a noncircular vector cannot be parallel. and b are biscalars. It is evident that any two circular bivectors whose planes coincide are parallel. and s l may be taken may be chosen perpen . s =I rx (s 1 + i g2 ). .t r2 ) = r x rx + r2 ra = 0. differ directional ellipse similar and similarly placed the ratio of similitude being the modulus of the biscalar. F! = r2 = and r = 0. x or ! r2 83 =r s2 + r2 BI = 0. Consider coincide. Any biscalar factor may be expressed as the product of a cyclic If factor and a positive scalar. one two bivectors ellipses by only a cyclic factor their directional Hence two parallel vectors have their are the same. is The condition that it a bivector vanish jugate vanishes. The scalars a dicular to r2 .HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS bivector is 433 circular. The condition that two bivectors be perpendicular is r rt s = 0.
Hence. The directional ellipse of the bivector r is evidently the projection of the directional ellipse of r upon the plane of s. Let r and s which do not coincide. and that the axes of the directional 2 ellipses of r hence and s2 are and s are proportional. have the same angular direction. It is therefore to be con 1 It should be noted that the condition of perpendicularity of major axes is not the same as the condition of perpendicularity of real parts and imaginary parts . and r2 parallel to the plane of s s. Hence the components of rx s. ellipse of two bivectors are perpendicular the directional either bivector and the directional ellipse of the if other projected upon the plane of that one are similar. for perpendicularity of Hence the conditions similar. The conditions therefore hold for real as well as for imaginary vectors.434 VECTOR ANALYSIS first sl The equation shows that r2 and s2 are perpendicular and perpendicular. and the axes of the ellipses are perpendicular. 1 If both vectors major have real directions the conditions degenerate into the per angular direction in both pendicularity of those directions. 162. Moreover. r is the position vector of a point in space. of be two perpendicular bivectors the planes of Resolve T I and r2 each into two com ponents respectively parallel and perpendicular to the plane The components perpendicular to that plane contribute nothing to the value of r s. the two bivectors whose planes coincide are that their directional ellipses are is the same. form a bivector r which is perpendiqular to To this bivector and s the conditions stated above apply. the second shows that the angular directions from rx to r2 and from s to 1 s are the same.] Consider a bivector of the type where A and m are bivectors and TI is a biscalar. and have their major axes per pendicular.
waves of elliptic harmonic vibra vibrations take place in the plane of Aj and A2 . The velocity of the point after it has been divided by nj is given by the pure imaginary part. Let A = Aj + i A*p m = ni + i mj D As = factor has been seen before. If n t is the same for both the resulting the exponent m r train of waves advances in the same direction and has the . The factor e*** is a damper in time. Two such waves may be com The general pounded by adding the bivectors which represent them. in an ellipse of which A x and A% are conjugate semidiam The The displacement of the vibrating point from the eters. t 435 also to is the scalar variable time and is be considered as real.HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS sidered as real. mr presence (for unlimited time) of any such factor in an ex pression which represents an actual vibration is clearly inad missible. The wave advances in the direction sion The other factors in the expres ""* is a The factor damper in the direction m 2 As the wave proceeds in the direction m^ it dies away. ne expression (9) therefore represents a train of plane waves of elliptic harmonic vibrations damped in a definite direction and in time. are dampers. is In any physical vibration of a conservative system na cessarily negative or zero. If na is negative the wave dies away as time goes on. the (A x + i Aj) e <(mt * r ~ nif) represents a train of plane tions. It contradicts the law of conservation of energy. If n2 is posi The tive the wave increases in energy as time increases. . center of the ellipse is given by the real part of the factor.
. This application of bi the Theory of Light a wonderfully may be used to give 1 simple and elegant treatment. By combining two directions but trains of waves which advance in opposite which are is in other respects equal a system of stationary waves obtained. because in the opinion of the present author they possess no essential advantage over real vectors until the more advanced parts of the theory. Bivectors were not used in the second part of this chapter. total and metallic reflection.. etc.lr A e . rotation of the plane of polarization by magnets and crystals. bivectors their applications will not be The object in entering at all upon this very short and condensed discussion of bivectors was first to show the simple idea of a direction has to give way to the more complicated but no less useful idea of a directional ellipse is the reader how the generalization from real to imaginary vectors made. 1 Such use of bivectors is made by Professor Gibbs in his course of lectures on " The Electromagnetic Theory of Light" delivered biannually at Yale University. take place in a different ellipse. however. and second to set forth the manner in which a single when bivector D may elliptic waves of vectors be employed to represent a train of plane harmonic vibrations.e"" <mi r (e + $"i") = 2Acos and (n^ r) e. the resultant is (A + B) **.m* p e^ int The theory of carried further.n0 + A e~ m * r Ae^. same period and wavelength waves are The If the vibrations. (mi . are reached.m* 1 V * .436 VECTOR ANALYSIS as the individual waves.
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