Human Resources Training & Development

Submitted by: Inas Assaf

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Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter of the thesis gives a brief discussion about the background, followed by problem statement, research purpose, the main important concepts the research is going to depend on, and questions the research will try to answer.

1.1

Background

Human Resources Development (HRD) is a relatively young academic discipline but an old and well-established field of practice. It has originated in the massive development effort that took place in the United States during World War II under the name of the project "Training within Industry"(Dooley, 1945) where it gave birth to the systematic performance-based training, improvement of the work processes and human relations in the workplace-or contemporary to HRD, as it began being called in the 1970s. HRD is defined as a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands, to produce behavioural changes in the learner in such a way that it acquires desired level of competence for present or future role. It is a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individual, team, work process, and organizational system performance. HRD has many wide but recognized components that can be recapped as performance improvement, learning organization,organizational performance and development, and employee training and development, that are set to improve the expertise of individuals, teams, work processes, and the overall organization. The practice of Human Resources Development has many benefits. Improving the individual and organizational performance to adjust with the internal and the external environment changes to obtain the organizational short and long term objectives, learning organization which became recently one of the core strategies in an organization that enables its employees to respond swiftly to the product and market developments and to best utilize their mental powers enhancing their capacity to create and to have a strong competition with other organizations, and attaining organizational sustainability through its development and specifically through it employees training and development.

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Human resources development was founded to achieve several objectives. The organizational objectives are to contribute to organizational effectiveness, to help organizations to achieve objectives and to provide level of service appropriate to the organization. The societal objectives are to respond to the needs and challenges of the society, to minimize the undesirable impacts on the organization, and to assist employees in achieving potential goals and to facilitate analogy of personal and organizational goals. In general, it helps to improve the capabilities of people by providing them better skills, so it strengthens executives¶ skills. It also improves communication system in the organization in procuring the right kind of people at the right time at the right place. Furthermore, it provides an opportunity for continuous and round growth of employees through succession planning and career planning. It improves team work; improves problem solving and approving skills of employees.

1.2

Training and Development

The history of human resources development reveals that education, training, and organization development of all sorts are largely the products of social and economic conditions. Training and development has a unique role in the history of the human resources development profession. It is defined as a process of systematically developing work-related knowledge and expertise for the purpose of improving performance. Training is not education-light but is more than knowledge. People experiencing T&D should end up with new knowledge and be able to do things well after they complete a training program (Zemke, 1990). Within T&D, more efforts are focused on training than on development. Also, training is more like focused on new employees and those entering new job roles in contrast to longterm development. To be clear, the development portion of training and development is seen as ³the planned growth and expansion of the knowledge and expertise of people beyond the present job requirements´ (Swansan, 2002, p.6, Foundations of Human Resources Development).

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Training as defined by ³Davis and Davis (1998)´ is the process through which skills are developed, information is provided, and attributes are raised, in order to help individuals who work in organization to become more effective and efficient in their work. Training helps the organization to fulfil its purposes and goals, while contributing to the overall development of the workers. Training facilitates learning that is designed to increase capabilities and capacity and is facilitated formally and informally by many types of people at different levels of the organization.

1.3

Problem Statement

In our modern times, business environments are fast changing. The vast technological development that merges within a firm's vision, mission, and its implementation processes and the radical economic reforms have led to the emergence of new opportunities and threats for business organization and its employees. Many HR expertise focused their attentions on developing both organization and employees' performance to attain sustainability or/and to compete. Many faced problems with the employees' satisfactions and relatively their commitments toward their organization. Having defined HRD and its importance, the study of HR T&D is going to examine the effective impact of Training and Development on the workforce performance and satisfaction in an organization and relatively its impact on the organization as a whole and the challenges an organization might face in the shortage of intellectual HRD professionals, the elimination of skills gaps, the competition in global economy, and the need for lifelong changes. The study is going to be conducted at one of the international non-governmental organizations operating in Lebanon that works for the benefits of marginalized, under risk and privileged communities where different socio-economic projects are involved that recommends workforce from low to top levels.

1.4

Research Purpose

The main purpose of our research has to do with the importance of Human Resources Training and development and its impact on employees¶ development and satisfaction and on the organizational development. However our work will find out the following:

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Does the Human Resources T&D gain any attention from the organization to close gaps and develop its performance and similarly its employees¶ performance?

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Does the organization provide suitable training and development courses to its employees or it is a waste?

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Does the organization provide a suitable working environment to its employees? Does practicing a training and development course generate a feeling of satisfaction and commitment within employees?

The study is based on assumption that providing a successful training and development course has an impact on employees¶ satisfaction and performance and on creating a sense of commitment to the organization similarly on the organizational development and in empowering its reputation among its employees and customers. For the purpose of this study, we chose an international humanitarian non-governmental organization (NGO) that has many different cultural backgrounds and that its projects depend on funds, so there should not be any waste of resources or opportunities. The result of this study could serve other profit organizations and non-profit organizations non-governmental organizations working in Lebanon to help them maximize their understanding on human resources behaviours, sense of commitment, and level of satisfaction and development that have positive impacts on the organizational reputation, performance, and development.

1.5

Definition of Key Words

There are several terms that have core importance to the study. We chose among the most that serve this study the definition of training, development, learning, satisfaction, and commitment. Training:It is a planned process to change attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in a range of activities. Its purpose in the work situation is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization. Development: It is the growth or realization of a person's ability, through conscious or unconscious learning. Development refers to a process of active learning from experience, leading to systematic and purposeful development of the whole person: body, mind, and spirit.

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Learning: it involves a natural response to coping with change. There is an incidental and intentional learning. The incidental learning is considered to be learning which occurs during a course of doing other things of intended learning as reading books. Satisfaction: Employee satisfaction is the individual general attitude toward his job. It is a positive emotional state resulting from evaluating one¶s job experiences. It is not the money or the fringe benefits, but the feelings employees receive from the work itself. The ability to produce, the quality of the work, the opportunity to learn and express creativity, the recognition for a job well done, the ability to work well in a team, the social satisfaction derived from relationships at work, and the rewards from a physically supportive work environment are all factors that impact job satisfaction. The bottom line is the impact that job satisfaction has on organizational commitment which affects the goals of productivity, quality, and service. The basic end result here is that high job satisfaction leads to career success. Job satisfaction is important for both organization and employee. For the organization, it increases productivity and customer satisfaction, reduce turnover, recruiting, and training costs, and improve teamwork. For the employee, satisfaction is important, for employees will take care about the quality of their work, create and deliver good quality for the customer; they will be more committed to the organization and will increase productivity. Commitment: lack of employee commitment could be an indication of another business failure. It is very important for manager to motivate their employees, for positive influences are essential to strengthening employee commitment. To build this commitment, we have first to improve the quality of management, through education and training of the workforce. It is important to have commitment within employees in the organization for it leads to achieving the desired standards in customer service. Without this commitment, there can be no improvement in any area of business activity.

1.6

organization of the study

The thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter is introductory of this research. It talks about the objectives of the study and the definition of key terms.

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The second chapter highlights a wide scope about Human Resources Training and development, its theories, strategy, processing, plan, methods, and analysis. The third chapter presents the method in which it explains the research design that was used in research approach, data collection methods, sources of data, and sampling. The forth chapter introduce the organization that we are going to conduct our research at. We are going to represent its background, its history, its mission, its SWOT, and its human resources department. The fifth chapter shows the pre and post data analysis of the respondents. The sixth chapter explore the findings, conclusions and recommendations.

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Chapter 2: Human Resources Training and Development
This chapter is going to present the theoretical framework of the topic: it represents previous work on it and what others have spoken about.

In this chapter we gathered all information about others who spoke about HRT&D. we mainly concentrated on those who first presented this topic to the world and are still developing and innovating new ideas such as ³Richard A. Swanson´ and ³Elwood F. Holton´ in their last book ³Foundations of Human Resources Development´. We have represented in this book the history of HR Training and Development, its effect on the development of the organization and on individuals, and its methodology. Throughout all the resources (books and internet), I found there was no study about the impact of this topic on employees satisfaction. I intended not to include it in this chapter as we will examine its effect on the Data Analysis Chapter and its results and recommendations in the sixth chapter.

2.1 History of Human Resources Development
The history of human resources development reveals that education, training, and organization development of all sorts are largely the products of social and economic conditions. Training and development has a unique role in history of the human resources development profession. Training mainly in its simple form was found among our primitive ancestors where the head of the tribe was unconsciously imitated by his sons through the activities held to practice their traditions and/or to protect the tribe or to survive. Later on the father of the tribe has become the one who trains the younger generation in the formal conduct of life. Before and during the industry revolution, apprenticeship became the basic and persistent influence of development of workplace and became the most important non-school institution around which training has grown. It became a system for preparing the young to become

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expert worker from his master and what education he acquired is through some form of apprenticeship. As early as the middle of the eighteenth century, new machinery and other inventions of the emerging industrial era began bringing about remarkable changes in how work was performed. Industrial era was in need of new ways to train workers and apprenticeship was unsuited for the automated work in the evolving factory systems. Before the World War I industrial education primarily were focusing on developing skills in the unemployed to improve their personal welfare, but after War I and before War II, depression was set around industries and training declined when company budgets were tightened. But after the distress of the Depression, there was once a significant need of training-training with industry (TWI). The objectives of the TWI were to enable companies produce efficiently with lower costs and higher quality. Indeed, TWI, as said by Dooley, is known for its simple and elegant way of training incredible amounts of people. TWI four programs; the limited steps, sub points and key words, documentation, and the training support, fostered three key contemporary elements of HRD: performance, quality, and human relations. The programs of TWI were closely linked to organizational performance. It started as Swanson said with the performance at the organizational and process levels and ended with performance at the same levels. The primary measure of success was whether a TWI program helped production, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. TWI also established when it addressed quality issues delaying performance. Mainly when it points at the Job Methods Training program that provided a specific method for teaching employees how to address production and quality problems constructively and points at the Program Development Method by Swanson, that was designed to teach employees how to address quality problems and implemented improvements. These two core quality principles introduced by TWI, still provide a basis from which many in HRD implemented their analysis and work. The least and most important is the Human Relations which is seen the first to be presented by TWI as an important aspect of production success and, where supervisors were trained to establish good relations with their employees.

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Clearly, the TWI effort was seen by many as the origin of contemporary HRD, as well as a springboard for human relations perspective of the organization development component of HRD.
2.1.1 Human Resources Development Definitions over Time 

In 1964, Harbison and Myers underlying on the development and economic theories defined HRD the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills, and the capacities of all the people in the society. 

  

In 1970, Nadler defined it as a series of organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce behavioural change. In 1981, Jones defined HRD as a systematic expansion of people's work-related abilities, focused on the attainment of both organization and personal goals. In 1983, Chalofsky and Lincoln revealed that the discipline of HRD is the study of how individuals and groups in organizations change through learning. In 1987, Swanson defined it as the process of improving an organization's performance through the capabilities of its personnel. He also added that HRD includes activities dealing with work design, aptitude, expertise and motivation. 

In 1988, Smith, R. said that HRD consists of programs and activities, direct and indirect, instructional and/or individual that positively affect the development of the individual and the productivity and profit of the organization. 

In 1989, Watkins defined it as a field of study and practice responsible for the fostering of a long-term, work-related learning capacity at the individual, group, and organizational level of organizations. As such it includes-but is not limited to-training, career development, and organizational development, also Mclagan pointed that HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development and organizational development to improve individual and organizational effectiveness. Gilley and England also defined on the same year that HRD is an organized learning activities arranged within an organization to improve performance and/or personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual, and/or the organization. Nadler and Nadler also agreed that HRD is an organized learning experiences provided by employees within a specified period of time to bring about the possibility of performance improvement and/or personal growth.

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In 1990, Smith said that HRD is the process of determining the optimum methods of developing and improving the human resources of an organization and the systematic improvement of the performance and productivity of employees through training, education and development and leadership for the mutual attainment of organizational and personal goals. 

In 1992, Chalofsky again came back to define HRD as a study and practice of increasing capacity of individuals, groups, collectives and organizations through the development and application of learning-based interventions for the purpose of optimizing human and organizational growth and effectiveness. 

In 1994, Marsick and Watkins as well agreed on that HRD is the combination of training, career development, and organizational development that offers the theoretical integration needed to envision a learning organization, but it must also be positioned to act strategically throughout the organization. 

In 1995, Swanson again came back to define HRD as a process of developing and unleashing human expertise through organization development and personnel training and development for the purpose of improving performance. 

In 2001, Mclean brothers defined HRD as the process or activity that, either initially or over the long term, has the potential to develop adults' work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity 

In 2009, Swanson again came back to give his final definition about HRD as a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving organizational system, work process, team and individual performance.

Based on these definitions, it is noticeable that HRD efforts in organizations often take place under the additional banners of training and development, organization development, performance improvement, organizational learning, career management, leadership

development, etc«

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2.2 Principals of HRD
1- Organizational Capability- development of HR in all aspects, organizational health, problem solving skills, diagnostic skills etc« 2- Principle of Potential MaximizationHRD system should help individuals to recognize their potential and help them to contribute their best towards various organizational roles they are expected to perform and excel it. 3- Principle of Autonomy MaximizationHRD systems should help maximize individual autonomy through increased responsibility. 4- Principle of maximum delegationHRD systems should facilitate

decentralization through delegation and sharing of responsibility. 5- Principle of Participative Decision Making 6- Principle of Change Management-should attempt to balance the current organizational culture with changing culture. 7- Principle of Periodic Review- There should be continuous review and renewal of HRD function.

2.3 Learning Organization and its Effect on HRD
A Learning organization is a place where people are continually discovering how they create their reality and how they can change it. It is the one that encourages its individual members to learn and develop their full potential, extends the learning culture to include customers, suppliers, and other significant stakeholders, makes the human resources development strategy central to business policy and is in a continuous process of organization transformation. The important points to note about this definition are that learning organizations: 
 

Are adaptive to their external environment Continually enhance their capability to change/adapt Develop collective as well as individual learning

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Use the results of learning to achieve better results

Learning organization is a vision of what might be possible when organizations go beyond merely training individuals towards developing learning at the whole organizational level. As defined by Peter Senge, a learning organization is an organization where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to learn together. Peddler, Burgyne and Boydell on the 1982 define learning organization as an organization which facilitates the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself. This includes both individual and organizational change elements, one of these wouldn't be sufficient for an organization to learn. David Garvin, in his book 'learning in Action' defined learning organization an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring, and retaining knowledge, and at purposely modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights. Learning organization is the one that uses information which challenges accepted organizational norms and practices, to examine the way in which the organization performs its functions and thus helps the organization "unlearn" it's previously used dysfunctional patterns. In conclusion, LO is a process rather than a state, something that all members of the organization have to work on all the time, yet can never be fully realized.

2.3.1 Why is it a need to learn? Learning without thought is a labour lost, thought without learning is perilous-'Confucius' It is a need to learn in order to adapt quickly to changing circumstances. Learning is the process of changing our behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and skills. Through learning we can feel the changes in our self. It can be described as the process of acquiring the ability to respond adequately to a situation, which may or may have not been countered.

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Furthermore, to attain the best level of performance and improvements in the present and future time of the organization, it is a need to require learning and lots of learning so that to be able to change its behaviours and mind-sets so that it reaches a successful learning organization. The organizational learning is more than an individual learning and arises through the interaction of individuals in groups and teams of different sizes. It is the detection and correction of errors. It is an emergent process in the sense that its outcome is not predictable. If individuals and teams are encouraged to be innovative, then they need to explore alternatives and to take thoughtful risks. During their learning, each will influence the other and their ideas will co-evolve or adapt and change in accordance to other ideas influencing it. As the environment change, these actions and policies will need to change to respond to the environmental changes and to be able to work effectively and efficiently.

2.3.2 Why learning organization?

Learning is finding out what you already know-'Richard Bach' Learning organization enables people to bridge the gap. It is because organizations are in need for a superior performance and competitive advantages, to avoid decline and improve quality, to understand risks and diversity, it is also important; for it tackles deeply for innovation, for personal and spiritual well-being, to increase the human ability to manage change, for understanding, to expand boundaries, because LO provides a playground for creative ideas and provides a safe place to take risks with new ideas and behaviours and the challenge needed to stretch beyond perceived limits where everyone's opinions are valued. Even change here is important for the organizational learning for change, consistently challenges traditional organizational practices and beliefs. Changes are constantly changing and for this reason there is that continuous learning which even leads to barriers to learning as such defensive routines, inadequate and ambiguous

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outcome feedback, misperceptions of the feedback or/and poor interpersonal and organizational inquiry skills. For this reason, Learning organization should explicitly address the relationship between learn and work to provide people with possibilities to connect the two in multiple ways. After presenting many definitions of LO, it has seen that most all of these definitions describe elements in a learning system that makes an efficient, flexible and viable organization. These are the continuous learning on the individual, group and system level, the single-and double-loop learning process or even a third loop process which is not just doing things well or just doing things better but also doing better things, the creation and distribution of information and knowledge, the inquiry and dialogue in groups to share learning experiences, the increasing in the learning capacity of members (learning to learn), the integration of work and learning when informal learning is presented, the shared vision, and the empowerment of individual learners. Although there are many definitions of the Learning Organization concept, most of them emphasize notions like shared vision, values, collective learning, continuous improvement, making tacit knowledge explicit, and entering into dialogue. The focus here is not to develop shared values but to equip people to cope with the tensions they experience in everyday organizational life. These tensions arose from the differences in interests and power between managers, workers, training consultants and other external actors. In conclusion a learning Organization can't be implemented, it can only grow incrementally out of investigation, experiment and evaluation.

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Fi

3

P inci l

of Adul Learning

Resource: Foundations of Human Resources Development (2009) 2nd

Skill t

performance of any task which, for its successful and rapid completion, requires an

improved organi ation of responses making use of only those aspects of the stimulus which are essential to satisfactory performance (Ri eaux and Highly level of skills are needed Poppleton 1978: C to operate complex and expensive technology.

the ability to perform the activities within an occupational area to be the levels

of performance expected in employment (Training Commission 1988). It is a major element in the design of training and development. The concept of competence integrates knowledge and skill that are assessed via performance. K h i knowl : tacit knowledge is an essential ingredient of 'know -how'

and it means that the underlying successful performance tasks is tacit knowledge of a kind that is never explicitly taught and in many instances never even verbali ed.

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.3.3 The out omes of learning

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Tacit knowledge would appear to be acquired through experience rather than through instruction and is embedded in the context in which this experience is taking place.

2.4 Human Resources Development Strategic Nature
The word strategy originates from the Greek word 'Strategia' meaning 'generalship' and is related to science and art conflict. It is referred to a plan of action that is designed to achieve a particular goal. Nowadays, strategy; as stated by Johnson and Scholes; is defined as the direction and scope of an organization over the long term, which matches its resources to the changing environment and in particular its markets, customers or clients so as to meet stakeholder expectations. Strategy is concerned with a number of dimensions:  The range of an organization's activities.  The matching of the organization's activities to the environment.  The matching of the organization's activities to available resources.

The pressures for organizational change reveal through increased work targets, threats of job loss, job responsibilities, shifts in the balance of power, and general disturbances from the environment works and all the constitute of job stress. A number of strategic pressures have contributed to the increasing importance and strategic role of HRD, and they are:  The fast rate of change around the organization  Focus on quality  Globalization of business  Increased flexibility and responsiveness of organizations  Increased pressure to demonstrate the input of human resources  New competitive structures  New technology With all these pressures, HRD becomes an important role to provide support to the organization at all levels. It serves as a strategic role by assuring the competence of

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employees to meet the organization's present performance demands. It also serves as a vital role in shaping strategy and enabling organizations to take full advantage of developing business strategies. There are three main elements of strategic HRD. These are the strategic analysis, the strategic choice, and the strategic implementation. The strategic analysis under the HRD consideration might include analysis of current skill levels available within and external to the organization which might impose upon current and future business goals; it would consider the core competences of the organization in terms of human capabilities in existence or which might be developed, and how these might be deployed. The strategic choice is very important for HRD to choose against each option a staff can be recruited and trained to meet job requirements, provide a viable option, and suggest certain successful core competences held by employees. Within the strategic implementation, HRD considerations here might be about whether to retrain the existing workforce (in knowledge, skills and/or attitudes) or whether to recruit new people. It may require the management of strategic change and the design and delivery of major training and development programs to support change. In considering strategic direction, it is relevant for an organization to identify its core competences and determine how these can best be taken advantage of, given various environmental factors. In training and development terms, this can put the training cycle and business planning approach to determining training needs on its head, by suggesting that a starting point might just as well be the existing competences of (certain groups of) employees, and planning the direction of the business around these. The implication for training and development in this context is that people will need to develop skills that can be used elsewhere in the organization and should be offered broad career paths to reinforce the development of a broad range of skills. The Human Resources Development Strategies- Is a strategy to attract, to engage, to retain, to develop, to motivate and to utilize employees and their competencies for effective organizational functional, growth and excellence.

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1. Communication Strategy- Continuous communication with employees, their family members and the society is crucial to an organization. 2. Accountability and ownership strategy- employee¶s accountability and ownership leads to higher productivity and customer acceleration. 3. Quality strategy- Quality is a state of mind, which needs to be fostered in employees through training and development. 4. Cost reduction strategy- save substantial savings at the end of a given period and enhance its competitive strategy. 5. Entrepreneurship Strategy- Employee need to be an independent entrepreneur who can generate ideas and bring them to reality be using existing resources and support of the organization to create innovative and creative products and services. 6. Culture building strategy- A strong culture fosters higher employee commitment towards the goals and objectives of the organization. 7. Systematic training strategy- based on job analysis, organizational mission and objectives leads to improved ROI. 8. Learning strategy- Continuous development andlearning environments promote selfdevelopment of employees, of self and by self.

2.5 Distinguish the Training and Development Requirements from the Organizational Strategy and Business Objectives
What is relevant now may not be relevant in the future This statement means the continuous changing approaches in an organization toward the vast technological development so as to maintain its sustainability and meets its objectives efficiently and effectively. In other words, organizations can't always depend on a one way step performance to meet its objectives, for some of these approaches could be no longer useful leading to deficiency and loss in organizations proficiency and ability to compete in the world industry. Organizations have to search for other attempts or ways to coop with

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development changes through investigation and assessment of the needs required to develop their resources and employees to maintain its proficiency and increase its profitability. Awareness of the power of education and training leads to self-activation in meeting career changes and organizational change. Employees should be aware of their own needs for both the organization's requirements and their long-term development and be aware of their learning strategies. Organizations need to encourage individuals to recognize their training needs and more importantly to seek ways to advance their career prospects. Organizations should identify the needed skills and active management of employees learning for their long-range future in relation to explicit corporate and business strategies. They should also discern not only the training needs of the individual and the group, but also how their needs fits the overall organizational objectives and should address the fundamental issues such as analysis of training needs in relation to the short and long-term business plans so that considerable amount of money won't be thrown, knowing that an integral part of analysing training needs is recognizing what will fit the organization culture, as well as the organization strategy and objectives. 2.5.1 for the job 1- Job description: Employees are usually hired to take specific responsibilities within the organization, but they may have to take other responsibilities in times of emergency to enhance organizational efficiency. Job descriptions are necessary in order to give employees a sense of purpose and to enable their immediate supervisors to appraise their performance. Thus, they are useful for the HRD strategy in that they help to identify the skill and knowledge needed for certain roles and functions in the organizations. 2- Job Analysis: it is a method of evaluating job functions and is used to discern the levels of skill necessary to do a job, primarily for the purpose of creating pay structures- salary structures that set out the different levels of pay for jobs or group of jobs. 3- Interview with Jobholders: an interview held by one of the personnel department to the current jobholder about duties and functions of the job. 4- Interview with managers and supervisors: interview the immediate supervisor of the job.

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5- Performance objectives: for example; are needed to increase quality. To do so, assessment must take place as to whether current employees need training to reach these objectives. 6- Analysis of Competition: can be assessed with the general levels of employees' skills and abilities with that of the internal and vocational qualifications.

2.5.2 for the Individual 1- Characteristics of people required or person specification in the effort to identify skills and competence requirements, the characteristics of the people required are often forgotten. 2- Personal Profiles: personal profiles records are very useful in an organization for training needs analysis and information about employees' career aspirations that might create training initiatives. 3- Appraisal: a good appraisal can reveal much about the strengths and weaknesses of individuals in terms of their performance. Indications of area where training and development programs could improve performance are vital to the individual and organization. 4- Assessment centre techniques. 5- Global review and training audits: the most wide-ranging method of training needs analysis is a global review or more modestly a training audit. These are undertaken when far reaching changes are planned within an organization.

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2. F m w
Figure 3.2: HR Development Process

P

Resource: HR Body of Knowledge, Human Resources Development and Careers, P: 356

2.6.1 The Training System The relevant components of the three major phases in training system are:  The assessment phase  The implementation phase  The evaluation phase 1- Assessment phase: planners determine the need for training and specify the objectives of the training effort. 2- Implementation phase: by using the result of the assessment, implementation can begin. In the implementation phase planners decide how to train and arrange all resources to train.

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3- Evaluation Phase: it focuses on measuring how well the training accomplished what its originators expected. Monitoring comes between the implementation and the evaluation phase to provide feedback for setting future training objectives. 2.6.2 Organizational Analysis It is a system playing an important part of the organization's strategic human resources planning in identifying the knowledge, skills and abilities that will be needed by employers in the future of both jobs and organization change. When doing organizational analysis, both internal and external forces must be considered. One important source for organizational analyses comes from various operational measures of organizational performance; departments or areas with high turnover, high absenteeism, low performance or other deficiencies can be pinpointed to be analyzed so that to put the training objectives that suit organization and individual needs. 2.6.3 Task Analysis A second way to diagnose training needs is through analyses of the tasks performed in the organization. To do so, it is essential to know the job requirements of the organization. Job descriptions and job specifications provide information about performance expected and skills necessary for employees to accomplish the required work. By comparing the requirements of the job with knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees, training needs can be identified. 2.6.4 Individual Analysis It gives a view of how employees perform their jobs. Performance appraisal is the most common approach to identify individual analyses. 2.6.5 Establishing Training Objectives and Priorities Once identifying the needs for training through analyses, training objectives and priorities must be established. The reason for the analyses is to compile gap analysis that frame the organization distance between where it is with employees' capabilities and where it needs to be.

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The establishment of training objectives is set to close the gap and the training needs are ranked in importance on the basis of organizational objectives the training most needed to improve the health of the organization is done first in order to produce visible results more quickly. 2.6.6 Needs Assessment To identify gaps that an organization has, a researcher must conduct a needs assessment distributed within all employees, analyse the results, come up with solutions, and evaluate the change. Why we need to have a needs assessment? A needs assessment is a systematic way to research performance gaps which can provide a substance and direction for strategic HRD planning, including the identification of performance improvement initiatives that are likely to provide the best return on HRD investments. Training needs assessment can determine levels of optimal performance and standards for excellence evidence of individuals actual performance levels, attitudes affecting performance and root causes of performance problems. There are four steps to conduct a needs assessment 2.6.6.1 Perform a "GAP" Analysis  Current situation: we must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and abilities of our current and/or future employees. This should also examine the organization goals, climate and internal and external situation.  Desired or Necessary Situation: this analysis focuses on the necessary job tasks/standards as well as the skills, knowledge and abilities needed to accomplish these successfully.

The difference the "Gap" between the current and the necessary will identify the needs, purposes, and objectives.

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Questions need to be asked are: 1- Problems and deficits 2- Impending change: Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due to changes as new process equipment, changing the staff, etc«? 3- Opportunities: Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new technologies, training programs, and suppliers? 4- Strengths: How can we take advantage of our strengths as opposed to organization weaknesses? 5- New directions: Could we take a proactive approach, applying the HRD to move our organizations to new levels of performance? 6- Mandated training: Are the internal or external forces dictating that training and/or organization development will take place?

2.6.6.2

Identify Priorities and Importance

After identifying the needs for training and development, career development and organization development etc« we must examine their importance to our organizational goals, realities and constraints and determine if the identified needs are real. To know if the needs identified are real we must look at:  Cost-effectiveness  Legal mandates  Executive pressure  Population  Customers 2.6.6.3 Identify causes performance problems and/or opportunities

Some training and/or interventions might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving our people and their performance into new directions. This is if our employees are doing their job perfectly. If not, that training could be a solution if there is a knowledge problem.

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2.6.6.4

Techniques for Investigating Organizational and Personal Needs

There are several basic needs assessment techniques: 1- Direct observation 2- Questionnaire 3- Review of relevant literature 4- Interviews 5- Focus Groups 6- Tests 7- Records and report studies 8- Work samples.

2.7

Human Resources Development Plan

HRP is the process for identifying an organization's current and future human resources requirements, developing and implementing plans to meet these requirements and monitoring and evaluating their overall effectiveness. The man-power planning purpose is to provide continuity of efficient manning for the total business and optimum use of man power resources. It is set to achieve growth in production against a backdrop of skills shortage and relatively stable and predictable world markets. Planning HRD is set to ensure that the developmental activities reflect the organization's strategic direction and maximize the learning outcomes for individuals. It also provides developmental opportunities for all staff on a planned basis related to performance management so as to meet governmental and individual needs. Employees regardless of their responsibilities have to take on other responsibilities at times of emergency, to enhance organization efficiency. This means culture must exist so that to enable employees to deal with problems that may be outside their immediate work domain. There are the hard human resources planning and the soft human resources planning. The Hard HRP is concerned with the direct control of employees, while the Soft HRP is concerned with the indirect control of employees i.e. through teamwork.

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2.7.1 Vital steps in HRD planning
Figure 3.3: Training Cycle based on HRD Plan PLan

Resource: Human Resources Management, A contemporary Approach, 4th edition; chapter 9, P: 318

First is through the identification of the needed skills and active management of employees learning for their long-range future in relation to explicit corporate business strategies, and second is through analyzing training needs to fit the organization culture as well as the organization strategy and objectives. These steps are as follows:  Distinguish the training and development requirements from the organizational strategy and business objectives.  Analyze the training requirements for effective work performance in organizational functions and jobs.  Analyze the existing qualities and training needs of current employees .  Develop an HRD plan that fills the gap between organizational requirements and the current skills and knowledge of employees.  Decide on the appropriate training and development methods to be used for individuals and groups.  Decide who is to have responsibility for the plan and its various parts.  Implement the plan, and monitor and evaluate its progress.

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Amend the HRD plan in the light of monitoring/evaluation and changes in business strategy. 2.7.2 Analyzing the HR Plan The planning process goes under two levels, the organization and the individual level. 2.7.2.1Development plans exist for individual employees To identify the specific skill development areas for each employee and the competences required, it should be framed in the context of person specification or his characters and of expected performance, also in the context of his personal profile records that is also very useful for training needs and analysis that can be significance in creating training initiatives and of appraisal that can is important to reveal much about the strengths and weakness of individuals in terms of their performance. The individual skill levels should be assessed against relevant criteria:  Organization skill profile  Job requirements and capabilities  Personal development needs. Each employee should have an individual plan which clearly identifies his skills and those to be developed over a specified period of time as well as the best methodology to achieve it. Shared responsibilities for development should be demonstrated through organization, ensuring the appropriate action is taken to support employees and by individuals initiating and participating in agreed development activities. 2.7.2.2 Development plans exist through organization Organizations should identify the skills needed to achieve business objectives and should base decisions to develop their people on organization strategic and corporate objectives. Organizations should review their employees' skill profile to identify skill gaps. This enables an organization to compare the existing skills against the required skills to identify skill gaps and plan current and future HRD. Organizations should collect information on skill profiles and skill gaps of employees through formal comparison of existing skills of employees against required skills, through monitoring of individual performance plans, also through analyzing other data collected by

¢

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an organization; for instance, workforce management data and culture surveys, and through analyzing the internal and external changes and trends which may require the development of new skills. Here we should take into consideration that the plan should include the identification of skill development priorities, funding for implementation of the plan through corporate budget process, and allocating responsibility for implementation and evaluation. 2.7.2.3 Development opportunities are equitable and accessible All employees have the right to participate in agreed development activities. To ensure this, organization should:  Provide development opportunities in an accessible manner to maximize individuals' learning by offering a range of methodologies.  Prioritize development decisions in terms of their relevance to individuals' needs and contribution to achieving organizational goals.  Monitor development opportunities by measuring the amount, type and distribution of development.  Analyze and report on development against categories relevant to the organization.

2.7.2.4 Organization investment in human resources development is evaluated. It is important to evaluate the investment in HRD:  To ensure that investment in skill development is efficient and effective; organization should evaluate HRD outcomes as well as inputs.  To assess the contribution of HRD to the organization's objectives against the level of achievement of HRD plan and change in the organization skill profile.

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2.8

Human Resources Development Method

Once training needs have been assessed and training objectives identified, then the training approaches and methods must be selected. 2.8.1 Functions of Training Method 1- Assist in creating an appropriate learning environment. 2- Enhance participation and involvement of the group. 3- Give greater control of the learning process to the practitioners. 4- Promote group interaction and cohesion.

The training role can be conducted by a manager, supervisor, specialist trainer or developer. By 'role' we mean the part the trainer plays. This important role can involve the writing of the training strategies and policy, design and production, delivery and evaluation of learning programs. Good trainers can't equally communicate and convey knowledge; they can motivate, help people to learn, spark innovation and creativity and promote a hunger to learn. They should be open-minded and in touch with their own emotions while letting participants explore, analyze and question. Most importantly trainers should be good questioners, careful listeners, and observationally perceptive. Flexible is also required in training and development. 2.8.2 Selecting Methods The 'best fit' to selecting methods go under levels of understanding, objectives, time available and the flow or sequence of the whole event that are important guides to selection.  Learning outcomes, training objectives and performance criteria all have to be discussed and agreed by stakeholders.  Aims and objectives should be clearly defined and understood.  Time available for the course or program will also influence method selection, for there is rarely enough time to cover everything that trainers want or need to cover.  Over-concern with available resources should be avoided in the early stages in the design or selection of training methods.

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There are also several point checklists for consideration in the selection and design of training methods.  Consider carefully all the information from any assessment of training needs.  Examine in detail the aims and objectives-break them down into their constituent parts.  Decide on specific content and themes.  Consider any constraints and opportunities and make it in keeping with the group.  Consider the creation of psychological setting.  Choose, modify, or create learning methods.  Organize and check the sequence of all the methods.  Consider all the things that might go wrong or don¶t work and plan for contingencies.  Consider methods that help the program review and support the transfer of learning.  Evaluate everything-make notes about training methods improvements.  Feedback into future course design. good learning atmosphere-the physical and

2.9 Methods
2.9.1 On-the-Job-Training It is the training that is planned and structured and that takes place mainly at the normal workstation of the trainee and where managers and trainers spend significant time with trainee to teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance. On the-job-training includes mentoring and coaching, learning by doing, shadowing and job rotation, e-learning, and apprenticeship.  Mentoring and Coaching: mentoring is when an experienced employee takes charge of the training and development of a new employee. The mentor acts as an adviser and protector to the trainee. Coaching in another hand is when a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager. The coach gives guidance

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through direction, advice, criticism, and suggestion in an attempt to aid growth of the employee.  Learning by doing: this is a very popular way of teaching new skills and methods to employees. Learning by doing often happens under the supervision as part of a training or induction orientation process, and is closely associated with the practical experience. It is the acquisition of knowledge and skills through direct experience of carrying out a task.  Shadowing and job rotation: shadowing aims to give trainee managers a feel for organization by providing experience of working in different department, whilst the job rotation or switching roles help relieve boredom and thereby raise productivity and raise an excellent learning experience for workers. It is also important because it fits the HRM team working and empowerment.  E-learning: is an informational and learning exchange environment to facilitate learning for employees whenever they need it, mainly because the required data is available when learners want to learn.  Apprenticeship: is a structured process by which people became skilled workers. It is a combination of classroom sessions and on the-job-training.  Computer based training: is an interactive training that reduces learning time and gives a quick feedback for trainees.  Committee assignments: Assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in manager decision making to learn by watching others and to investigate specific organizational problems. When committees are of temporary nature they often take on task force activities designed to delve into a particular problem, ascertain alternative solutions and make recommendations for implementing solutions.

2.9.2 Off-the-Job-Training It is necessary to get people away from the hustle and bustle of the work environment. This enables employee to study theoretical information or be exposed to new and innovative ideas.  Active and passive learning: Passive learning training is one-way learning process in which the student is a passive learner receiving the information. The best way of

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learning is when an employee is involved in the learning process as like workshops, case studies, role play, simulation and others.    Sensitivity training: Sensitivity training in encounter groups is a method of changing behaviour through group processes. Transactional analysis: This may help managers understand others better and assist them in altering their responses so as to produce effective results. Lecture courses: Formal lectures offer an opportunity for managers or potential managers to acquire knowledge and develop conceptual and analytical abilities. In large organizations, these lecture courses may be offered ³In -The-House´ by the organization itself. 

Simulation exercises: These were introduced as a training technique, they were meant probably for management development. Most widely used simulation exercises are: Case studies Simulated decision game Role playing

2.9.3 Experimental learning It could be said to be using as 'I hear, I forget; I see, I remember; I do, I understand'. This process of designing methods can let trainees move through different levels of reality and simulation.

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Chapter 3: Research Methodology
The purpose of this chapter is to fulfil the need for knowledge to examine the effect of Training and

his job on the organizational development. This chapter will cover the research methods taken to answer the research problem and how we will go about gathering data to answer our research questions i.e. the research design, methodological approaches, data collection, method of data collection, sampling method, and method of analysis.

3.1 Basic Research
Our research is Basic since its main aim is to prove the rightness of a theory or the opposite i.e. Practicing a suitable training and development courses has a positive impact on employees satisfaction and development in their working place and similarly on the organizational development. It is going to include a cross functional efforts where individuals from various organizational departments are going to be examined for the support of the study research.

3.2 Research Design
3.2.1 Exploratory Research: It is used to identify and explain the nature of the problem. It enables researchers to better understand the problem. It is also used to narrow the scope of research topic and transformation of the discovered problems into defined ones. Through the exploratory research for example, we found that most employees are applying for other jobs outside the organization (an indication of dissatisfaction) and managers are unaware of this fact neither know the reason behind this fact. We conducted a survey on employees (including all possible attributes that affects dissatisfaction in an organization) and interviews in order to point out the problem and to practice Training and Development courses to see if such courses have positive impact on employees¶ satisfaction.

£

evelopment on the individual development and level of satisfaction toward

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We are also going to undertake both the quantitative exploratory research (mathematical model) and the qualitative exploratory research that is used at the beginning of the research to get adequate understanding of the problem. 3.2.2 Research Approach: It is a deductive approach- the logical process of deriving a conclusion from a known premise or something known to be true- that has to do with the building up of the theory and hypothesis after reading the literature i.e. testing the theory. From the theories, the research design was made, which we used when looking for answers to our research question.

3.3 Data Collection:
The primary stages of the research include: a) Defining the research problem. b) Determine the concept of the research. c) Analysing and interpreting the research data. d) Stating the findings and recommendations. 3.3.1 Exploratory Research and Qualitative Analysis The objective of this qualitative analysis is to get adequate understanding of the problem. We have introduced different qualitative exploratory techniques to support us in finding problems. We depended on the Pilot studies to generate primary data. We used both Focused Group Interview and Depth Interview. Though this technique doesn¶t apply accurate standards in sampling and is not considered a perfect scientific standard, but it serves an initial support for our qualitative analysis. 3.3.2 Exploratory Research and Quantitative Analysis The objective of this quantitative analysis is to develop and employ mathematical model, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena. It is most suitable to indicate the impact of training and development and it is also suitable for the large well designed and well administered survey. It enables one to establish conceptual models and frameworks and also to know some vital variables and analyse the connection between them. A literature review

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helps to get a better understanding of the research topic. In this research technique we depended on a questionnaire.

3.4 Data Sources
Using the gathered data or reviewing the literature on the topic of interest is important when conducting a research. There are two models of data collection that can be considered when collecting data for research purpose, the primary data and the secondary data. 3.4.1 Secondary Data: It is a historical data that can be referred to as information collected by others for certain purposes that can be different from that of a researcher who intends to use the same information. These can be collected from either internal or external data. In our research we depended on the internal data collected by the HR department in order to see if there could be any information that supports our study. We took into consideration the date of the data collected if it were out-dated or still beneficial. We selected data made from a year ago. Mainly we concentrated on the appraisal and satisfaction forms that have been collected from employees and other data of warning, firing and resigning letters. 3.4.2 Primary Data: It is a first-hand because it is collected mainly for the set research purpose. It helps give appropriate answers to the research questions. People¶s behaviour can hardly be learnt about without asking questions directly of the people involved. Since our main concern is about people¶s attitudes, knowledge and satisfaction before and after a particular training course provide to them, we decided that the data will be gathered through observation, a questionnaire, focus group interview, and a depth interview. This helps us to know the reason behind the changing behaviour of the employees and whether Training and Development has a deep role to this changing.

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3.4.3 Observation Method It is the systematic process of recording the behavioural patterns of people without questioning or communicating with them. The nature of the observation studies was a hidden observation where employees aren¶t aware that an observation is taking place. It is used as supplementary evidence that aims to support the results of the other forms of research by providing complementary qualitative evidence concerning individual true feelings. This allows for the interpretation of non-verbal behaviour as facial expressions. The other reason is that employees are familiar with the researcher as he is a colleague working in the same workplace. They might be unwilling to answer some of the questions that serve the research. So to avoid biased answers, the researcher preferred to be a hidden observer. 3.4.4 Respondents Method: In this method we are going to use two unstructured methods. We call them respondents because the researcher asks questions and wait for the response of the respondents. These methods are a focused group interview and a depth interview. 3.4.4.1 Focused Group Interview: it is a flexible format that encourages discussion aiming to come up with reasons of the problem. It is a major tool since it understands people¶s thoughts and feelings. Five employees holding different positions and departments were selected randomly. The meeting is held in a fresh pleasant place to create a relaxed environment (outside the working place; in an opened coffee shop). We started with a broad question before moving to more specific questions as a warm up to encourage the interaction between the members of the group, to bring easy discussions to bring out true feelings and thoughts. Tools used: we neither used the record nor taking notes in front of the group in order to have a free-flow interview discussion and to avoid unbiased answers and to gain their trust. We preferred immediately after the finishing of the interview to list up all the discussions we gathered in order not to forget any important information mentioned during the interview.

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3.4.4.2

research process. Its aim is to stimulate respondents to elaborate or explain more on the topic being discussed to learn more about the problem and to enable the researcher to determine specifically and identify the problem. The interview includes direct and indirect approaches. The direct approaches are when we asked direct questions about the thoughts and behaviours; for instance ³what is your field of study?´ The indirect approaches such as ³why not all the employees attended the training courses?´ We used this method to learn more about the problem as we were able to guide the interview, explore the issues and probe as the situation occurs. 3.4.5 Questionnaire Method: It is a method of data collection based on communication with the representative sample of individuals. In order to avoid confusion and misunderstanding in the reader, we made our questions relevant and accurate. We divided each group of questions under one title that represents the general idea behind each question of the group. For instance we listed three questions under the title ³Communication´. Our questions were direct and in a simple language. In order to make sure that our questionnaire was clear among all employees, we asked them to read it before they start answering and ask to show us where the question is needed to be clarified and explained. We noticed there were two questions under the same title that were making confusion among some of the employees since both questions were looking alike. In these questions, we intended to use the Split-Ballot Technique to control for response bias. We noticed that if we were to make apart these questions under different titles as we did with others, we are going to get the desirable result.

¤

epth Interview: it is an extensive interview used in the primary stages of the

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Phrasing Questions: There are many different phrasing techniques that we could select, but to serve our study, we found the suitable to choose some of these techniques as others aren¶t necessarily to be used. 3.4.5.1 Open-Ended Question: it is a question that poses some problems and asks the respondents to answer in his own words. We included this technique at the last four questions from the questionnaire. 3.4.5.2 Fixed-Alternative Question: or is called closed question where the respondent is given a specific limited alternative responses and is asked to choose the one closest to his view point. Simple-Dichotomy: We presented in the questionnaire four simple dichotomy questions (yes-no question). Determinant-choice: This type of questions requires a respondent to choose only one among several possible alternatives. Such as in personal information like age (25 and below, 26-35, 36 and above) or in the working experience as in years of experience (1 year and less, 1-2 years, 2-5 years, 5 years and more) Check list: This type of fixed-alternative questions allows the respondents to provide multiple answers to a single question. Such as in the field of study where some employees have double majors and in this way they left the chance to choose multiple answers from the list. Most of our fixed-alternative questions were to choose one of the closest to the respondents view point. The scale we used to choose among were (strongly disagree, disagree, no opinion, agree, strongly agree) 3.4.5.3 Split-ballot Technique: It is a technique used to control for response bias. Two alternatives phrasings of the same questions are utilized for respective halves of the same sample to defer a more accurate total response than would be possible if only a single phrasing were utilized. We provide this technique with two questions from the questionnaire:

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The people I work with to get the work done.  There is cooperation among team members.

3.5 Sampling Method:
In our study we preferred to include all the staff members in the organization so as to get accurate results, however after distributing the needs assessment, we only got 11 filled questionnaires out of 19.

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Chapter 4: Organizational Background
This chapter will talk about the organization that we are going to base our study on.

4.1 Premiere Urgence
Premiere Urgence is a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization working in the field of international solidarity. It is not in any way a religious or political organization. Première Urgence is an association defined under the French law of 1901 as a charitable aid organization authorized to receive donations and bequests pursuant to a decision pronounced by the Prefect of the Hauts-de-Seine region on 20th August 2001. 4.1.1 History of Premiere Urgence Première Urgence was founded in 1992, during the war in the former Yugoslavia, in order to organize a supplies convoy to be sent out to populations in the area that were under siege. The generosity of its donors at that time encouraged the founders to form a permanent association to be a formal organization to help aid victims. The organization born at this time was composed of a group of volunteers and was exclusively focused on emergency aid actions. It was named Première Urgence. Since its foundation, Première Urgence has been involved in emergency aid actions in over 34 different countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Its actions have included reconstruction projects in Nicaragua in 1998, in the wake of Hurricane Mitch work in , Kosovo in 1999 to help refugees fleeing the bombings, actions in Iraq both during and after the war to support the country¶s hospital facilities, and many more. In 2004, Première Urgence teams were at work in Chad to help Sudanese refugees fleeing the conflict in Darfur.

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In 2005 its teams worked in the field in a number of different humanitarian crises: in Aceh, on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, and in Muzaffarabad, in the mountainous region of Kashmir, in Pakistan. In July 2006, Première Urgence provided emergency aid to victims of the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah in Southern Lebanon. Later in the same year, they initiated a new program in Uganda, to help displaced populations to return to their homes. In 2007, Première Urgence teams travelled to the North of the Central African Republic to assist victims of civil conflicts who had been forced to leave their villages. Over the course of 2007, more than 1.2 million people benefited directly from aid provided by Première Urgence through its various aid actions. In 2008, Première Urgence employs 25 members of staff at its headquarters, 100 overseas staff members and over 1,000 people in the field, in more than 15 different countries throughout Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the Caucasus. 4.1.2 Mission of Premiere Urgence The mission of Premiere urgence is to provide first-hand and immediate assistance to people who find themselves victims of natural and economic disasters or conflicts, usually in war zones. PU is committed to helping people caught up in such situations take charge of their own destiny again by giving them back their autonomy and dignity. 4.1.3 Objectives PU objectives are to defend the principles of the universal right to life and dignity, international human rights, impartiality and non-discrimination, PU organize concrete and direct actions to help civilians who are in danger, marginalized or excluded, whether as a result of natural disasters, disasters caused by the actions of mankind, civil or international wars or violence sparked by economic crises in the wake of national or international political upheavals.

4.2 PU Principles
Premiere Urgence is guided by the following strict and fundamental principles:

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Impartiality: PU actions are driven regardless of race, religion, social background, political membership or any other discriminating criteria. PU focuses on helping individuals in relation to how much they have suffered prioritizing the needs of the most vulnerable. Independence: PU strong principles assure the independence of the organization. Transparency: PU actions are subjected to regular reports which are written specifically for the people involved, the local and national authorities and the donors.

4.3 PU Identity
PU identifies itself through the following principles: Commitment Premiere Urgence is committed to promoting its humanitarian ideals throughout its organization from its employees, volunteers and to its members. This commitment means that the organization is involved with extensive training, dialogue and supporting initiatives of the employees, the volunteers and the members of Premiere Urgence. On joining the association, volunteers, employees and members of Premiere Urgence commit themselves to a path motivated by humanist values and devotion to h uman welfare which gives meaning to their working life. To provide direct assistance Immediate and first-hand help to victims has been an intrinsic element of Premiere Urgence's culture since it started. PU provides direct assistance, which means help prov ided directly from face to face without intermediary intervention. PU also intervenes and lives close to the people whom they are working with. To reach territory abandoned by others Premiere Urgence's identity is synonymous with its interventions in war zones or in favor of neglected people who are the most vulnerable. PU provides assistance in the most remote areas, in the most difficult contexts to populations not serviced by humanitarian aid. Freedom to intervene is not always immediately granted. However, PU always advocates allowing this.

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To adapt Premiere Urgence cultivates the evident diversity of its humanitarian missions. The actions are designed following a needs analysis conducted by PU on-the-field teams who rely on local culture and expertise for their beneficiaries of PU. To be open-minded Premiere Urgence creates technical, financial and human partnerships. PU brings in a core competencies adapted to the specific needs diagnosed by the field staff. PU also functions by raising public awareness to the complexity of humanitarian action and by sharing the values and the methods which govern our actions.

4.4 PU Actions
Première Urgence organizes and implements specific aid programs appropriate to the crisis in question:  Emergency Aid: Distribution of food and other products, hygiene products, medicines, hospital equipment and other medical supplies.  Post-Crisis: Restoration and management of dispensaries, hospitals and other local facilities, construction or rebuilding of schools, restoration of housing, restoration or construction of water supply networks, rebuilding of roads. 

Micro-Economic Recovery: Agricultural programs, assistance in achieving
economic recovery, micro-credit and distribution of business start-up kits, socioeconomic reintegration.

4.5 Premiere Urgence unding
Most funding comes from voluntary contribution of donor states. Premiere Urgence institutional sponsors finance specific projects in its various fields of action. Financing is

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granted on the basis of an evaluation of the competence of PU field teams and upon submission of a project. Once a project has been approved, a procedure is set up to allow the financers to monitor, assess and audit the accounts relating to the action. Such financing is crucial in order to allow Première Urgence to continue to provide assistance to victims of humanitarian crises. Premiere Urgence largest donors are the ECHO (European Commission), World Bank, United Nations and others. A small portion comes from private foundations and associations and actions group. 4.5.1 Process of funding After the procedures taken by PU in defining the needs of the affected population, PU goes on to the affected areas, conduct a needs assessment, analyze the needs assessment, conduct researches on the convictions and conventions of the people and calls through a well professional written proposal the needs of the affected population, the objectives, strategies, plans, timeline, budget and resources needed to implement the defined project to help affected people recover their socio-economic life through different aspects of life and later send it to these donors to study and make their decisions toward funding this project.

4.6 PU in Lebanon
After an initial emergency operation in 1996, Première Urgence has been working continuously in Lebanon since 2001. PU operations are currently organized around two geographical centers:  The Palestinian gatherings of Ein el-Hilweh and Saida area, in which Première Urgence is rehabilitating shelters and sanitation facilities.  The Palestinian camp of Nahr el-Bared, largely destroyed during the summer of 2007, in which Première Urgence is rebuilding accommodation and small businesses affected by the conflict.

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4.6.1 Premiere Urgence Recovery plan in Lebanon a) Rehabilitation: Shelter rehabilitation programs aim at improving the housing conditions of the most vulnerable Palestinian refugee families. 700 refugees in the region of Saida and 1,100 displaced refugees in Nahr el Bared area will benefit from the ongoing programs. b) Water and sanitation:A water and sanitation program was recently completed in the Palestinian gathering of Sikke, near the Palestinian camp of Ein El Hilweh, Saida. It allowed 2,000 people to have access to a waste water network.. Similar works will begin soon in the gathering of Al Baraksat to improve access to safe water and sanitation for 4500 families. c) Economic recovery:The economic recovery program underway in Tripoli is targeting 200 merchants or artisans who have lost all or part of their working tool during the destruction of Nahr el-Bared refugee camp in northern Lebanon. The objective of this program is to enable these families to regain economic independence through sustainable professional income. After detailed assessments, a customized professional tool kit is delivered to each micro-entrepreneur. The individual follow up and business management training sessions contribute to the sustainability of micro enterprises supported.

4.7 Preliminary study
There are many internal and external factors that affect the mission of PU in Lebanon. 4.7.1 Political Regulations The guidelines developed by the Lebanese government are not only clear but brutally realistic. Palestinian refugees in Lebanon obtained the status of 'foreigners with an unlimited residence permit'. They are deprived of almost all civil rights and subjected to various forms of marginalization. The Lebanese Government forbids the reconstruction of totally destroyed camps, and in other camps any reconstruction or building requires a special permit which is usually not issued. In some camps, Lebanese soldiers verify that

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the residents are not smuggling in building materials. Building without a permit is punishable by arrest and detention (USCR Report, 1999). Until today, the legal framework has been much more refined. Refugees that have left their original camps due to the Israeli war that hit these camps and due to bad internal security conditions in the camps; became dispersed around Lebanon. Many have settled on plots of land which later became gatherings or informal settlement. Though, Lebanese government continues to prohibit the refugees from carrying out any reconstruction or refurbishment to their houses. These restrictions and regulations from the Lebanese government have limited the efforts of PU mission to aid Palestinians outside and inside the Lebanese Palestinian camps. PU aren't permitted to build new shelters or exchange zinc sheet shelters to concrete ones, PU aren't allowed to shift their materials to these areas without the knowledge of the government, it is also not allowed to make any new project unless approved by the Lebanese government, PU is also restricted at some places like Saida Old City by the Lebanese DGA on the ways they have to rehabilitate the historical shelters. 4.7.2 Economic Crisis Since PU missions are mostly dependent on the international funds, in particular the ECHO funds in Lebanon regarding rehabilitation projects, an economic crisis to these foreign international funds and PU can affect the funding percentage to projects that most affected population rely on. As per the final economic crisis as an instant, ECHO; the main donor who supports highly the funding of PU projects cuts a high percentage of its funding due to the last economic crisis that affects their economical financial situations. In this case, PU has to cut from their employees' and beneficiaries' numbers to balance between the needs and the funds percentage or to search for other donors that are able to fund the project. Other than funding conditions, there is the economic situation of the country that PU intervenes on. Bad or good economic situations can also affect PU budget control to implement its mission. As for instance, resources of materials bought to implement the

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projects are from the country on intervention, any critical economic situation to this country can affect the funding budget to the projects. 4.7.3 Environmental Conditions Countries PU intervenes on such as Lebanon; can be either affected by natural or politicalwar crisis. The security situation to these countries is the main concern to any international Non-governmental organizations. Any sudden attack to these countries can be an obstacle for PU to perform its mission in the affected area and force her to stop its projects until the cease of these conflicts. PU intervention on the Palestinian gatherings in Lebanon is another internal concern to the success of PU mission. The internal political conflicts between Palestinians inside and around camps play another obstacle to the implementation of PU projects where Lebanese Army Force is absence. In this case, PU employees are in daily risky situation to implement, conduct and monitor the process of work. Palestinians in Lebanon are most living in areas where bad infrastructure from electricity, to sewages, to water networks and bad shelters affect their psycho-social and physical behaviours and where many tensions inside these areas are, thus suffering due to the loss of trust they got from their surroundings. The harsh socio-economic conditions the affected population are facing and the limited and brutal political regulations toward their rights made them even harder people to communicate with and this also may limit PU missions until they gain the trust of these people. With all these mentioned factors, PU is still struggling against these conditions trying the best to succeed in its mission to help in recovering the needs of victims of war or natural disasters.

4.8 SWOT Analysis
1. Internal Strength  Premiere Urgence clear vision and mission.  Good Quality Management Standards.  Code of Conduct.  Enthusiastic Staff for team work and management.
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Capacity building.  Free of charge training.  Qualified and experienced Staff.  Communication System.  Competitive salaries.  Available facilities and equipment. 2. Internal Weaknesses  Financial Constraints  Lack of coordination between departments.  Weak linkage between employees needs and trainings presented.( absence of pre assessment)  Short term contracts. 3. External Opportunities  Donors supporting the projects. (Inconsistency)  Good relations with the local governments (municipality)  Strong liaison with other local and international NGOs acting in the area of intervention.  Good linkage with labour markets. (www.lebanon-support.org).  Support from Army forces.  Good reputation gained from previous projects.  Good linkage with number of suppliers. 4. External Threats  Long procedures or constraints from external donations.  War or natural crisis in the field of intervention.  Bad security situations in the camps.  Risk of losing experienced staff.  Instability of economic and political situations in the area of intervention.  World economic crisis which affect the donor's funding percentages to projects.

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4.9

i

i

l

HOM

Administrator

Mission Logistic Officer

Head of Base

Project Coordinator

Admin-Assistant

Data Base Manager

Project Social Manager

Driver-Log

Civil Engineer

Civil Engineer

Cleaner

Driver

Senior Field Officer

Public Health Expert

Technical Field Officer

Technical Engineer Assistant

Cleaner

Field Officer

4.9.1 Deep Diagnosis Resource: Premiere Urgence HR 4.9.1Head of Mission The head of mission is responsible for the good specification and the implementation of PU mission in Lebanon within the framework of the objectives clarified at the headquarters office. This includes the following dimensions: project management and Development, Human Resources Management, Administrative and Financial responsibilities, Representation, Reporting to the headquarters, and Analysis of Management and Security context follow up. He has internal and external relationships His internal relationships are such as: a) The Head of Mission is directly linked to the desk of the headquarters Head of -a program and a Financial Officer. The Head of Mission gives account of program activities, results, difficulties, and problems encountered to the desk.

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b) The Head of Mission collaborates with all other departments of the headquarters after addressing the needs. c) The Head of Mission is in charge of all teams in the field. He is the immediate superior of the expatriate and national medical referents. His external relationships are such as: a) The Head of Mission represents the organization on the field. b) He works in the partnership with local and national authorities, ministries, donors and all other partners present in the area of intervention. The Head of Mission plays a part in the project management and development through creating, planning and following up activities, supporting its implementation, monitoring and evaluating of the projects and by ensuring the cohesion of mission and the internal communication through regular coordination meetings and by evaluating the humanitarian situation in the area of intervention and other possible areas. The Head of Mission also plays a role in the human resources management by supervision of national staff according to the country labour law, management of expatriate staff by determining the needs and drafting of job term of reference, and responsibility of security. He also has important administrative and financial responsibilities as well as an important role in representing the organization to local and international actors in the country of intervention. 4.9.2 Head of Base The Head of Base is responsible for coordinating, consolidating, and ensuring smooth implementation of and adherence to logistic, human resources, administration and security procedures and provides operational support to the programs on PU base in PU mission. The HOB is in charge of building the capacity of the local support team in the base. He also is responsible to report to the Head of Mission. The Head of Base plays a part in managing the opening, closing and/or regular running of the base including management of all support staff, program staff

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activities, administration and security of the base. He ensures that PU procedures and donor regulations applicable to projects implemented on the base in regards to logistics, security, HR, and administration are closely followed. The Head of Base also plays a part in Administration and Human Resources by setting up and implementing of standard of PU Administration. The HOB ensures the proper management of finances on the base including planning, authorization of expenses, and reporting. The Head of Base also ensures the management of Human Resources in accordance with PU guidelines and the legal requirements in the host country. He also plays a role in representing the organization at the local/regional level including general meetings with humanitarian actors, local authorities, protocol meetings, security meetings and sector meetings. She also manages the visit of donors¶ representatives, HQ visitors, and other stakeholders. 4.9.3 Mission Log Officer The Mission Log Officer is typically in charge of managing the proper setup, rehabilitation, running of base premises (office/expat and guest house), ensures the proper functioning of supply chain including procurement planning, purchasing of goods and services, their transport and storage, supervises the organization, planning, and maintenance of the task force, evaluates and reports the need and ensures the proper use of PU equipment, assesses and ensures the functioning of the means of communication appropriate for PU base. He is also responsible for the security on the base including staff, premises, as well as security of PU materials and assets. He assesses, monitors, and reports the security situation and develops security procedures relevant to the context.

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4.9.4 Administrator The Administrator is responsible for the primary management and support programs for the National Intervention Board. These include the functions of budget and accounting, human resources, procurement, and office support. The Administrator plays role in the Financial Management Services including budget and accounting through budget formulation and execution, funds control, financial reports, and system for accounting for agency resources and programs. The Administrator plays also a role in Human Resources through recruitment and placement, classification and Pay Administration, performance management and incentive awards, employee benefits, personnel security, wellness and employee assistance programs, and through training coordination by coordinating with agencies training programs. He/she are also responsible for the office services and operations including printing, procurement, and supply services by maintaining a simplified acquisition program for supplies and services and by coordinating services and supplies. He/she plays as a metro subsidy by distributing funding, maintaining records of certification and by reconciling the funds. 4.9.5 Project Coordinator The project Coordinator is responsible for coordinating activities and resources in support of tech61nical projects that impact multiple departments, systems, or workflows with moderate to high risk and complexity or multiple projects simultaneously with lesser risk and complexity. 4.9.6 Human Resources Manager HR department is absent at PU office in Lebanon; instead HR tasks are scattered among different managers who have different experience backgrounds other than Human Resources; however the main manager who held most of HR tasks is the administrator who basically is responsible for finance.

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4.9.6.1 Human Resources Department
Figure 4.1: HR Management Process

Premiere Urgence HR Department

4.10 Human Resources Challenges
a) P Stability in Lebanon Premiere Urgence is exciting in Lebanon for one major reason which is to assist and aid people who suffered from political and economic crisis. In other word, PU stability in Lebanon depends on how many needs there are to assist and cover. When there is no need to accomplish, PU mission in Lebanon ends. Along with the internal and external e nvironmental threats such as war and internal security, PU human resources department is unable to assure the consistency and stability

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of work which leads either to a lack of commitment of its employees to their work and/or turnover where employees search for a job security. b) PU unding Premiere Urgence is a not-for-profit organization and its projects depend on voluntary funding. In other word, if PU failed to get funds from any sources to implement its projects and assist vulnerable, its mission will end up and there is no need for a non-profit organization to stay and waste its own resources to get in loss. c) Different Cultures Premiere Urgence staff and beneficiaries are from different nationalities. PU finds at every mission and project difficulties to adapt to other cultures especially that its own staff might come from different backgrounds and different conventions and convictions (French, Lebanese, Palestinians etc«) and the adaptation of its staff to the culture of the area of intervention until PU gains its trust within the population. This affects the process and time ending of any project to be accomplished and eventually affects PU image in front of the donors. d) External staff-(daily workers from the area of intervention) In order to fast gain the trust of the area of intervention and to implement the project before its time limit, PU preferred to recruit daily workers from the area of intervention under the supervision and monitoring of its own staff. This procedure at some areas might affect negatively the process of work and the security of PU staff especially if these daily workers were tough to deal with or if PU failed to gain the trust of the population. e) Security PU nowadays main objective is to aid Palestinians in the gatherings around Ein El Hilwe Camp- a very inconsistent unsecured area outside the Lebanese Security Force Area of intervention. This obliged PU another challenge to create its own security procedures for the security of its own staff members though still there is no guarantee for PU to be able to evacuate its staff when sudden emergency problem occurs in the site.

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All these challenges affect mainly the recruitment, the staff consistency and stability and lead to either a turnover or lack of commitment in the organization. In th way, the is Human Resources Department has to search for other ways to create a high selfcommitment and satisfaction and to motivate its employees to perform their job efficiently and effectively.

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Chapter ive: Data Analysis
In this chapter the results of the study will be presented. Each title in this chapter presents its importance for the study followed by the analysis of the data collected from our respondents with the use of a questionnaire before and after conducting a training and development activity.

5.1 Characteristics of the Respondents
Our respondents sample consists of 8 males (72.7%) and 3 females (27.3%). In terms of age, 1 of the respondents¶ ages is below 25 years in age (9.1%), 7 of them ranges between 26-35 years old (63.9%) and 3 of them are 36 and above (27.3%). According to their level of education, 1 is undergraduate (9.1%), 5 have got graduate degrees (45.5%) and 5 have post graduate degrees (45.5%). Among them there are 3 employees who studies Business Administration in their universities (27.3%), 2 studied laws (18.2%), 2 studies engineering (18.2%) and the rest got different educational studies (36.4%). However, each of those employees has different years of experience with PU where 1 of them has a year and less experience with PU (9.1%), 5 has 1-2 years of experience (45.5%) and 5 others has 2-5 years of experience with PU (45.5%). We have intended to include their field of studies so that we are able to know if those employees field of study has a relation with their position at PU. This gives evidence that providing training to improve their working performance and career is important to their satisfaction and relatively the organization¶s development. We also mentioned their experience with PU to know whether it is relevant to study their commitment and satisfaction to the organization after a period of time. Usually this study can¶t be conducted after a working in a very short period of time with PU.

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To enhance our studies with the suitable information supporting our studies, we asked questions to get answers whether Training and Development plays a major role in the changing behaviour of employees, their commitment and satisfaction toward their work, and relatively their impact in the organization¶s development. We asked questions about Communication, Satisfaction, Training, Career, Organization, Department, Recognition, Management, Teamwork, Equality, and Security.

5.2 Communication
We asked questions about communication since it has an impact on employees¶ performance and on learning and education where the latters are two main components of development. Here are the following questions that we asked employees to give their point of views choosing from the scale.

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1- I usually know plenty of time when important things happen This subsection analyses was to see how far employees are connected deeply to their teams and their organization. We wanted to know how far there working environment grows with others from different departments and different positions as all departments are related to each other to achieve the same goal. We have asked the same question before and after making needs assessment and training courses. According to figure 5.1, we noticed that before conducting training, 3 employees disagree with this statement d (27.3%) which shows that these employees had run in an experience where they knew about important things after happening 3 had no opinion whether they are usually , informed about important things (27.3%) which shows lack of confident in the discussion between each other, 4 employees agreed that they are informed about important thin gs (36.4%) and 1 strongly agreed that he is usually informed (9.1%). After conducting a training session to the employees, we have noticed positive changes in the results where the number of employees who agreed about being informed increased by 3 employees to become 7 (63.6%) and 1 ³strongly Agreed´ (9.1%). 3 employees responded they had no opinion (27.3%) either because time to adapt was insufficient or there was a difficulty to react immediately to the new communication strategy, and The 27.3% positive change in results shows that training implemented by managers of the departments or so-called expertise to their employees had made an impact on the changing behaviour of employees where there were more efforts done to improve communication between departments. The organization has done more initiatives to empower the coordination and communication skills among all divisions and individuals working in the organization.

Figure 5.1: I usually know when important things happen

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In order to be more accurate, we evaluated the pre-responses according to positions to see which of the departments were having deficits in usually knowing important things when they happen.

Figure 5.2: Know when Important things happen*Position at PU

In figure 5.2 we noticed that 3 respondents from the social department answered ³Disagree´ as the organization chart shows and 2 managers from both technical and social departments and a technical engineer answered ³No Opinion´. This information helped our research to give more efforts in developing social team communication wit h others and between themselves and similarly the technical team. 2- I can see the link between my work and PU objectives Figure 5.3 shows that before doing a training course for the employees, 1 of them replie d that he didn¶t see the link between his work and PU objectives (9.1%) which shows that he didn¶t know his job responsibility or ignores his position in PU, 3 had no opinion whether their work had anything to do with PU objectives (27.3%)either because they don¶t have a clear idea about PU objectives or their position objectives is not stated clearly, and 7 reported that they see the link to a certain extent ³Agree´ (63.6%) . After the training, we noticed 2 employees were still not sure about the link between their work and PU objectives (18.2%)maybe because they couldn¶t get clear explanation about their working objectives during training, while 9 employees agreed that they can see the link (81.8%).

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Figure 5.3: Link between my work and PU Objectives

3- Managers Communicate clear objectives for the PU to achieve This statement is a split-ballot technique (double statement) to the former. The aim is to see how much accurate their results were. Before doing the training course for the employees, figure 5.4 shows that 2 of them disagreed that their managers communicate clear objectives for PU to achieve (18.2%), 4 had no opinion whether the message that PU wanted to achieve is clearly stated from the managers (36.4%), 4 agreed that their managers communicate clear objectives (36.4%), and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%). After the training course, results changed, where 2 of the respo ndents were still unsure whether the objectives being communicated by the manager are clear (18.2%), 8 of them agreed that it is stated clearly (72.7%), and 1 respondent strongly agreed that objectives are communicated clearly by managers.

Figure 5.4: Managers communicate clear objectives for PU to achieve

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5.3 Satisfaction
Since our main research question is to find however training and development has any impact on employees¶ satisfaction, we saw it is very important to add questions related tosatisfaction so that it gives us a clear result, but still to bring an accurate result we have to ask several questions that goes around Satisfaction in order to avoid inappropriateness. 4- My working conditions are good. In figure 5.5, we have noticed that before doing a training and development course, 6 were almost unsatisfied either due to the clash between departments which we have noticed in our observationor they believe that the conditions given are unfair 1 of them . strongly disagreed (9.1%), 2 disagreed about the working conditions (18.2%) and 3 had no opinion whether they are getting good working conditions or not (27.3%). However, there were 5 respondents that were satisfied about the conditions of their work where 4 of them agreed (36.7%) and 1 respondent strongly agreed that it was good (9.1%). After the training and development courses, we have noticed some few changes in the result of the employees where respondents who agreed that they were having good working conditions increased by 2 responden (54.5%) and those who strongly agreed ts increased by 1 (18.2%), but 3 employees responded that they got no opinion whether their working conditions are good (27.3%) simply because they were waiting for positive changing conditions.

Figure 5.5: Working conditions are good

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5.4 Training
Training is our basic research study topic. Of course to know whether employees get right training to improve their performance and skills, it was important to include in our questionnaire few questions that employees can respond immediately before doing any training course though we know the impact of training is for immediate change and short term. 5- I get the training I need to do my job well This statement shows however the training provided by HR department was chosen according to the needs assessed before from employees and managers to see which training course should be provided to employees to develop their skills and knowledge to do their job well or whether there were chaos choosing of trainings causing waste of resources. Figure 5.6 shows that before training 1 of the respondents strongly disagreed that he is getting the training that helps him to do his job well (9.1%), 6 disagreed that they are getting the suitable training to do their job well (54.5%), 1 had no opinion (9.1%), but 3 agreed that the training they got was needed to do their job well (27.3%). After conducting training course suitable to each employee¶s needs we found that 3 respondents were having no opinion whether the training they got was needed to do their job well (27.3%) either because they didn¶t understand the objective of the training related to their work or they believe the training conducted was suitable, 8 respondents agreed that the training which they were given after the first needs assessment was needed to do their job well (72.7%).

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Figure 5.6: I get training I need to do my job well

6- I am aware of available training and development activities. This statement was given to enhance the communication results obtained. Figure 5.7 shows that 1 of the respondents strongly disagreed he is aware of available training and development activities (9.1%), 2 disagreed (18.2%), and 2 had no opinion if they were receiving news whether available T&D activities occur (18.2%), 5 agreed they are aware of the available training and develo pment activities (45.5%) and 1 strongly agreed he is completely aware (9.1%). We couldn¶t measure the changes of results due to the short period of time between the first and the last assessment where no training activities were held. The reason why we included this statement is to be sure whether employees are always kept in track with any available or important information for their work ³split ballo t technique-communication´.

Figure 5.7: I am aware of available T&D activities

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7- I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills in PU. This question was intended to support a question asked to the HR manager during the interview. Before taking any initiative to do any training we asked them if they were given an opportunity to improve their skills. Figure 5.8 shows that 4 respondents disagreed about getting a real opportunity to improve their skills (36.4%), 2 had no opinion whether they are getting or not (18.2%), 4 agreed they get real opportunities (36.4%) and 1 strongly agreedhe got real opportunity within PU to improve his skills (9.1%). In order to come up with a clear conclusion, we found that it is important to know how far those employees have been complaining or dissatisfied about the work they do. So it was important to study the result upon years of experience. In figure 5.9, we found that those who disagreed were 3 employees working with PU from 2-5 years and 1 employee whose experience with PU is 1 year and less, we also noticed 2 respondents had no opinion whether they were given a real opportunity to improve their skills. 1 of them is having a 1-2 years¶ experience and the second is with 2 years. However, those who agreed that -5 they were given real opportunities were 4 respondents working from 1 years with PU. -2 This result shows that the distribution of opportunities between employees weren¶t fair which cause dissatisfaction and lack of commitment.

Figure 5.9: I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills*years of experience

After the training, figure 5.8 shows that only 2 had no opinion whether the training had any impact on their skills improvement (18.2%) because the period before receiving their

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feedback after changing was short, 8 agreed that the trainings gives real opportunity for them to improve their skills (72.7%), and 1 strongly agreed

Figure 5.8: I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills

5.5 Career
Anyone who is seeking a green pasture in a company will look for available opportunities that can develop his career. An employee would look for challenges in his work, available trainings that improve his performance, promotions and continuity. All these factors ha e v impacts of the level of satisfaction and commitment toward the organization and relatively its development. We asked questions however there are opportunities to develop the career, whether there are fair and reasonable promotions, and the chance of progressing within PU. 8- I believe there are a variety of ways for me to develop my career at PU Before the training course, figure 5.10 shows that 2 employees disagree that there are variety of ways to develop their career (18.2%), 5 have no opinion whethe there are r variety of ways (45.5%), 3 agreed that there were variety of ways to develop their career (27.3%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%). After the training course, the 2 employees were still having no opinion whether there are ways to develop their care (18.2%), 8 agreed er that there were (72.7%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%).

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Figure 5.10: There are varieties of ways to develop my career at PU

9- Job promotions within PU are fair and reasonable. One of the objectives of this question wasn¶t only to see whether employees are satisfied, but also to see if there is equality between all members according to their performance. In the first needs assessment form,figure 5.11 shows that 6 respondents had no opinion whether job promotions are fair and reasonable (54.5%) either because employees had no interest on other colleagues whether they are getting reasonable job promotions so they don¶t compare themselves with the others or because they haven¶t received any promotions so far. 3 agreed that it is reasonable (18.2%) and 2 strongly agreed that it is fair and reasonable (18.2%). We couldn¶t receive any feedback after the training course because of the limit time we got to recollect the post assessment.

Figure 5.11: Job promotions are fair and reasonable

10- I am aware of promotion opportunities within PU This question was used also as a split-ballot technique where we wanted to be sure as well whether there are mutual close relation among departments and relatively good communication or whether there are fair equality among them. In the first need

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assessment form-Questionnaire, figure 5.12 shows that 2 of the respondents disagreed about being aware of promotion opportunities within PU (18.2%) which chose there is either poor communication between managers and their teams or between managers and HR department where the former misses receiving the information to send to his team or because promotion opportunities are missing in the organization. 5 had no opinion whether there are promotion opportunities (45.5% )either because there could be no available promotion opportunities presented since they were hired with PU or because they believe they weren¶t usually receiving such kind of information from the HR department or there managers, and 4 agreed they were aware of promotion opportunities (36.4%).

Figure 5.12: I am aware of promotion opportunities within PU

11- I have the opportunity to progress within PU. This statement was presented to know if employees are having a feeling of satisfaction and a feeling of job security and whether they are aware of the opportunities given to them. In figure 5.13 shows that before training, one of the respondents disagreed that he has the opportunity to progress within PU (9.1%) which shows a feeling of dissatisfaction and feeling of secure toward his work with PU 5 had no opinion whether they had any , opportunity to progress within PU (45.5%) either because the opportunity wasn¶t yet on time or because they don¶t know whether PU is going to remain working in Lebanon.3 agreed that they got opportunities to progress (27.3%) and 2 strongly agreed (18.2%). After training, figure 5.13 shows 3 respondents were still having no opinion whether they got opportunity to progress and this is mainly due to the limit of time when we received

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the feedback after training, 6 agreed that they are having the opportunity to progress (54.5%), and 2 strongly agreed (18.2%).

Figure 5.13: I have the opportunity to progress within PU

5.6 Organi ation
In order to maintain its stability and develop its performance, we have to look for the overall defects within employees and the organization. It was significant to ask a question regarding its working policies that plays a strategic role in the performance, satisfaction, and commitment to this organization. 12- PU is innovative in developing new ways to serve our beneficiaries To be innovative by itself means an opportunity to motivate employees to have a self commitment toward the organization; it means that employees are strongly satisfied about the kind of work they are doing to the extent that they are innovating things to serve their beneficiaries and/or it also means that the organization is providing a healthy, motivated, and secured atmosphere to its employees that they are performing more han it is t expected. This questionnaire serves the culture building strategy of the organization where it fosters a higher commitment towards the goals and objectives of it. Figure 5.14 shows that before the training, 3 employees (27.3%) had no opinion whether PU innovate new ways to serve beneficiaries either because they are not aware of PU accomplishments or because they ignore the criteria and quality that PU provide and in this way innovating new ways won¶t be noticeable, 63.6% of the respondents agreed that PU innovate new ways (7 employees) and 9.1% strongly agreed (1 employee).

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We didn¶t include this question at the post assessment due to the short period of time after delivering the training.

Figure 5.14: PU is innovative in developing new ways to serve our beneficiaries

13- PU image is that of a high quality organization. High quality organization refers to the product an organization sells to its customer where they feel satisfied but delighted. Question 12 serves an answer to this statement in a way that if PU is always kept on a track of new technology to change, to innovate, and to improve its performance and products to serve its customers, than its image is connected to the high quality standard that it delivers to its customers, as for instan the brand ce, image of Pepsi was due to the product it serves for its customers to be delighted. In figure 5.15,4 respondents had no opinion whether PU image is of a high quality organization (36.4%) either because some of them are not aware of PU achiev ements outside the office and mainly those people who are always working in the office so they don¶t see or hear customers¶ positive feedback toward PU or because those who are in a direct contact with beneficiaries don¶t receive any positive feedback fromcustomers, and 7 agreed that PU image is of a high quality (63.6%). The image changing effect after training and after 2 month is not enough to be measured but it is based on a long term strategy to change its image. However, since 63.6% of PU employees see that it is of a high image, we consider it a good result.

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Figure 5.15: PU image is of a high quality

14- The work policies are well developed and organized This statement reveals whether the organization is exposed to external changes where to coop and adapt to; changing and developing working policies to fit changes This is also . to know whether the organization gives real opportunities to its employees by providing trainings to its employees to receive enough knowledge in order to work according to the new policies. Being organized shows that employees arereceiving the information clearly and are aware of how to perform their duties matching the new working policies. he preT needs assessment form in figure 5.16 showed that 2 employees disagreed (18.2%), 4 had no opinion whether the working policies are well developed and organized (36.4%) either because they are confused whether they are usually updated about new policies which shows there is a lack of trust or there is poor communication between the staff members or because they weren¶t aware about the objectivity of the previous training held or because they ignore the organization policies. 4 respondents agreed (36.4%) and 1 strongly agreed that it was well developed and organized (9.1%). However to support this study, we intended to search on our pre -assessment to know what employees and under which department they work and believe that working policies are not well developed and organized and why some of them had no opinion whether it is well developed or organized or whether it is not. This will let us understand more where the training should concentrate to make positive changes. In figure 5.17 we found that 1 engineer (technical department) and a health expert (social department) disagreed about the work policies in the organization, a field officer (social depa rtment), a manager (Engineering department/technical department), the head of base of the organization (responsible for both social and technical departments) and a logistic had no opinion whether working policies are well developed and organized.

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Figure 5.17: The work policies are well developed and organized*Position at PU

Nevertheless, the post-needs assessment in figure 5.17 shows that 2 respondents (18.2%) were still having no opinion whether policies were well developed and organizedand this is because they didn¶t sense the changing difference yet, 8 agreed (72.7%) that policies are well organized and developed and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%).

Figure 5.16: The work policies are well developed and organized

5.7 Recognition
Rewards and recognition are important since they have impact on change in working motivation and satisfaction where organization seeks to determine the reasonable balance between employee commitment and performance to approach a higher level of performance efficiency and relatively organization¶s continual growth. 15- Hard work is usually rewarded at my organization This statement intends to see whether employees receive enough recognition about the job they perform, and if they don¶t receive, what could be the reasons. It is also stated to know whether employees are so satisfied to the extent that they do hard work and receive

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rewards in exchange of their hard work they provide to the organization. All these factors show how far HR department recognize its employees and pa attention to motivate them y at their work to enhance reliability and commitment to the organization. Before the training course, employees responded to this statement differently. We found in figure 5.18 that 1 employee disagreed (9.1%) either because he never received any reward so far or because rewards are not reasonable to the hard work he performs 6 , employees had no opinion whether hard work is usually rewarded (54.7%)and their answer could be taken in general according to the whole staff so they d on¶t know whether others who perform hard work usually get rewarded or if taken from one¶s own perspective; he might not be familiar of the available rewards given or he doesn¶t know whether his work is considered to be hard upon others. 3 employees agreed that work is usually rewarded (27.3%), and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%). However, after the training course, we noticed that only 2 employees still had no opinion whether works are usually rewarded (18.2%) and this is either because the time to perform hard and receive rewards was too short or because they are still confused whether what they are performing are sighted to be hard and 9 employees agreed that hard work , is usually rewarded (81.8%).

Figure 5.18: Hard work is usually rewarded in my organization

16- I receive enough recognition for work that I do . If a person receives enough recognition for the work he does, this implies that his managers and team members notice his hard work, he is satisfied so he performs efficiently and effectively, he knows what is job responsibilities very clearly, and HR

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department is aware to be fair and reasonable with its employees to motivate them to do better job. Figure 5.19 shows that before training. 3 respondents disagreed about receiving enough recognition for the work they do (27.3%) and this is either because they are not performing well their job responsibilities or their managers don¶t notice the good performance so they become demotivated. 1 respondent had no opinion whether he receives enough recognition (9.1%) and this is because he is not sure whether the complements he is receiving are positive to his side and enough. 6 agreed (54.5%) and 1 strongly agreed he receives enough recognition (9.1%). After training, 2 respondents stated they had n opinion whether they received enough o recognition (18.2%) and this is either to the short period of time after delivering the training and before receiving the pre-assessment so their work performance wasn¶t enough to let them receive enough recognition and 9 agreed that they are receiv ing enough recognition (81.8%).

Figure 5.19: I receive enough recognition for the work I do

5.8 Management
At any organization, management plays the first and main role in its growth and continuity where it is the main department to set plans organize it, lead and communicate with it staff s (people management), and take wise decisions to achieve organizational objectivity. 17- My manager helps me get ahead at my work If managers help their team or staff to improve and develop in their job performance or work, this means that they are given suitable trainings, they are recognized and rewarded,

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their job performance is well done, there are new ways and policies the organzation i creates so managers have to prepare its employees to coop with changes, job opportunities are presented in the organization and everyone is treated fairly in a decentralized atmosphere. Figure 5.20 shows that before training, 2 respondents stated that their managers don¶t help them to get ahead at their jobs (18.2%) either due to the lack of new policies, absence of new job opportunities or managers are afraid to close gaps between them and their staff which shows centralization. 2 had no opinion whether their managers helped them to get ahead at their jobs (18.2%) either because they don¶t recognize whether they received help or they don¶t see any opportunities where they asked for help but never received.5 respondents agreed they get help from managers (45.5%), and 2 strongly agreed they got help (18.2%). After training, results were positive. 9 respondents (81.8%) agreed and 2 strongly agreed that they got the help from their man ager to go ahead at their jobs.

Figure 5.20: My manager helps me get ahead at my job

18- Management of PU makes wise decisions. In any organization, to enhance, develop, and create satisfaction within its employees, employees should believe in the decisions taken by the managers of the organization. However, any distrust or wrong decisions taken by managers create a sense of dissatisfaction and lack of commitment toward the organization where employees beleve i there is no chance for them to develop their career neither their skills in an unprofessional organization. Figure 5.21 shows that before training, 2 respondents disagreed that management of PU makes wise decisions (18.2%) because previous decisions taken were proved to be wrong due to the implementation of projects where employees have different point of views but

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weren¶t taken into account. 5 of them had no opinion whether management makes wise decisions (45.5%) either because they didn¶t recognize the defects in the projects and its consequences and relatively they don¶t know the organizational objectives or they are in a distance from the managers so they don¶t see the decisions taken. 3 agreed that it makes wise decisions (27.3%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%). This result is not enough to understand the reason especially that 3 of these respondents out of 11 were managers. In this perspective, we have to know whether these managers were satisfied and convinced about the work they are doing and wheth others believe er that management takes wise decisions. In figure 5.22, we found that 1 manager from technical department and a health exp ert from the social department disagree that management of PU makes wise decisions, 2 engineers, a field officer (social department), data entry and the head of base of all departments had no opinion whether PU management makes wise decisions. Two managers of whom one disagreed and ano ther had no opinion, this means they are still confused about what decisions they take especially that both of them are expatriates, so probably they are still not in acquaintedto the culture of the region they work in and in this case they got confused about decisions or because results to their decisions didn¶t appearyet, they weren¶t able to measure different opportunities of their decisions,they didn¶tmeasure the success or failure of their decisions or because they weren¶t satisfied about other managers¶ decisions.

Figure 5.22: management of PU makes wise decisions*Position at PU

After training, figure 5.21 shows that 2 respondents had no opinion whether management makes wise decisions (18.2%) because time was limit and managers at that time weren¶t

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having any decisions to be taken or because the decisions taken never shown any negative or positive response. 8 agreed that management makes wise decisions (72.7%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%).

Figure 5.21: management of PU makes wise decisions

5.9 Department
The working environment in a department plays a major role in the performance and satisfaction of an employee. It is the place where the employee acts efficiently and effectively to support other departments and initiate in achieving org anizational overall objectives. 19- Conditions in my department allow me to perform to a high standard. If conditions in your department are fair and reasonable, allow flexibility at work, have good team spirit, seek development to its members, creates new ideas to serve others and get ease to work and gives its members the accessibility to be responsible and take decisions will allow all team members to perform to a high standard. Figure 5.23 shows that before training, 3 respondents indicated that conditions i their n departments don¶t allow them to perform to a high standard (27.3%) because there is no flexibility at work where members feel they have no responsibility to take any decisions , 1 had no opinion (9.1%) and this is either because he doesn¶t feel a member of the team in his department or because he doesn¶t know what conditions should he has in order to perform to a high standard, 6 agreed (54.5%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%) that conditions allow them to perform to a high standard . After training, 3 had no opinion whether conditions in their departments allow them to perform to a hig standard (27.3%), 7 h

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respondents agreed (63.6%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%) that conditions in their departments allow them to perform to a high standard.
Figure 5.23: Conditions in my department allow me to perform to a high standard

20- My team looks for ways to fix the problem rather than finding someone to blame. This statement means a high team spirit where employees are enthusiastic to create ways to improve team performance rather than personal achievements and similarly meaning a feel of commitment towards one¶s department to succeed. Figure 5.24 shows that before training, 5 respondents had no opinion if their teams look for ways to fix problems rather than finding someone to blame (45.5%)either because they don¶t feel a team member so he ignores problems that occur or because such problems haven¶t occurred yet. However, 6 agreed that their teams look for ways to fix problems (54.5%). After training, 2 respondents had no opinion whether their team looks for ways to fix problems (18.2%) and this was because such problems never occurred yet to be solved and 9 agreed that their teams look for ways to fix the problems (81.8%).
Figure 5.24: My team looks for ways to fix the problem rather than finding someone to blame

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5.10 Teamwork
Teamwork is a communication strategy in an organization where it helps encourage learning, sharing, it facilitate solutions, build self-esteem and confidence, achieve goals more efficiently, allows quicker change, facilitate the growth of an organization, and allows employees to focus on what they are good at while learning new skills. 21- I believe that all the divisions in the organization work together to achieve a common goal. Coordination and communication at work between all divisions in an organization is so important to achieve its goal and objectives. Figure 5.25 shows that before training, results showed that 5 respondents disagreed that all the divisions in the organization work together to achieve a common go l a (45.5%) which shows poor communication and coordination 1 had no opinion , whether divisions work together to achieve a common goal (9.1%), 4 agreed (36.4%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%). However after training, 2 respondents had no opinion whether division work together (18.2%) and this is because they need the time to notice whether divisions had good coordination to achieve a common goaland 9 agreed that all divisions work together to achieve common goal (81.8%).
Figure 5.25: I believe all the divisions in the organization work together to achieve a common goal

22- The people I work with cooperate to get the work done. This statement reflects the communication between team m embers from the same department. It also reflects if there were team spirit at work, flexibility, understanding of job requirements and duties, and initiative; which reflects satisfaction, to get the work done efficiently and effectively.

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Results in figure 5.26 show that before training showed that 3 respondents disagree d (27.3%) which means there is poor communication or clash between team members (they don¶t feel team belonging), each member works his own without taking into consideration the overall objectives of the organization so he neglects his other team members and in this case there will be a loss of important information. 2 had no opinion (18.2%) either because they don¶t want to state the right answer especially that respondents know that the researcher is a member in the organization and stating the true answer could affect their future job within PU or because they aren¶t working inside teams so they feel the distance as like the ³Head of Base´ but instead getting the final information from the team leader or because they don¶t recognize clearly whether members communicate and cooperate at sometimes to get the work done. However, 4 agreed (36.4%) and 2 strongly agreed (18.2%).

This result is not also efficient to know the defect; we should know which of these departments has poor communication and team management s kills. The result in figure 5.27 shows that 2 out of 4 from the social department and a technical manager don¶t agree. The administrative manager and the head of base had no opinion whether people the work with cooperate to get the work done.

Figure 5.27: The people I work with cooperate to get the work done*position at PU

After training however, results in figure 5.26 show that 2 had no opinion (18.2%) and 9 agreed (81.8%).

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Figure 5.26: The People I work with cooperate to get the work done

23- There is cooperation between team members If people you work with cooperate to get the work done, than it is said to be that there is cooperation between team members. Before the training, figure 5.28 shows that 3 respondents (disagree) believed that there is no cooperation between team members (27.3%), 2 had no opinion whether there is a cooperation (18.2%) and this is because they don¶t really feel their belonging to a team, 4 agreed (36.4%) and 2 strongly agre (18.2%) that there is a cooperation ed between team members. After training, only one respondent had no opinion whether cooper tion exists (9.1%), a 9 agreed (81.8%) and 1 strongly agreed (9.1%) that cooperation between team members exists.
Figure 5.28: There is cooperation among team members

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5.11 E uality
Equality is important in an organization for it leads to a positive organizational image. By having a diverse workforce, managers will be able to deliver a positive image the organization to employees, suppliers, and beneficiaries. In terms of employees, the organization will be perceived as a good place to work for because it values ability and talent and attract and maintain high quality people. Measuring the effects of equality or diversity initiative would only be realized in the long term. Within a short term, it can only be measured is terms of attitudes or changes in performance. 24- Rewards are given fairly. We weren¶t able to see the effect of change after training, for rewards¶ change canbe seen after a long term after conducting an appraisal form to each employee¶s performance. The only reason to include it in our study is to measure the level of employees¶ satisfaction and commitment toward the organization as it plays one of the main roles in enhancing employees¶ performance. We noticed in figure 5.29 that 7 employees had no opinion whether rewards are given fairly (63.6%) and this either because they have no idea how rewards are distributed among individuals or they ignore the rewards provided and when to be providedand 4 agreed that it is given fairly (36.4%).

Figure 5.29: Rewards are given fairly

25- Everyone at PU does his share at work This statement reveals whether each one has self confidence and is able to hold responsibility toward the job and the decisions he takes. This shows how much skills an employee has to perform his own duties in efficient and effectivemanners.

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Before the training course, figure 5.30 shows that 1 respondent believed that not everyone at PU does his share at work (9.1%) (Disagree), 5 had no opinion (45.5%), and 5 believed that everyone does his share at work (45.5%). After training, 1 respondent (9.1%) had no opinion if everyone does his share at work.However, 10 respondents believed that everyone does his share at work (90.0%).

Figure 5.30: Everyone does his share at work

26- PU is committed to ensuring equal opportunities for all employees. To commit himself to his organization, an organization must ensure equal opportunities for all its employees to show fairness and equality. Figure 5.31 shows that before training, 7 respondents replied that they had no opinion whether PU is committed to ensuring equal opportunities for all employees (63.6%) and this is was because there were no opportunities so far provided from PU to its employees. However, 4 agreed that PU is committed (36.4%). After training, only 2 respondents were still having no opinion whether PU is committed (18.2%), 8 respondents agreed that PU is committed (72.7 %) and 1 strongly agreed that it is committed to ensuring equal opportunities for all employees.
Figure 5.31: PU is committed to ensuring equal opportunities for all employees

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5.12 Security
We don¶t mean about security here that it is an assurance an employee has about the continuity of gainful employment for his work life, not the one that only arises from the term of the contract of employment, but it also means how a person feels toward continuity and satisfaction he gets from his work (would he like to progress wor king with PU in future or not ) 27- I feel I have job security Before the training course, figure 5.32 shows that 3 respondents (disagree) felt they don¶t have job security (27.3%), 3 respondents (no opinion) were confused whether they have job security (27.3%), 4 (agree) felt they have job security (36.4%) and 1 strongly believed he got a job security (9.1%). After training, 3 respondents werestill confused (27.3%) whether they have job security, 6 agreed (54.5%), and 2 strongly believed they had job security (18.2%).

Figure 5.32: I feel I have a Job security

However this result is not enough. We included this question as a summary to the whole questions whether employees are satisfied or dissatisfied. So we found the importance to know which department is more effected than the other. We noticed as figure 5.33 shows that 2 from the social department and 1 from the technical department believe they have no job security, 1 manager from the technical department, a supervisor from the social department and the head of base had no opinion whether they had job securities.

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Figure: 5.33: I feel I have a job security*Position at PU

5.13 Yes-No Questions
28- Does your work give you a feeling of personnel accomplishments? 29- Do you have enough authority to make decisions you need to make? 30- Did PU provide as much initial training as you needed? 31- Is your salary fair to your responsibilities?
Figure 35: Question 28 Figure 36: Question 29

Figure 37: Question 30

Figure 38: question 31

These Four questions reveal the summary of HRT&D principals and strategies. The results below were taken before conducting a training session to point out to the core defects the organization is facing. Figure 35 shows that 4 employees (36.4%) don¶t feel their work give them a feel of personnel accomplishments (Principle of Potential Maximization) which reveals even a feeling of dissatisfaction toward the job they do, figure 36 shows that 7 employees (63.6%) disagreed about having enough authority to make decisions( rinciple of Participative Decision P

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Making), figure 37 shows that 9 employees (81.8%) don¶t believe that PU provided as much initial training as they need to do their jobs well( Principle of Periodic Review), and figure 38 reveals that 4 of them (36.4%) don¶t get fair salary compared to the responsibilities they have (Equality and Satisfaction).

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Chapter Six: Conclusion and Recommendations
In this chapter, we are going to provide a kind of report about the findings we attained along the study from the In-depth Interview, Observations and their common findings with the questionnaire addressing the questions of our study research presented in chapter one and finally our recommendations to the organization .

6.1 General indings from In-Depth Interview& GD
6.1.1 Lack of Intellectual HRD Professional It is so important to spot the light on the importance of HRD professionals on the development of knowledge, skills, performance and satisfaction of the employees in the organization as they are the main human capital or assets for the organization. Similarly, the HRD practitioners are also deemed as one of the most important assets because of their knowledge, skills, experience and competence to manage a complex and board function of human resources development. Unfortunately the lack of this intellectual HRD professional in the organization cause employees lack of satisfaction and commitment to their organization and hence causing sudden turnover. For instance, the lack of HRD practitioner caused by the lack of knowledge and skills to perform needs analysis evaluation and follow up assessments widens the gap between Organization and its employees. Through the interview made with the HR manager, we noticed that there is confusion in her position as she holds the Head of Administration with little duties and responsibilities on HR and her field of study where she learned sociology. "Since I held the duties of HR manager from 2006, I never so far distributed any Needs Assessment Form to the employees, we don't have any model for that but I think this is mentioned somehow in the feedback form." (HR Manager-Administrator) We also noticed that the training courses provided to the employees are not conducted by HRD practitioner inside the organization and don't match their work for development and the HR is uncertain if all are interested in these sessions or they are able to attend it. This was revealed mainly during the sessions where some didn't attend the training courses either because they are out of their interests or don't match their timing schedules.

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"Our organization provides training to their employees. We always get external trainers from outside the organization. Recently we are planning to provide a First Aid Training sessions for our employees by hiring an expert from the Lebanese Red Cross and I think that all employees will attend these sessions"(HR Manager-Administrator).

6.1.2 Learning and Development in the workplace It has been stated clearly before that the importance of Human Resources Training and Development is to change the behavior and attitudes of its employees toward their organization and to improve the capabilities of people by providing them better skills, so it strengthens executives' skills. However, employees' pessimistic attitudes towards their jobs are due to many reasons. First, heavy workload is typically cited by line managers as the reason for their lack of cooperation and support for Human Resources Training and Development activities. Most line managers get concerned about the accomplishment of the works at the time neglecting the importance of training and development in increasing the motivation, commitment and productivity of their employees. "We couldn't attend the last training course-Training on First Aid- because of the heavy workload that we used to have at that time. Our manager gave us a limit time to accomplish the job. It was going to be a very interesting training for us, as we are working on a critical unsecured area; we don't know when it is needed at any time. This training session is so needed. Unfortunately, time wasn't with us" (PU Technical Team). Second, Employees' inability to transfer learning from the training programs attended and apply this learning to the workplace. This is due to the mismatch of the training programs chosen with the field of work and project. In this case supervisors would not be able to support the transfer of such training programs. "We have provided our employees with a training program -TOT for micro-finance management- outside their work place. This training program was done to give them the opportunity to improve their career development though it was more related to the previous

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project requirements and wasn't related to their current job in the organization." (HR Manager-Administrator) Third, Employees' pessimistic attitudes towards training were because of their comfort with their current positions and achievements they did so far and their feeling of stability within the organization disregarding the new changes that might cause threats. "Though we are aware about the trainings and development available in our organization, but nothing of these is of our interest, we don't believe so far that these are related to our work with PU and our performance appraisal proved to be perfect by our managers. We believe training should set to those who really in need to prove their skills." (Employeesthrough the focused group discussion) Forth, and on the other hand; Employees dissatisfaction and mindset toward their work plays a role in the behavioral changes and performance improvements to their work, hence any training course would be out of their interest. If employees were not given the chance to express their needs and their job tasks weren't revealed important to the objectives of the organization, they won't have any more commitment to their organization.

6.2 indings on Observation
Detailed information about behaviors we observed during our study in the organization 1- Communication between Departments: We noticed that during coordination meetings, there is always a clash between two departments, the social and the technical departments where managers show their disapproval of each ones¶ performance and way of work. This created a very sensitive way of communication between employees. We also noticed that such clash created a distrust and demotivation within employees toward themselves and the organization. 2- Dissatisfaction: since communication has a very deep impact of the satisfaction of employees, we have noticed attempts from certain employees applying for jobs outside the organization. The disapproval of each ones department¶s performance has lessened the trust in the organization showing dissatisfaction. 3- Commitment: though many find their work challenging but the inconsistency in the organization affects employees¶ performance. Every employee knows that this since

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the mission and objective of the organization is related to the needs in the area, they are very aware that after covering all the needs, PU has no reason to remain in Lebanon and in this case everyone will be facing unemployment. In addition to that, If PU failed to get funds to cover the needs required than PU has only one option to close her offices and leaves the country. 4- Security: Some of the areas that PU intervenes are insecure. Many whose main task is in the field faced a cease of work and time waste because of the security conditions in the area of intervention. Some of the areas that PU intervenes is out of the territory of Lebanese Army Force intervention, this create a more challenging working conditions to employees. Moreover, since PU projects depend on raising funds and on the time limit of the project implementation, many employees would face an ending working contract with PU which lessens their motivation to be more productive at their work. 5- Training: We have observed that there are trainings done for employees but these trainings were not reaching those who are in need for it. The 1st aid training course was planned on a time where only six employees were able to participate and mainly those who got office work, noting that this specific course was supposed to target to employees working in the field where security conditions are unstable. The time delivery of the course didn¶t meet the time of employees working in the field and in this case the training course didn¶t achieve its main goal. 6- Management Decisions: we have noticed that sometimes management doesn¶t take wise decisions just like the 1st aid training course time. This cause a waste of money and time during the implementation of the project. For instance, we noticed that hiring a contractor to implement the project caused lots of waste where administration and technical managers failed to control. We noticed that the projects that were implemented under the direct and immediate supervision of the organization succeeded in avoiding wastes. 7- Career: Employees who are seeking development are those who are searching for a job that can add something to their career, and if there were no challenge in their work; they got demotivated. We also noticed that those who are coming to earn their salary seeking for financial stability are just doing what is required from them to do without adding any extra effort to the organization.

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We decided to show the link between our questions, observation and in-depth interview addressing the research purpose on chapter one with the results obtained in the questionnaire before and after training to see the impact of the training and development on employees and organizational development. Questions addressed are: 1- Does the Human Resources T&D gain any attention from the organization to close gaps and develop its performance and similarly its employees¶ performance? 2- Does the organization provide suitable training and development activities to its employees or is it a waste? 3- Does the organization provide a suitable working environment to its employees? 4- Does practicing a training and development course generate a feeling of satisfaction and commitment within employees? Throughout our research case study, our questionnaire technique showed that most employees weren¶t getting the training needed to do their job well though some were aware of available trainings, however; these trainings weren¶t addressing their needs and interests to improve their skills and career. Furthermore, we noticed that HR department wasn¶t giving any attention to its employees to address their need to improve their skills and performance, but their choosing of certain training courses were chaos based on the available trainings offered to their organization. This much less attention toward HRT&D resulted in the wastage of resources, the feeling of dissatisfaction towards one¶s job, the lack of commitment, feeling of demotivation, poor or weak performance, the absence of eagerness to innovate new techniques in another word a risk of brain drain or to provide initiatives for best quality delivery of work All these negative effects were resulted from poor communication between team members and departments from top to low positions. This is illustrated from the lack of clear information about PU objectivesand its relation with each one¶s job responsibilities which on the other hand cause deficiency at performing the job efficiently and effectively. Moreover, the negative results were affected by the lack of recognition where most employees felt their hardworking wasn¶t rewarded enough or recognized by their managers and the organization. It is also affected by the usual routine in work especially for those who

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are seeking green pasture in their skills and career. In addition to the feeling of responsibility in taking challenges and finally the feeling of dis-belonging where some believe they have no job security. However, after conducting a needs assessment and after addressing the needs required to close gaps and improve efficiency and effectiveness, we planned and designed a training course- a course that addresses these needs to all departments and for all positions-with the help of the managers of each department to benefit from their knowledge and experience along their job career and hired them to coach and monitor employees performance and behavior. The reason behind choosing managers from the same organization in designing and implementing the training was to make it as a first positive step in changing the negative atmosphere to enhance good communication and trust between employees and managers coming from different departments so that it builds an organizational teams¶ spirit. After two month from conducting the training, we distributed the same needs assessment form to the same respondents to compare changes between pre and post evaluation results. We found that training and development course had a positive impact toward employees¶ satisfaction and development and relatively organizational development. We found an improvement on communication between all departments and employees and between team members. Performance was improved due to the knowledge and understanding of their working responsibilities and PU objectives, due to the coordination with departments and synergies to develop and create new ways to approach the objectives and due to the motivation through recognizing employees¶ accomplishments and success in their work. We also found good changes in the management departments where managers; due to the increase in coordination and improvement in communication, were able to take wise decisions for PU to avoid waste and improve performance. All these facts also helped enhancing decentralization where all were able to share thoughts and ideas giving them a feeling of belonging and commitment toward the organization andrelatively their feeling of job satisfaction.

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6.3 Recommendations
Along our study research, we were able to prove the importance of training and development courses on the organizational as well as the individual development and relatively their feeling of satisfaction toward their job. We saw the defects of the organization ³GAP´ through a gap analysis to measure the current situation of the organization and the desired or necessary situation where needed to perform efficiently and effectively and the effects of training and development in closing this ³GAP´ through assessing the needs and design the plan according to the needs using different training methods. Having said so, we found it is of much important for the organization to empower its HR department with the right HR knowledge and skills and to take the initiative to progress with the needs assessment to carry out suitable training and development courses to its employees to be able to adapt to changes, to improve performance and innovations and to increase their satisfaction and commitment toward the organization not only through human resources management but also through human resources development. It is recommended for the organization to maximize the potentials of its employees to recognize their potential and help them to contribute their best towards various organizational roles they are expected to perform and excel, to work more to maximize individual autonomy, to maximize delegation to facilitate decentralization through sharing responsibilities and has the attempt of changing management to balance the current organizational culture with changing culture and finally it should always take the initiative to make a periodic review to have a continuous review and renewal of HRD function.

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References 
Elaine Biech (2009). The American Society for Training and Development: ³10 Tips to Successful Training´.  Ian Beardwell, Len Holden, and Tym Claydon: Human Resources Management, Fourth Edition: ³A Contemporary Approach´.  Paul B. Thornton (2002): ³Be the Leader Make the Difference´.  Paul B. Thornton, Human Resources Management, 10th edition, chapter 15: ³Labour Relations and Collective Bargaining´.  Tejashree Talpade: ³Human Resources Development´.  Vivian Martin (2006), MANAGING PROJECTS IN HUMAN RESOURCES: ³TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT´.  Edited by John P. Wilson, Human Resources Development, 2nd Edition: ³Learning and Training for Individuals and Organization´.  Shantanu Das (10/8/2008): ³Training Methods´.  Linda Powell (2001), Conducting Hospital Employee Satisfaction Surveys: ³Practical Step-by-Step Information for Assessing Employee Perceptions´.  Fisher ScoenFeldt Shaw, ³Human Resources Management´, 5th Edition.  Care (2009), People management: ³Key Resources for Project Managers´.  LIYAKAT ALI KHAN, Management Practice and Organizational Behaviour (10/12/2008): ³Learning Organization´. Lovely Professional University  Decenzo and Robbins, Fundamentals of Human Resources Management, 8th edition, chapter 5: ³Human Resources Planning and Job Analysis´.  Azim Akhter, Jamia Millia Islamia: ³Models of Human Resources Development´.  Richard Swansan and Elwood Hilton (2009), ³Foundations of Human Resources Development´, 2nd edition.  Werner and Desimone (2006), chapter 4: ³Assessing HRD´.

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Index
Index 1: In-depth Interview 1- What is your field of study? 2- Since when did you start working on the field of HR? 3- How PU helped in developing experience with HR? 4- Did they conduct any special HR training to you? If yes, when? 5- When and how do you advertise for a job? 6- Who run the interview with the candidates? 7- On which bases do you choose the best candidate to the job? 8- Who specifies the 'Service Agreement' to these employees? 9- I have noticed that there is an 'Employee Performance Appraisal' form, who use this form? Do you participate in it? If not, why? 10- Have you ever made any attempt to receive feedbacks from employees about their level of satisfactions in their working with PU? If yes, when was the last time for your attempt? If not, why? 11- I have heard that recently you are planning to provide first aid training sessions for PU employees by hiring an expert from Lebanese Red Cross, where is this session going to be and are all employees going to participate in these sessions? If not, why? 12- What was the last training session provided to your employees? When? 13- Did all employees attend this training? If not, why? 14- From your point of view, do you think this training has any impact on employees' satisfaction and organizational development? 15- Have you ever distributed any Needs Assessment form to your employees? If not, why? 16- According to your perspective, do you see all your employees are committed to work with your organization? 17- In general do you think your employees are satisfied in their work with PU?

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Index 2: Questionnaire I. General personal information
A. Personal information: Sex: Female Male Age: 25 and below 26-35 36 and above Married Sing le parent Separated

Marital Status: Single

If you are married: Do you have dependent children? Yes No If yes, how many «««««««««««««««««««««« B. Educational level: High school level Undergraduate Graduate Post graduate Field of study: y Business Management y Arts and human sciences y Law y life sciences y Public Health y Human Resources Management y Finance y Engineering y Others C. Working experience with PU:  Years of experience: 1 year and less 1-2 years 2 -5 years 5 years and more

Specify: ««««««««««««««««««.

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II. Questions related to your current work with your organization. Please answer all the following questions.

A

Communication

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

I usually know plenty of time when important things happen I can see the link between my work and PU objectives Managers Communicate clear objectives for the PU to achieve

2

3

B

Satisfaction

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

4

My working conditions are good

C

Training

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

5

I get the training I need to do my job well I am aware of available training and development activities I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills in PU

6

7

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D

Career

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

8

I believe there are a variety of ways for me to develop my career at PU Job promotions within PU are fair and reasonable I am aware of promotion opportunities within PU I have the opportunity to progress within PU

9

10

11

E Organization

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Strongly Agree Agree

12

PU is innovative in developing new ways to serve our beneficiaries PU image is that of a high quality organization The work policies are well developed and organized

13

14

G

Recognition

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

15

Hard work is usually rewarded at my company I receive enough recognition for work that I do

16

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H

Management

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

17

My manager helps me to get ahead at my job Management of PU makes wise decisions

18

I

Department

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

19

Conditions in my department allow me to perform to a high standard My team looks for ways to fix the problem rather than finding someone to blame

20

I

Teamwork

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

21

I believe that all the divisions in the company work together to achieve a common goal. The people I work with cooperate to get the work done. There is cooperation among team members.

22

23

J

Equality

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

24

Rewards are given fairly

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25

Everyone at PU does his share at work

26

PU is committed to ensuring equal opportunities for all employees

choosing of certain training courses were chaos based on the available trainings offered to their organization

Security

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly Agree

27

28 Does your work give you a feeling of personnel accomplishments? Yes No 29 Do you have enough authority to make decisions you need to make? Yes No 30 Did PU provide as much initial training as you needed? Yes No 31 Is your salary fair to your responsibilities? Yes No

¥

I feel I have job security

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