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OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD.

CHAPTERISATION

Chapter I - INTRODUCTION

Chapter II - E-BUSINESS THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE

Chapter III - E-BUSINESS IN THE INDUSTRY

Chapter IV- E-BUSINESS IN THE ORGANIZATION

Chapter V- FINDING, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

Chapter VI - BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1. INTRODUCTION

The internet revolution paved the way of doing core business process of buying and
selling goods and services. A wide variety of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring
and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet
marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory
management systems, and automated data collection systems. Nowadays people associate the
word e-commerce with the ability of purchasing various goods through the internet using
secure protocol and electronic payment service.

Even Private sector has started to exploit the opportunities of e-commerce for
providing quality products and services to their customers. The impact of web and web-
based technology in service industry is far reaching.

E-ticketing refers to electronic ticketing, in which the tickets can be reserved online
whether it is railway tickets, air tickets, or the tickets of some special events. E-ticketing
OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT. deals with the online booking of airline tickets.

Railway facilitates this through OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD website.


OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD is a Private Ltd.company, for the development and
promotion of tourism. OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD facilitates e-ticketing for the
promotion of the new facilities in airline. It provides more ease and convenience to the
travelers for booking airline tickets than in conventional method of airline ticket booking.

It can be done either by using the internet facilities or through some mobile phone
operators.

1.2. SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Indian airline’s e-ticketing, or online air ticket sales, is the new option for people to
buy airline tickets. The e-ticketing system makes it more easier for people to book tickets
online through the OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD website. Tickets can be bought in this
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way with credit or debit cards. This e-project study on OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD
helps to understand the various aspects of e-ticket booking and new facilities offered by
OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD in online ticket booking.

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To study present scenario of e-business


2. To understand the impacts and applications of e-business in public sector.
3. To study the application of e-business in service industry.
4. To analyze e-ticket booking facilities offered by OLYMPUS TRAVELS
PVT.LTD and other ticket booking facilities offered by OLYMPUS TRAVELS
PVT.LTD
5. To identify the pros and cons of e-business strategies in e-ticketing.
6. To make necessary suggestions and recommendations.

1.4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

For the purpose of e-project study at OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD


website data were collected from both the primary and secondary sources.

PRIMARY DATA
Primary data needed for the study is collected through interview with executives of
OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD and discussion with the staff and by observing the method
of e-ticketing booking and through the practical application of e-ticketing.

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data is collected from internal records of the firm, various textbooks, journals and
the websites of the organization.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

• The respondents have the organizational bias. Majority of their responses were in
favour of the organization. This lack of knowledge has resulted in some errors.

• The busy schedule of executives and staffs restricted collection of detailed


information.

• The limited time schedule allowed for the study was very limited.

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E-BUSINESS THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE

E-Business (electronic business) is, in its simplest form, the conduct of


business on the Internet. It is a more generic term than eCommerce because it refers to not
only buying and selling have already discovered how to use the Internet
successfully.

Electronic-business Doing business online. The term is often used


synonymously with e-commerce, but e-business is more of an umbrella term for having a
presence on the Web. An e-business site may be very comprehensive and offer more than just
selling its products and services. For example, it may feature a general search facility or the
ability to track shipments or have threaded discussions. In such cases, e-commerce is only the
order processing component of the site.

E-Business or Electronic Business is the administration of conducting business


via the Internet. This would include the buying and selling of goods and services, along with
providing technical or customer support through the Internet. E-Business is a term often used
in conjunction with e-commerce, but includes services in addition to the sale of goods.

E-business or Electronic business is the extensive use of computers,


communication technology, networking technology and computerized data to perform
business processes. In other words, E-business is any system of suppliers, distributors, or
customers that use the Internet as the basis for their operations. It can range from using e-
mail to communicate with customers and/or conduct business to a web page promoting a
company, from a full e-commerce retail site to the integration of procedures and processes
using Internet based technology.

The transactional component of E-business is e-commerce. E-commerce can be


defined as the buying and selling of information, products and services via the Internet. There
are generally two types of e-commerce 1) B2C (Business to Consumer) in which businesses

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sell to consumers or 2) B2B (Business to Business) in which businesses sell their products or
services to other businesses.

E-business has the potential to help you improve your business processes
through accelerating and enhancing customer service; increasing sales by providing
alternative sales and marketing channels; promoting product, service, and company
information; and, by reflecting a modern image.

Electronic Business commonly referred to as "E-Business" or "E-Business",


may be defined as the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in
support of all the activities of business. Commerce constitutes the exchange of products and
services between businesses, groups and individuals and hence can be seen as one of the
essential activities of any business. Hence, electronic commerce or eCommerce focuses on
the use of ICT to enable the external activities and relationships of the business with
individuals, groups and other businesses

E-commerce

(Electronic-COMMERCE) Doing business online, typically via the Web. It


is also called "e-business," "e-tailing" and "I-commerce." Although in most cases e-
commerce and e-business are synonymous, e-commerce implies that goods and services can
be purchased online, whereas e-business might be used as more of an umbrella term for a
total presence on the Web, which would naturally include the e-
commerce(shopping)component.
E-commerce may also refer to electronic data interchange (EDI), in which one company's
computer queries and transmits purchase orders to another company's computer.

In 1886, a telegraph operator was able to obtain a shipment of watches that was refused by
the local jeweler. Using the telegraph, he sold all the watches to fellow operators and railroad

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employees. Within a few months, he made enough money to quit his job and start his own
store. The young man's name was Richard Sears.

Electronic commerce is a flourishing concept that pertains to the process of buying, selling
and exchanging of commodities¡Xproducts, services and even information¡Xthrough
computer and telecommunication networks covering the internet (Bushy, 2005). Electronic
commerce may also be defined through various perspectives. From the view of
communications, electronic commerce refers to the delivery or transfer of information on
orders, purchases, payments, products, and services over the telephone, computer systems, or
other electronic means. As a business concept, electronic commerce refers to the utilization
of technology with the objective of automating business workflow and business transactions.
From the point of view of service, electronic commerce refers to a valuable tool that meets
the objective of business firms covering management and employees as......

In practice, e-business is more than just e-commerce. While e-business refers


to more strategic focus with an emphasis on the functions that occur using electronic
capabilities, e-commerce is a subset of an overall e-business strategy. E-commerce seeks to
add revenue streams using the World Wide Web or the Internet to build and enhance
relationships with clients and partners and to improve efficiency using the Empty Vessel
strategy. Often, e-commerce involves the application of knowledge management systems.

E-business involves business processes spanning the entire value chain:


electronic purchasing and supply chain management, processing orders electronically,
handling customer service, and cooperating with business partners. Special technical
standards for e-business facilitate the exchange of data between companies. E-business
software solutions allow the integration of intra and inter firm business processes. E-business
can be conducted using the Web, the Internet, intranets, extranets, or some combination of
these.

The internet is one of the most important channels for increasing the
satisfaction of existing customers and acquiring new ones. With this philosophy in mind, we
at SRC.SI have designed a "financial portal" through which a bank can provide a complete

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service to existing and potential customers.

Through the portal a bank can easily and in an attractive way:

• present its services


• enable calculations to be made for informative purposes and services
to be compared
• inform its customers of new developments
• provide a point of contact between portal users and the bank

The graphical appearance of the websites within the financial portal follows
the bank's corporate image, while the bank is able to adapt new content quickly and
independently with the help of the content management system.

E-BUSINESS MODELS

When organizations go online, they have to decide which e-business models best
suit their goals. A business model is defined as the organization of product, service and
information flows, and the source of revenues and benefits for suppliers and customers.

In the past two years, e-business seems to have permeated every aspect of daily
life. In just a short time, both individuals and organizations have embraced Internet
technologies to enhance productivity, maximize convenience, and improve communications
globally. From banking to shopping to entertaining, the Internet has become integral to daily
activities. For example, just 23 years ago, most individuals went into a financial institution
and spoke with a human being to conduct regular banking transactions. Ten years later,
individuals began to embrace the ATM machine, which made banking activities more
convenient. Today, millions of individuals rely on online banking services to complete a
large percentage of their transactions.

The rapid growth and acceptance of Internet technologies has led some to
wonder why the e-business phenomenon did not occur decades ago. The short answer is: it

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was not possible. In the past, the necessary infrastructure did not exist to support e-business.
Most businesses ran large mainframe computers with proprietary data formats. Even if it had
been achievable to transfer data from these large machines into homes, the home computer
was not yet a commodity, so there were few terminals outside of business to receive
information. As PCs became more popular, especially in the home, the ability to conduct e-
business was still restricted because of the infrastructure required to support it, including
backend customer and supplier interaction along with credit card processing systems.

To set up an e-business even eight years ago would have required an individual
organization to assume the burden of developing the entire technology infrastructure, as well
as its own business and marketing strategies. Today, the challenge of e-business is
integration. There are industry-leading companies that have solved the difficult task of
developing individual Internet-based products and services that handle many of supplier
interactions. However, the ability to integrate these technologies and services based on sound
business and marketing strategies, operating on a real-time As e-business continues to be
fueled by both organizations and consumers who have access to the Internet from their
homes and offices, the excitement grows and the potential for success increases. But
explosive growth of the Internet has also led to a growing number of integration challenges
fore-businessesof allsizes and types.

In faze one of building an e-business, companies scrambled to get an e-commerce


Web site up quickly. The operative word was “quickly,” because usually there was little or
no regard given to how scalable or reliable the site needed to be—or even how captivating
the content. It was just a matter of beating the competition. These first-to-market consumer
sites were rarely integrated with the manufacturing side of the business, which was
establishing its own Internet-based relationships with suppliers. This lack of integration has
proved to be a significant challenge for many organizations as the customer base has grown,
real-time order status has been requested, and products have beenreturned.
In phase two of building an e-business, having an e-commerce site is now a commodity, not
a way to differentiate a business. Customer and supplier expectations are rising, forcing

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organizations to start thinking about backend integration and real-time transaction


processing. Businesses must actually maintain complete customer and supplier relationships
using Internet-based technologies and tie those systems to the interpersonal aspects of the
business transaction when required. Organizations that realize the promise of e-business are
the ones that have begun to address the complete business cycle and are leveraging
Internet technologies.
It is no secret that today’s e-business has the potential to transform the business landscape.
Whereas in the past, a company’s business model was the primary determination of its value,
today, a company is valued on its strategy, business model, and ability to market. With
technology driving new competition, a Fortune 500 stalwart that once seemed unstoppable is
now challenged by a start-up that uses Internet technologies and integrates their systems and
processes more effectively. By capitalizing on a sustained business proposition and correctly
applying technology, these start-ups are able to significantly reduce the barriers to entry
while dramatically increasing their market reach. For e-businesses, the premise “first to
market equals first to success” is often the case; however, the foundation needs to be laid
carefully. A disciplined approach to evaluating the business opportunity, and correctly
assessing how a competitive advantage may be gained using Internet technologies combined
with leveraging the existing investment, is key to a successful e-business.

An e-business model is simply the approach a company takes to become a profitable


business on the Internet. There are many buzzwords that define aspects of electronic
business, and there are subgroups as well, such as content providers, auction sites, and pure-
play Internet retailers in the business-to-consumer space.

Given the carnage among dot-com stocks recently, what type of online
business models are expected to succeed in the future? Businesses need to make more money
than they spend. The new model is the old model, but technology is essential to maintain a
competitive advantage, and cash flow is more important than ever. The concept of e-business
model is the same but used in the online presence. The following is a list of the currently
most adopted e-business models

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• E-shops
• E-procurement
• E-malls
• E-auctions
• Virtual Communities
• Collaboration Platforms
• Third-party Marketplaces
• Value-chain Integrators
• Value-chain Service Providers
• Information Brokerage
• E-shops

Online shopping is the process consumers go through to purchase products or services


over the Internet. An online shop, eshop, e-store, internet shop, web shop, web store, online
store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-
and-mortar retailer or in a shopping mall.

The metaphor of an online catalog is also used, by analogy with mail order
catalogs. All types of stores have retail web sites, including those that do and do not also
have physical storefronts and paper catalogs. Online shopping is a type of electronic
commerce used for business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C)
transactions.

Online shoppers commonly use credit card to make payments, however some
systems enable users to create accounts and pay by alternative means, such as:

• Debit card
• Various types of electronic money
• Cash on delivery (C.O.D., offered by very few online stores)
• Cheque
• Wire transfer/delivery on payment
• Postal money order
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• PayPal
• Google Checkout
• Moneybookers
• Reverse SMS billing to mobile phones
• Gift cards
• Direct debit in some countries

Some sites will not allow international credit cards and billing address and
shipping address have to be in the same country in which site does its business. Other sites
allow customers from anywhere to send gifts anywhere. While credit cards are currently the
most popular means of paying for online goods and services, alternative online payments will
account for 26% of e-commerce volume by 2009 according to Celent.

• E-procurement

E-procurement (electronic procurement, sometimes also known as supplier


exchange) is the business-to-business or business-to-consumer purchase and sale of supplies
and services through the Internet as well as other information and networking systems, such
as Electronic Data Interchange and Enterprise Resource Planning. Typically, e-procurement
Web sites allow qualified and registered users to look for buyers or sellers of goods and
services. Depending on the approach, buyers or sellers may specify costs or invite bids.
Transactions can be initiated and completed. Ongoing purchases may qualify customers for
volume discounts or special offers. E-procurement software may make it possible to
automate some buying and selling. Companies participating expect to be able to control parts
inventories more effectively, reduce purchasing agent overhead, and improve manufacturing
cycles. E-procurement is expected to be integrated with the trend toward computerized
supply chain management.

E-procurement is done with a software application that includes features for


supplier management and complex auctions. eBay's tools for its sellers have similar features.

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There are six main types of e-procurement:

• Web-based ERP (Electronic Resource Planning): Creating and approving purchasing


requisitions, placing purchase orders and receiving goods and services by using a
software system based on Internet technology.
• E-MRO (Maintenance, Repair and Operating): The same as web-based ERP except
that the goods and services ordered are non-product related MRO supplies.
• E-sourcing: Identifying new suppliers for a specific category of purchasing
requirements using Internet technology.
• E-tendering: Sending requests for information and prices to suppliers and receiving
the responses of suppliers using Internet technology.
• E-reverse auctioning: Using Internet technology to buy goods and services from a
number of known or unknown suppliers.
• E-informing: Gathering and distributing purchasing information both from and to
internal and external parties using Internet technology.

The e-procurement value chain consists of Indent Management, ETendering, auctioning,


Vendor Management, Catalogue Management, and Contract Management. Indent
Management is the workflow involved in the preparation of tenders. This part of the value
chain is optional, with individual procuring departments defining their indenting process. In
works procurement, administrative approval and technical sanction are obtained in electronic
format. In goods procurement, indent generation activity is done online. The end result of the
stage is taken as inputs for issuing the NIT.

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages include getting the right product, from the right supplier, at the right
time, for the right price and the right quantity. In reality e-procurement has the advantage of
taking supply chain management to the next level, providing real time information to the
vendor as to the status of a customer's needs. For example, a vendor may have an agreement
with a customer to automatically ship materials when the customer's stock level reaches a

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low point, thus bypassing the need for the customer to ask for it. A major disadvantage to this
type of agreement could be that the vendor has the power to take advantage of the customer
by knowing more information about the customer than they would have if the customer was
in a normal supply chain management structure.

• E-auctions

A reverse auction (also called procurement auction, e-auction, sourcing event, e-sourcing
or eRA) is a tool used in industrial business-to-business procurement. It is a type of auction
in which the role of the buyer and seller are reversed, with the primary objective to drive
purchase prices downward. In an ordinary auction (also known as a forward auction), buyers
compete to obtain a good or service. In a reverse auction, sellers compete to obtain business.

• Virtual Communities

A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people


that primarily interact via communication media such as newsletters, telephone, email or
instant messages rather than face to face, for social, professional, educational or other
purposes. If the mechanism is a computer network, it is called an online community. Virtual
and online communities have also become a supplemental form of communication between
people who know each other primarily in real life. Many means are used in social software
separately or in combination, including text-based chatrooms and forums that use voice,
video text or avatars. Significant socio-technical change may have resulted from the
proliferation of such Internet-based social networks.

Virtual communities, or online communities, are used for a variety of social and
professional groups interacting via the Internet. It does not necessarily mean that there is a
strong bond among the members, although Howard Rheingold, author of the book of the
same name, mentions that virtual communities form "when people carry on public
discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal
relationships". An email distribution list may have hundreds of members and the
communication which takes place may be merely informational (questions and answers are
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posted), but members may remain relative strangers and the membership turnover rate could
be high. This is in line with the liberal use of the term

Virtual communities may synthesize technologies with the community, and


therefore have been described as Community 2.0, although strong community bonds have
been forged online since the early days of. Virtual communities depend upon social
interaction and exchange between users online. This emphasizes the element of the unwritten
social contract between community members. Web 2.0 is essentially characterized by virtual
communities such as Flickr, Facebook, and Del.icio.us. A similar trend is starting to emerge
within businesses where online or virtual communities are taking hold. These communities
can be organizational, regional or topical depending on the business. From a technical
perspective, software tools abound to create and nurture these communities including Yahoo
Groups, Google Groups, LISTSERV, and Microsoft Sharepoint.

The ability to interact with like-minded individuals instantaneously from anywhere


on the globe has considerable benefits, but virtual communities have bred some fear and
criticism. Virtual communities can serve as dangerous hunting grounds for online criminals,
such as identity thieves and stalkers, with children particularly at risk. Others fear that
spending too much time in virtual communities may have negative repercussions on real-
world interaction (see Internet addiction disorder).

The explosive diffusion of the Internet since the mid-1990s has also fostered the
proliferation of virtual communities. The nature of those communities is diverse, and the
benefits that Rheingold envisioned are not necessarily realized, or pursued, by many. At the
same time, it is rather commonplace to see anecdotes of someone in need of special help or in
search of a community benefiting from the use of the Internet.

Different virtual communities have different levels of interaction and participation


among their members. This ranges from adding comments or tags to a blog or message board
post to competing against other people in online video games such as MMORPGs. Not
unlike traditional social groups or clubs, virtual communities often divide into cliques or
even separate to form new communities. Author Amy Jo Kim points out a potential
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difference between traditional structured online communities (message boards, chat rooms,
etc), and more individual-centric, bottom-up social tools (blogs, instant messaging buddy
lists), and suggests the latter are gaining in popularity.

• Collaboration Platforms

An emerging category of computer software, collaboration platforms are unified


electronic platforms that support synchronous and asynchronous communication through a
variety of devices and channels.

Collaboration platforms offer a set of software components and software services


that enable individuals to find each other and the information they need and to be able to
communicate and work together to achieve common business goals. The core elements of a
collaboration platform are messaging (email, calendaring and scheduling, and contacts), team
collaboration (file synchronization, ideas and notes in a wiki, task management, full-text
search), and real-time collaboration and communication (e.g., presence, instant messaging,
Web conferencing, application / desktop sharing, voice, audio and video conferencing), and
Social Computing tools (e.g., blog, wiki, tagging, RSS, shared bookmarks).

Actually, the Collaboration platforms could be proprietary or open source or free


software, and tend to be used in a wider information and communication environments,
representing the collaboration platform one module or package more to be integrate in a
bigger platform.

• Third-party Marketplaces

Amazon Marketplace is Amazon.com's fixed-price online marketplace that


allows sellers to offer their goods alongside Amazon's offerings. Buyers can buy new and
used items sold directly by a third party through Amazon.com using Amazon Marketplace.
This concept is similar to eBay's successful half.com.

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This sales strategy and program has been very profitable for Amazon.com.
Amazon charges a commission rate based on the sale price, a transaction fee, and a variable
closing fee.Users can leave feedback on transactions using a five-star rating system. Any
feedback less than four stars will negatively affect the seller's rating.

• Value-chain Service Providers

The virtual value chain, created by John Sviokla and Jeffrey Rayport, is a
business model describing the dissemination of value-generating information services
throughout an Extended Enterprise. This value chain begins with the content supplied by the
provider, which is then distributed and supported by the information infrastructure; thereupon
the context provider supplies actual customer interaction. It supports the physical value chain
of procurement, manufacturing, distribution and sales of traditional companies.

To illustrate the distinction between the two value chains consider the
following: “when consumers use answering machines to leave a message, they are using an
object that is both made and sold in the physical world, however when they buy electronic
answering services from the phone company they are using the marketspace—a virtual realm
where products and services are digital information and are delivered through information-
based channels.” (Rayport et al. 1996) There are many businesses that employ both value
chains including banks which provide services to customers in the physical world at their
branch offices and virtually online. The value chain is separated into two separate chains
because both the marketplace (physical) and the marketspace (virtual) need to be managed in
different ways to be effective and efficient (Samuelson 1981). Nonetheless, the linkage
between the two is critical for effective supply chain management.

• Information Brokerage

An information broker is a person or business that researches information for


clients. Common uses for information brokers include market research and patent searches,
but can include practically any type of information research.

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In 1977 Kelly Warnken published the first fee-based information directory,


which continues to be published and has expanded to cover international concerns. The
Association of Independent Information Professionals, the first professional association
devoted to information brokers, was formed in Milwaukee in 1987. The profession has its
roots in 1937 when librarians and other information professionals formed an organization
called the American Society for Information Science and Technology in an attempt to
establish their professional identity separate from public libraries.

TYPES OF E-BUSINESS

From simple communication through to complex analysis, the internet is


increasingly involved in starting, managing and improving a business.

Every time the internet is used within a business, it could be considered as an


eBusiness activity. Some components of eBusiness have been around for years and are still
frequently used. They include facsimiles (faxes), telephone banking, EFTPOS and video or
telephone conferencing. You may already be conducting eBusiness if you:

• communicate with clients or suppliers via email


• send email to other organisations to order supplies
• sell or promote products or services via a website and/or email
• publish a website to provide public information about the business
• use the internet for online banking and paying your bills
• research information about your customers and competitors using websites
• provide technical or customer service by email or your website
• manage and distribute internal company documents via an intranet

The forms of eBusiness are continually evolving.

eBusiness is most successful when it is used to enhance basic business functions, for
example:

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• selling products and services


• customer relationship management
• competitive intelligence and research
• human resources
• production and distribution
• management and strategy

Roughly dividing the world into providers/producers and consumers/clients one can classify
e-businesses into the following categories:

• business-to-business (B2B)
• business-to-consumer (B2C)
• business-to-employee (B2E)
• business-to-government (B2G)
• government-to-business (G2B)
• government-to-government (G2G)
• government-to-citizen (G2C)
• consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
• consumer-to-business (C2B)

• Business-to-Business (B2B)

Business-to-business (B2B) is a term commonly used to describe electronic


commerce transactions between businesses, as opposed to those between businesses and
other groups, such as business and individual consumers (B2C) or business and government
(B2G).

B2B is also commonly used as an adjective to describe any activity, be it B2B


marketing, sales, or e-commerce, that occurs between businesses and other businesses rather

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than between businesses and consumers. Similar to B2B, B2G is often meant to refer to B2G
Marketing.

"E-" or "electronic" marketplace in a business-to-business context is primarily a


large online platform (B2B portal) or website that facilitates interaction and/or transactions
between buyers and suppliers at organizational or institutional rather than individual levels.
Since the builders of such marketplaces primarily aim at facilitating buyer-seller interaction
(in most cases without being a buyer or seller themselves), these are also referred to as "third-
party" B2B marketplaces.

These marketplaces can do one or more of the following:

1. Help buyers find new suppliers and vice versa


2. Help reduce the time and cost of interaction for B2B transactions
3. Help increase trade between distant geographies and cultures
4. Help manage payments and track orders for B2B transactions
5. Help the environment by using appropriate technology that is environmentally
friendly

• Business-to-consumer (B2C)

Business-to-consumer (B2C, sometimes also called Business-to-Customer)


describes activities of E-businesses serving end consumers with products and/or services. It
is often associated with electronic commerce but also encompasses financial institutions and
other types of businesses. B2C relationships are often established and cultivated through
some form of Internet marketing.

Advantages of B2C e-commerce

B2C e-commerce has the following advantages:

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• Shopping can be faster and more convenient.


• Offerings and prices can change instantaneously.
• Call centers can be integrated with the website.
• Broadband telecommunications will enhance the buying experience.

Challenges faced by B2C e-commerce

The two main challenges faced by B2C e-commerce are building traffic and sustaining
customer loyalty. Due to the winner-take-all nature of the B2C structure, many smaller firms
find it difficult to enter a market and remain competitive. In addition, online shoppers are
very price-sensitive and are easily lured away, so acquiring and keeping new customers is
difficult.

A study of top B2C companies by McKinsey found that:

• Top performers had over three times as many unique visitors per month than the
median. In addition, the top performer had 2,500 times more visitors than the worst
performer.
• Top performers had an 18% conversion rate of new visitors, twice that of the median.
• Top performers had revenue per transaction of 2.5 times the median.
• Top performers had an average gross margin three times the median.
• There was no significant difference in the number of transactions per customer and
the visitor acquisition cost.

Essentially, these masters of B2C e-commerce (Amazon, etc.) remain at the top because of
effective communication and value to the customer.

• Business-to-employee (B2E)

Business-to-employee (B2E) electronic commerce uses an intrabusiness network


which allows companies to provide products and/or services to their employees. Typically,
companies use B2E networks to automate employee-related corporate processes.

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Examples of B2E applications include:

• Online insurance policy management


• Corporate announcement dissemination
• Online supply requests
• Special employee offers
• Employee benefits reporting
• 401(k) Management
• special discounts to employees

• Business-to-government (B2G)

Business to Government (B2G) is a derivative of B2B marketing and referred to


as a market definition of "Public Sector Marketing" which encompasses marketing products
and services to the U.S. Government through Integrated Marketing Communications
techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, marcom, advertising, web-based
communications to Uncle Sam.

According to Gal Borenstein, CEO of The Borenstein Group (Fairfax-Based B2G


Marketing Communications Firm), [1], the majority of government spending has been focus
on fulfilling three mission areas identified in the Presidential Management Agenda (PMA) of
current and past presidents: [2]

1. Empower government agencies with better Business Process to help make it more
efficient. 2. become a better customer-service provider to Public Citizen and promote visible
accessibility to public records via electronic records management. 3. Create visible
accountability by reducing disparate systems and centralizing functions that can be re-
engineered to be measured, accounted for, and controlled by tighter oversight and controls.

Examples of B2G Marketing Communications and Public Relations Agencies and


Counselors that support Public Sector IT Marketers in the Multi-Billion dollar federal
marketplace include:

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• FEDERAL DIRECT
• THE BORENSTEIN GROUP
• PRESTOVIVACE

• Government-to-business (G2B)

Government-to-Business (abbreviated G2B) is the online non-commercial


interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector, rather
than private individuals (G2C). For example http://www.dti.gov.uk is a government web site
where businesses can get information and advice on e-business 'best practice'.

• Government-to-Government (G2G)

Government-to-Government (abbreviated G2G) is the online non-


commercial interaction between Government organisations, departments, and authorities and
other Government organisations, departments, and authorities. It's use is common in the UK,
along with G2C, the online non-commercial interaction of local and central Government and
private individuals, and G2B the online non-commercial interaction of local and central
Government and the commercial business sector.

• Government-to-citizen (G2C)

Government-to-Citizen (abbreviated G2C) is the online non-commercial


interaction between local and central Government and private individuals, rather than the
commercial business sector G2B. For example Government sectors become visibly open
to the public domain via a Web Portal. Thus making public services and information
accessible to all.

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• consumer-to-consumer (C2C)

Consumer-to-consumer (or C2C) electronic commerce involves the


electronically-facilitated transactions between consumers through some third party. A
common example is the online auction, in which a consumer posts an item for sale and other
consumers bid to purchase it; the third party generally charges a flat fee or commission. The
sites are only intermediaries, just there to match consumers. They do not have to check
quality of the products being offered.

These sites are usually some form of an auction site. The consumer lists items
for sale with a commercial auction site. Other consumers access the site and place bids on
the items. The site then provides a connection between the seller and buyer to complete
the transaction. The site provider usually charges a transaction cost. In reality this site
should be call C2B2C.

• consumer-to-business (C2B)

Consumer-to-business (C2B) is an electronic commerce business model in which


consumers (individuals) offer products and services to companies and the companies pay
them. This business model is a complete reversal of traditional business model where
companies offer goods and services to consumers (business-to-consumer = B2C).

This kind of economic relationship is qualified as an inverted business model. The


advent of the C2B scheme is due to major changes:

• Connecting a large group of people to a bidirectional network has made this sort of
commercial relationship possible. The large traditional media outlets are one direction
relationship whereas the internet is bidirectional one.
• Decreased cost of technology : Individuals now have access to technologies that were
once only available to large companies ( digital printing and acquisition technology,
high performance computer, powerful software)

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Example: Harry is planning a holiday in Darwin. He requires a flight in the first week of
December and is only willing to pay $250. Harry places a submission with in a web based
C2B facility. Dodgy Brothers Airways accesses the facility and sees Harry's submission.
Due to it being a slow period, the airline offers Harry a return fare for $250.

APPLICATIONS OF E-BUSINES

Following are some of the applications of e-business:

Realestate
Contracting&construction
Trading
ServiceIndustry
InsuranceBrokers
SharesManagement
Engineering
Printing
Hotel
Transport
Cargo
Auto spare parts

E-Commerce benefits

The face of doing business both within Australia and overseas is rapidly
changing. The Internet, electronic funds transfer, e-commerce and the like have brought
with them both opportunities and threats.

Your business competitors may no longer be just the business down the
street, but a business located in any number of places around the world.
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The flip side of course is that your potential market is now not just your local
area, or even Queensland, but cashed up consumers across the world.

E-commerce won't go away. On-line and Internet commerce is currently


experiencing dramatic growth, and is expected to add 2.7% to Australia's GDP by 2007.
Aggregate employment is also expected to rise by half a per cent as a result of e-
commerce. It is now a truism that to stay in business in the new millennium, e-commerce
will have to be a part of your business.

According to experienced organisations, the introduction of e-commerce can, if


it's done correctly:

• 1.lower transaction costs


• 2.reduce inventory holdings
• 3.provide a competitive business advantage
• 4.expand one's market
• 5.increase speed to market
• 6.streamline supply chain managemen

E-Commerce strategy

The Department has set itself a vision that Queensland will be a leading
participant in the global new economy with the objective that the Department of tourism,
Regional Development and Industry will be a catalyst for the uptake of e-commerce by
Queensland businesses.

To achieve this vision and objective, the department will pursue the following
four key strategies:

1. Facilitating e-commerce for business

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The department will facilitate the uptake of e-commerce within the business community
by actively promoting e-commerce to business, raising awareness and providing measures
which support effective e-commerce adoption.

2. Creating the capability

The department will assist in the provision of hard and soft infrastructure necessary for
successful participation in the information economy.

3. Providing leadership within government

The department will coordinate with and influence other agencies, at the State,
Commonwealth and Local level, to promote the benefits of e-commerce and to encourage
them to develop initiatives aimed at increasing the uptake of e-commerce by the business
community.

4. Modelling the way

The department will become an active adopter of e-commerce technologies leading to


improvements in its internal business processes and service delivery and opportunities for
clients and suppliers to be exposed to secure e-commerce transactions.

What are the existing practices in developing countries with respect to buying and
paying online?

In most developing countries, the payment schemes available for online


transactions are the following:

A. Traditional Payment Methods

• Cash on delivery. Many online transactions only involve submitting purchase orders
online. Payment is by cash upon the delivery of the physical goods.

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• Bank payments. After ordering goods online, payment is made by depositing cash
into the bank account of the company from which the goods were ordered. Delivery is
likewise done the conventional way.

B. Electronic Payment Methods

• Innovations affecting consumers, include credit and debit cards, automated teller
machines (ATMs), stored value cards, and e-banking.

• Innovations enabling online commerce are e-cash, e-checks, smart cards, and
encrypted credit cards. These payment methods are not too popular in developing
countries. They are employed by a few large companies in specific secured channels
on a transaction basis.

• Innovations affecting companies pertain to payment mechanisms that banks provide


their clients, including inter-bank transfers through automated clearing houses
allowing payment by direct deposit..

Ecommerce Vs E-Business

While the words Commerce and Business don't have much difference in
English and in fact are largely interchangeable as nouns describing organized profit-seeking
activity, there is a difference between eCommerce and eBusiness. The difference is quite
artificial, but different terms do carry different meanings. The first wave of thinking about
electronic business was a reaction to the success of Amazon and Dell in selling products over
the Internet. Electronic business transactions involving money are "eCommerce" activities.
However, there is much more to eBusiness than selling products: what about
marketing, procurement and customer education? Even to sell on-line successfully, much
more is required than merely having a website that accepts credit cards. We need to have a
web site that people want to visit, accurate catalog information and good logistics.For selling
online successfully one needs to know basics of website development. The term "eBusiness"
was introduced as a deliberate attempt to say to people: "Your first understanding of

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eCommerce was too narrow. To be successful, we need to think more broadly."

E-business goes far beyond ecommerce or buying and selling over the
Internet, and deep into the processes and cultures of an enterprise. It is the powerful business
environment that is created when you connect critical business systems directly to customers,
employees, vendors, and business partners, using Intranets, Extranets, ecommerce
technologies, collaborative applications, and the Web. Dell Computer gets a lot of attention
as a pioneering ebusiness today and is the best example of this form of business. It sells $
15m worth of computers from its websites each day.
The company has created a ‘fully integrated value chain’ – a three-way
information partnership with its suppliers and customers by treating them as collaborators
who together find ways of improving efficiency across the entire chain of supply and
demand. Dell's suppliers have real-time access to information about its orders. Through its
corporate extranet, they can organize their production and delivery to ensure that their
customer always has just enough of the right parts to keep the production line moving
smoothly.
By plugging its suppliers directly into the customer database, Dell has ensured
that they will instantly know about changes in their demand. Similarly, by allowing entry to
customers into its supply chain via its website, Dell enables them to track the progress of
their orders from the factory to their doorstep. Successful new-businesses can emerge from
nowhere. Trends suggest it takes little more than two years for a start-up to emerge out of
nowhere, formulate an innovative business idea, establish a web-presence and reach a
dominant position in its chosen sector. The high valuation of the stocks of such start-ups and
the massive amount of venture capital flowing into their businesses is proof enough that
complacency is foolhardy here. America has already reached a threshold in e-business, from
where it is set to accelerate into hyper-growth, as per Forrester Research. Britain and
Germany will go into the same level of hyper-growth two years after America, with Japan,
France and Italy, a further two years behind.

E-business is a powerful tool for business transformation that allows

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companies to enhance their supply-chain operation, reach new markets, and improve services
for customers as well as for suppliers and employees. However, implementing the ebusiness
applications that provide these benefits may be impossible without a coherent, consistent
approach to e-business security.
Traditional network security has focused solely on keeping intruders out
using tools such as firewalls. This is no longer adequate. E-business means letting business
partners and customers into the network, essentially through the firewall, but in a selective
and controlled way, so that they access only the applications they need. To date,
organizations have controlled and managed access to resources by building authorization and
authentication into each e-business application.

This piecemeal approach is time-consuming error-prone, and expensive to build


and maintain. Emerging technology provides a new role-based access control infrastructure
for all of the enterprise’s e-business applications. With this infrastructure, developers no
longer need to code security features into each application. This can greatly speed up and
simplify the deployment of new applications, cut maintenance costs, and give organizations a
consistent security policy.
This new access control infrastructure also lets organizations implement
consistent privacy policies and ensures that authorized people are denied access to sensitive
business information sources. In addition, a centralized security solution lends greater
flexibility to supporting new technologies such as mobile Internet devices, which are
expected to proliferate over the next few years. Besides controlling access, organizations also
need to monitor security events across the enterprise so that suspicious activities can be
quickly pinpointed. This is becoming critical as enterprise networks grow rapidly in
complexity and strategic importance. New monitoring technology lets organizations
consolidate data from all their disparate security sensors—firewalls, anti-virus software, host
systems, and routers— and provide a coordinated single image of potential intrusions for
effective incident response.

The greatest security threat to e-Businesses is not from the outside but from the
inside. Employees or former employees that either are looking to cause problems or simply

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seeing how far they can break into a company database are a greater threat to most
organizations than outside crackers.

The obvious ways to prevent unauthorized access by insiders are the ones that most
businesses thing they’re already taking:

• keeping secure passwords


• changing passwords often for administrative access to system (root access)
• granting the most limited access needed to employees
• having procedures in place to revoke privileges when employees leave the company

CURRENT TRENDS IN E-BUSINESS

Distributed work:

Telecommuters need not necessarily work from the home. A more recent extension of
telecommuting is distributed work. Distributed work entails the conduct of organizational
tasks in places that extends beyond the confines of traditional offices. It can refer to
organizational arrangements that permit or require workers to perform work more effectively
at any appropriate location, such as their homes and customers' sites - through the application
of information and communication technology. An example is financial planners who meet
clients during lunchtime with access to various financial planning tools and offerings on their
mobile computers, or publishing executives who recommend and place orders for the latest
book offerings to libraries and university professors, among others. Another example is the
telework centers around Washington, D.C. in Maryland (6), Virginia (8), and D.C. and West
Virginia (one each), which generally are relatively close to a majority of people who might
otherwise drive or take public transit, and also feature the full complement of office
equipment and a high-speed Internet connection for maximum productivity, and perhaps may
feature support staff such as receptionists.[12]

These work arrangements are likely to become more popular with current trends towards
greater customization of services and virtual organizing. Distributed work offers great

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potential for firms to reduce costs, enhance competitive advantage and agility, access a
greater variety of scarce talents, and improve employee flexibility, effectiveness and
productivity.[13][14][15][16] It has gained in popularity in the West, particularly in Europe. While
increasing in importance, distributed work has not yet gained widespread acceptance in Asia.
[17]

Virtual offices

Virtual offices are attractive to management because they reduce overheads, reduce office
space needs, increase productivity, and reduce staff turnover. However, managers (whose
roles are varied and not well defined) in telecommuting roles typically receive fewer
promotions due to the lack of direct contact they need. From that aspect, telecommuting
seems to work best for professionals such as engineers.

Coworking

Coworking is a social gathering of a group of people, who are still working independently,
but who share a common working area as well as the synergy that can happen from working
with talented people in the same space. Typically, a coworking facility offers hotdesking and
other services with common office infrastructure, as well as social areas such as a coffee
shop.

Microjobs

Telecommuters who begin working from home part-time for one company may acquire self-
employed status through agreement or necessity. From that position an employee may seek
more work from other sources. Ultimately, the size of the job unit may reduce, so that many
more people are working for small periods of time for multiple clients. These short-time-
period jobs have been named microjobs.[18]

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Telecommuting

Telecommuting 2.0 offers solutions to some of the problems that have kept telecommuting
from being fully embraced by management and workers. Telecommuting 2.0 takes advantage
of Remote Office Centers, which are distributed centers for leasing offices to individuals
from multiple companies. A Remote Office Center provide professional grade network
access, phone system, security system, mail stop and optional services for additional costs.
ROCs are generally located in areas near where people live throughout population centers, so
that workers do not have to commute more than a couple of miles. The telecommuter works
in a real office but accesses the company network across the internet using a VPN just as in
traditional telecommuting. Telecommuting 2.0 has the additional cost since the company will
have to lease office space for the employee, but companies already pay for office space and
network infrastructure in traditional office environments. The continuing increases in fuel
costs are making telecommuting (either version 1.0 or 2.0) more and more attractive for
companies and workers alike.

Potential drawbacks

• Telecommuting has come to be viewed by some as more a "complement rather than a


substitute for work in the workplace".[19] Thus, some workers may find their work
load increased to the point where they are under more stress than before. Distractions
at home can have a similar effect, especially among workers who leave the office to
be better able to care for small children and the infirm.

• Fellow employees in the employer's office sometimes resent home telecommuters

• A telecommuter may lack the sense of loyalty to the company that he or she would
have if working at an office.

• Employees that work by telecommuting can lose space in their homes, possibly even
suffer the cost of converting a room into an office.

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• Telecommuters need to be more adept at using their equipment as they have less
access to a dedicated employee at the company whose job is to maintain that
equipment.

• Even when a company successfully implements telecommuting practices, increasing


productivity and decreasing stress, they face an increased risk of confidential data
loss and risks to data integrity resulting from the increased geographical diversity of
their network and the loss of direct corporate control over the telecommuter's physical
work environment. For instance, a major breach of privacy by the United States
Department of Veterans Affairs resulted from a laptop being stolen from a worker
who took his work home. The result was described as "potentially the largest loss of
Social Security numbers to date."

• Initially, managers may view the teleworker as experiencing a drop in productivity


during the first few months. This drop occurs as "the employee, his peers, and the
manager adjust to the new work regimen". The drop could also be accountable to
inadequate office setup. Managers need to be patient and let the teleworker adapt. It
can be claimed that as much as "70 minutes of each day in a regular office are wasted
by interruptions, yakking around the photocopier, and other distractions". Eventually,
productivity of the teleworker will climb.

• Management needs to recognise the communication barriers that telecommuters


experience. The feeling of alienation can be very difficult for the teleworker. The job
should be clearly defined as well as its objectives. Performance measures should be
thorough and apparent.

• Managers need to be aware that although overhead decreases, the cost of technology
becomes greater. Information Technology (IT) managers experience greater demands
because of user requirements for remote access through laptops, personal digital
assistants, and home computers. Use of non-standard software can create problems.
Setting up security and virtual private networks increase the demands for IT.

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• Traditional line managers are accustomed to managing by observation and not


necessarily by results. This causes a serious obstacle in organizations attempting to
adopt telecommuting. Liability and workers' compensation can become serious issues
as well. Companies considering telecommuting should be sure to check on local legal
issues, union issues, and zoning laws. Telecommuting should incorporate training and
development that includes evaluation, simulation programs, team meetings, written
materials, and forums. Information sharing should be considered synchronous in a
virtual office and building processes to handle conflicts should be developed.
Operational and administrative support should be redesigned to support the virtual
office environment. Facilities need to be coordinated properly in order to support the
virtual office and technical support should be coordinated properly. The conclusion
for managers working within telecommuting organizations is that new approaches to
"evaluating, educating, organizing, and informing workers" should be adopted.

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ELECTRONIC TICKETING IN INDUSTRY

E-commerce had already revolutionized the business field all around the world.
With the ever-advancing informational technology, producers and consumers now
do most business transactions over the net. Furthermore, internet commerce continues
togrowrapidly,withincreasingusers.

E-ticket is one of the many branches of e-commerce. Short hand for electronic ticket,
e-ticket exists only in digital form. It changes the structure and way airline businesses
are done by eliminating many manual tasks and reducing costs.

My research focuses on how, since the last decade, e-ticket has changed or affected the
way people travel and airlines operate. My goal is to see if the e-ticket transformation for
the travel industry and consumers is genuinely more socially beneficial or not. It will also
delve into details about the operations of e-ticket and the potential problems that may
occur. I will draw my conclusion about the changes e-ticket has brought upon both parties
by weighing the positive and negative sides with scholarly resources, news, business
articles, and statistical data.

An electronic ticket or e-ticket is used to represent the purchase of a seat on a


passenger airline, usually through a website or by telephone. This form of airline ticket
rapidly replaced the old paper tickets (from close to zero to 100% in about 10 years) and
became mandatory for IATA members as of June 1, 2008. During the last years, where paper
tickets were still available, airlines frequently charged extra for issuing them. E-tickets are
also available for certain entertainment venues.

Once a reservation is made, an e-ticket exists only as a digital record in the airline
computers. Customers usually print out a copy of their receipt which contains the record
locator or reservation number and the e-ticket number.

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Electronic tickets are introduced in road, urban or rail public transport too. For
example, in February 2007 the Czech bus reservation system AMSBUS introduced the
product e-jízdenka for several bus routes. Since November 2007 it has been possible to buy
an SMS-ticket (SMS jízdenka) for use on Prague's urban transport.

E-ticket is an electronic ticket. In the traditional ticketing process, ticketing


information is printed on the paper ticket. However, when you book online and buy e-ticket,
all your ticketing information is stored directly in the airline's computer system. This
ticketing information stored in the airline's computer system is called an e-ticket.

A paperless air ticket. E-ticket is available for all domestic destinations and most
international and intercontinental flights. For more info about destinations, contact the call
center. E-ticket can only be used on Alitalia Group flights. Tickets are valid for the named
passenger only and are not transferable.

One of the most important trends in the tourism sub-sectors of transport (as well as
recreational, cultural and sporting activities) has been, and is likely to remain, e-ticketing.
Airlines are the vanguards of this development. Especially no-frills carriers work
exclusively with e-tickets; the avoidance of classical paper-based tickets is one of the
core elements of their business model, as it considerably saves costs. Traditional
incumbent airlines also take measures to promote e-tickets and roll back paper tickets.
This conforms to the development towards dis-intermediation, as the issuing of paper
tickets is a duty of classical intermediaries.

Airlines first started using electronic ticketing since the early 1990s, and although
customers had the option of requiring a paper ticket without any additional charge back then,
most people simply follow through the airlines' e-ticket transformation. Already by
1994, as reported by United Airlines, e-tickets already spanned over sixty percent
of its sales. By December 2003, most domestic airlines such as Delta Airlines and Northwest
Airlines had claimed to stop issuing paper tickets completely. Now, most ask for an

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additional charge for printed-paper tickets.

How electronic ticketing works:

Electronic ticketing simply is the combination of purchasing ticket and issuing the ticket.
Formerly two separate actions with paper tickets are now reduced to one, all through the
use of computing. A passenger's reservation of the flight is stored in the airline's computer
database. Therefore, when he or she arrives at the airport, he/she only needs to providea valid
photo identification such as a driver's license or passport (sometimes airlinesdemand credit
card of purchase also) in order to receive the boarding pass.
E-ticketsaretransacted through ticketing models provided by The Central
Reservation System(CRS),aproviderthat record and control most air travel transactions. An
automatic e-processisused,writtenin middleware such as Perl or Java. It is the IATA,
International AirTransportAssociation, that gave permission for traveling agents to sale
tickets without issuingpaperticket(they transmit purchase information directly to the intended
airline's database),andfortravelersto board without providing paper ticket proof.

In addition, airlinessuchasJetbluealsoadded new self-service computing device


called the "self-check-inkiosk,"whichthecustomeronly needs his/her credit card and
confirmation number / printed barcode to get boarding pass and
check in luggage. Everything can be done without ever needing a paper ticket. The IT Trends
Survey reported a statistic that shows how US major airline carriers expect over halfofits
passengers to use "self-check-in kiosks in home markets" by the end of 2006.
E-ticketing is an extremely fast-paced e-business transformation. For example, United
Airlinesfirst started using e-tickets in domestic flights in November 1994. By November
1997,UnitedAirlines extended this to international flights to England. Now, e-ticketing
process is used for all United flights. Furthermore, since e-ticketing is so dominating now,
Sabre has been working in the laboratory to develop more advanced ways of using
thistechnology.
IATA, in 2004, had announced its goal of eliminating paper tickets by December 1, 2007.

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Although it seemed a daunting task at that time, now it is certainly reasonable. Because
when fewer paper tickets are used, the cost for each ticket goes up for the company.
Thus,thegrowth in use of e-tickets jumps up easily. The challenge was the idea of interlining,
a universal alliance between big and small airlines around the world, all using thesame
technical standards. In other words, a bilateral agreement between all different airlines is
essential between airlines.
To achieve interlining, Flightinternational reported that "Sabre offers an open systems
software product that will let carriers interline e-tickets with each other without taking on the
expense of creating their own e-ticketing systems." Also, airlines use Interline Electronic
Ticketing (IET) Hub provided by IATA sothatthey do not have to construct individual
ticketing servers.

Intermediaries in ticket sales


Traditionally the majority of air travel tickets have been sold through travel agents,
whereas for other modes of transport many tickets have been sold directly by the
transport operator – especially in surface transport, where many passengers just ‘turn up
and go’. Since the late 1990s there has been a strong pressure on airlines to reduce their
commission costs and this, coupled with the development of the internet as a viable
alternative sales channel, has meant that more and more airline tickets were sold directly.
Meanwhile many airlines in the USA pay no commission at all, and in Europe a number of
airlines have decided to do the same. An important factor in the attempts of airlines to
reduce their distribution costs has been the development towards e-ticketing (cf. Graham
2006, Doganis 2006).

The implementation of e-ticketing


The International Air Transport Association – IATA – has established a working group on
electronic ticketing which addresses airline data interchange, interline revenue
accounting, passenger handling, fraud prevention, security, as well as legal and
facilitation issues. IATA has issued an ‘Electronic Ticketing Implementation Guide’ and
set up the aim to achieve a 100% penetration of e-ticketing worldwide by the end of 2007,

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i.e. from the 1st of January 2008, only e-tickets shall be issued by the world’s airlines.71
Other public means of transport have also decided to switch to e-tickets, including
railways and coach operators. Operators of cultural and sporting facilities are promoting
e-ticketing as well.72 E-ticketing may be a win-win situation: customers may obtain tickets
more conveniently and service providers may automate sales processes for tickets –
clearly a feasible measure to save costs. Apart from these core benefits, e-ticketing also
has other advantages: If tickets are sold over the internet, customers may need to
register themselves. In this way, sellers of tickets can identify their customers who might
otherwise remain anonymous in a classical ticket sale at the cashier’s desk. This may
deliver valuable data about the clientele – one of the basic requirements for the
application of customer relationship management (CRM).

Advantages

There are many advantages of e-tickets for both the airlines and its consumers.

For the airlines, the most obvious advantage is cost savings. A report from flightinternational
shows that an airline can usually cut their costs by around eighty percent less than paper
tickets. Typically, savings from each booking can be as high as $9, depending on the size of
the airline. IATA also estimated that if interlining is achieved, there would be a gross saving
of three billion dollars. E-ticketing also gives a corporate easier accounting. For instance,
with a more efficient passenger processing, company can get immediate access to the sold
inventory revenue. It can record revenue immediately once the traveler checks-in. The
financial report would thus be more accurate because it is human-error free.

Less time is wasted with e-tickets for both consumers and producers. E-tickets save many
ticket-issuing steps and thus the process speed is faster for every passenger. Airlines not only
save paper ticket costs but also operating costs. Travel agents also save time by skipping the
process of printing paper tickets for the consumers. Consumers, on the other hand, spend less
time waiting in line for check-ins. One only needs to provide a photo ID at the airport to get
the boarding pass directly, without any busy paper work. Alternatively, and more efficiently,
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one can simply do advance check in online at home and print the boarding pass on the day of
travel. For business people on tight schedules, this would be extremely convenient. They
would no longer have to worry about having not enough time to wait in long lines to do
check-in.

Also, with unusual yet unpreventable circumstances such as airline strikes, airlines and
travelers are better off with interlining e-tickets: no more delayed flights or significnat loss of
profit during strikes.

A consumer also has the advantage of not having to worry about losing tickets or forgetting
to bring tickets to the airport. No more worries about ticket theft because everything would
be in an inaccessible database. No more worries about how tickets are lost in mail or stuck in
a jacket somewhere. In addition, if one wants to change anything, he or she can do so
immediately and easily by phone or over the internet. There is no more "operating-hours"
restriction. What e-ticketing has achieved for producers are dramatic cost saving and for
consumers is an extreme convenience.

Some people might question about the trustworthiness of depending solely on computing /
information technology. Statistical analysis done by Emory Universtiy and University of
Illinois proved that a computer's verification and transaction are always less probable to get
inconsistency than verification and processes done by humans. Because there is considerably
less human-involved processing for issuing e-tickets, less potential mistakes can be made.
The computer database, noted in research "E-Process Design and Assurance Using Model
Checking," does formal verification with mathematical logic that can "account every possible
execution" and is more reliable because being less error-prone.
• You can buy it over the phone or on the Internet, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
• You can book it up to one hour before departure and pay for it right up until the flight
closes
• It can’t be lost, stolen or left behind

•No waiting for the paper tickets to be issued.

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Disadvantages

Most disadvantages questioned are for the consumers. Sometimes, technological inefficiency
happens such as a computer crash and then some passengers' reservations have vanished.
When this happens, paper ticket holders do have an advantage over e-ticket users. Paper
ticket is a document that the airline is honor bound to follow. Thus, in case of a missing
reservation for unsolved technical difficulty, the paper-ticket holder can board the aircraft as
usual, but e-ticket users are going to be delayed. Naturally, disputes might also arise.

With e-ticketing, people simply book flights online directly over the internet. This implies
that technology has replaced the human force. Travel agency would one day be obsolete, and
its workers would loose their jobs. In other words, the e-ticket transformation .
There are also security issues with self-check in kiosks. It is possible that manipulations can
be made so that the genuineness of the ticket holder is harder to be detected. It would be
more secure if a person checks in with the real proof of ticket in case anything is disordered
in the computer database.
In the event of a flight cancellation or delay, paper ticket holders also have the upper hand.
Paper tickets are better off than e-tickets when one wants to transfer to another carrier. Most
major airlines will accept paper tickets of other carriers as a transfer in unexpected situations.
Because currently, interlining is still deficient, e-tickets are not portable between airlines.
Thus, e-ticket holders cannot easily transfer to another carrier in unexpected situations. Even
if one has an "unrestricted" e-ticket, he or she still has to obtain a paper ticket and then
present it to the alternative airline. The whole process is more inconvenient Why are e-tickets
less portable than paper-tickets?
When airlines were still only using paper tickets, they used an exclusive interline system
such as Worldspan. This standardized system allowed airlines to make and record
reservations, sale tickets, keep accounting, and track flights for all dominating airlines. A
passenger with multiple connecting flihgts and different carriers can be tracked in just one
reservation. CRS can always transfer one's and more time consuming.

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But now, since individul airlines started using their own computing system for e-tickets,
being less elastic, CRS is not able to transfer fares between airlines.

How to travel with e-tickets?

When you buy e-tickets from online booking sites or airlines, they e-mail you an
e-ticket receipt which contains detailed information such as your e-ticket number, itineraries,
payment information etc.

Here is how you use your e-ticket. (This is a general information and should not
be replaced with the information you get from the online booking sites and airlines.)

1. Print out your e-ticket receipt which contains your booking information
2. Bring these three items to the airport.
o Printed copy of your e-ticket receipt.
o A government-issued photo ID such as driver's license or passport.
o The same credit card that you used to pay for your e-ticket.
3. Get a boarding pass from the airline check-in counter or airline kiosk. Self-service
kiosks are usually placed in front of airline's check-in counter. The Transportation
Security Administration (TSA) requires a boarding pass at many selected airports
before entering any security checkpoint that leads to a flight gate.
4. Proceed through the security checkpoint directly to the departure gate.

Where to get it?

• On this website, paying by credit card


• Contacting the call center and paying:
- directly over the phone by credit card;
- at the "Bancomat" ATM cash points of the following banks: BNL, Monte dei Paschi di
Siena, Banca di Roma, typing in the code supplied by the call center operator;
- at Alitalia ticket offices and travel agencies
• At the Alitalia airport and city ticket offices

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• At travel agencies
An official receipt will be issued at all payment points and/or check-in desks. If you use a
"Bancomat" ATM cash point, the receipt will be issued at the end of the transaction

FEATURES

• No software or hardware to buy or install


• Various packages available to meet your changing needs
• Low Convenience Fees on all package choices
• Sell tickets 24/7 from your own website.
• Buy and print tickets online securely anywhere and at anytime.
• Reduce staffing, mailing costs, lost tickets.
• Increase revenues by selling sponsorship opportunities.
• Create an E-Marketing database.
• Web page customization to merge with your website.
• Eliminate “Will Call” lines.
• Inventory control of sales. Multiple products per inventory (such as child and adult
seats for the same limited seating).
• Tie inventory to custom numbering, reserved seats and our proprietary bar code
system.
• Sell in real time during a show for scanning at the gate.
• Customize the look and feel of the ticket. Disclaimers, gate instructions, and the ticket
detail can be easily customized.
• E-Tickets can carry coupons, sponsored ads, maps and/or a list of general show
information.
• Reports of several types are available including basic sales, financial and order detail,
sales by city, data download for further analysis, gate and scan reports.
• Interface with either your own authorize.net merchant account or operate through our
system.
• Display multiple events on your fulfillment listing page.

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• Online Group Sales program available.

Checking in with an e-ticket

To check in with an e-ticket, the passenger usually comes to the check-in


counter and presents the confirmation or reservation code. In some airlines it's not even
necessary to present the code, as the reservation is confirmed solely on the basis of the
passenger's identity, which may be proven by a passport or the matching credit card. After
confirming the reservation, the passenger checks-in his/her luggage and is given a boarding
pass.

Self-service and electronic check-in

Having an e-ticket also allows any passenger without luggage to check to


completely skip the check-in counters and proceed directly to security. The option to check-
in online is available on some airlines. A passenger enters their confirmation number at the
airline's website, and the passenger prints the boarding pass on their home printer. Online
check-in is typically permitted up to twenty-four hours before the flight's scheduled departure
time, though this may vary by airline.

On airlines without assigned seating such as Southwest, it typically guarantees a


passenger early boarding and a better seat. Besides identification, the boarding pass that has
been printed is all that needs to be presented upon arriving at the airport. On airlines without
online check-in, the check in may take place at a self-service kiosk in the airport, or at the
check-in counter.

A boarding pass is required to board an aircraft; in some countries, such as the


United States, it is also needed to pass through airport security checkpoints.

E-tickets are very popular because they allow extra services like:

• online/telephone/self-service kiosk check-in


• early check-in

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• printing boarding passes at airport kiosks and at locations other than an airport
• automated refunds and exchanges online, by telephone and at kiosks

Several web sites exist to help people holding e-tickets accomplish online check-ins in
advance of the twenty-four-hour airline restriction. These sites store a passenger's flight
information and then when the airline opens up for online check-in the data is transferred to
the airline and the boarding pass is emailed back to the customer.

E-ticket limitations

E-tickets are sometimes not available for some flights from an airline which
usually offers them. This can be due to a number of reasons, the most common being
software incompatibility. If an airline issues tickets for a codeshare flight with another
company, and there is no e-ticket interlining agreement, the operating carrier would not be
able to see the issuing carrier's ticket.

Therefore, the carrier who books the flight needs to provide hard copy versions
of the tickets so the ticket can be processed. Similarly, if the destination airport does not have
access to the airline who booked the flight, a paper ticket needs to be issued.

Industry discount (ID) tickets also tend to be issued on paper if they are valid
for more than one airline, and if the airlines that the tickets are valid for do not have an
interlining agreement. Since e-ticket interlining is still the exception rather than the rule,
tickets valid for more than one airline are usually issued on paper.

Currently the ticketing systems of most airlines are only able to produce e-
tickets for itineraries of no more than 16 segments, including surface segments.

How E-Tickets Work

When you buy a ticket online, you're usually buying an eticket. Airline and
travel agency sites will walk you through the purchase process -- after you've selected your

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flight online, you'll be prompted to pay with a credit or debit card. The screen will then
present you with your payment confirmation receipt, your ticket number and your itinerary.
Print these out and you have your eticket, which is also stored in the airline's database.

The eticket may also be emailed to you with an itinerary confirmation which you
can print out, especially if you've gone through a travel agency, or you may be mailed an
eticket confirmation and a link to the airline's website, where you can view and print the
eticket itself and itinerary.

Print these out and keep them with your travel documents. If you lose the eticket
print-out, head for the nearest internet cafe and find the email confirmation to go through the
steps and print the eticket again. (Learn why you should email yourself travel documents
now, too.)

How Etickets Work At the Airport

What to Bring to the Airport ?

Bring the printed copies of your payment receipt and itinerary and, as always,
your legitimate photo identification and passport and/or visa to the airport. I've been asked
for the debit card or credit card with which I made the e-ticket purchase; make sure you have
it at check-in, just in case. You may not need to show these to anyone if you check in with a
self service check in kiosk -- many airlines have these at airports. And you may be able to
check in online -- your eticket confirmation will alert you if that's the case and walk you
through the online check in process.

What Happens at Check-In

With most airlines, you still need a boarding pass. At check-in, the airline's agent
will compare your e-ticket against the airline database and issue you a boarding pass when
everything checks out. You may also be able to plug your data into a self service check-in

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computer or kiosk and print your own boarding pass; look around after you've secured a
place in line at your airline's check-in counter.

• Learn more about baggage check in and how to avoid lost luggage

Well prepared travelers should, of course, be prepared for everything not to check out, so be
sure you arrive with plenty of time to spare in case of problems like computer glitches.

Those kinds of hassles are increasingly rare with e-tickets, though. It can be a
little nerve wracking to use an e-ticket for the first time, but take the leap and you'll see how
easy, convenient and simple it is. And above all, you'll learn how practical e-tickets are for
students traveling internationally.

What to Keep With Your Eticket

Keep a copy of your air itinerary and your lodging itinerary with your eticket. Your
lodging may take you through the same online process and allow you to print lodging
confirmation. Keep copies of lodging and air itineraries in your checked baggage in case of
lost luggage, and keep a copy in your carry on with all your travel documents

Ticket Distribution Services

E-Ticketing provides many benefits, including:

Cost Savings - Reduce the costs associated with printing and mailing tickets to your ticket
buyers. Eliminate or reduce the need for ticket stock, envelopes and postage.

Labor Savings - Reduce the labor associated with printing and mailing tickets. Cut down on
the effort required to retrieve tickets for Will Call pick up orders.

Safe and Secure - E-Tickets are safe and secure. Barcode validation eliminates the possibility
of counterfeit and duplicate tickets.

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Actual Attendance Reporting - Find out how many of your e-ticket patrons attended your
event and when they arrived.

Instant Delivery - Ticket buyers love being able to print their tickets immediately. There's no
need to wait for the mail or wait in line at the event. Customers can print their electronic
tickets immediately after they purchase them. This makes e-tickets ideal for the last minute
gift or the last minute decision.

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E-BUSINESS IN THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD take pride in introducing ourselves as a composite


organization, where the complete range of Tour & Travel Services are provided under one
roof with totally dedicated and experienced team of highly motivated staff. The company
endeavors to deliver a high quality personalized tour and travel services

OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD has a distinction of efficiency serving its vast network of
satisfied customers, which comprises of corporate house, international
tourist & walk-in clients

Our belief in quality, which reflects in every sphere of operations, comes from a mutual
feeling of trust and dedication that we share with you.

It comes from knowing that the best and the most sincere professionals are serving you. It
comes from building a relationship based on firm commitment and understanding that last
eternally. That thrilling and fulfilling experience is our promise to you.

Our vacation offers you a rich educational experience, the camaraderie with fellow travelers
who share your interest and of course, a healthy dose of fun.

Our tour leaders are renowned specialist who will inform you, enlighten entertain and delight
you, and our groups are small enough to allow a truly personal experience.

In 2000, we incepted with a view to provide a ‘Single Window Solution’ to those seeking for
professionalize & qualitative services for their requirement of tour & travel.

These Five years have matured us through a whole range of experience and thanks to the
continued support of our esteemed clients.

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We dedicate this organization solely for handling INBOUND & MICE –as it is spelt for
Meetings, Incentives, Conferences & Exhibitions.

network of specialized associates all over India & across the Globe and the experience of
servicing global clientele, on the other hand, enable us to deliver what is –THE BEST FOR
YOU, in a proactive manner.

Since our inception we have been providing best of our services to customers. We organize
Cultural trip in India to experience the vast culture of India. Our trekking tour packages in
India help many adventure seekers to realize their dream. We even operate pilgrimage tour in
India to feel the presence of almighty.

We let people explore beautiful locales of Kerala through our tour packages. The paragliding
services that we offer provide complete entertainment. Through our services you can take a
break away from routine work and rejuvenate yourself. Register now to get that heavenly
experience.

“The goal doesn't matter. The path doesn't matter ... because everything comes to an end,
except effort." - Unknown

OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD may have made a place for ourselves in the Indian
marketplace, that's alright. We have grown into a premier travel company providing end to
end solutions for that discerning traveller who knows what he or she wants. We are not just a
travel agency who take people from one place to another. We try to see ourselves from the
point of view of a traveller. That way we try to figure out and gain insight into the needs and
requirements of our esteemed clients.

OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD understand that luxury is not a physical entity and
contrary to popular perception, we believe that luxury and high prices are not synonyms. We
provide premium services to you and yet it may not cost you the earth.

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Our Vision

We bring with us an experience, matured over for last five year and a team of dedicated
professionals, to ensure for you –

• Best value of your money -


Our services are worth the price at which you buy it.

• Proactive service –
We take care of your unspoken words.

• Personalized service –
Once given an opportunity, we ensure your comfort level.

• Crisis management –
In crisis, we are there before you, to solve it in a manner, which only years of
experience can ensure.

• Innovative Ideas –
Our designer programs (holiday/conference) are to bowl over you.

• High satisfaction level -


All of the above leading to a fulfilling experience.

Our Mission
• We have a one word mission.
• We are committed towards excellence.
• We may be providing any of the above services or may be meeting a new need that
might have arisen, but our endeavour to be the best in whatever we might be doing is
never lost on us. Once we are done with a job, we try to improve upon it the next
time.

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Our motto is “…Take good care of the customers,


and the customers will take care of us…”
Our Services
The moment we meet a client, we start a new relationship where both of us try to understand
each other. That forms the cornerstone of our understanding of the word "service". Service is
all about conveying the proper messages and being prepared to go all out whenever our
clients need us. we ensure complete customer satisfaction.

Customer is like our God and we leave no stone unturned to achieve it. Our timely and
reliable services compel people to avail tour packages that we provide. Reliability and
authenticity are some of the salient features of our services.

OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD are a well established name among market leaders as
tour and travel service provider all over India. We paid attention to each and every possible
aspect to make our services unique among a large number of service providers existing in
market. Latest innovations competing the world class trends, unexpected satisfaction and
easy & fast process make our services very popular among a large group of tour and travel
lovers all over country. The variety of services offered by us include:-

 Tours Package
 Family Package
 Group Travel Package
 Tours at Tourist places
 Air Ticket Booking Services

Air Ticketing
We provide Air Ticket booking services for almost all Domestic and International
airlines at the lowest rates at our various centers and on line (via Internet) as well. You
can trust on us for any kind of tour and travel services.

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You may forget some details while planning for vacation. That happens when you are
excited, that's why we are there to keep track of everything including air tickets because
their worth is felt when they don't arrive in time. With us, you can be assured that this
won't happen to you.

Documentation
We provide services to all possible spheres of the travel world including your passport
and visa needs. We ensure that all your due documents needs are met in time so that you
can concentrate on your travel.

Passport services
Ours is a renowned Passport agency in India. We help people arrange passports for
travel across India. We assist our customers in complete procedure to get their International
passport made. We also offer emergency passport services.

Visa Consultancy Services


We provide highly reliable and effective Visa Consultancy Services in India. We help
people get their international travel visa. Through our travel visa services we assist them in
the entire process. After getting tour visa people are able to spend their holidays in any
location of the world.

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E-TICKETING IN OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD

E-commerce had already revolutionized the business field all around the world.
With the ever-advancing informational technology, producers and consumers now
do most business transactions over the net. Furthermore, internet commerce continues
to grow rapidly, with increasing users.

E-ticket is one of the many branches of e-commerce. Short hand for electronic ticket,
e-ticket exists only in digital form. It changes the structure and way airline businesses
are done by eliminating many manual tasks and reducing costs.

My research focuses on how, since the last decade, e-ticket has changed or affected the
way people travel and airlines operate. My goal is to see if the e-ticket transformation for
the travel industry and consumers is genuinely more socially beneficial or not. It will also
delve into details about the operations of e-ticket and the potential problems that may
occur. I will draw my conclusion about the changes e-ticket has brought upon both parties.
. OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD are a well established name among market leaders as
tour and travel service provider all over India. We paid attention to each and every possible
aspect to make our services unique among a large number of service providers existing in
market. Latest innovations competing the world class trends, unexpected satisfaction and
easy & fast process make our services very popular among a large group of tour and travel
lovers all over country. The variety of services offered by us include:-

 Tours Package
 Family Package
 Group Travel Package
 Tours at Tourist places
 Air Ticket Booking Services

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Air Ticketing

OLYMPUS TRAVELS PVT.LTD provide Air Ticket booking services for almost
all Domestic and International airlines at the lowest rates at our various centers and on
line (via Internet) as well. You can trust on us for any kind of tour and travel services.

You may forget some details while planning for vacation. That happens when you are
excited, that's why we are there to keep track of everything including air tickets because
their worth is felt when they don't arrive in time. With us, you can be assured that this
won't happen to you.

Models adopted by Olympus Travels

In the most basic sense, a business model is the method of doing business by which a
company can sustain itself-that is ,generate revenue.The business model spells out how a
company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain.

Olumpus travels is a service which provides services to the customers like air ticket booking
services, tour packages , family tour packages , hotel booking facilities etc. The model
adopted by Olumpus Travels is Business-to-consumers (B2C). Business to consumers
describes activities of E-business serving and consumers with products and /or services. B2C
relationship are often establishedand cultivated through some form of internet marketing.

Limitations
The transactions are carried over via e-mails number of fraudary may increase. It is reported
that out of 100 e-mails, 75 cases are reported as fraud e-mails.

Travels cannot make sure that the card holder and the card number is valid or not.

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FINDINGS

 Olympus Travels offer the lowest fare available through each of our direct
outlets.
 They notify passengers of known delays, cancellations and diversions.
 Olympus Travels assist passengers facing delays.
 They allow telephone reservations to be held for 24 hours.
 Olympus Travels take measures to speed up check-in.
 Olympus Travels provide information to passengers regarding commercial
and operational conditions.
 With the implementation of e- ticket in airline industy the transaction and
conveniences of both the companies and customers become very easy and
smooth.
 Olympus Travels private Ltd. Provides websites for their service,but it lacks
much information about the company.
 By the application of software both the customers and the company is satisfied
with the speedy transactions.
 Olympus Travels provides facilities of online ticket booking and cancellation.

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SUGGESTIONS

 Improve trade promotion activities by displaying facilities through


hoardings and can give advertisements through publications.
 Company should more often organize social meetings or gatherings with
employees for interaction and creating an environment whereby
employees get motivated to perform at their best efficiency.
 The inconvenience of e-ticket holder in the event of flight cancellation or
delay has to be rectified.
 Proper training to the staff should be given according to the change in the
technologies.
 More details about the company should be included in the company
website.
 Periodically the Olympus Travels must offer refresher courses to front line
staff to train and update their communication skills.
 Olympus Travels should make new holiday packages and discount offers
to attract passengers.

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CONCLUSION

After analyzing through the details about e-ticketing, its advantages, and disadvantages,
e-ticketing transformation proves itself as a definite, positive step forward for both
consumers and air travel corporate.The many pros outweigh the cons. All the disadvantages
can be solved with an alternative solution. For example, the security concern can be solved
by placing more personals at the gate, or simply, a tighter security check-in. The biggest
problem now seems to be the difficulty of achieving interlining. Yet, with e-ticketing's
current evolutionary speed shown in its domination over the ticketing process, it is possible
for airlines worldwide to achieve interlining before the 2007 deadline. Because the savings in
cost is so great for the airlines, rivalry interests are currently put aside in pursuit of mutual,
bi-lateral agreement. Furthermore, as the historical and current facts about e-ticket show,
informational technology has demonstrated how quickly and efficiently it can change a
long, established, customary process. In mere ten years,consumershave changed from
booking flights with traveling agents through excessive mundane steps of booking to now the
simple and quick online booking. Furthermore, consumershave moved from holding tickets
in long lines for boarding pass to now self-check-in kiosksor advanced check-in athome.

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