University of Mumbai

Project report on ³Indian culture in the West´

Submitted by Mst. Jinesh Gala

Semester - VI Bachelor of Management Studies (BMS).

Guided by Prof. Bhavna .B

Khar Education Society¶s, College Of Commerce & Economics. Khar(W). 2010-11


We Student of Khar Education Society¶s College of Commerce & Economics, Khar(W) studying in TY.BMS (Semester VI) hereby declare that I have complete this project titled ³Indian culture in the West´ in the academic year 2010-11. This information submitted is true & original to the best of my knowledge.


__________________ Mst. Jinesh Gala


We student of Khar Education Society¶s, College Of Commerce & Economics, Khar(W). studying in TY.BMS (Semester VI) has completed this project on ³Indian culture
in the West´ in the Academic Year 2010-11.

The information submitted in this project is true &original to the best of my Knowledge.

_________________ Prof: Bhavna (Project Guide)

. Their guidelines made me comprehend the enigmatical portion of the subject and were the sole animating force that coerced me to meliorate my efforts without the support and guidance the project report would not have taken shape.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Project work is never the accomplishment of an individual. The compilation and presentation of this opuscule has bestowed me with an opportunity to show my gratitude to those subservient to it. Bhavna who has been the hallmark of this effort. ideas and cooperation of a number of entities. Rather. it is an amalgamation of the efforts. I am highly indebted to my guide Prof.

Sr. Socioeconomic 5. History Index 2. no. Immigation & Progression Timeline 7. Current Social Issues 8. 1. Statistics on Indian in the US 4. Politics . Culture 6. Population 3.

Census Bureau popularized the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with "American Indian". the U.S.Indian American Indian Americans are Americans who are of Asian descent and have ancestors who are born or are native to India. . To make a clear distinction and difference between Indians of Asian origin and Indians "named as" who are Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Uganda. American Indian is still the most common term. Buddhist. While some consider it derogatory.History The term: Indian In North America the term Indian has an ambiguous meaning. Suriname. American Indian and East Indian were and are commonly used. South Africa. Kenya. If a more specific term was or is needed. nations of Southeast Asia such as Malaysia and Singapore. Jain. Asian American) by the United States Census Bureau. Sikh. although Native American can be used to refer to the Indigenous peoples of North America. Historically and currently. Guyana. Arrival to the US It was after the Luce±Celler Act of 1946. people of Indian origin sometimes use the term Desi to refer to the diasporic subculture of South Asians. that Indian Americans were granted naturalization rights in the United States. particularly Indians. Canada. Tanzania. Jamaica. Indian Americans are categorized as Asian India (and more broadly. Trinidad & Tobago. Muslim and Zoroastrian and are among the most highly educated in American demographics. Currently South Asian is often used instead of East Indian. Indian was and is commonly used to indicate Native American. Fiji.S. Mauritius. . East Indian is still in common use. via Indian communities in other countries such as the United Kingdom (2% of the population is of Indian origin). Indian Americans are mostly Hindu. A number of Indian Americans came to the U. Christian.

The New York metropolitan area. Connecticut. in order. New Jersey.S. and among the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. New York. Georgia. As of August 2009. is home to approximately 600. Texas. the highest for any Asian American community. and Virginia.Population Numbers According to the American Community Survey of the U. and Illinois. Ohio.000 in 2000 to 2. comprising by far the largest Indian American population of any metropolitan area in the United States. Indian airline . and Pennsylvania. states with the largest Indian American populations.570. There are also large Indian American populations in Florida. Census Bureau. Indian Americans are the third largest Asian American ethnic group.S. are California. Maryland. after Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. Pennsylvania. consisting of New York City and adjacent areas within the state of New York as well as nearby areas within the states of New Jersey. Settlement The U. Michigan.000 in 2007: a growth rate of 53%. the Asian Indian population in the United States grew from almost 1.679.000 Indian Americans as of 2009.

75% Indian American ² the highest percentage of any municipality in the United States. . California near the Mexican border has a long history of Indian Americans (an estimated 21. But the mostly agrarian Imperial Valley. As of 2000. New Jersey is 17. Indian Americans are more evenly distributed throughout the United States. the town of Edison. Worth. Philadelphia. Washington/Baltimore. and San Francisco/San Jose/Oakland. Charlotte. At least seventeen Indian American enclaves characterized as a Little India have emerged in the New York metropolitan area. Dallas/Ft. Houston. The first American Sikh temples were in the Sacramento (Marysville and Yuba City) and San Joaquin Valleys (Lodi and Stockton) to serve the early wave of Sikh Indian workers arrived there. Detroit. In contrast with East Asian Americans. North Carolina. who tend to be concentrated in California and other areas near the Pacific coast. Other metropolitan areas with large Indian American populations include Atlanta. Chicago. Boston.carriers Air India and Jet Airways as well as United States airline carrier Continental Airlines were all offering flights from the New York metropolitan area to and from India. California alone) since the first arrivals to the California desert in the early 1900s. Los Angeles.000 live in Imperial County.

072 were from India. up from 352. 58.266.006 Indian immigrants were admitted to the United States.264 legal immigrants to USA from all the countries. .87 percent.278 during the 1990±1999 period. The average growth rate for the whole of USA was only 7. According to the US census. of the entire total 1. Immigration from India is currently at its highest level in history.Statistics on Indians in the US In the year 2006.6 percent. the overall growth rate for Indians from 1990 to 2000 was 105. Between 2000 and 2006 421.

Almost 67% of all Indians have a bachelor¶s or high degree (compared to 28% nationally and 44% average for all Asian American groups).Indians comprise 16. the Indian population in the US grew 130% ² 10 times the national average of 13%.007 million. in his recent book. between 1990 and 2000. Thomas Friedman. The World is Flat.4 percent of the Asian-American community. In 2000. China. According to the US Census Bureau. Indian Americans are the third largest Asian American ethnic group today. Taiwan and Japan combined. explains this trend in terms of brain drain. whereby the best and brightest elements in India emigrate to the US in order to seek better financial opportunities. A University of California. They are the third largest in the Asian American population. of all the foreign born population in USA. doctorate or other professional degree.K. Almost 40% of all Indians in the United States have a master¶s. which is five times the national average. Indians were 1. following Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. A joint Duke University ± UC Berkeley study revealed that Indian immigrants have founded more engineering and technology companies from 1995 to 2005 than immigrants from the U. . From 2000 onwards the growth rate and the per cent rate of Indians amongst all the immigrants has increased by over 100 percent. Berkeley. while 7% of valley hi-tech firms are led by Indian CEOs.. have one of the highest educational qualifications of all ethnic groups in the US. Indians along with other Asians. study reported that one-third of the engineers in Silicon Valley are of Indian descent.

Indian American men had "the highest year-round. Economics According to the 2000 U.3% participate in the U.S.S. which is five times the national average. full-time median earnings ($51.094)". Recently.173. Census. This phenomenon has been linked to the "brain drain" of the Indian intelligentsia from India. there are close to 35. there has been a drop in immigration of Indians from India to the United States. Among Indian Americans. Almost 40% of all Indians have a master¶s.Socioeconomic Education Indian Americans have the highest percentage of higher education when compared to other racial groups. however. of which 57. work force. According to the American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin. about 64% of Indian Americans have attained a Bachelor's degree or more.7% are employed in managerial and professional specialties.000 Indian American doctors. 72. while Indian American women had a medium income of $35. This is generally attributed to the improving economy of . and 44% average for all Asian American groups). doctorate or other professional degree. According to the 2000 census. (compared to 28% nationally.

S. Indian Americans own 50% of all economy lodges and 35% of all hotels in the United States.India. .. In 2002.000 Asian Indian-owned firms in the U. A large group of Indian Americans are presently second or third generation. employing more than 610. which have a combined market value of almost $40 billion.000 workers. and generating more than $88 billion in revenue. there were over 223.

New York City. Other predominantly Indian neighborhoods are Journal Square in Jersey City.Culture Food Indian Americans have brought Indian cuisine to the United States. and University Ave in Berkeley. Pioneer Blvd. and Edison. Jackson Heights in Queens. Chicago. the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Hillcroft Avenue in Houston. California. in the Los Angeles region. and it has become established as a popular cuisine in the country. New York. Texas. Texas and Richardson near Dallas. New Jersey. with hundreds of Indian restaurants and eateries nationwide. . Some of the biggest Indian markets are in Silicon Valley. There are many Indian markets and stores in the United States. Areas with a significant Indian market presence also include Devon Avenue neighborhood/market in Chicago. New Jersey.

Desi Junction in Chicago. for example has two such multiplexes: one in Fremont and one in San Jose. Connecticut and New York state. There are also some radio stations broadcasting in Tamil and Telugu within these communities. Regional and Others have offered Indian content for subscription. FunAsia. The area also has a movie theatre that plays Indian movies. RBC Radio in the Tri-state Area of New York city. Colors. Silicon Valley. Many metropolitan areas with high Indian-American populations now have movie theatres specialized for showing Indian movies specializing Bollywood. Radio Salaam Namaste in North Texas. The Dallas ± Ft. the first 24 × 7 Desi F. A similar . for example. Several cable and satellite providers offer Indian channels: Sony TV. Zee TV. In 2006. Radio Humsafar.Entertainment Hindi radio stations are available in areas with high Indian populations. Worth Metroplex has a "Desi" Multiplex in the Richardson township. Radio Salaam Namaste 104. and Sangeet Radio in Houston. Star Plus.9 FM. parts of New Jersey. FunAsia Radio.M. in the Dallas area. station in North America was launched. such as the Cricket World Cup.

Parsis. (www. The first religious centre of an Indian religion to be established in the US was a Sikh Gurudwara in Stockton. and Hindus are the majority of Indian Americans. Swaminarayan Sampraday. Hindu.S. .multiplex.C. Christians. Buddhists. It has been discontinued by MTV. the American Hindu population was around a million. FunAsia owns all Desi multiplexes in the state of Texas including two(six and five screens) in In July 2005. Today there are many Sikh Gurudwaras. Religions Communities of Hindus. California in 1912. and Jews from India have established their religions in the United States.funasia. Chinmaya Mission. Jains. Muslims. As of 2000. The Hindu Americans have formed the Hindu American Foundation which is represents American Hindus and aims to educate people about Hinduism. and Swadhyay Pariwar are well-established in the U. Many sects such as ISKCON. featuring Indian film exclusively on two screens (and other international films on four additional screens) opened in 2002 in Cary.. Sikhs. Buddhist and Jain Temples in all the 50 states. MTV premiered a spin-off network called MTV Desi which targets Indian Americans. BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha. N.

Indian Muslim Americans generally congregate with other American Muslims. Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. Mar Thoma Church (reformed orthodox).USA. Today. The Vedanta Society has been important in subsequent Parliaments. Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. many Hindu temples. Kriya Yoga was introduced to America by Paramahansa Yogananda. but there are prominent organizations such as the Indian Muslim Council . including those from Pakistan and Bangladesh.C Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada initiated a popular ISKCON also known as Hare Krishna movement while preaching Bhakti yoga. Indian Orthodox Church. Coalition Against Genocide. most of them built by Indian Americans have emerged in different cities and towns of America. The Pentecostal Mission.Swami Vivekananda brought Hinduism to the West at the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions. There are many Indian Christian churches across the US. Malankara Syriac Orthodox Church. Knanaya. Church of South India. there are also a number of Indian Christians in mainstream American churches. The Indian Christian . A. In addition. More than 18 million Americans are now practicing some form of Yoga. and the India Pentecostal Church of God.

FIACONA estimates the indian american christian population to be 600. They form the Indian Jewish Congregation of USA with headquarters in New York. Indian Jews are perhaps the smallest organized religious group among Indian Americans. The large Parsi community is represented by the Federation of Zoroastrian Associations of North America. .000.Americans have formed the Federation of Indian American Christian Organizations of North America (FIACONA) to represent a network of Indian Christian Organizations in the United States and Canada. consisting of approximately 350 members in the United States.

they are known to assimilate into American culture while at the same time keeping the culture of their ancestors. They may assimilate more easily than many other immigrant groups because they have fewer language barriers (English is widely spoken in India among professional classes). beginning in the late 1960s±70s. and appearances. Although Asian-Indian Americans retain a high ethnic identity.S.497. mixed European/White. Additionally. like many other Asian cultures. the term "Indian American" is also an umbrella label applying to a variety of views. puts emphasis upon achievement and personality responsibility of the individual as a reflection upon the family and community. lifestyles. and come from a democratic society.Ethnicity Like the terms "Asian American" or "South Asian American".1%) than Indian females marrying with White males (3. In countries such as the United States. Indian culture. . it shows that Indian males married almost twice as much with White females (7. and Indian backgrounds are becoming more prevalent. Canada. more educational credentials (Indian immigrants are disproportionately well-educated).7%). there has been a large influx of Indian immigrants. As a result of assimilation. and Britain. values. Census Bureau¶s publication of the 56.000 married couples. In the 2001 U.

. The big organizations include Cultural Association of Bengal and their annually sponsored event the North American Bengali Conference. Onam. Gujarati Samaj.. Brihan Maharashtra Mandals of North America(BMM). Ugadi. Prabashi Federation of Kerala. Associations of North America(FOKANA). Punjabi American Heritage Society and PunjabiAmerican Cultural Association. Orissa Society of the Americas. Sankranti.g. AKKA (Association of Kannada Kootas of America) Kaveri Kannada Sangha and Kannada Koota. Telugu Association of North America (TANA). Baisakh. These associations generally put on cultural programs. Ganesh Chaturthi. Vishu ) and other religious (e. Padva. Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America. plays. Pongal.The United States is also home to associations of Indians united by ethnolinguistic affiliation. and concerts during the major Hindu festivals (Diwali. Christian) and cultural events such as Christmas and New Years.

Indian immigrants began entering the independent United States as maritime workers. 1680: Due to anti-miscegenation laws. start arriving in California (Angel Island) on ships via Hong Kong. Oregon and Washington states. 1790: Following American independence from the British.Immigration and Progression Timeline Timeline y y y y y 1600s: The East India Company brought over Indian indentured servants to the British American colonies. They find employment on farms and in lumber mills in California. a Eurasian daughter born to an Indian father and Irish mother in Maryland was classified as a "mulatto" and sold into slavery. 1838: (May 5) . mostly Sikh farmers and laborers form Punjab region of British India.First two ships arrive in the Caribbean with Indian indentured workers (landing in British Guiana). 1899-1914: First significant wave of Indian immigrants. .

having convinced the Spokane district judge that he was ³Caucasian´ and met the requirements of naturalization law that restricted citizenship to free white persons.y y 1912: The first Sikh temple opens its doors in Stockton. California. Supreme Court decision that no person of East Indian origin could become a naturalized American citizen. as a result of a U.S. his citizenship was revoked.S. 1913: A. In 1923. citizenship. Mozumdar became the first Indian-born person to earn U.K. .

Asians. and also holds the title of Technical Director at Bose Corporation. 1928: Dhan Gopal Mukerji wins the Newbery Medal. eliminating per-country immigration quotas and introducing immigration on the basis of professional experience and education. there was significant controversy in Arizona when an Indian farmer B. He was former professor of electrical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Bhagat Singh Thind becomes a citizen a few years later in New York ± he had earlier applied and been rejected in Oregon. primary stockholder.y y y y y y y y y y 1917: The Barred Zone Act passes in Congress through two-thirds majority. Bhagat Singh Thind. 1965: President Lyndon Johnson signs the INS Act of 1965 into law. 1956: Dalip Singh Saund elected to the US House of Representatives from California.D. overriding President Woodrow Wilson's earlier veto.g. Albert Einstein and Robert Millikan give their endorsement to the bill. South Asians) are aliens ineligible for citizenship in United States v. Dr. A few months later. 1965 ² . 1923: The US Supreme Court rules that people from India (at the time. 1918. He is the Chairman. 1964: Amar G. British India. Ph. including Indians. He was re-elected to a 2nd and 3rd term. e. He goes on to fight in World War I. 1946: President Harry Truman signs into law the Luce-Celler Act of 1946. 1918.S. on November 8. Satinder Mullick. Singh married the sixteen year-old daughter of one of his white American tenants. returning to Indian Americans the right to immigrate and naturalize.. Bhagat Singh was promoted to the rank of an Acting Sergeant. President Franklin Roosevelt also endorses the bill. 1943: Republican Clara Booth Luce and Democrat Emanuel Celler introduce a bill to open naturalization to Indian immigrants to the US. Johns Hopkins Univ. 1918: Due to anti-miscegenation laws. Louis Fischer. 1918: Bhagat Singh Thind becomes the first person of East-Indian descent recruited by US Army on July 22. K. He is also the first Asian immigrant to be elected to Congress. of Corning Glass Works is one of the first to receive the immigration in Nov. Bose founded Bose Corporation. winning over 60% of the votes. Prominent Americans Pearl Buck. and thus becomes the first successful India-born man of letters in the United States. calling for an end to the "statutory discrimination against the Indians". are barred from immigrating to the U.

the 1st Indian Commissioner of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). 1999: Rono Dutta becomes the President of United Airlines. Night Shyamalan enters film history with his film "The Sixth Sense" becoming one of the all-time highest-grossing films. 1982: Vinod Khosla co-founded Sun Microsystems 1983: Asian Indian Women in America attended the 1st White House Briefing for Asian American Women (AAIWA formed in 1980 is the 1st Indian women's organization in North America) 1987: President Ronald Reagan appoints Dr. the first person of Indian descent to serve as dean of a school at an Ivy League institution. Jain (born in Tezpur . Northwestern University. India) appointed as dean of the Kellogg School of Management. 1981: Suhas Patil co-founded Cirrus Logic. 1999: Filmmaker M. Talwalkar. 2002: Professor Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao ² 'the world renowned statistician' is awarded National Medal of Science by President George W. wins Grammy award for his Indian inspired guitarwork on the album Superunknown by his band Soundgarden 1996: Pradeep Sindhu co-founded Juniper Networks 1999: NASA names the third of its four "Great Observatories" Chandra X-ray Observatory after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar the Indian born American astrophysicist and a Nobel laureate. President and Chief Executive Officer of LSI Corporation . 2001: Professor Jamshed Bharucha (born in Mumbai) appointed Dean of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences at Dartmouth College.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sponsored by Corning Glass Works Corning Inc. Named President of Cooper Union effect July. 2001: Professor Dipak C.Assam. Bush. 2011. where he has been a member of the faculty since 1987. Joy Cherian. worldwide. one of the first fabless semiconductor companies. 1988 : Sanjay Mehrotra co-founded SanDisk 1994 : Guitarist Kim Thayil. of Indian origin. He is the Sandy and Morton Goldman Professor in Entrepreneurial Studies and a professor of marketing at the Kellogg School of Management. under the INS Act of 1965. 2005: Abhijit Y. He is currently Provost & Senior Vice President of Tufts University.

He is presently and historically the highest ranking Indian American in a United States government. the Indian School of Business . Trustees of Eisenhower Fellowships.S. 2008.y y 2006: Indra Nooyi (born in Chennai. He was part of the team founded. in 1994. She also serves as a member of the boards of the International Rescue Committee. y y 2007: Francisco D'Souza appointed as the President and Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of Directors of Cognizant Technology Solutions. is the governing body of Yale University in New Haven. India) appointed as CEO of Citigroup. He is one of the youngest Chief Executive Officers in the software services sector at the age 38 in the United States. She is a Successor Fellow of the Yale Corporation ² sometimes. 2007: Bobby Jindal is elected governor of Louisiana and is the first person of Indian descent to be elected governor of an American state. He was previously the President and Chief Operating Officer of the Institutional Securities and Investment Banking Group at Morgan Stanley. Connecticut. 2007: Vikram Pandit (born in Maharashtra. and more formally. India) appointed as CEO of PepsiCo. known as The President and Fellows of Yale College. and currently serves as Chairman of the U. He also serves on the boards of Columbia University. Catalyst and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. he is inaugurated on January 14. the Nasdaq-100 Cognizant Technology Solutions. Columbia Business School.±India Business Council.

as the new head of United States Agency for International Development. He is one of the top 8 young economists in the world. M. and second Indian American in general to become Governor of an American state. 2010: Year marks the most number of candidates of Indian origin. running for political offices in the United States. 2009: President Barack Obama nominates Rajiv Shah. . 2009: President Barack Obama appoints Preetinder S. 2008: Raj Chetty appointed as professor of economics at Harvard University. Bharara (born in Firozpur.S. 2007: Shantanu Narayen appointed as CEO of Adobe Systems. 2009: President Barack Obama nominates Islam A. he is the youngest person 'at the age of 29' to ever receive tenure of professorship in the Department of Economics at Harvard. graduate of Harvard College' Class of 1990 and Columbia Law School' Class of 1993) as United States attorney for the Southern District of New York Manhattan. 2009: President Barack Obama appoints Eboo Patel and Anju Bhargava on President's Advisory Council on Faith Based and Neighborhood Parnerships. As of today.y y y y y y y y y y y y y and The Trinity School. 2010: State Senator Nikki Haley is elected governor of South Carolina..S. Farah Pandith appointed as Special Representative to Muslim Communities for the United States Department of State.D. Trade Representative. Siddiqui as the Chief Agricultural Negotiator in the Office of the U. 2008: Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson appoints Neel Kashkari as the Interim U. Inc. 2010: President of Harvard University Catherine Drew Gilpin Faust appoints Nitin Nohria as the 10th dean of Harvard Business School. India. He is a former board member of NASDAQ (2000±2003). the New York City Investment Fund. 2008: Sanjay Jha appointed as Co-CEO of Motorola. She had earlier won the Republican primary for the 2010 South Carolina Gubernatorial Election becoming the first Indian American woman to win a major party nomination in a statewide election. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability. 2010: President of University of Chicago Robert Zimmer names Sunil Kumar as the dean of University of Chicago Booth School of Business. and becomes the first Indian American woman. including candidates such as Kamala Harris and Ami Bera.

Southeast Asia.Classification According to the current parameters defining the official U. please see that article. encompassing all peoples with origins in the original peoples of the Far East. and instead report Muslim (or a sect of Islam such as Shi'ite or Sunni). Jewish. As with other modern official U. and Indian Zoroastrians as white. government agencies. racial categories employed by the United States Census Bureau. government racial categories. In previous decades. American citizens or resident aliens who marked "Asian-Indian" as their ancestry or wrote in a term that automatically gets classified as an "Asian-Indian" gets classified as part of the Asian race on the 2000 US Census. they are automatically tallied as white.S. if they solely report their religious heritage without their national origin . This may result in the counting of persons such as Indian Muslims.S. For further discussion on the term Asian American. and Zoroastrian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section without noting their country of origin. Office of Management and Budget and other U. the "Hindu race". and the Indian subcontinent. where individual Indian Americans do not racially self-identify.S. and Other. Even today. the term "Asian" is in itself a broad and heterogeneous classification. Indian Americans were also variously classified as White American. Indian Jews.

Numerous cases of religious stereotyping of American Hindus (mainly of Indian origin) have also been documented. a gang known as the Dotbusters specifically targeted Indian Americans in Jersey City. but has been known to happen in certain instances. In the 1980s. According to the offices of the Congressional Caucus on India. In particular. whereby Indian Americans are blamed for US companies offshoring white-collar labor to India. as well as stereotyping and scapegoating of Indian Americans have been conducted in recent years. implicit racial discrimination against Indian Americans largely go unreported by the Indian American community. though nothing serious has taken place yet. Studies of racial discrimination. New Jersey with violence and harassment. Due to various socio-cultural reasons. . many Indian Americans are severely concerned of a backlash. racial discrimination of Indian Americans in the workplace has been correlated with Indophobia due to the rise in outsourcing/offshoring paranoia.Current social issues Discrimination Explicit discrimination is not widespread.

and the backlash that may have contributed to Allen losing his re-election bid. was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist. later investigated by the Embassy of India in Washington. Of significance is the December 14. second-year student Abhijit Mahato was murdered at Duke University. an Indian American himself. .D." Some members of the Indian American community saw Allen's comments. "Welcome to America. The number of racially-motivated murders of Indian American students has also increased. raising concerns of a racially-motivated killing. The motive behind the killings is unknown. In another incident that took place on January 18. This happened after September 11. as demonstrative of the power of YouTube in the 21st century. a Sikh. On April 5. In one example. and the murders occurred near the officers of then Governor-elect Bobby Jindal. On August 11. 2007 killing of two Indian Ph. a pizza deliverer was mugged and beaten in Massachusetts for "being Muslim" though the victim pleaded with the assailants that he was in fact Hindu. The vandals damaged temple property leading to $200. the Hindu Mandir of Minnesota was vandalized allegedly on the basis of religious discrimination. students at Louisiana State University. In another example. and the murderer claimed that his turban made him think that the victim was a Middle Eastern American.Since the September 11. The motives were again unknown. Senator George Allen allegedly referred to an opponent's political staffer of Indian ancestry as "macaca" and commenting. Balbir Singh Sodhi.000 worth of damage. there have been scattered incidents of Indian Americans becoming mistaken targets for hate crimes. 2006. nothing was stolen however. 2006. 2008. 2001 attacks.

The elimination of immigration quotas in 1965 spurred successively larger waves of immigrants in the late 1970s and early 1980s. the largest influx of Indians arrived between 1995 and 2000.Immigration Indians are among the largest ethnic groups legally immigrating to the United States. The immigration of Indian Americans has taken place in several waves since the first Indian American came to the United States in the 1700s. This has resulted in long waiting periods for people born in India from receiving these benefits. This latter group has also caused surge in the application for various immigration benefits including applications for green card. A major wave of immigration to California from the region of Punjab took place in the first decade of the 20th century. . With the technology boom of the 1990s. Another significant wave followed in the 1950s which mainly included students and professionals.

Additionally. Presidential Election showed Indian Americans favoring Democratic candidate John Kerry over Republican George W. A majority of Indian Americans tend to identify as moderates and have voted for Democrats in recent elections. Bush by a 53% to 14% margin. The Republican party has tried to target this community. there are also industry-wide Indian American groupings including the Asian American Hotel Owners Association and the Association of American Physicians of Indian Origin. In 2007. Republican Congressman Bobby Jindal became the first United States Governor of Indian descent when he was elected Governor of Louisiana and is cited as a leading GOP presidential contender in 2012 or 2016.S. Polls before the 2004 U. Nikki Haley won the Republican Gubernatorial Primary in South . including US India PAC.Politics Several groups have tried to create a unified or dominant voice for the Indian American community in political affairs. and several prominent conservative activists are of Indian origin. with 30% undecided at the time.

Carolina. has been endorsed by former Alaska Governor and 2008 Republican vice-presidential candidate Sarah Palin. . and leads in aggregate general election polling to date.

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