This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, worm holes). There has been an article recently published which refers to the possibilities that superfluids might be involved and, if so, we might be able to detect wormholes. I find the connection between superfluids and superconductors intriguing because string theory explains them with gauge gravity duality, like it does quantum entanglement, black holes and liquid quark soup. So a development of this kind of technology would probably require it as a component. Also note that quantum vortices would be present, as well as zero entropy-- the direct transfer of mass from one place to another without any transfer or expenditure of energy, All vital components. Kip Thorne explored this in detail in formulating the physics behind traversable wormholes with negative mass/energy (exotic matter.) He also found a connection between exotic matter and dark energy (both have repulsive properties and are linked to ZPE as explained in Origin 10.) Note that some of the models of wormholes involve spinning black holes (Kerr black holes) and these have ring singularities that would permit us to navigate them without being crushed. Superfluids have special effects in spin scenarios where they create quantum vortices (the smaller version of worm holes) and can rotate independent of or in sync with the medium they are contained within. I present below recent research that has found superfluids inside neutron stars already and that the most famous neutron star of them all (the pulsar inside the crab nebula) has already been discovered to be emitting some anomalously energetic gamma rays. This is all in accord with the wormhole model already presented. Neutron stars are a good fit for wormholes because they are a tamer version of black holes and they also contain BEC just like black holes do and they also spin. If the two fluid model is correct, exotic mattet superfluid should be able to flow freely between the two stars (and carry mass with it), while the BEC of each star remains intact. Many of these wormholes are ancient, forming in the very early history of the universe, along with cosmic strings. It's quite possible they fomed pre-inflation, when these areas of the universe were adjacent, and the expansion was so rapid that the connections remained intact in higher dimensions. This is the macro version of quantum entanglement, which proceeds at 10,000 x the speed of light. These wormholes can exist in several size groupings, from the microsized ones embedded in the quantum foam (which might be responsible for tunneling, entanglement and teleportation) to star sized worm holes to mid sized ones in black holes occupying globular clusters to even ones connected through the supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. The size corresponds to the amount of space-time being warped and the amount of exotic matter used to keep the connection stable; the smallest ones can transport over short distances and times, while the larger ones can transport across the galaxy or even across the universe and much larger time spans, while the very largest ones can transport to another universe entirely or another time line through the second temporal dimension, since supermassive black holes are theorized to house universes inside their Cauchy horizons. Worm holes have been mathematically predicted by general relativity and quantum mechanics (so there might be some aspect of unification going on right there, especially since string theory can be used to describe them as well as other universes), now it's just a matter of finding them. Our universe itself exists in a four way entanglement with the mirrorverse, the antiverse and the mirror antiverse, with our universe and the mirrorverse entangled and the other two entangled with each other-- and thus time and big bounces are synchronized between the entangled pairs, a macrofractal version of the double helix DNA model (which proves that the universe, the quadverse and the omniverse might all be fractal representations of life itself as nature beautifully repeats on all levels.) These macro wormhole connections exist because our universe originated as a quantum particle inside a black hole inside a larger universe, just like the baby universes inside our own supermassive black holes. This causes the frequent exchange of exotic matter and dark matter, the latter governs the structure of the universe through gravitation just like it does with the omniverse, while the former governs the expansion rates within the universe along with ZPE (dark energy) which both form the backbone of the omniverse. Thus each entangled pair reaches equilibrium and expands or contracts at the same rate (hence the synched big bounces.) This is how everything is kept in balance.
Despite being completely inconsistent with a common-sense approach and the expected behavior of "normal" matter, negative mass is completely mathematically consistent and introduces no violation of conservation of momentum or energy. It is used in certain speculative theories, such as on the construction of wormholes. The closest known real representative of such exotic matter is the region of pseudo-negative pressure density produced by the Casimir effect. Just connecting some pieces together here.... more articles on superfluids, these concern neutron stars. Neutron star seen forming exotic new state of matter 10:00 04 February 2011 by Rachel Courtland Spot the superfluid neutron soup The dense core of a nearby collapsed star is undergoing a rapid chill, providing the first direct evidence that such stars can produce a superfluid of neutrons -- a state of matter that cannot be created in laboratories on Earth.Neutron stars are the remnants of exploded stars. Their cores are so dense that atomic nuclei dissolve, and protons and electrons combine to form a soup dominated by neutrons.If conditions are right, these neutrons ought to be able to pair up to form a superfluid -- a substance with quantum properties that mean it flows with zero friction. Superfluids formed in laboratories can do bizarre things such as creep up the walls of a cup, or remain still even while their container is made to spin.It has long been assumed that neutrons in the cores of neutron stars become superfluid, but without any direct evidence that they do so. That changed in 2010, when astrophysicists Craig Heinke and Wynn Ho examined measurements taken by NASA's orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory of the 330-year-old neutron star at the heart of the dusty supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.Neutrino releaseThese measurements show the star has dimmed by 20 per cent since it was discovered in 1999, corresponding to an estimated temperature drop of 4 per cent. "It's enormously fast cooling," says Dany Page of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City.Now Page and colleagues have calculated that this rapid cooling can be explained if a fraction of the neutrons in the core are undergoing a transition to superfluidity.When neutrons pair up to form a superfluid they release neutrinos which should pass easily through the star, carrying significant amounts of energy with them. This would cause the star to cool rapidly, argue Page's team.A second group that includes Heinke and Ho has also attributed the neutron star's rapid drop in temperature to the onset of neutron superfluidity.Cooling slowsCole Miller of the University of Maryland in College Park finds this reasoning convincing, but points out that both groups of astronomers relied on particularly complex models to estimate the temperature of a star from its brightness, rather than measuring the temperature directly . "Although I would personally bet that these two groups have the correct interpretation, we might not have enough information to say this with certainty," he says.Astronomers could get firmer evidence for superfluidity by monitoring the neutron star over the coming decades. As a greater fraction of it becomes superfluid, its rate of cooling should slow.There is little chance of creating a soup of superfluid neutrons on Earth. Although particle colliders can create dense fireballs of matter, the temperatures are too high to mimic the interiors of neutron stars. Superfluids made in laboratories are usually composed of chilled helium atoms.Page and his team's conclusions are due to be published in Physical Review Letters, while Heinke, Ho and colleagues will be publishing their work in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters.References: arxiv:1012.0045v2 and arxiv:1011.6142v2 http://www.newscient...true&print=true http://www.physorg.c...ope-flares.html And here's one about highly energetic gamma radiation from the neutron star (pulsar) at the center of the Crab Nebula.
Fermi's Large Area Telescope sees surprising flares in Crab Nebula January 6th, 2011 in Space& Earth / Astronomy Fermi's Large Area Telescope sees surprising flares in crab nebula Fermi's Large Area Telescope has recently detected two short-duration gamma-ray pulses coming from the Crab Nebula, which was previously believed to emit radiation at very steady rate. The pulses were fueled by the most energetic particles ever traced to a discrete astronomical object. Image courtesy of NASA/ESA. (PhysOrg.com) -- The Crab Nebula, one of our best-known and most stable neighbors in the winter sky, is shocking scientists with a propensity for fireworks—gamma-ray flares set off by the most energetic particles ever traced to a specific astronomical object. The discovery, reported today by scientists working with two orbiting telescopes, is leading researchers to rethink their ideas of how cosmic particles are accelerated. "We were dumbfounded," said Roger Blandford, who directs the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, jointly located at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University. "It's an emblematic object," he said; also known as M1, the Crab Nebula was the first astronomical object catalogued in 1771 by Charles Messier. "It's a big deal historically, and we're making an amazing discovery about it." Blandford was part of a KIPAC team led by scientists Rolf Buehler and Stefan Funk that used observations from the Large Area Telescope, one of two primary instruments aboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, to confirm one flare and discover another. Their report was posted online today in Science Express alongside a report from the Italian orbiting telescope Astro‐rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero, or AGILE, which also detected gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula. The Crab Nebula, and the rapidly spinning neutron star that powers it, are the remnants of a supernova explosion documented by Chinese and Middle Eastern astronomers in 1054. After shedding much of its outer gases and dust, the dying star collapsed into a pulsar, a super-dense, rapidly spinning ball of neutrons that emits a pulse of radiation every 33 milliseconds, like clockwork. Though it's only 10 miles across, the amount of energy the pulsar releases is enormous, lighting up the Crab Nebula until it shines 75,000 times more brightly than the sun. Most of this energy is contained in a particle wind of energetic electrons and positrons traveling close to the speed of light. These electrons and positrons interact with magnetic fields and low-energy photons to produce the famous glowing tendrils of dust and gas Messier mistook for a comet over 300 years ago. The particles are even forceful enough to produce the gamma rays the LAT normally observes during its regular surveys of the sky. But those particles did not cause the dramatic flares. Each of the two flares the LAT observed lasted mere days before the Crab Nebula's gamma-ray output returned to more normal levels. According to Funk, the short duration of the flares points to synchrotron radiation, or radiation emitted by electrons accelerating in the magnetic field of the nebula, as the cause. And not just any accelerated electrons: the flares were caused by supercharged electrons of up to 10 peta-electron volts, or 10 trillion electron volts, 1,000 times more energetic than anything the world's most powerful man-made particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, can produce, and more than 15 orders of magnitude more energetic than photons of visible light.
"The strength of the gamma-ray flares shows us they were emitted by the highest-energy particles we can associate with any discrete astrophysical object," Funk said. Not only are the electrons surprisingly energetic, added Buehler, but, "the fact that the intensity is varying so rapidly means the acceleration has to happen extremely fast." This challenges current theories about the way cosmic particles are accelerated, which cannot easily account for the extreme energies of the electrons or the speed with which they're accelerated. The discovery of the Crab Nebula's gamma-ray flares raises one obvious question: how can the nebula do that? Obvious question, but no obvious answers. The KIPAC scientists all agree they need a closer look at higher resolutions and in a variety of wavelengths before they can make any definitive statements. The next time the Crab Nebula flares the Fermi LAT team will not be the only team gathering data, but they'll need all the contributions they can get to decipher the nebula's mysteries. "We thought we knew the essential ingredients of the Crab Nebula," Funk said, "but that's no longer true. It's still surprising us." Provided by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory "Fermi's Large Area Telescope sees surprising flares in Crab Nebula." January 6th, 2011. Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist, known for his prolific contributions in gravitation physics and astrophysics and for having trained a generation of scientists. A longtime friend and colleague of Stephen Hawking and Carl Sagan, he was the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at Caltech until 2009 and one of the world’s leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. He continues scientific research in addition to writing a film. Thorne was one of the first people to conduct scientific research on whether the laws of physics permit space and time to be multiply connected (can there exist classical, traversable wormholes and "time machines"?). Kim, Thorne identified a universal physical mechanism (the explosive growth of vacuum polarization of quantum fields). He showed that traversable Lorentzian wormholes can exist in the structure of spacetime only if they are threaded by quantum fields in quantum states that violate the averaged null energy condition (i.e. have negative renormalized energy spread over a sufficiently large region). This has triggered research to explore the ability of quantum fields to possess such extended negative energy. Recent calculations by Thorne indicate that simple masses passing through traversable wormholes could never engender paradoxes. That is, that any situation in a time travel story turns out to permit many consistent solutions. With Anna Żytkow, Thorne predicted the existence of red supergiant stars with neutron-star cores (Thorne-Żytkow objects). Most importantly, he laid the foundations for the theory of pulsations of relativistic stars and the gravitational radiation they emit. With James Hartle, Thorne derived from general relativity the laws of motion and precession of black holes and other relativistic bodies, including the influence of the coupling of their multipole moments to the spacetime curvature of nearby objects. Thorne has also theoretically predicted the existence of universally antigravitating "exotic matter" — the element needed to accelerate the expansion rate of the universe, keep traversable wormhole "Star Gates" open and keep timelike geodesic free float "warp drives" working. With Clifford Will and others of his students, he laid foundations for the theoretical interpretation of experimental tests of relativistic theories of gravity — foundations on which Will and others then built. Thorne is currently interested in the origin of classical space and time from the quantum foam of quantum gravity theory.
The type of fluid that theyre talking about in the article sounds like superfluids to me-- note that there's already an established connection between worm holes and superconductors *gauge gravity duality) via string theory, which also explains quantum soup and quantum entanglement-- and this can further be extended to include superfluids, which possess some special properties (like zero entropy-transfer of mass without the transfer or expenditure of energy) which lends itself especially well to worm holes. A unified description of superconductivity and superfluidity is possible in terms of gauge symmetry breaking. It's also connected to BEC -- Bose Einstein Condensate, which is theorized to exist inside black holes and could be the seedling to new universe formation. Negative temperatures and exotic matter are connected and this can also be linked to superfluids. In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperatures; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be a negative quantity. Negative temperatures can be expressed as negative numbers on the kelvin scale. A system with a truly negative Kelvin temperature is hotter than any system with a positive temperature (in the sense that if a negative-temperature system and a positive-temperature system come in contact, heat will flow from the negative- to the positivetemperature system). Some systems have a maximum amount of energy that they can hold, and as they approach that maximum energy their entropy actually begins to decrease. Because temperature may be formally defined by the relationship between energy and entropy, such a system's temperature becomes negative, even though energy is being added -- implying that the system's heat capacity is negative. Negative mass would possess some strange properties, such as accelerating in the direction opposite of applied force. For example, an object with negative inertial mass and positive electric charge would accelerate away from objects with negative charge, and towards objects with positive charge, the opposite of the normal rule that like charges repel and opposite charges attract. This behavior can produce bizarre results: for instance, a gas containing a mixture of positive and negative matter particles will have the positive matter portion increase in temperature without bound. However, the negative matter portion gains negative temperature at the same rate, again balancing out. When you consider higher dimensional geometry, it becomes much easier to understand. Einstein himself was working on this kind of theory before he died. String theory, although it may not have all the answers-- has actually explained several puzzling physical properties quite well, including quantum entanglement, the fractal nature of superconductors and the newly rediscovered quark soup. Although the phenomenologies of the superfluid states of helium-4 and helium-3 are very similar, the microscopic details of the transitions are very different. Helium-4 atoms are bosons, and their superfluidity can be understood in terms of the Bose–Einstein statistics that they obey. Specifically, the superfluidity of helium-4 can be regarded as a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an interacting system. On the other hand, helium-3 atoms are fermions, and the superfluid transition in this system is described by a generalization of the BCS theory of superconductivity. In it, Cooper pairing takes place between atoms rather than electrons, and the attractive interaction between them is mediated by spin fluctuations rather than phonons. (See fermion condensate.) A unified description of superconductivity and superfluidity is possible in terms of gauge symmetry breaking. Superfluids, such as supercooled helium-4, exhibit many unusual properties. (See Helium#Helium II state). Superfluid acts as if it were a mixture of a normal component, with all the properties associated with normal fluid, and a superfluid component. The superfluid component has zero viscosity, zero entropy, and infinite thermal conductivity. (It is thus impossible to set up a
temperature gradient in a superfluid, much as it is impossible to set up a voltage difference in a superconductor.) Application of heat to a spot in superfluid helium results in a wave of heat conduction at the relatively high velocity of 20 m/s, called second sound. One of the most spectacular results of these properties is known as the thermomechanical or "fountain effect". If a capillary tube is placed into a bath of superfluid helium and then heated, even by shining a light on it, the superfluid helium will flow up through the tube and out the top as a result of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. A second unusual effect is that superfluid helium can form a layer, 30 nm thick, up the sides of any container in which it is placed. See Rollin film. A more fundamental property than the disappearance of viscosity becomes visible if superfluid is placed in a rotating container. Instead of rotating uniformly with the container, the rotating state consists of quantized vortices. That is, when the container is rotated at speed below the first critical velocity (related to the quantum numbers for the element in question) the liquid remains perfectly stationary. Once the first critical velocity (the speed of sound in the superfluid) is reached, the superfluid will very quickly begin spinning at the critical speed. The speed is quantized, that is, a superfluid can only spin at certain "allowed" or critical speed values. In simplified terms, if the container is rotated to a certain allowed speed, the superfluid will rotate very quickly along with the container, otherwise, if the speed is too slow, then the superfluid will not move at all. Rotation in a normal fluid like water is not quantized.  Properties Theoretically, a normal fluid phase of non-zero entropy can coexist with a superfluidic phase with zero entropy. This leads to the strange phenomenon of a two-fluid model, in which there can be a transfer of mass without a transfer of energy: when such a fluid/superfluid system is introduced in a setup that would normally trap a fluid, the superfluid can flow out due to its zero-viscosity property, leaving the normal fluid behind. Thus, part of the fluid system's mass is transferred without any energy transfer (since the superfluid has zero entropy).  Applications Recently in the field of chemistry, superfluid helium-4 has been successfully used in spectroscopic techniques as a quantum solvent. Referred to as Superfluid Helium Droplet Spectroscopy (SHeDS), it is of great interest in studies of gas molecules, as a single molecule solvated in a superfluid medium allows a molecule to have effective rotational freedom, allowing it to behave exactly as it would in the "gas" phase. Superfluids are also used in high-precision devices such as gyroscopes, which allow the measurement of some theoretically predicted gravitational effects (for an example, see the Gravity Probe B article). In 1999, one type of superfluid was used to trap light and greatly reduce its speed. In an experiment performed by Lene Hau, light was passed through a Bose-Einstein condensed gas of sodium (analogous to a superfluid) and found to be slowed to 17 m/s (61.2 km/h) from its normal speed of 299,792,458 metres per second in vacuum. This does not change the absolute value of c, nor is it completely new: any medium other than vacuum, such as water or glass, also slows down the propagation of light to c/n where n is the material's refractive index. The very slow speed of light and high refractive index observed in this particular experiment, moreover, is not a general property of all superfluids. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, launched in January 1983 to gather infrared data was cooled by 73 kilograms of superfluid helium, maintaining a temperature of 1.6 K (-271.4 °C).  21st century developments
In the early 2000s, physicists created a Fermionic condensate from pairs of ultra-cold fermionic atoms. Under certain conditions, fermion pairs form diatomic molecules and undergo Bose– Einstein condensation. At the other limit, the fermions (most notably superconducting electrons) form Cooper pairs which also exhibit superfluidity. This work with ultra-cold atomic gases has allowed scientists to study the region in between these two extremes, known as the BEC-BCS crossover. Additionally, supersolids may also have been discovered in 2004 by physicists at Penn State University. When helium-4 is cooled below about 200 mK under high pressures, a fraction (~1%) of the solid appears to become superfluid. By quench cooling or lengthening the annealing time, thus increasing or decreasing the defect density respectively, it was shown, via torsional oscillator experiment, that the supersolid fraction could be made to range from 20% to completely non-existent. This suggested that the supersolid nature of helium-4 is not intrinsic to helium-4 but a property of helium-4 and disorder. Some emerging theories posit that the supersolid signal observed in helium-4 was actually an observation of either a superglass state or intrinsically superfluid grain boundaries in the helium-4 crystal. http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-02-scientists-possibility-wormholes-stars.html Scientists investigate the possibility of wormholes between stars February 25th, 2011 in Space& Earth / Astronomy Artistic illustration of wormhole travel. Image credit: NASA/Les Bossinas (Cortez III Service Corp.) (PhysOrg.com) -- Wormholes are one of the stranger objects that arise in general relativity. Although no experimental evidence for wormholes exists, scientists predict that they would appear to serve as shortcuts between one point of spacetime and another. Scientists usually imagine wormholes connecting regions of empty space, but now a new study suggests that wormholes might exist between distant stars. Instead of being empty tunnels, these wormholes would contain a perfect fluid that flows back and forth between the two stars, possibly giving them a detectable signature. The scientists, Vladimir Dzhunushaliev at the Eurasian National University in Kazakhstan and coauthors, have posted their investigation of the possibility of wormholes between stars on arXiv.org. The scientists began investigating the idea of wormholes between stars when they were researching what kinds of astrophysical objects could serve as entrances to wormholes. According to previous models, some of these objects could look similar to stars. This idea led the scientists to wonder if wormholes might exist in otherwise ordinary stars and neutron stars. From a distance, these stars would look very much like normal stars (and normal neutron stars), but they might have a few differences that could be detectable. To investigate these differences, the researchers developed a model of an ordinary star with a tunnel at the star’s center, through which matter could move. Two stars that share a wormhole would have a unique connection, since they are associated with the two mouths of the wormhole. Because exotic matter in the wormhole could flow like a fluid between the stars, both stars would likely pulse in an unusual way. This pulsing could lead to the release of various kinds of energy, such as ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. For now, the difficult part is calculating exactly what kinds of oscillations are occurring, and what kind of energy is being released. This information would allow scientists to predict what a wormhole-containing star might look like from Earth, and begin searching for these otherwise normal-looking stars.
More information: Vladimir Dzhunushaliev, et al. "A Star Harbouring a Wormhole at its Center." arXiv:1102.4454v1 [astro-ph.GA] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_mass Ever since Newton first formulated his theory of gravity, there have been at least three conceptually distinct quantities called mass: inertial mass, "active" gravitational mass (that is, the source of the gravitational field), and "passive" gravitational mass (that is, the mass that is evident from the force produced in a gravitational field). The Einstein equivalence principle postulates that inertial mass must equal passive gravitational mass; while the law of conservation of momentum requires that active and passive gravitational mass must be identical. All experimental evidence to date has found these are indeed always the same. In considering hypothetical particles with negative mass, it is important to consider which of these concepts of mass are negative; however, in most analyses of negative mass, it is assumed that the equivalence principle and conservation of momentum continue to apply. In 1957, Hermann Bondi suggested in a paper in Reviews of Modern Physics that mass might be negative as well as positive . He pointed out that this does not entail a logical contradiction, as long as all three forms of mass are negative, but that the assumption of negative mass involves some counter-intuitive form of motion. From Newton's second law: Thus it can be seen that an object with negative inertial mass would be expected to accelerate in the opposite direction to that in which it was pushed, which is arguably a strange concept. If the "push" is based on the electromagnetic force, this would simply mean the mass accelerates in the opposite direction than what one would expect based on its charge; for example, an object with negative inertial mass and positive charge would accelerate away from objects with positive mass and negative charge, and accelerate towards objects with positive mass and positive charge, the opposite of the normal rule that like charges repel and opposite charges attract. If one were to treat inertial mass mi, passive gravitational mass mp, and active gravitational mass ma distinctly, then Newton's law of universal gravitation would take the form (where a is the acceleration of an object with inertial mass mi and passive gravitational mass mp in the gravitational field generated by a different object with active gravitational mass Ma, with r as the distance between the two objects and G as the gravitational constant) Thus objects with negative passive gravitational mass, but with positive inertial mass, would be expected to be repelled by positive active masses, and attracted to negative active masses. However, any difference between inertial and gravitational mass would violate the equivalence principle of general relativity. For an object where both the inertial and gravitational masses were negative and equal, we could cancel out mi and mp from the equation, and conclude that its acceleration a in the gravitational field from a body with positive active gravitational mass (say, the planet Earth) would be no different from the acceleration of an object with positive passive gravitational and inertial mass (so a small negative mass object would fall towards the Earth at the same rate as any other object). On the other hand, if we have a small object with equal inertial and passive gravitational masses falling in the gravitational field of an object with negative active gravitational mass (a small mass dropped above a negative-mass planet, say), then canceling out mi and mp would indicate that the acceleration a of the small object is proportional to the negative active gravitational mass Ma of the object creating the gravitational field, so the small object would actually accelerate away from the negative-mass object rather than towards it (and this is true regardless of whether the small object's inertial and passive gravitational masses were both positive or both negative). So, as long as inertial mass and gravitational mass are
always equal as required by the equivalence principle, positive active gravitational mass would be universally attractive (both negative-mass and positive-mass objects would be pulled towards an object with positive active gravitational mass), while negative active gravitational mass would be universally repulsive (both negative-mass and positive-mass objects would be pushed away).  Forward's analysis Although no particles are known to have negative mass, physicists (primarily Hermann Bondi and Robert L. Forward) have been able to describe some of the anticipated properties such particles may have. Assuming that all three concepts of mass are equivalent it would produce a system where negative masses are attracted to positive masses, yet positive masses are repelled away from negative masses. Negative masses would produce an attractive force on one another, but would move apart because of their negative inertial masses. For a negative value of mp with positive value of ma, F is negative (repulsive); thus it would appear that a negative mass would accelerate away from a positive mass. But because such an object would also possess negative inertial mass it would accelerate in the opposite direction to F. As Bondi pointed out, it can be shown that if both masses are of equal but opposite mass, the combined system of positive and negative particles will accelerate indefinitely without any additional input into the system. This behavior is completely inconsistent with a common-sense approach and the expected behaviour of 'normal' matter; but is completely mathematically consistent and introduces no violation of conservation of momentum or energy. If the masses are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, then the momentum of the system remains zero if they both travel together and accelerate together, no matter what their speed: And equivalently for the kinetic energy Ke: Forward extended Bondi's analysis to additional cases, and showed that even if the two masses m(-) and m(+) are not the same, the conservation laws remain unbroken. This behaviour can produce bizarre results: for instance, a gas containing a mixture of positive and negative matter particles will have the positive matter portion increase in temperature without bound. However, the negative matter portion gains negative temperature at the same rate, again balancing out. Geoffrey A. Landis pointed out other implications of Forward's analysis, including noting that although negative mass particles would repel each other gravitationally, the electrostatic force would be attractive for like-charges and repulsive for opposite charges. Forward used the properties of negative-mass matter to create the diametric drive, a design for spacecraft propulsion using negative mass that requires no energy input and no reaction mass to achieve arbitrarily high acceleration. Forward also coined a term, "nullification" to describe what happens when ordinary matter and negative matter meet: they are expected to be able to "cancel-out" or "nullify" each other's existence. An interaction between equal quantities of positive and negative mass matter would release no energy, but since the only configuration of such particles which has zero momentum (both particles moving with the same velocity in the same direction) does not produce a collision, all such interactions would leave a surplus of momentum, which is classically forbidden.  In general relativity In general relativity, negative mass is generalized to refer to any region of space in which for some observers the mass density is measured to be negative. This can occur due to negative
mass, or could be a region of space in which the stress component of the Einstein stress-energy tensor is larger in magnitude than the mass density. All of these are violations of one or another variant of the positive energy condition of Einstein's general theory of relativity; however, the positive energy condition is not a required condition for the mathematical consistency of the theory. (Various versions of the positive energy condition, weak energy condition, dominant energy condition, etc., are discussed in mathematical detail by Visser.) Morris, Thorne and Yurtsever pointed out that the quantum mechanics of the Casimir effect can be used to produce a locally mass-negative region of space-time. In this article, and subsequent work by others, they showed that negative matter could be used to stabilize a wormhole. Cramer et al. argue that such wormholes might have been created in the early universe, stabilized by negative-mass loops of cosmic string. Stephen Hawking has proved that negative energy is a necessary condition for the creation of a closed timelike curve by manipulation of gravitational fields within a finite region of space; this proves, for example, that a finite Tipler cylinder cannot be used as a time machine. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_hydrodynamics Quantum hydrodynamics From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) is most generally the study of hydrodynamic systems which demonstrate behavior implicit in quantum subsystems (usually quantum tunneling). They arise in semiclassical mechanics in the study of semiconductor devices, in which case being derived from the Wigner-Boltzmann equation. In quantum chemistry they arise as solutions to chemical kinetic systems, in which case they are derived from the Schrödinger equation by way of Madelung equations. An important system of study in quantum hydrodynamics is that of superfluidity. Some other topics of interest in quantum hydrodynamics are quantum turbulence, quantized vortices, first, second and third sound, and quantum solvents. The quantum hydrodynamic equation is an equation in Bohmian mechanics, which, it turns out, has a mathematical relationship to classical fluid dynamics (see Madelung equations). This is a rich theoretical field. Some common experimental applications of these studies are in liquid helium (He-3 and He-4), and of the interior of neutron stars and the quark-gluon plasma. Many famous scientists have worked in quantum hydrodynamics, including Richard Feynman, Lev Landau, and Pyotr L. Kapitsa. Their idea about fluids brings everything full circle between the branch of string theory which links superconductors, worm holes and quantum entanglement. It also reminds me of some ideas of Kip Thorne's. Note the mention of BEC and quantum vortices..... I believe all of this will be linked to the construction of traversable wormholes, as will superconductivity and superfluidity, all described under the umbrella of string theory.