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Chapter Topics

Chapter 7 • Networking fundamentals


• Network architecture
• Network components
Networking and Security: • Peer-to-peer networks
Connecting Computers and Keeping • Ethernet networks
Them Safe from Hackers and Viruses • Computer threats
• Computer safeguards
• Computer viruses
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Networking Fundamentals Network Architecture


• Computer network: • Network designs:
– Two or more computers connected together – Locally administered:
– Devices connected to networks: nodes • Peer-to-peer (P2P)
• Benefits of a network: – Centrally administered:
– Sharing resources • Client/server

– Transferring files

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Peer-to-Peer Networks Client/Server Networks
• Nodes communicate • Client computers:
with each other: – Users who make
requests
– Peers
• Server computers:
• Share peripheral – Provide resources to
devices clients
• Used in home and – Central network control
small office networks • Internet
– A large, multiserver,
multiserver,
multiclient network.
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LANs and WANs Network Components


• Transmission media
• Local area network (LAN): • Network communication
– Nodes are within a small geographic region: devices
• Homes • Software
• Schools
• Small businesses
• Wide area network (WAN):
– LANs connected over long distances:
• A few miles to thousands of miles
• Use telecommunications lines
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Transmission Media Network Adapters
• Provides communications channel between
nodes • Devices connected to or installed in nodes:
• Forms of media: – Network interface cards (NICs
(NICs))
– Twisted pair
– External network adapters
– Coaxial cable
– Fiber-optic cable • Enable communication between nodes
– Radio waves:
• Wireless
• Bandwidth:
– Data transfer rate
– Throughput

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Network Navigation Devices Networking Software


• Devices that help make data flow possible • Peer-to-Peer Software
• Routers: • Built into operating systems that support
– Route data between networks networking
– Windows
• Switches:
– Mac OS
– Receive data and retransmit it to nodes on the
same network • Client/Server Software
• Network operating system (NOS) software
– Windows XP Professional
– Windows Server 2003
– Novell Netware
– Windows Vista Enterprise
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Types of Peer-to-Peer Networks Wired Ethernet Networks
• Ethernet network
• Wired Ethernet networks
adapters are used to
• Wireless Ethernet networks connect nodes
• Power-line networks – NIC card
– PC Card
– USB adapter
• Computers are Ethernet

connected to each
other using unshielded
twisted pair cable Phone

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Ethernet Switches Ethernet Routers


• Keep track of data packets • Transfer packets from one network to another
• Amplify and retransmit signals • Home Internet routers transfer data from the
Internet to the home network.
• Keep the network running efficiently
Router

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Wireless Ethernet Networks Power-Line Networks
• Uses radio waves to connect nodes • Computers are
• Basically an Ethernet network that uses radio connected to a
waves instead of wires house’
house’s electrical
• Each node requires a wireless network adapter: wiring to create a
– Transceivers network
• Power-line network
adapter is used to
connect nodes to
electrical outlets

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Choosing a Peer-to-Peer Configuring Software


Network for a Home Network
• Things to consider:
- Whether you want wireless communications
• Windows
- How fast you want your network connection to be – Windows Vista home versions
- Whether existing wiring is available • Network setup wizard
- How much money you can spend on your network – Wired or wireless
Comparing the Major Types of Home Networks – Windows XP
Wired Wireless Wireless Wireless
Ethernet 802.11g Enhanced G 802.11n • Network setup wizard
Maximum data 100 Mbps to 54 Mbps 108 Mbps 100 to 630
Transfer rate
(bandwidth)
1,000 bps
(1 gigabit)
bps – Windows 98
Relative installation $ $ $$ $$$ • Configure manually
and equipment costs
for networking – Help has a clear instruction
two computers

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Computer Threats Hackers
• Cybercrimes are criminal acts conducted through
• Anyone who unlawfully accesses a
the use of computers by cybercriminals.
cybercriminals.
computer system
• Types of hackers:
– White-hat
– Black-hat
– Script kiddies

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What Hackers Do How Computers Are Attacked


• Steal information from computers:
– Credit card numbers • Trojan horse
– Bank account numbers • Backdoor
program
• Internet packet sniffing – Zombies
• Commit identity theft • Denial of
service attacks

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Computer Safeguards:
How Hackers Gain Access
Firewalls
• Direct access: • Software programs or hardware
– Hacking software designed to close logical ports to
• Indirect access: invaders
– Internet connection – A firewall is built into Windows Vista
– Logical ports – More robust firewalls are available from
other vendors
– Firewalls are critical if you have an always-
on broadband connection

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Protecting a Wireless Network Computer Threats: Viruses


• Wireless network range doesn’
doesn’t stop at the • A program that attaches itself to another
property line program and spreads itself to other
• Default device and network ID settings computers
allow intruders to enter the network • Viruses are hidden within the code of a
• Internet bandwidth can be stolen host program
• Computers can be vulnerable to hacker
intrusion and takeover

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How Does a Computer
What Viruses Do
Catch a Virus?
• Viruses copy • Replicate themselves:
themselves – Slow down networks
• Infect a file on
your computer • Secondary objectives:
• Spread by sharing – Display annoying messages
disks or flash – Delete files on the hard drive
drives – Change computer settings
• E-mail
attachments are
the most likely
source of a virus
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Types of Viruses Types of Viruses


• Boot-sector viruses • Script viruses:
– Replicate themselves in the boot sector of the hard – Hidden on Web pages as mini programs
drive • Macro viruses:
• Logic bombs – Attached to documents
– Activate when certain conditions are met – Series of commands
• Time bombs • E-mail virus
– Viruses that are triggered by the passage of time or – Use e-mail address book to distribute the virus
on a certain date
• Encryption viruses
• Worms – Compresses files using a complex encryption key
– Travel between systems through networks – User must pay to get the files unlocked

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Virus Classifications Antivirus Software
• Polymorphic viruses: • Programs designed to detect viruses:
– Scan files looking for virus signatures (unique code)
– Periodically rewrite themselves to avoid – Provide options for deleting or fixing infected files
detection – Inoculate files against further infection
• Detect known viruses
• Multipartite viruses: • Antivirus programs need to be updated frequently
– Infect multiple file types
• Stealth viruses:
– Erase their code from the hard drive and
reside in the active memory

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