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Pressure you are invited to deliver a speech on the topic What is needed to make Bussiness research more scientfic . What specific points would talk about? Ans: Scientific Method in Business Research The scientific method is a systematic method of investigation, evaluation, experimentation, interpretation and theorizing. It is characterized by critical discrimination generally and system, and empirical verification, according to wolfe. Generally speaking, the scientific method is characterized by a systematic study, based on theory and facts, universality or generality, objectivity of observation, predictability of results, and verifiability of the phenomenon. It consists of a number of formalities and procedures, which are time consuming. Time management is the basic requirement for the success of managerial decisions. Many management problems require timely solutions and decisions. In such situations, the management may not have adequate time at its disposal to make use of scientific studies before arriving at decisions. Laboratory experiments occupy a prominent place in the scientific method, which may not be useful in many situations of managerial decision-making. Physical science phenomena may be subjected to laboratory tests and physical control. Most of the managerial policies and decisions, however, affect human beings. An individual s behavior differs substantially from that of another from time to time, place to place and environment to environment and it cannot be placed under absolute control, for it is very difficult to employ the scientific method is the practice of management. Despite the development of dynamic methods pf management information systems, many decision areas, such as those of labor productivity, materials handling, product planning and consumer behavior, require complex data to be analyzed as a part of the scientific method which may not be appropriate in quick managerial decisions. The greater the complexity of the data, the lesser is the possibility of accuracy and the lesser is its utility in the management process. Consumer behavior, a trade union s behavior, workers behavior, the tastes, temperaments and fashions of the population at large, the demonstration effect in the market, technological development, political change, social change, geographic change, and such other forces influence business policy a great deal.
Many of these forces, especially the human factor, are unpredictable. Despite a thorough scanning of the environment, a perfect prediction, on the basis of these variables, is just not possible, as it is in the physical sciences. The scientific method of research, therefore, has a limited applicability in such managerial decision areas. The scientific method is effective in the physical sciences, because physical phenomena can be verified and evaluated by the senses; but many managerial factors, like the behavioral aspects in organization, cannot be absolutely tested or verified physically. As a result, the scope of the scientific method in management is profoundly affected. Many management problems cannot be empirically tested, in spite of the extensive use of quantitative techniques in the latter half of this century. Though servicing, decision-making, marketing and promotional effectiveness, production planning the complexity of these techniques makes them unpopular with many practitioners. At the same time, the scientific method does not find favour with many organizations and functional executives because of the heavy demand it makes on their time, exposure, resources and manpower. Even in the science where quantitative, empirical and scientific methods are extensively employed, the qualitative approach is made simultaneously, thus limiting the importance of scientific method. The performance evaluation of the sales force is usually made by combining both quantitative and qualitative performance, though there is a possibility of making a quantitative analysis. The experimental method is seldom used in managerial analysis, unlike in the physical sciences, while the cause-effect relationship cannot be established beyond doubt in many cases. For example, there is a relationship between the sales revenue and the advertising budget; but it is not easy to establish which the actual cause of effect is because both are interlinked. The exact magnitude of the effect of each on the other cannot be easily determined, for various other factors-economic variables, market forces, changes in fashion, tastes, temperaments, and the competitors policies make a substantial impact on the sales volume. Similarly, business policies, marketing opportunities and product specifications attain dynamic dimensions in a dynamic economic, social and business environment. Evidently research, scientific methods and their results have very little policy implications in such situations; and that is why the recourse
the scientific method that empirically tests a hypothesis has a far-reaching utility value. With this foundation. you have to learn about the foundation of reliability. However. including a precise definition of reliability. you can consider the basic theory of reliability.we can only estimate it. In the end. you need to understand the different types of measurement error because errors in measures play a key role in degrading reliability. not only for theoretical purposes.invested on research do not yield any considerable returns. Because of this. reliability is the "consistency" or "repeatability" of your measures. there a variety of different types of reliability that each have multiple ways to estimate reliability for that type. There you will find out that we cannot calculate reliability . it's important to integrate the idea of reliability with the other major criteria for the quality of measurement -. Before we can define reliability precisely we have to lay the groundwork.and develop an understanding of the . but also for practical applications and policy decisions. Question # 2 (A) Explain the following terms with the help of examples Hypothesis Reliability Theory Practicality Dependent Variable Parameter Controlled Variable Standard Error Mapping Validity Ans: i) Hypothesis ii) Reliability Reliability has to do with the quality of measurement. Along with that.validity -. First. In its everyday sense. the true score theory of measurement.
that is.: the practicalities of a life as a seaman. pragmatic in thinking and doing. you cannot have a dependent variable without an independent variable. It can be changed if new information is found. For example: a plan to prevent piracy that involves military air carriers to escort every single cargo ship lacks practicality (I guess).org/wiki/Theory iv) Practicality Practicality' means the quality of something in being possible to be done. or being workable. detailed characteristics of a situation. when used by scientists. vi) Parameter . v) Dependent Variable Dependent Variable: A dependent variable is what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. e.net/kb/reliable. The dependent variable responds to the independent variable. which is a theory that hasn't been fully tested. It is called dependent because it "depends" on the independent variable. 'Practicality' of a person can mean the attribute of being sensible. getting things done.wikipedia. In a scientific experiment. The 'practicalities' of something means the concrete circumstances.g. refers to an explanation of reality that has been thoroughly tested so that most scientists agree on it. Theory is different from a working hypothesis.relationships between reliability and validity in measurement. Another case of 'practicality' might be the quality of something in being usable. http://www.socialresearchmethods. a hypothesis is an unproven theory. Your independent variable would be the stress and the dependent variable would be the heart rate. http://en. Example: You are interested in how stress affects heart rate in humans.php iii) Theory The word theory. You can directly manipulate stress levels in your human subjects and measure how those stress levels change heart rate.
html ix) Mapping Share the helping material with others email us @ email@example.com. .net x) Validity Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. The variable sex has been treated as a control variable. For example. Validity isn t determined by a single statistic. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted. Functions that can take a varying number of parameters are called variadic. vii) Controlled Variable A control variable is a variable that is held constant or whose impact is removed in order to analyze the relationship between other variables without interference.org/standard_error. then separately for female students. viii) Standard Error http://www. In short. its effect being removed. Eg a vector of payroll records. but by a body of research that demonstrates the relationship between the test and the behavior it is intended to measure. The parameters that are passed into a template definition define the class that the template class uses. it is a variable whose effect must be neutralized or controlled. For example. Question # 2 (B) Distinguish among the following and suggest the significance of each in a research context.Definition: Parameters are values that are passed into a function or C++ template. a function to add three numbers might have three parameters. suppose the relationship between age and frequency of delinquent activity is first investigated for male students.
.g.ehow.com http://www. Formally. In Western European cultures.. two major forms of reasoning are used: induction and deduction.Concept and Construct Deduction and Induction Operational definition and Descriptive Definition Decision making under certainty and uncertainty Ans: a) Concept and Construct Concepts and constructs are both abstractions. Deduction serves as the basis for the scientific method. both forms are used regularly. induction is considered to be a fallacious form of reasoning that leads to conclusions that cannot be supported. then Socrates is mortal.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_concepts_and_construct#ixzz19 cP0Xhnq b) Deduction and Induction Every person uses reasoning to draw conclusions. An example of this would be: If Socrates is dead and Socrates was a man. Deduction is reasoning from a general principle or statement to a specific example. Man. A famous example of this would be: If man is mortal and Socrates is a man.html#ixzz19cPu7xZJ c) Operational definition and Descriptive Definition Share the helping material with others email us @ info@solvedassignments. etc. Induction Defined 2. motivation). the abstraction is a concept (e. Induction is reasoning from a specific example to a general principle or statement. Culturally. tree. table) and where the object is hypothetical or inferential. etc are abstractions and so are ideas of motivation. beauty. then man can die. The difference lies in the nature of "objects" the abstractions are made from: The existence of the objects from which the abstractions are made may be factual or hypothetical. insect.answers. Read more: http://wiki. Read more: Difference Between Deduction & Induction | eHow.g. Where factual. attitude.net . Deduction Defined 1.com/facts_4781689_difference-between-deductioninduction. the abstraction is a construct (e. Significance 3. table.
a major change in marketing strategy or opening your first branch could be influenced by such factors as the reaction of competitors. technological changes. These are the type of decisions facing the senior executives of large corporations who must commit huge resources.d) Decision making under certainty and uncertainty The conditions for making decisions can be divided into two types. e) Decision rule and decision variable Question # 3 Explain the four major sources of measurement error? Illustrate by example how each of these might affect measurement results in a face-to-face interview situation. certainty and uncertainty. 1. economic shifts. the same type of conditions which could cause decisions that result in a disaster from which he or she may not be able to recover. We experience uncertainty about a specific question when we can't give a single answer with complete confidence. Decisions made under certainty or uncertainty are based on our feelings and our experiences. While there is always some degree of uncertainty about the eventual outcome of such decisions there is enough clarity about the problem. Ans. the situation and the alternatives to consider the conditions to be certain. relatively. 2. government legislation and a host of conditions beyond your control. Decisions such as deciding on a new carpet for the office or installing a new piece of equipment or promoting an employee to a supervisory position are made with a high level of certainty. Launching a new product. new competitors. Certainty We experience certainty about a specific question when we have a feeling of complete belief or complete confidence in a single answer to the question.. We feel uncertainty about a situation when we can't predict with complete confidence what the outcomes of our actions will be. Measurement Error Measurement error is caused by difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information provided by the measurement process. . changes in customer demand. Uncertainty A decision under uncertainty is when there are many unknowns and no possibility of knowing what could occur in the future to alter the outcome of a decision. The small business manager faces.
Yet it could occur in classic sampling technique. For example. A firm wishing to learn the criteria that are considered most important in the purchase of certain machine tools might conduct a survey among purchasing agents.Experimental Error Experiments are designed to measure the impact of one or more independent variables on a dependent variable. gender and mobility. using the telephone directory as sampling frame for the population of a community contains a potential for frame error. These decisions may be made by the machine operators. or competitors activities may affect the sales at one set of stores and not the other. This is a potentially serious problem in both industrial and consumer research. A study that focuses on the purchasing agent as the person who decides which brands to order may be subject to population specification error. one of the authors talked with an interviewer who is afraid of . the experimental result will reflect the impact of variables other than price. unique weather patterns. Frame error is caused by using inaccurate or incomplete sampling frame. For example. Frame Error The sampling frame is the list of population members from which the sample units are selected. by committee or high level executives. traffic conditions. a retail chain may increase the price of selected items constant in four similar outlets. Such a sample wouldn t be representative of the over all student body. Selection Error Selection error occurs when a nonrepresentative sample is obtained by non probability sampling methods. in an attempt to discover the best pricing strategy. in many firms the purchasing agents don t determine or necessary even know the criteria behind brand selections. are likely to differ from those with listed numbers in such respects as income. Sampling error is the focal point of concern in classical statistics. Those families who don t have listed numbers. Population Specification Error Population specification error is caused by selecting an inappropriate universe or population from which to collect data. An ideal frame identifies each member of the population once and only once. For example . Thus. Experimental error occurs when the effect of experimental situation itself is measured rather than the effect of independent variable. Yet. However. Sampling Error Sampling error is caused by the generation of nonrepresentative sample by means of a probability sampling method. a random sample of 100 university students could produce a sample of all families. both voluntarily or involuntarily. For example.
Research in fundamental area of busines Ethics of research . Question # 4 (A) Critically explain the following topics in your own words with examples from current situations. 2. Obviously such practice may introduce error in to the survey results. and thus more likely to respond to the survey. Nonresponse Error Nonresponce error is caused by (1) failure to contact all members of a sample. In surveys that allowed any freedom of choice. the company would probably overestimate the extent of the problem. If these differences include variable of interest . Why? Those most likely in athlete s foot. non response error would be of major concern. Be as specific as possible 1. this interviewer avoided home with dogs present. from those who are relatively easy to contact or who readily cooperate. on at least some characteristics. nonresponse error has occurred. are current or recent suffers of the problem. people who are more likely to respond to a survey on a topic that interests them.dogs. If a firm were to conduct a mail survey to estimate the incidence s foot among adults. Selection error is a major problem in nonprobablity samples. Individuals who are difficult to contact or who are reluctant to cooperate will differ. For example. If the firm were to choose the percentage of those responding who report having athlete s foot as an estimate of the total population having athlete s foot. and /or (2) the failure of some contacted members of the sample to respond to all or specific parts of the measurement instrument.
Cancer patients and persons with AIDS fought publicly with the medical research establishment about the long time needed to get approval for and complete research into potential cures for fatal diseases. at present. allowing anyone who is willing to be experimented on. Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation. After all. Events like these forced the reexamination of ethical standards and the gradual development of a consensus that potential human subjects needed to be protected from being used as 'guinea pigs' in scientific research. what the new consensus will be. those who were threatened with fatal illness were saying to the research establishment that they wanted to be test subjects. the Tuskegee Syphilis Study involved the withholding of known effective treatment for syphilis from African-American participants who were infected. it is almost certain that it will not fall at either extreme: protecting against human experimentation at all costs vs. it is beginning to appear that a new consensus is evolving that involves the stakeholder groups most affected by a problem participating more actively in the formulation of guidelines for research. In the 1950s and 1960s. it is the ethical assumptions of the previous thirty years that drive this 'go-slow' mentality. the dynamics of the situation changed. The principle of voluntary participation requires that people not be coerced into participating in research. From the time immediately after World War II until the early 1990s. and places like that. There are two standards that are applied in order to help protect the privacy of research participants. rather than run the risk of harming innocent people (as in the Nuremberg and Tuskegee events). Closely related to the notion of voluntary participation is the requirement of informed consent. universities. Although the last few years in the ethics of research have been tumultuous ones. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial following World War II brought to public view the ways German scientists had used captive human subjects as subjects in oftentimes gruesome experiments. In many cases. But now. Essentially. there was a gradually developing consensus about the key ethical principles that should underlie the research endeavor. Ethical Issues There are a number of key phrases that describe the system of ethical protections that the contemporary social and medical research establishment have created to try to protect better the rights of their research participants. While it's not entirely clear.We are going through a time of profound change in our understanding of the ethics of applied social research. even under experimental conditions of considerable risk. Almost all research guarantees the participants confidentiality -. This is especially relevant where researchers had previously relied on 'captive audiences' for their subjects -. we would rather risk denying treatment for a while until we achieve enough confidence in a treatment.they are assured that identifying information will not be made available to anyone who is not directly .prisons. this means that prospective research participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give their consent to participate. By the 1990s. You had several very vocal and articulate patient groups who wanted to be experimented on coming up against an ethical review system that was designed to protect them from being experimented on. Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological. Two marker events stand out (among many others) as symbolic of this consensus.
But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects. a panel of persons who reviews grant proposals with respect to ethical implications and decides whether additional actions need to be taken to assure the safety and rights of participants. persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel their rights to equal access to services are being curtailed. Good research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group -.g. there needs to be a procedure that assures that researchers will consider all relevant ethical issues in formulating research plans.even to the researchers themselves. Even when clear ethical standards and principles exist. By reviewing proposals for research.a group of participants who do not get the treatment or program that is being studied. No set of standards can possibly anticipate every ethical circumstance. Exploratory versus formalized research Exploratory research is conducted into an issue or problem where there are few or no earlier st 4. a pre-post study). Some Definitions Before I can explain the various probability methods we have to define some basic terms. IRBs also help to protect both the organization and the researcher against potential legal implications of neglecting to address important ethical issues of participant 3. Clearly. but it is sometimes difficult to accomplish. we tend to use computers as the mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection.. such as picking a name out of a hat. These days. These are: y N = the number of cases in the sampling frame . Complex probability sampling A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. the anonymity standard is a stronger guarantee of privacy. In order to have a random selection method. To address such needs most institutions and organizations have formulated an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Furthermore. you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. The stricter standard is the principle of anonymity which essentially means that the participant will remain anonymous throughout the study -. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection. or choosing the short straw. especially in situations where participants have to be measured at multiple time points (e. Increasingly.involved in the study. researchers have had to deal with the ethical issue of a person's right to service. there will be times when the need to do accurate research runs up against the rights of potential participants.
But this mechanical procedure would be tedious and the quality of the sample would depend on how thoroughly you mixed them up and how randomly you reached in. definition. A somewhat stilted. you have several options. with the development of inexpensive computers there is a much easier way. Neither of these mechanical procedures is very feasible and. we have to get the sampling frame organized. we have to actually draw the sample. To accomplish this. Then. If we're lucky. Simple Random Sampling The simplest form of random sampling is called simple random sampling. You could print off the list of 1000 clients. close your eyes and pull out the first 100. Here's a simple procedure that's especially useful if you have the names of the clients already on the computer. put the strips in a hat. let's say you want to select 100 clients to survey and that there were 1000 clients over the past 12 months. You would need three sets of balls numbered 0 to 9. Decide on the number of clients you would like to have in the final sample. if accurate. (Where do they make those things. or a mechanical device to select the sample. a computer random number generator. mix them up real good. the sampling fraction is f = n/N = 100/1000 = .10 or 10%. Then. we'll go through agency records to identify every client over the past 12 months. anyway? Is there a ball machine industry?). How do we select a simple random sample? Let's assume that we are doing some research with a small service agency that wishes to assess client's views of quality of service over the past year. one set for each of the digits from 000 to 999 (if we select 000 we'll call that 1000). First. Pretty tricky. huh? Here's the quick description of simple random sampling: y y Objective: To select n units out of N such that each NCn has an equal chance of being selected. Number the list of names from 1 to 1000 and then use the ball machine to select the three digits that selects each person. With those terms defined we can begin to define the different probability sampling methods. Many computer programs . Let's see if we can make it a little more real. The obvious disadvantage here is that you need to get the ball machines.y y y n = the number of cases in the sample NCn = the number of combinations (subsets) of n from N f = n/N = the sampling fraction That's it. Perhaps a better procedure would be to use the kind of ball machine that is popular with many of the state lotteries. to actually draw the sample. tear then into separate strips. the agency has good accurate computerized records and can quickly produce such a list. For the sake of the example. Procedure: Use a table of random numbers. Now.
involves dividing your population into homogeneous subgroups and then taking a simple random sample in each subgroup.. If you want to be able to talk about subgroups. especially small minority groups. pretty simple. Then.. we expect that the variability within-groups is lower than the variability for the population as a whole. You could probably accomplish the whole thing in under a minute. Then. + Ni = N.e.the list of names and the random number -. N2. in the column right next to it paste the function =RAND() which is EXCEL's way of putting a random number between 0 and 1 in the cells. it assures that you will be able to represent not only the overall population. Ni. First. Because simple random sampling is a fair way to select a sample.. stratified random sampling will generally have more statistical precision than simple random sampling. Then. we call this disproportionate stratified random sampling. Simple random sampling is not the most statistically efficient method of sampling and you may. There are several major reasons why you might prefer stratified sampling over simple random sampling. sort both columns -. all you have to do is take the first hundred names in this sorted list. Stratified sampling capitalizes on that fact. If the subgroup is extremely small. just because of the luck of the draw. When we use different sampling fractions in the strata. it is reasonable to generalize the results from the sample back to the population. you can use different sampling fractions (f) within the different strata to randomly over-sample the small group (although you'll then have to weight the withingroup estimates using the sampling fraction whenever you want overall population estimates). If they are. also sometimes called proportional or quota random sampling.by the random numbers. . . we have to turn to other sampling methods. This rearranges the list in random order from the lowest to the highest random number. Simple random sampling is simple to accomplish and is easy to explain to others. Stratified Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling.. In more formal terms: Objective: Divide the population into non-overlapping groups (i.. strata) N1. this may be the only way to effectively assure you'll be able to.can generate a series of random numbers. such that N1 + N2 + N3 + . N3. Second. Then do a simple random sample of f = n/N in each strata. Let's assume you can copy and paste the list of client names into a column in an EXCEL spreadsheet. When we use the same sampling fraction within strata we are conducting proportionate stratified random sampling. To deal with these issues. not get good representation of subgroups in a population. This will only be true if the strata or groups are homogeneous. but also key subgroups of the population.
So our withinstratum sampling fraction will be 25/50 = 50%. If we randomly sample 25 of these. we know we will have enough cases from each group to make meaningful subgroup inferences. Because the groups are more homogeneous within-group than across the population as a whole. we know that 5% or 50 clients are Hispanic-American. Let's say we still want to take a sample of 100 from the population of 1000 clients over the past year. Similarly. we can expect greater statistical precision (less variance). or 100 clients. And. let's sample 50 Caucasians. Systematic Random Sampling Here are the steps you need to follow in order to achieve a systematic random sample: y y y y y number the units in the population from 1 to N decide on the n (sample size) that you want or need k = N/n = the interval size randomly select an integer between 1 to k then take every kth unit . we could get fewer than that! If we stratify. And. because we stratified. by subtraction we know that there are 850 Caucasian clients. are AfricanAmerican. we would expect by chance alone that we would only get 10 and 5 persons from each of our two smaller groups.For example. First. Finally. African-American and HispanicAmerican. We know that 10% of the population. 25 African-Americans. If we just did a simple random sample of n=100 with a sampling fraction of 10%. let's assume that both the AfricanAmericans and HispanicAmericans are relatively small minorities of the clientele (10% and 5% respectively). let's determine how many people we want to have in each group. we have a within-stratum sampling fraction of 25/100 = 25%. But we think that in order to say anything about subgroups we will need at least 25 cases in each group. and 25 Hispanic-Americans. So. let's say that the population of clients for our agency can be divided into three groups: Caucasian. we can do better.88%. Our within-stratum sampling fraction for them is 50/850 = about 5. by chance. Furthermore.
To do a simple random sample. select a random integer from 1 to 5. For instance. in some situations there is simply no easier way to do random sampling.000/1000 = 100. Then I selected a random integer between 1 and 100. and so on to 100 and you would wind up with 20 units in your sample. Now. in this case. I counted to the 57th . Next I did a little side study to determine how thick a thousand cards are in the card catalog (taking into account the varying ages of the cards). is equal to N/n = 100/20 = 5. Finally. I would have to go to the shelf. imagine that you chose 4. To use systematic sampling. it is fairly easy to do.000 = 1%. Let's assume that we have a population that only has N=100 people in it and that you want to take a sample of n=20. because k=5). I knew that I had a fairly good sampling frame in the form of the shelf list (which is a card catalog where the entries are arranged in the order they occur on the shelf). It may also be more precise than simple random sampling. locate the book.000. I divided N/n = 100. That information gave me everything I needed to draw the sample. I could have estimated the total number of books and generated random numbers to draw the sample.All of this will be much clearer with an example. I did a systematic random sample.329 easily if that is the number I selected? I couldn't very well count the cards until I came to 74. start with the 4th unit in the list and take every k-th unit (every 5th. 9. To get the sampling interval k. Once selected. You only have to select a single random number to start things off. 14. Let's imagine it was 100. Now. The sampling fraction would be f = 20/100 = 20%. Let's say that on average I found that two cards that were separated by 100 cards were about . For this to work. it is essential that the units in the population are randomly ordered. But I'd still be stuck counting cards. at least with respect to the characteristics you are measuring. but how would I find book #74. I once had to do a study that involved sampling from all the books in a library. and record when it last circulated. For instance.329! Stratifying wouldn't solve that problem either. the interval size. Let's say I got 57. I decided that I wanted to take a sample of 1000 for a sampling fraction of 1000/100. k. In our example. I estimated the number of books in the entire collection. You would be sampling units 4. to select the sample.75 inches apart in the catalog drawer. Why would you ever want to use systematic random sampling? For one thing. the population must be listed in a random order. I could have stratified by card catalog drawer and drawn a simple random sample within each drawer. Instead. 19.
257th.75". I got compensated nicely. in the figure we see a map of the counties in New York State. so I have no life. In this way. I was able to accomplish the entire selection procedure in very little time using this systematic random sampling approach. (Okay.) Cluster (Area) Random Sampling The problem with random sampling methods when we have to sample a population that's disbursed across a wide geographic region is that you will have to cover a lot of ground geographically in order to get to each of the units you sampled. 357th. (Remember those from your high-school math class? They're the funny little metal instruments with a sharp pin on one end and a pencil on the other that you used to draw circles in geometry class. If we do a simple random sample state-wide we'll have to cover the entire state geographically.by hand and recorded the book information. In cluster sampling. I'd probably still be there counting cards if I'd tried another random sampling method. Instead. I took a compass. we decide to do a cluster sampling of five .) Then I set the compass at . and so on. for coming up with this scheme. Then. By the luck of the draw you will wind up with respondents who come from all over the state. stuck the pin end in at the 57th card and pointed with the pencil end to the next card (approximately 100 books away). I don't mind saying. we follow these steps: y y y divide population into clusters (usually along geographic boundaries) randomly sample clusters measure all units within sampled clusters For instance. Let's say that we have to do a survey of town governments that will require us going to the towns personally. Your interviewers are going to have a lot of traveling to do. It is for precisely this problem that cluster or area random sampling was invented. I approximated selecting the 157th. Imagine taking a simple random sample of all the residents of New York State in order to conduct personal interviews.
In this case. that we probably don't have to worry about using this approach if we are conducting a mail or telephone survey because it doesn't matter as much (or cost more or raise inefficiency) where we call or send letters to. within classes. we might set up a stratified sampling process within the clusters. Clearly we would want to do some type of cluster sampling as the first stage of the process. We might begin with a national sample of school districts stratified by economics and educational level. Within schools. we have three or four stages in the sampling process and we use both stratified and simple random sampling. then. we call this multi-stage sampling. Cluster or area sampling. When we combine sampling methods. In this case.are the simplest random sampling strategies. We might sample townships or census tracts throughout the state. systematic and cluster -. we might do a simple random sample of classes or grades. Multi-Stage Sampling The four methods we've covered so far -. we would have a two-stage sampling process with stratified samples within cluster samples. Within selected districts. Even if we are sampling census tracts we may not be able to measure everyone who is in the census tract. The most important principle here is that we can combine the simple methods described earlier in a variety of useful ways that help us address our sampling needs in the most efficient and effective manner possible. consider the idea of sampling New York State residents for face-to-face interviews. But in cluster sampling we would then go on to measure everyone in the clusters we select. Or. and is done primarily for efficiency of administration.counties (marked in red in the figure). Question # 5 (A) Being Manager Planning & Development under what conditions would you recommend: Probability sample & non-probability sample Simple random sample and cluster sample Using the finite population adjustment factor A dis-appropriate stratified probability sample Explain in detail with examples where possible ANS« 1. In most real applied social research. stratified. For example. we go to every town government in the five areas. we might do a simple random sample of schools.simple. is useful in situations like this. Note also. And. Probability sample & non-probability sample . By combining different sampling methods we are able to achieve a rich variety of probabilistic sampling methods that can be used in a wide range of social research contexts. we would use sampling methods that are considerably more complex than these simple variations. Clearly this strategy will help us to economize on our mileage. Once these are selected. we might even do a simple random sample of students. consider the problem of sampling students in grade schools. So.
ac.maine. Using the finite population adjustment factor http://www. But usually not all clusters would be included. Thus each population element should be within one and only one stratum.edu/~smax/course_material/FinitePopulationCorrectionFactor. Simple random sample and cluster sample Basically in a stratified sampling procedure.ed. Then a simple random sample is taken from each stratum.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_stratified_random_sampling_an d_cluster_sampling#ixzz19fNYYYqT 3.usm. taking any example from real market situation. Question # 5 (B) (b) Discuss planning of research keeping in view some industrial project. In cluster sampling one proceeds by first selecting a number of clusters at random and then sampling each cluster or conduct a census of each cluster. mistake is to leap in and begin working without . A common.htm 2.http://www.answers.org/mathematics/business-mathematics-statistics/research-methodsbusiness-mathematics-statistics/types-of-probability-sampling-2/ 5. the sampling effort may either be a proportional allocation (each simple random sample would contain an amount of variates from a stratum which is proportional to the size of that stratum) or according to optimal allocation. and costly.pdf 4. where the target is to have a final sample with the minimum variabilty possible.tardis. Explain in detail with examples where possible. The main difference between stratified and cluster sampling is that in stratified sampling all the strata need to be sampled. A dis-appropriate stratified probability sample http://free-books-online.uk/~kate/qmcweb/s2. Ans«. the population is first partitioned into disjoint classes (the strata) which together are exhaustive. Read more: http://wiki.
the accessibility and availability of material. relevance to your discipline. how will it be introduced . age. and the central concepts of the study. Spend time on working this out and discussing it with your supervisor and any available experts. the activities that will take place. telephone? Who are the intended respondents? How will the respondents be chosen-by a randomisation process. reactions whatever is interesting and possible to examine. Indeed. or dealt with by randomisation? How is random allocation of treatments to experimental units to be achieved? Where are the experimental units coming from? Survey research y y y y What form of survey is most appropriate for the task at hand: mailout. the participants. from administrative records. experiences. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies. gender. As with most aspects of PhD work. by a quota. Identifying the central concepts of your study often means considering possible attitudes. and not to just one method. Take into account such factors as your own personality.by your. from an organisational hierarchy? If randomisation has a role. behaviours. you will most likely need to submit for approval a brief proposal providing details of your intended studies. by a private survey organisation. of members of a group or an organisation. it is difficult. and usually fruitless. Methods to be used Many of these remarks apply across the board. the times at which things happen and the places in which they happen. y y y y y What design is most appropriate? What factors are to be controlled by you in the experimental design? What factors are to be knowingly ignored. you arrive at the best method to use by asking questions. aims of the research. to compartmentalise research methods. social processes. their available roles. You should provide information about: topic. of individuals to be interviewed or documentary sources. interests and work load. by a governmental survey organisation? Interview based studies . face-to-face interview.designing what it is you will do and planning how to carry it out. by purposive selection. or the problem to be investigated. After this.
y y y y How many members of a group would you attempt to interview? How would you approach them initially? What form will the interviews take .complete. if any. audio or visual? How will you obtain the texts to be analysed? What other aspects of the text will you examine. origins of the material? How will you select a sample of texts to be analysed from the range of available material? Conversation analysis y y y Will you record conversations for the analysis or use conversations recorded for other purposes? If you record conversations for the analysis. how will you obtain existing recordings? For each methodology. you need to clarify the steps involved in each part of the study.printed. But. should be made of informants? How would you go about selecting them and establishing a relationship with them? Textual analysis y y y y What sort of textual material will you use .semi-structured. participant as observer. observer as participant? What would be the best activities in the setting in which to participate? What would be the best physical locations from which to observe? What use. and establish a timetable for each . graphical. ask yourself how should the data be y y recorded? analysed? These may not be simple decisions to make. eg. how will you manage your role as observer? How will you obtain existing recordings? How will you gain the consent of the participants? If you use conversations recorded for other purposes. unstructured? What would be the approximate duration of the interviews? Would you use a single interview per person or a series of interviews? What topics would you attempt to cover in the interviews? Participant observation y y y What role or roles would you adopt in the setting? What level of participation would you employ .
Use them. Preparing an outline for three years? Is it really necessary to start with a really detailed outline of your thesis? Seeking. Overcoming reluctance to seek feedback.part. How can I rescue my thesis? Finding. receiving and handling feedback. There are invariable ethical implications to proposed research programs. These people have to be experienced in the real-life issues of data collection and data analysis relevant to their discipline. Examine how these might affect the data collection process and your interpretation of the results of your research. . Developing a picture of the thesis as a whole. especially on statistical matters that you may be unfamiliar with. Of course. seek professional advice before setting about data collection. Dealing with data. formulating and exploring your topic. it is also important to recognise that you may well bring personal biases to the study. Seeing a plot emerge. Deciding on your structure. Now I see how I should have done it all along. Most universities employ professional statisticians within their mathematics. Looking at the fit between your aims and your research design. agricultural. Is it too late to change? I am three quarters of the way through but it isn't as fruitful as I thought it would be. If possible. biological and social science departments. economics. Strategies for getting the best feedback possible.
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