Broadcast Engineering: AM and FM Broadcasting Broadcasting • Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients

("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. • Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting. • The term "broadcast" was coined by early radio engineers from the midwestern United States. "Broadcasting", in farming, is one method of spreading seed using a wide toss of the hand, in a broad cast. • Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable, often both simultaneously. • Broadcasting forms a very large segment of mass media. Amplitude Modulation (AM) • Amplitude Modulation The process of varying the amplitude of a high-frequency carrier wave in accordance with the amplitude of the modulating signal • Uses of AM

AM Broadcasting Standards (FCC) Frequency allocation: 535 to 1605 kHz (525 to 1705 kHz) divided into 106 (130) channels Channel spacing: 10 kHz (9 kHz) Permitted channel bandwidth: 30 kHz (maximum modulating signal frequency: 15 kHz) *note: geographically co-located stations must be spaced at least 3 channels apart for sideband interference protection) Carrier tolerance: ± 20 Hz Unmodulated carrier power: 100 W to 50 kW Type of emission: A3E (double sideband, full carrier) Intermediate Frequency: 455 kHz AM Station Performance Requirements (FCC) Modulation percentage: 85% to 95% Audio frequency distortion harmonics (AFDH): <5% rms amplitude up to 84% modulation Audio frequency response: transmission characteristic must be flat from 100 Hz to 5 kHz (± 2 dB referred to 1 kHz) Carrier stability: ± 20 Hz Service Areas in AM • Primary Area in which the groundwave field is measured at 1 mV/m, and is not subject to objectionable interference and fading • Secondary The area serviced by the skywave, having a skywave field strength equal to or greater than 500 μV/m for 50% or more of the time. May be subject to fading but no objectionable cochannel interference Intermittent The area receiving service from the groundwave but beyond the primary service area and subject to objectionable interference and fading •

1. AM broadcast (535 – 1605 kHz) 2. Citizen’s Band Radio (27 MHz) 3. Aircraft communications (108 – 136 MHz) 4. International shortwave (3 – 30 MHz) broadcast – via sky wave 5. TV picture (using vestigial sideband) Limiting condition for AM: The amplitude of the modulating signal must not exceed that of the carrier, else overmodulation (clipping) occurs.

Timing • Programming schedule must be followed (programs should start and end within the allotted time) 2. Maximum rated carrier power The maximum power that the transmitter is capable of supplying to the antenna and still operate satisfactorily 3. provided that Metro Manila remains within the 80 dBu contour of the transmitter • The station shall not operate more than 5% and lower than 10% of its authorized operating power Where: Vp = plate voltage of the final amplifier Ip = plate current of the final amplifier F = power factor correction AM Antennas and Site Considerations . measured without modulation 4. Indirect method • used to determine the output power of FM broadcast stations and TV aural transmitters • used for AM broadcast stations in emergencies Po = p I p F V The transmitter of existing Metro Manila stations may be located outside of Metro Manila.Times of Day in AM Broadcasting Daytime • From local sunrise to local sunset 6 AM to 6 PM (2200 UTC to 1000 UTC) Nighttime • Between local sunset to local sunrise 6 PM to 6 AM (1000 UTC to 2200 UTC) Experimental period • Midnight to local sunrise 12 MN to 6 AM (1600 UTC to 2200 UTC) • Used for experimental purposes in testing and maintaining apparatuses by the licensee. Modulation depth • The audio signal must modulate the transmitter properly Power Allocations Classification of Powers 1. Fidelity • Program material shall not have any reasonable distortion 3. provided that no interference is caused to other stations maintaining a regular operating schedule within such a period 3 Important Requirements in Broadcasting 1. Licensed power or authorized operating power That which is actually supplied or fed to the antenna by the transmitter. Should have a tolerance of -5% or +10% 2. Plate input power Product of the voltage and current at the output of the last radio stage. Direct method Po = I a R a 2 Where: Ia = antenna current w/ no modulation Ra = impedance or resistance of the antenna where the current is measured 2. Antenna input power Product of the square of the antenna current and the antenna resistance at the point where the current is measured. Two methods of measuring antenna input power 1.

extending outward from the base. third-. corrections. The top and bottom stripes must be orange • To mark the tower at night (sunset to sunrise). equipment parameters. preferably those having good ground conductivities (e. each stripe approximately one-seventh of the height of the tower. phased vertical directional arrays • Generally. FM broadcast (88 – 108 MHz) 2. tower height points (depending on the height of the tower). the top beacon light consists of 620-W or 700-W PS-40 Flashing Code Beacon lamps with aviation red filters • At half-. towers up to 150 ft (46 m) must have two (2) steady-burning 116-W or 125-W lamps in an aviation red light globe at the top of the tower (beacon) • For towers over 150 ft. programs. • Lights should be inspected at least once a day. duration of advertisements. Ia. source.). etc. or by automatic indicators Logs • Log A listing of the date and time of events. tests. Frequency Modulation (FM) • Frequency Modulation The process of varying the frequency of a high-frequency carrier wave in accordance with the amplitude variations of the modulating signal • Uses of FM 1. quarter-. Ip. Mobile radio services FM Broadcasting Standards (FCC) . such as operating parameters (Vp. etc. flashing 620-W to 700-W beacons are installed • Lights should be automatically controlled by a device sensitive to the night sky. checks.g. Satellite Television (both audio and video) 4. the time antenna lights are turned on or off. its name and title. • Maintenance Log Contains the results of transmitter and other equipment tests. marsh lands) • Earth mat – a network of buried wires directly under the antenna. repairs.• Standard AM broadcast stations use either a single omnidirectional vertical antennas. and other such information Types of Logs in Broadcast Operations • Program Log Contains entries with regard to the nature of the program. start and end times. calibration. the time the transmitter is put on and off the air. • Operating Log Contains the technical details of the transmitter during operation. or multi-element. antennas are erected on flat lands. Television sound 3. etc. etc. etc. buried about 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) below the ground • Counterpoise – a smaller version of the earth mat above ground Antenna Towers: Obstruction Painting and Lighting • Must be painted with equal-width stripes of aviation (emergency) orange and white. sponsors of announcements. malfunctions. but not over 100 ft (30 m) in width on tall towers.

these signals simulate the sound to the left and right ears.7 MHz (10. .Frequency allocation: 88 to 108 MHz divided into 100 channels Channel spacing: 200 kHz Permitted channel bandwidth: 200 kHz (±75 kHz deviation for maximum modulating frequency of 15 kHz. giving the illusion of a three-dimensional sound source. the amount of emphasis is standardized to 50μs Stereophonic FM Stereo (also stereoscope) • Originally referred to a special photographic technique used to give the viewer the impression of observing a scene in three dimensions • In stereophonic audio. • The compensation at receiver side is called de-emphasis • The amount of pre/de-emphasis for FM broadcasting has been standardized as 75μs • In the UK. Minimum transmitter power is 1 kW • Class-C A non-commercial. • A method of artificially boosting the affected frequencies with respect to a prearranged curve before transmission to improve noise immunity is termed as preemphasis. the antenna must be conveniently above the average terrain.61 to 10. • The transmitting antenna location should be chosen so that line-of-sight can be obtained from the antenna over the general service area. and a 25 kHz guard band on both sides) Type of emission: F3E (monoaural) F8E (stereophonic) Intermediate Frequency: 10. elevated structures (buildings) can be used to elevate the antenna • Hills and mountains can also act as natural towers. During playback. Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis • Since noise sideband power in FM decreases inversely with the modulating frequency. the left and right sides). higher modulating frequencies are more susceptible to noise than the lower ones. Problems encountered with initial design of stereophonic FM broadcasts: • Class-D Shall have an authorized transmitter power not exceeding 10 W. community having an ERP not exceeding 1 kW station • A tower. Minimum transmitter power is 10 kW • Class-B Shall have an authorized transmitter power not exceeding 10 kW and an ERP not exceeding 30 kW.79 MHz) Pilot Subcarrier Frequency: 19 kHz Classes of FM Stations • Class-A Shall have an authorized transmitter power not exceeding 25 kW and an ERP not exceeding 125 kW. Used for educational purposes. a sound source is recorded from two different angles (in this case. FM Antennas and Site Considerations • The antenna used in FM broadcasting is a half-wave dipole. • To provide LOS within the principal area.

Broadcast Engineering: Spectrum of a Stereo FM Multiplex System Some notes on FM Stereo 1. Why suppress the 38 kHz subcarrier? . then a studio-to-transmitter link (STL) may be employed. Why are the L & R signals not sent independently and simultaneously? • So that the system will be compatible with existing monoaural receivers 2. Talk-back for remote stations 4. much more 19 kHz. What’s the use of the 38 kHz subcarrier? • To serve as the carrier for the balance modulation process of the difference signal 3. Facsimile 6. The system should be compatible with existing monophonic receivers 2. Slow-scan TV • Uses a subcarrier of 67 kHz and is modulated to a depth of 7. weather. Background music. Why 19 kHz? • Most people cannot hear beyond 15 kHz. • It is a usual practice to co-locate the studio and transmitter in a single facility. Original FM broadcasts were monophonic. Remote Studio Facilities • In cases where the studio and the transmitter cannot be located in the same facility.5 kHz The Broadcast Studio • The studio usually contains equipment for program origination. or it is better for the transmitter to be located elsewhere (economically or technically). The stereo information had to be transmitted within the 200 kHz bandwidth allotment Block Diagram of Transmission System a Stereophonic • Too much of the total composite modulating signal would be taken up by the subcarrier voltage 5. time Signals 2. but which are of interest primarily to limited segments of the public wishing to subscribe thereto.1. Educational information 3. mostly for economic purposes. Subsidiary Communications Authorization (SCA) • The transmission of programs which are of a broadcast nature. 6. • Typical applications of SCA 1. Why 38 kHz? • The difference signal must not interfere with the original sum signals 4. Telemetry 5. What’s with the 19 kHz pilot subcarrier? • It is used as the reference to obtain the difference signal.

the visual information in a scene is converted to an electrical signal which is transmitted to a receiver • At the receiver. Transmitter Block Diagram • A still picture is fundamentally an arrangement of many small dark and light areas • Each small area of light or shade is a picture detail. or pel • The arrangement of these elements define the information in a scene • If these elements are transmitted and reproduced in the same degree of light or shade as in the original in the proper position. Scanning • A television picture is scanned in a sequential series of horizontal lines. a large number lines is required to include the greatest number of picture elements.Introduction to Television Picture Elements Television • The word television means “to see at a distance” • In a TV broadcasting system. one under another. then the picture is reproduced. • A TV picture is scanned in the same way as you would read a page of text to cover all the words in a line and all the lines on the page. • For greater detail. Receiver Block Diagram The Television Picture . or picture element – a pixel for short. this video signal is used to reassemble the image on the screen of a picture tube.

but showing each frame twice. giving the impression of seeing all the images at the same time • Using this effect. so that 48 pictures are shown each second • The screen is blanked out every time a picture is shown. resulting in flicker • To eliminate flicker. • The technique of moving pictures is taken from motion pictures (movies) • One of the first people to experiment with moving pictures is Eadweard Muybridge. enough complete pictures must be shown during each second – about 24 pictures per second. to create the illusion of motion. the switching of the pictures must not be seen by the eye • A shutter blanks out the screen during this interval so that the eye sees only the images and not the switching • However. and the screen is blanked 48 times per second.Persistence of Vision • The impression made by any light seen by the eye persists for a small fraction of a second after the light source is removed • If many views are presented to the eye during this interval. it is also necessary to present the picture to the eye in such a way that any motion in the scene appears as a smooth. it produces the illusion of continuous motion . the pictures are run at 24 fps. 48 pictures per second means the screen is blanked 48 times per second • There are 48 views of a scene each second. although there are still the same 24 picture frames per second Motion Pictures • With all the pixels in the frame televised by means of the scanning process. the eye will integrate. the frame rate of 24 fps is not rapid enough to allow the brightness of one picture to blend smoothly when the screen is black between frames. as used in motion pictures Blanking and Flicker in Motion Pictures • In order for successive images to blend smoothly to one another. if projected in rapid succession. continuous change. we can send the entire picture information one pixel at a time given that a scene is scanned rapidly enough • In addition. by taking a series of photographs of a moving horse Muybridge’s Photographs • Notice that the series consists of still pictures with each picture slightly different from the preceding one • Each picture is projected individually as a still picture • However.

and when the scanning beam reaches the bottom of the screen. 60 views of a scene is presented to the viewer. the field rate is 60. For a frame rate of 30 fps. each picture is divided into two parts: an odd field and an even field • Therefore.5 x 60 = 15. a blanking rate of 60 times per second is used • But instead of showing each picture twice.the rate at which the electron beam completes its cycle of vertical motion from top to bottom and back to top again • A frame consists of 525 lines. it goes back to the top to scan the lines that were skipped previously • These odd set and even set of lines are shown alternately to form the frame – a technique known as interlacing One picture (Frame) A picture composed of odd lines (Odd Field) .• This increased blanking rate eliminates the flicker A Frame and a Field • A similar process is used to reproduce motion in television • Instead of the 24 frames per second used for motion pictures. a picture repetition rate of 30 pictures per second is used for television • To eliminate flicker.5 lines for a single vertical field • Therefore.750 Scanning and Interlacing • A frame is scanned every other line. • This field rate of 60 Hz is the vertical scanning frequency . as two fields are scanned during one frame period of 1/30 s. which gives 262. the number of lines per second is 262. A picture composed of even lines (Even Field) Frame and Field Frequencies • The frame repetition rate of 30 is chosen in television to be in sync with the power line frequency of 60 Hz.

termed as retrace or flyback • When the beam reaches the bottom of the screen. while the vertical motion of the beam is a vertical trace • The screen is blanked out every retrace period (horizontal and vertical) to hide the electron beam Detail of Interlaced Scanning Detail of Interlaced Scanning Odd lines in 1st vertical trace 1st field = total of 262. and Blanking • The motion of the scanning beam traces the scene from the left to the right of the frame. Retrace.More on Trace. the beam quickly goes back to the left of the frame to scan the next line below. it then returns to the top-left corner to scan a new frame • A scanned horizontal line is called a horizontal trace. one line after another • After a line is scanned (or traced).5 lines .

The Camera Tube • The optical image is focused on a photosensitive plate using a lens system • This photosensitive plate converts the image to an electric charge pattern • This charge pattern is scanned sequentially by an electron beam. it illuminates a spot on the screen representing a picture element • The beam is controlled (deflected) from left to right and top to bottom of the screen by external coils at the neck of the tube A Cathode-ray Tube (CRT) Beam Deflection and the Sawtooth Waveform • To deflect the electron beam from left to right (and top to bottom) of the screen. a steadily increasing current (magnetic field) is used The Picture Tube • The picture tube is a cathode-ray tube (CRT) with an electron gun and a phosphor screen inside an evacuated glass envelope • The beam is accelerated to the screen by a positive anode voltage • This linear increase provides a smooth movement of the electron beam • The flyback is the sharp decrease in the current from the peak value to zero . which produces a signal from the output electrode A Vidicon Camera Tube • When the beam hits the phosphor screen. controlled by a series of coils at the back of the tube • The electron beam discharges each picture element.

or black in the picture . A positive sync with the sync pulses in the up position 2. the white parts of the video signal are opposite to those of the sync pulse. A negative sync with the sync pulses in the down position • Video signals with negative sync is fed into the control grid of the picture tube. etc. • Sync amplitudes are sometimes called blacker than black The Composite Video Signal • As the scanning beam of the camera tube moves from left to right (and top to bottom) of the screen. gray. synchronism is in order • Synchronizing pulses are sent for each horizontal line scanned. the camera signal is blacked out (blanking) to cover the retrace • After the retrace. to synchronize the vertical scanning motion • Sync pulses are part of the video signal. in order to keep the horizontal scanning synchronized • Also. the blanking signal is removed. while positive-sync signals are fed to the cathode • Furthermore. the amplitude of the camera signal vary for shades of white.) • For either polarity.• After the horizontal trace. negative sync is standard for signals in and out of video equipment (cameras. and another line is ready to be scanned Detail of a Composite Video Signal Synchronizing Pulses • In order for the picture elements to be reassembled in the correct order in the picture tube as it was scanned in a camera tube. with the blanking level at black. but they occur during the blanking period (since they are not part of the viewable information) Sync Polarity and the Composite Video Signal • The video signals can have two polarities: 1. a vertical synchronizing pulse is transmitted for each field.

5 IRE units for camera signal variations .Video signal with positive sync The IRE Scale • Video signal amplitude is usually checked with negative sync polarity to fit the IRE scale Video signal with negative sync • IRE stands Engineers for Institute of Radio • The composite video signal can have a peak-to-peak amplitude of 140 IRE units Blanking • The composite video signal contains blanking pulses to make the retrace lines invisible by blacking the signal out when the scanning circuits produce retraces • Horizontal blanking pulses are included to blank out retraces from right to left of the screen • Vertical blanking pulses blank out retraces from the bottom to the top of the screen • Each blanking pulse changes the video signal to black during blanking time • The sync pulse has an amplitude of 40 IRE units • The black peaks of the camera signal are offset from the blanking level by 7.5 IRE units. 100 – 7.5 = 92. This is to make sure that the color bursts do not interfere with the sync • Peak white signal goes up to 100 IRE units • Subtracting the black offset level from the peak white.

which gives us 1. then a train of horizontal pulses Color Television Initial Problems with Color Television • As with stereophonic FM broadcasts. one that uses a matrix to produce a signal compatible to monochrome receivers. and blue • An optical separator behind the main lens (taking lens) breaks the incoming light into its component colors . This is 3 lines wide • Following the vertical sync is another set of equalizing pulses. Since the vertical trace is much longer than a horizontal trace. and a subcarrier to carry the color information A Color Television Camera • A color camera is actually three cameras in one housing – one for each primary color of red. vertical sync pulses. or 0. spaced at half-line intervals • The next is a serrated vertical sync pulse that produces the vertical flyback. green. and some horizontal sync pulses • The vertical blanking period begins with a group of six equalizing pulses. color information must fit in the 6 MHz space allocated for television broadcast services • A similar technique is used. the vertical retrace is also longer • The width of the vertical blanking pulse is 8% of the vertical trace time.0167 s. color television was wrought with compatibility problems with the older monochrome receivers • Also.Horizontal Blanking Time Vertical Blanking Time • The time to complete one field is 1/60 s.33 ms • This long blanking period not only blanks the vertical retrace but also blanks out several horizontal scanning lines (21 lines per field) Sync Pulses in V Blanking Time • The sync pulses in the V blanking time include equalizing pulses.

green. and another that reflects green • The R. and B signals green phosphor. the second is for the .• Separate preamplifiers and processors handle these R. one that reflects red. Other electrons are blocked by the mask The Shadow Mask Principle • If we were to suspend a light source at an angle above a perforated plate. • The mask is a perforated steel sheet mounted on the back of the screen • Only the electrons that converge at a proper angle can strike the phosphor screen to produce the correct color. G. and B components of the light are then fed to separate camera tubes Color Separation and the Shadow Mask • Separation of colors is maintained by the shadow mask principle. color tubes have red. and the third is for the blue phosphor • Trios of dots are formed by the color phosphors A Tricolor Picture Tube Dichroic Mirrors • Dichroic mirrors are special tinted mirrors that allow certain wavelengths to pass and reflects others • A certain dichroic mirror would reflect blue but passes the remainder • The remaining light is passed onto another set of dichroic mirrors. then the light source would pass through the holes and hit specific areas on the layer below. it would illuminate a different set of areas on the layer Color Picture Tubes • Instead of having the screen coated with a single color phosphor and one electron gun. with three electron guns for each primary color • They are essentially three guns in a single glass envelope • One gun controls electrons that strike only the red phosphor. and blue phosphors. Assume that the illuminated points are painted red • If another light source is suspended at a different angle from the first. G.

Encoding the Color Information • As with the luminance signal.below. and B signals are fed to a matrix to combine them in specific proportions • Two color signals come out of the matrix.59G + 0.579545 MHz carrier • This signal is called the chrominance signal or C signal • The 3. blue. • The same idea can be applied to a third source.60R − 0.28G − 0.58 MHz carrier is referred to as the chroma subcarrier • This signal is multiplexed with the Y signal and modulate the picture carrier together • The amplitude-modulated C signal is transmitted with a suppressed carrier.21R − 0. G.32B • Note that each source itself is not a primary color.52G + 0. a monochrome picture produced by the Y signal looks correct in shades of gray and white Color Information • Color information is encoded using a 3. this time for green spots • As a result. G. the R. This time assume that the points are blue.11B • These percentages approximate brightness sensation for different colors the Q = 0. and green • It is the relative position of the light sources with respect to the mask that determines the separate colors Compatibility with Monochrome Receivers • Color television is compatible with black and white because essentially the same scanning standards are used. which are color mixtures I = 0.31B • These two signals correspond to hue values • The Q signal stands for quadrature. It is transmitted with a phase shift of 90° from the I signal . the mask makes one beam serve for red. and B information signals are encoded to be a luminance signal Y which is the signal for black and white television Y = 0. to reduce interference with the Y signal. • The R.3R + 0.

part of the picture signal is used for monochrome reception. and is 90° from the B – Y signal • The B – Y and the R – Y are combined to get the G – Y signal • These three signals are called color difference signals Addition of Colors .Color Sync Burst • To demodulate the colorplexed information. The remainder is used to decode the color information for colored receivers • The colorplexed video information is separated into the Y and C signal using bandpass filters • The Y information is sent to monochrome circuits • The C signal is decoded further to extract the R. a sample of the 3.58 MHz oscillator at the receiver generates the subcarrier signal • Furthermore. making it easy to lock on to • The R – Y video signal is close to red. a 3. G and B signals that is fed to the guns at the back of the picture tube • The B – Y video signal is a color mixture close to blue. The phase angle of this signal is exactly 180° opposite of the color sync burst.58 MHz subcarrier signal on the back porch of each horizontal blanking pulse Decoding the Picture Information • As with stereophonic FM.58 MHz subcarrier signal is transmitted with the C signal as a phase reference for the color oscillator in the receiver • Color synchronization of the color hues in the picture is accomplished by a burst of 8 to 11 cycles of the 3.

S.) 625 25 50 15.43 C.625 5. Hz 60 50 Line frequency. Italy.58 4. Electronic System for Color with Memory England 625 25 50 15. Spain Lines per frame 525 625 Frames per second 30 25 Field frequency. MHz 3. Japan. MHz 4.625 Video bandwidth.43 France 625 25 50 15.43 Color Systems • • • NTSC Stands for National Television Standards Committee PAL Stands for Phase Alternation by Line SECAM Stands for Systeme Electronique pour Coloeur Avec Memoire In English.R.S.2 5 or 6 Channel width. (formerly U.43 .S.625 6 8 Negative FM SECAM 4.5 8 Negative FM PAL 4.625 6 8 Positive AM SECAM 4.I. Hz 15.750 15. Philippines Germany.Color Circle (Vectorscope) Television Systems Around the World The Americas. MHz 6 7 or 8 Video modulation (sync) Negative Negative Sound Signal FM FM Color System NTSC PAL Color subcarrier. Western Europe.

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