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## The correct answer for each question is indicated by a .

1 INCORRECT
The difference between a random variable and a probability distribution is
A) A random variable does not include the probability of an event.
B) A random variable can only assume whole numbers.
C) A probability distribution can only assume whole numbers.
D) None of the above.

## Feedback: The correct answer is a. A random variable is a value resulting from an

experiment, while a probability distribution is a listing of all possible outcomes and their
associated probability.
2 INCORRECT
Which of the following is not a requirement of a binomial distribution?
A) A constant probability of success.
B) Only two possible outcomes.
C) A fixed number of trails.
D) Equally likely outcomes.

Feedback: The correct answer is d. A binomial distribution has only two possible outcomes
on each trial, results from counting successes over a series of trials, the probability of success
stays the same from trial to trial and successive trials are independent.
3 CORRECT
The mean and the variance are equal in
A) All probability distributions.
B) The binomial distribution.
C) The Poisson distribution.
D) The hypergeometric distribution.
4 INCORRECT
In which of the following distributions is the probability of a success usually small?
A) Binomial
B) Poisson
C) Hypergeometric
D) All distribution

Feedback: The correct answer is b. That's why it is often referred to as the “law of
improbable events.”
5 INCORRECT
Which of the following is not a requirement of a probability distribution?
A) Equally likely probability of a success.
B) Sum of the possible outcomes is 1.00.
C) The outcomes are mutually exclusive.
D) The probability of each outcome is between 0 and 1.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. Only the classical notion of probability requires the events
to be equally likely.
6 INCORRECT
For a binomial distribution
A) n must assume a number between 1 and 20 or 25.
B) π must be a multiple of .10.
C) There must be at least 3 possible outcomes.
D) None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is d. A binomial distribution has only two possible outcomes
on each trial, results from counting successes over a series of trials, the probability of success
stays the same from trial to trial and successive trials are independent.
7 INCORRECT
Which of the following is a major difference between the binomial and the hypergeometric
distributions?
A) The sum of the outcomes can be greater than 1 for the hypergeometric.
The probability of a success changes from trial to trial in the hypergeometric
B)
distribution.
C) The number of trials changes in the hypergeometric distribution.
D) The outcomes cannot be whole numbers in the hypergeometric distribution.

Feedback: The correct answer is b. A typical case where the hypergeometric distribution
applies is sampling without replacement. Hence the probability of a success changes from
trial to trial.
8 INCORRECT
In a continuous probability distribution
A) Only certain outcomes are possible.
B) All the values within a certain range are possible.
C) The sum of the outcomes is greater than 1.00
D) None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is b. Continuous implies without interruption. So it includes all
numbers, without exception, in a range.
9 INCORRECT
For a binomial distribution with n = 15 as π changes from .50 toward .05 the distribution
will
A) Become more positively skewed.
B) Become more negatively skewed
C) Become symmetrical.
D) All of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. As the likelihood of success gets smaller, the positive tail
gets relatively longer.
10 INCORRECT
The expected value of the a probability distribution
A) Is the same as the random variable.
B) Is another term for the mean.
C) Is also called the variance.
D) Cannot be greater than 1.

Feedback: The correct answer is b. The average or mean describes what you “expect.”

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a .

1 INCORRECT
A sample
A) Is a part of the population.
B) Has more than 30 observations.
C) Is usually identified as N.
D) All of the above.

## Feedback: The correct answer is a. That's its definition.

2 INCORRECT
Which of the following is not a reason for sampling?
A) The destructive nature of certain tests.
B) The physical impossibility of checking all the items in the population.
C) The adequacy of sample results.
D) All of the above are reasons for sampling.

## Feedback: The correct answer is d. They are all correct.

3 INCORRECT
Which of the following is not a method of probability sampling?
A) Random sampling
B) Systematic sampling
C) Stratified sampling
D) All of the above are methods of probability sampling.

Feedback: The correct answer is d. They are all probability sampling methods.
4 INCORRECT
In a simple random sample
th
A) Every k item is selected to be in the sample.
B) Every item has a chance to be in the sample.
C) Every item has the same chance to be in the sample.
D) All of the above.
describes sampling, but not a simple random sample.
5 CORRECT
Suppose a population consisted of 20 items. How many different samples of n = 3 are
possible?
A) 6840
B) 1140
C) 20
D) 120
6 INCORRECT
The difference between the sample mean and the population mean is called the
A) Population mean.
B) Population standard deviation.
C) Standard error of the mean.
D) Sampling error.

## Feedback: The correct answer is d. That's its definition.

7 INCORRECT
The mean of the all the sample means and the population mean will
A) Always be equal.
B) Always be normally distributed.
C) Characterized by the standard error of the mean.
D) None of the above.

## Feedback: The correct answer is a. It's a fact!

8 INCORRECT
Suppose we have a population that follows the normal distribution. Which of the
following statements is correct regarding the distribution of sample means?
A) The population standard deviation is always unknown.
B) The distribution of samples means will follow the uniform distribution.
C) The distribution of the sample means will also follow the normal distribution.
D) None of the above is correct.

Feedback: The correct answer is c. The process of averaging the sample values doesn't
change the normality of the distribution. In fact because of the Central Limit theorem effect it
reinforces it.
9 INCORRECT
Suppose we have a population that does not follow the normal distribution. If we select
sample of what size will the distribution approximate the normal distribution?
A) 2
B) 5
C) 20
D) 30

Feedback: The correct answer is d. That's enough for the Central Limit theorem to take
effect.
10 INCORRECT
The standard error of the mean is
A) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of sample means.
B) Always normally distributed.
C) Sometimes less than 0.
D) None of the above.

## Feedback: The correct answer is a. That's its definition.

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a . 1INCORRECT A point estimate is
A)Always an estimate of the population mean.
B Always equal to the population value.
)

## C)An estimate of the population parameter.

D)None of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is C. You could be estimating a standard deviation as well as a mean and you're
never sure it's exactly the same as the population parameter. See pages 360 and 361. 2INCORRECT A
confidence interval
A)Always includes the population parameter.

## B Decreases in width as the sample size is increased.

)
C)Cannot include a value of 0.
D)None of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is B. A confidence interval can include any value and you can only hope it
includes the population parameter. See page 372 for an explanation of why B is the correct answer. Section 9.2
(pages 364-366) gives a general introduction to the concept of confidence intervals. 3INCORRECT If we wish
to decrease the width of a confidence interval, we would not do which of the following:
A)Increase the size of the sample.
B Reduce the size of the population.
)
C)Decrease the level of confidence.

## D)None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is D. The width would increase if you reduced the size of the sample. Page 372
contains an explanation of the factors that determine interval width. 4INCORRECT We wish to develop a
confidence interval for the population mean. The shape of the population is not known, but we have a sample of
40 observations. We decide to use the 92 percent level of confidence. What is the appropriate value of z?
A)1.9
6
B 1.6
) 5
C)2.5
8

D)1.7
5
Feedback: The correct answer is D. Remember to look for an area of 0.9200/2 or 0.4600 in the body of the
standard normal (z) table. See pages 366 –367, and try the SELF-REVIEW 9-2 on page 367. 5INCORRECT
Which of the following statements is not a characteristic of the t distribution?
A)It is a continuous distribution.
B It has a mean of 0.
)
C)It is symmetrical.

## D)Like z, there is only one t distribution.

Feedback: The correct answer is D. There are different t distributions depending on the degrees of freedom.
See page 374 for a description of the characteristics of the t distribution. 6CORRECT We wish to develop a
confidence interval for the population mean. The population follows the normal distribution, we know the
population standard deviation, and have a sample of 10 observations. We decide to use the 90 percent level of
confidence. The appropriate value to represent the level of confidence is
A)z = 1.65
B z = 1.96
)
C)t = 1.833
D)t = 1.812
E t = 2.262
)
Feedback: The correct answer is A. If the population follows the normal distribution, so will the sampling
distribution of the mean. See the discussion about the correct choice when estimating µ (Z or t) at the beginning
of section 9.4 on page 373, continued on pages 377-378. 7INCORRECT The fraction or ratio of a sample
possessing a certain trait is called a
A)Population.
B Mean.
)
C)Confidence interval.

D)Proportion
Feedback: The correct answer is D. That's its definition. See page 382. 8INCORRECT To develop a
confidence interval for a proportion
A)We need to meet the binomial conditions.
B The sample should be at least 100.
)
C)p should be less than .05.

## D)None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is D. Option A is close, but we also need a large enough sample to let the
Central Limit theorem work and approximate the binomial distribution by a normal. See pages 382-383.
9INCORRECT The finite population correction factor is used when
A)n is more than 30.
B N is more than 1,000.
)
C)np is greater than 5.

## D)n/N is more than .05.

Feedback: The correct answer is D. Then our sample (n) is a significant part of the population (N). See page
393. 10INCORRECT We wish to estimate the population proportion. We want to be 95 percent confident of our
results and we want the estimate to be within .01 of the population parameter. No estimate of the population
proportion is available. What value should we use for p?
A)1.9
6
B 0.0
) 1

C)0.
5

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a . 1INCORRECT Which of the following is a correct
A)It may range from 0 to
1.
B It may assume negative values.
)
C)It may be greater than 1.
D)It cannot be reported to more than 1 decimal place.
E All the above are
) correct.
Feedback: The correct answer is a. Zero represents the impossible and one, a sure thing. 2CORRECT An
experiment is a
A)Collection of events.
B Collection of outcomes.
)
C)Always greater than 1.

## D)The act of taking a measurement or the observation of some activity.

E None of the above is correct.
)
Feedback: The correct answer is d. That's its definition. 3INCORRECT Which of the following is not a type of
probability?
A)Subjective

B Independent
)
C)Relative frequency
D)Classical
Feedback: The correct answer is b. "Independent" refers to a relation between events, not probabilities.
4CORRECT Events are independent if
A)By virtue of one event occurring another
cannot.
B The probability of their occurrence is greater than
) 1.
C)We can count the possible outcomes.

D)The probability of one event happening does not affect the probability of another event happening.
E None of the above.
)
Feedback: The correct answer is d. That's its definition. 5INCORRECT The Special Rule of Addition is used
to combine
A)Independent events.

## B Mutually exclusive events

)
C)Events that total more than one.
D)Events based on subjective probabilities
E Found by using joint probabilities.
)
Feedback: The correct answer is b. There is no "double counting" among mutually exclusive two events.
6INCORRECT We use the General Rule of Multiplication to combine
A)Events that are not independent.
B Mutually exclusive events.
)
C)Events that total more than 1.00.
D)Events based on subjective probabilities
E Found by using joint probabilities.
)
Feedback: The correct answer is a. It considers dependent or conditional probability. 7INCORRECT When we
find the probability of an event happening by subtracting the probability of the event not happening from 1, we
are using
A)Subjective probability

## B The complement rule.

)
C)The general rule of
D)The special rule of multiplication
E Joint probability
)
Feedback: The correct answer is b. That's its definition. 8INCORRECT When we determine the number of
combinations
A)We are really computing a probability.

## B The order of the outcomes is not important.

)
C)The order of the outcomes is important.
D)We multiple the likelihood of two independent trials.
E None of the above.
)
Feedback: The correct answer is b. Order is only important is permutations. 9INCORRECT Bayes' Theorem
A)Is an example of subjective probability.
B Can assume of value less than 0.
)

## C)Is used to revise a probability based on new or additional information.

D)Is found by applying the complement rule.
E None of the above.
)
Feedback: The correct answer is c. That's a fact! 10INCORRECT The difference between a permutation and a
combination is:
A)In a permutation order is important and in a combination it is not.
B In a permutation order is not important and in a combination it is important.
)
C)A combination is based on the classical definition of probability.
D)A permutation is based on the classical definition of probability.
E None of the above.
)

Results Reporter

## Out of 10 questions, you answered 3 correctly, for a final grade of 30%.

3 correct (30%)
7 incorrect (70%)
The correct answer for each question is indicated by a .

## 1INCORRECT The science of statistics includes which of the following:

A)Organizing data.
B Presenting data.
)
C)Interpreting data.
D)All of the above.
Feedback: All of these are correct answers. We also usually include collecting and analyzing
data in our definition of statistics.

## 2CORRECT In descriptive statistics our main objective is to

A)Describe the population.
B Describe the data we collected.
)
D)Compute an average.
Feedback: The best answer is b since we are trying to "summarize data in an informative
way."

## 3CORRECT Which of the following statements is true regarding a population?

A)It must be a large number of values.
B It must refer to people.
)
C)It is a collection individuals, objects, or measurements.
D)None of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. The population doesn't have to be large or refer only to
people.

## 4INCORRECT Which of the following statements is true regarding a sample?

A)It is a part of population.
B It must contain at least five observations.
)
C)It refers to descriptive statistics.
D)All of the above are
correct.
Feedback: The correct answer is a, which is the definition of a sample.

## 5INCORRECT A qualitative variable

A)Always refers to a sample.
B Is not numeric.
)
C)Has only two possible outcomes.
D)All of the above are
correct.
Feedback: The correct answer is b. Examples of qualitative variables include hair color,
religious affiliation, and gender.

## 6INCORRECT A discrete variable is

A)An example of a qualitative variable.
B Can assume only whole number values.
)
C)Can assume only certain clearly separated values.
D)Cannot be negative.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. It could be fractions, such as ¼, ½, and ¾.

## 7CORRECT A nominal scale variable is

A)Usually the result of counting something.
B Has a meaningful zero point.
)
C)May assume negative values.
D)Cannot have more than two categories.
Feedback: The best answer is a. Recall nominal variables can only be classified, but there is no
natural order.

## 8INCORRECT The ratio scale of measurement

A)Usually involves ranking.
B Cannot assume negative values.
)
C)Has a meaningful zero point.
D)Is usually based on counting.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. The ratio scale is the "highest" level of measurement.

## 9INCORRECT The ordinal scale of measurement

A)Has a meaningful zero point.
B Is based on ranks
)
C)Cannot assume negative values.
D)All of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is b. The word "order" is another way of saying rank.

## 1 Categories are exhaustive when

INCORRECT
0
A)There is a meaningful zero point.
B The objects can be ranked.
)
C)Each object must appear in at least one category.
D)Each object can be included in only one category.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. That's the definition.

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a .

1 INCORRECT
To conduct a nonparametric test the
A) Population must follow the normal distribution.
B) The standard deviation must be known.
C) It is not necessary to make any assumption about the shape of the population.
D) The data must be at least interval scale.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. The major feature of nonparametric tests is assumptions
about the shape of the population are not necessary. This is different from earlier chapters
when we assumed a normal population.
2 INCORRECT
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the X2
A) Its shape is based on the sample size.
B) It is not negative.
C) It is positively skewed.
D) It approaches a normal distribution as the degrees of freedom increase.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. The X2 distribution is based on the number of categories
not the size of the sample. The other responses are all characteristics of the X2 distribution.
3 INCORRECT
In a goodness-of-fit test where the sample size is 200, there are 5 categories, and the
significance level is .05. The critical value of X2 is
A) 9.488
B) 11.070
C) 43.773
D) None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. The degrees of freedom is the number of categories minus
one, so df = 5 – 1 =4. Go a chi-square table and locate the column headed .05. Move down that
column to the row with 4 degrees of freedom. The value is 9.488.
4 INCORRECT
In a goodness-of-fit test
A) All the cell frequencies must be the same.
B) There must be at least 30 observations.
C) Forty percent of the cells must contain at least 10 observations.
D) None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is d. None of these statements are always correct.
5 CORRECT
In a contingency table
A) The number of rows must be the same as the number of columns.
B) A variable is classified according to two criteria.
C) There must be at least 10 observations in each cell.
D) All of the above.
6 INCORRECT
In a contingency table a sample of 400 people is classified by gender and hair color (4
groups: blond, brown, black, and red). How many degrees of freedom are there?
A) 3
B) 8
C) 399
D) None of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is a. The degrees of freedom is (r – 1)(c –1) = (2 – 1)(4 – 1) = 3.
7 INCORRECT
For a X2 goodness-of-fit test
A) There is only one degree of freedom.
B) The rejection region is in the upper right tail.
C) The scale of measurement is interval.
D) We must assume a normal population.

Feedback: The correct answer is b. The data may be of nominal scale and the degrees of
freedom are the number of categories minus one. For this X2 test all the rejection region is in
the upper tail.
8 INCORRECT
To find the expected frequency in a contingency table
A) Take the square root of the degrees of freedom.
Multiple the row total by the column total and divide the result by the grand
B)
total.
C) Use the total number of observations minus one.
D) None of these.

Feedback: The correct answer is b. To find the expected frequency is each cell we multiply
the row total by the column total and divide by the grand total.
9 INCORRECT
Suppose we select a sample of 100 observations and organize them into 6 categories. We
wish to investigate whether the number of observations could be the same in each of the
categories in the population. How many degrees of freedom are there?
A) 5
B) 97
C) 3
D) None of these.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. The degrees of freedom is equal to the number of
categories minus one, so df = 6 – 1 = 5.
10 INCORRECT
Under what conditions could the X2 distribution assume negative values?
A) When the sample size is small.
B) When the cell frequencies are all equal.
C) When the degrees of freedom is 1.
D) Never

Feedback: The correct answer is d. The X2 distribution cannot assume negative values
because it is based on the squared difference between observed and expected frequencies. If
the observed and expected values were the same, it would be 0.

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a . 1INCORRECT In a two-sample test of means for
independent samples, the equal sign always appears in
A)The null hypothesis.
B The alternate hypothesis.
)
C)The upper tail of the test statistic.
D)None of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is a. The equality sign always is in the null hypothesis. The alternate hypothesis
will never have an equal, it will be >, <, or "not equal to." 2INCORRECT In a two-sample test of means for
independent samples, we use the z distribution when
A)The population standard deviations are equal.
B Both populations are positively skewed.
)

## C)Both samples are at least 30.

D)n and n(1-) are both greater than
5.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. Answer a is not a necessary condition, the shape of the population does not
matter when the sample is large, and d refers to tests of proportions, not means. 3CORRECT Which of the
following is a requirement for a two-sample test of proportions.
A)The population standard deviations are equal.
B Both populations are positively skewed.
)
C)Both samples are at least 30.

## D)n and n(1-) are both greater than

5.
Feedback: The correct answer is d, which is the only one of the choices that always refers to proportions.
4CORRECT A random sample of 10 observations is selected from the first normal population and 8 from the
second normal population. For a one-tailed test of hypothesis (.01 significance level) to determine if there is a
difference in the population means, the degrees of freedom are
A)1
8
B1
) 7

C)1
6
D)None of the above
Feedback: The correct choice is c. The degrees of freedom is found by n1 + n2 - 2 = 10 + 8 - 2 =16.
5CORRECT A random sample of 10 observations is selected from the first normal population and 8 from he
second normal population. For a one-tailed test of hypothesis (.01significance level) to determine if there is a
difference in the population means, the critical value(s) are
A)2.55
2
B -2.921,
) 2.921
C)-2.583,
2.583
D)None of the above
Feedback: The correct answer is a. Refer to Appendix F, find the row for a one-tailed test, the column
corresponding to .01 significance level, and move down to the row with 18 degrees of freedom. The value is
2.552. 6INCORRECT Which of the following is not a requirement for the two-sample test of means for
independent samples when both samples contain less than 30 observations?
A)Normal populations
B Equal population standard deviations
)

## C)Equal sample sizes

D)All of the above are required.
Feedback: The correct answer is c. The populations must follow the normal distribution and have equal
standard deviations, but the sample sizes do not have to be the same. 7INCORRECT To conduct a test of means
for two independent samples which of the following are always required?
A)At least one of the samples must have 30 observations
B Both samples must have 30 observations
)
C)nπ and nπ (1 - π ) must
be 5.

## D)None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is d. There is no sample size requirement, so a and b are not correct. Answer c
refers to tests regarding proportions not means. 8INCORRECT To conduct a test of hypothesis for dependent
samples we assume that
A)The distribution of the difference between the paired observations follows the normal distribution.
B Both samples are at least 30.
)
C)The samples are unrelated.
D)All of the above.
Feedback: The correct answer is a. The samples are dependent or related and to conduct the test, the
differences must follow the normal distribution. 9INCORRECT When conducting a test of hypothesis for the
dependent samples
A)We should have at least 30 pairs.
B The significance level is more than .05.
)
C)The p-value is more than .10.

## D)None of the above

Feedback: The correct answer is d. None of these responses refer to tests are required. 10INCORRECT Which
of the following is not necessary to determine a p-value?
A)Knowledge of whether the test is one-tailed or two-tailed.
B The value of the test statistic.
)

## C)The level of significance.

D)All of the above are needed.

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a .

1 INCORRECT
In a multiple regression equation there
A) Are two or more independent variables.
B) Is only one dependent variable.
C) Is one intercept value.
D) All of the above.

## Feedback: The correct answer is d. All of the statements are correct.

2 CORRECT
A dummy variable or indicator variable
A) May assume only a value of 0 or 1.
B) Is another term for the dependent variable.
C) Is found by (Y - Ŷ).
D) Is equal to Ŷ
3 INCORRECT
The multiple standard error of estimate is
2
A) Is based on the (Y - Ŷ) .
B) Is negative when one of the net regression coefficients is 0.
C) Is found by taking the square root of SSR/SS total.
D) All of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. The multiple standard error of estimate is based on
squared deviations from the regression equation. It cannot be negative. The term SSR/SS
total yields the coefficient of determination, whose square root is the coefficient of correlation.
4 INCORRECT
In the ANOVA table the value of k is
A) The number of independent variables.
B) The total number of observations
C) The number of degrees of freedom.
D) The sum of squares total.

## Feedback: The correct answer is a. k refers to the number of independent variables.

5 CORRECT
A correlation matrix
A) Shows all simple coefficients of correlation.
B) Shows all possible net regression coefficients.
C) Shows the correlations that are positive.
D) Reports the multiple regression equation.
6 INCORRECT
In a multiple regression equation
A) There is only one dependent variable.
2
B) The R term must be at least .50.
C) All the regression coefficient must be between -1.00 and 1.00.
D) None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is a. There may be several independent variables but we can
only predict the outcome of one variable.
7 INCORRECT
Multicollinearity occurs when
A) The residuals are correlated.
B) Time is involved in the analysis
C) The independent variables are correlated.
D) The residuals are not constant for all Y' values.

Feedback: The correct answer is c. The term multicollinearity refers to correlation among the
independent variables. Homoscedasticity occurs when the residuals are not constant for all
fitted values. Autocorrelation often occurs when time is involved in the study.
8 INCORRECT
In a global test of hypothesis we determine
A) Which independent variables do not equal 0.
B) Whether any of the set of independent variables differ from 0.
C) Whether any of the correlation coefficients differ from 0.
D) None of the above.

Feedback: The correct answer is b. The global test considers the independent variables as a
group.
9 CORRECT
In testing the significance of individual regression coefficients
A) The test statistic is the t distribution.
B) We test the independent variables individually.
C) We usually delete the variables where the null hypothesis is not rejected.
D) All of the above.
10 CORRECT
The residual
Is the difference between the actual and the predicted value of the dependent
A)
variable.
B) Cannot assume a negative value.
C) Is also called the correlation matrix.
D) Has the same degrees of freedom as the MSE term.