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Refrigeration Manual

Part 1 - Fundamentals of Refrigeration


The practice of refrigeration undoubtedly goes back as far as the history of mankind, but
for thousands of years the only cooling mediums were water and ice. Today refrigeration in
the home, in the supermarket, and in commercial and industrial usage is so closely woven
into our everyday existence it is difficult to imagine life without it. But because of this rapid
growth, countless people who must use and work with refrigeration equipment do not fully
understand the basic fundamentals of refrigeration system operation.

This manual is designed to fill a need which exists for a concise, elementary text to aid
servicemen, salesman, students, and others interested in refrigeration. It is intended to
cover only the fundamentals of refrigeration theory and practice. Detailed information as to
specific products is available from manufacturers of complete units and accessories. Used
to supplement such literature—and to improve general knowledge of refrigeration—this
manual should prove to be very helpful.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Table of Contents

Section 1  Basic Refrigeration Principles Types of Refrigerant 2-5

Refrigerants 2-8
Thermodynamics 1-1 Refrigerant 12 2-8
Heat 1-1 Refrigerant R-401A/B 2-8
Temperature 1-1 Refrigerant R-409A 2-8
Heat Measurement 1-2
Refrigerant 134a 2-8
Heat Transfer 1-2
Change of State 1-3 Refrigerant 22 2-9
Sensible Heat 1-3 Refrigerant R-502 2-9
Latent Heat of Fusion 1-3 Refrigerant R-402A 2-9
Latent Heat of Evaporation 1-4 Refrigerant R-408A 2-9
Latent Heat of Sublimation 1-4 Refrigerant R-404A 2-9
Saturation Temperature 1-4 Refrigerant R-507 2-10
Superheated Vapor 1-4 Refrigerant Saturation Temperature 2-10
Subcooled Liquid 1-4 Refrigerant Evaporation 2-10
Atmospheric Pressure 1-4 Refrigerant Condensation 2-10
Absolute Pressure 1-5 Refrigerant-Oil Relationships 2-10
Gauge Pressure 1-5
Refrigerant Tables 2-11
Pressure-Temperature Relationships, Liquids 1-5
Pressure-Temperature Relationships, Gases 1-5 Saturation Properties 2-12
Specific Volume 1-6 Pocket Temperature-Pressure Charts 2-12
Density 1-6
Pressure and Fluid Head 1-6 Section 3  The Refrigeration Cycle
Fluid Flow 1-7
Effect of Fluid Flow on Heat Transfer 1-7 Simple Compression Refrigeration Cycle 3-1
Heat of Compression 3-2
Section 2  Refrigerants Volumetric Efficiency of the Reciprocating
Compressor 3-2
Terminology and Examples 2-1 Volumetric Efficiency of the Scroll Compressors 3-4
Pure Fluid 2-1 Effect of Change in Suction Pressure 3-4
Mixture and Blend 2-1
Effect of Change in Discharge Pressure 3-4
Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixture 2-1
Zeotropic Mixture 2-2 Effect of Subcooling Liquid Refrigerant with
Near-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixture 2-2 Water or Air 3-4
How are Components Chosen 2-2 Effect of Subcooling Liquid Refrigerant by
Mixture Behavior 2-3 Superheating the Vapor 3-4
Azeotrope 2-3 Effect of Superheating the Vapor Leaving
Zeotrope 2-3 the Evaporator 3-5
Near-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures 2-3 Effect of Pressure Drop in the Discharge Line
What Happens to Mixture Composition During and Condenser 3-5
System Charging? 2-3 Effect of Pressure Drop in Liquid Line 3-5
Temperature Glide 2-4 Effect of Pressure Drop in the Evaporator 3-5
What Happens to Refrigerant Mixture Effect of Pressure Drop in Suction Line 3-6
Composition During a Leak? 2-5 Internally Compound Two-Stage Systems 3-6
Externally Compound Systems 3-6
Cascade Systems 3-10

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 1

Most users of refrigeration products normally associate zero Celsius. By comparison with this standard, the
refrigeration or air conditioning with cold and cooling, coldest weather we might ever experience on Earth is
yet the practice of refrigeration engineering deals almost much warmer.
entirely with the transfer of heat. This seeming contradic-
tion is one of the most fundamental concepts that must TEMPERATURE
be grasped to understand the workings of a refrigeration
or air conditioning system. Cold is really only the ab- Temperature is the scale used to measure the intensity
sence of heat, just as darkness is the absence of light, of heat, the indicator that determines which way the
and dryness is the absence of moisture. heat energy will move. In the United States, tempera-
ture is normally measured in degrees Fahrenheit. The
THERMODYNAMICS Celsius scale (previously termed Centigrade) is widely
used in most other parts of the world. Both scales have
Thermodynamics is that branch of science dealing several basic points in common, (See Figure 1-1) the
with the mechanical action of heat. There are certain freezing point of water, and the boiling point of water at
fundamental principles of nature, often called laws of sea level. At sea level, water freezes at 32°F (0°C) and
thermodynamics, which govern our existence here on water boils at 212°F (100°C). On the Fahrenheit scale,
Earth. Several of these laws are basic to the study of the temperature difference between these two points is
refrigeration. divided into 180 equal increments or degrees F, while on
the Celsius scale the temperature difference is divided
The first and most important of these laws is the fact into 100 equal increments or degrees C. The relation
that energy can neither be created or destroyed. It can between Fahrenheit and Celsius scales can always be
only be converted from one type to another. A study established by the following formulas:
of thermodynamic theory is beyond the scope of this
manual, but the examples that follow will illustrate the Fahrenheit = 9/5 Celsius + 32°
practical application of the energy law. Celsius = 5/9 (Fahrenheit -32°)

Heat is a form of energy, primarily created by the trans-
formation of other types of energy into heat energy. For
example, mechanical energy turning a wheel causes
friction and is transformed into heat energy. When a
vapor such as air or refrigerant is compressed, the
compression process is transformed into heat energy
and heat is added to the air or refrigerant.
Heat is often defined as energy in motion, for it is never
content to stand still. It is always moving from a warm
body to a colder body. Much of the heat on the Earth is
derived from radiation from the sun. The heat is being
transferred from the hot sun to the colder earth. A spoon COMPARISON OF TEMPERATURE SCALES
in ice water loses its heat to the water and becomes Figure 1-1
cold. Heat is transferred from the hot spoon to the colder
ice water. A spoon in hot coffee absorbs heat from the Further observing the two scales, note that at -40°,
coffee and becomes warm. The hot coffee transfers both the Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometers are at
heat to the colder spoon. The terms warmer and colder the same point. This is the only point where the two
are only comparative. Heat exists at any temperature scales are identical. Using this information, the follow-
above absolute zero even though it may be in extremely ing formulas can be used to determine the equivalent
small quantities. Fahrenheit or Celsius values.
Absolute zero is the term used by scientists to de- Fahrenheit = ((Celsius + 40) x 9/5) - 40
scribe the lowest theoretical temperature possible, the Celsius = ((Fahrenheit + 40) x 5/9) - 40
temperature at which no heat exists. This occurs at
approximately 460° below zero Fahrenheit, 273° below

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
HEAT MEASUREMENT travel in any of three ways; radiation, conduction, or
The measurement of temperature has no relation to
the quantity of heat. A match flame may have the same Radiation is the transfer of heat by waves similar to light
temperature as a bonfire, but obviously the quantity of waves or radio waves. For example, the sun's energy
heat given off is vastly different. is transferred to the Earth by radiation.
The basic unit of heat measurement used today in the
United States is the British Thermal Unit, commonly
expressed as a BTU. A BTU is defined as the amount
of heat added or removed to change one pound of wa-
ter one degree Fahrenheit. For example, to raise the
temperature of one gallon of water (approximately 8.3
pounds) from 70°F to 80°F will require 83 BTUs.
1 gallon (8.3 pounds) x (80°F - 70°F)∆T = 83 BTUs
heat added
8.3 pounds x 10°∆T = 83 BTUs
In the metric system, the basic unit of heat measure-
Figure 1-3
ment is the Calorie. A Calorie is defined as the amount
of heat added or removed to change one gram of water One need only step from the shade into direct sunlight
one degree Celsius. For example, to lower one liter to feel the impact of the heat waves even though the
of water (1000 grams) from 30°C to 20°C will require temperature of the surrounding air is identical in both
10,000 Calories of heat to be removed. places. Another example of radiation is standing in
front of a bonfire. The side of you facing the bon fire
1000 grams X (30°C - 20°C)∆T = 10,000 Calories of
is receiving radiant heat and that side is hot. The side
heat removed.
away from the fire may feel cool. There is little radiation
HEAT TRANSFER at low temperatures and at small temperature differ-
ences. As a result, radiation is of little importance in the
The second important law of thermodynamics is that actual refrigeration process. However, radiation to the
heat always travels from a warm object to a colder refrigerated space or product from the outside environ-
one. The rate of heat travel is in direct proportion to the ment, particularly the sun, may be a major factor in the
temperature difference between the two bodies. refrigeration load.
Conduction is the flow of heat through a substance.
Actual physical contact is required for heat transfer to
take place between two bodies by this means. Conduc-
390°F 400°F tion is a highly efficient means of heat transfer as any
serviceman who has touched a piece of hot metal can


Figure 1-2
Assume that two steel balls are side by side in a perfectly
insulated box. One ball weighs one pound and has a
temperature of 400°F, while the second ball weighs
1,000 pounds and has a temperature of 390°F. The
heat content of the larger ball is much greater than the
small one, but because of the temperature difference,
heat will travel from the small ball to the large one (See
Figure 1-2) until the temperatures equalize. Heat can Figure 1-4

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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Figure 1-4 shows a flame heating one end of a metal this steam could be enclosed in a container and more
rod. Heat is conducted to the other end by the process heat applied, then the water vapor, steam, temperature
of conduction. could again be raised. Obviously the fluid during the
boiling or evaporating process was absorbing heat.
Convection is the flow of heat by means of a fluid me-
dium, either vapor or liquid, normally air or water. Air When steam condenses back into water it gives off ex-
may be heated by a furnace, and then discharged into actly the same amount of heat that it absorbed during
a room to heat objects in the room by convection. evaporation. (The steam radiator is a common usage of
this source of heat.) If the water is to be frozen into ice,
the same amount of heat that was absorbed in melting
must be extracted by some refrigeration process to
cause the freezing action.
The question arises, just where did those heat units go?
Scientists have found that all matter is made up of mol-
ecules, infinitesimally small building blocks which are ar-
ranged in certain patterns to form different substances.
In a solid or liquid, the molecules are very close together.
In a vapor the molecules are much farther apart and
move about much more freely. The heat energy that
was absorbed by the water became molecular energy,
and as a result the molecules rearranged themselves,
changing the ice into water, and the water into steam.
Figure 1-5 When the steam condenses back into water, that same
molecular energy is again converted into heat energy.
In a typical air conditioning/refrigeration application, heat
normally will travel by a combination of processes. The SENSIBLE HEAT
ability of a piece of equipment to transfer heat is referred
to as the overall rate of heat transfer. While heat transfer Sensible heat is defined as the heat involved in a change
cannot take place without a temperature difference, of temperature of a substance. When the temperature
different materials vary in their ability to conduct heat. of water is raised from 32°F to 212°F, an increase in
Metal is a very good heat conductor. Fiberglass has a lot sensible heat content is taking place. The BTUs required
of resistance to heat flow and is used as insulation. to raise the temperature of one pound of a substance
1°F is termed its specific heat. By definition, the specific
CHANGE OF STATE heat of water is 1.0 BTU/lb. The amount of heat required
to raise the temperature of different substances through
Most common substances can exist as a solid, a liquid,
a given temperature range will vary. It requires only .64
or a vapor, depending on their temperature and the
BTU to raise the temperature of one pound of butter 1°F,
pressure to which they are exposed. Heat can change
and only .22 BTU is required to raise the temperature of
their temperature, and can also change their state.
one pound of aluminum 1°F. Therefore the specific heats
Heat is absorbed even though no temperature change
of these two substances are .64 BTU/lb. and .22 BTU/lb.
takes place when a solid changes to a liquid, or when a
respectively. To raise the temperature of one pound of
liquid changes to a vapor. The same amount of heat is
liquid refrigerant R‑22, 1°F from 45° to 46°, requires .29
given off, rejected, even though there is no temperature
BTUs, therefore its specific heat is .29 BTU/lb.
change when the vapor changes back to a liquid, and
when the liquid is changed back to a solid. LATENT HEAT OF FUSION
The most common example of this process is water. It A change of state for a substance from a solid to a liquid,
generally exists as a liquid, but can exist in solid form or from a liquid to a solid involves the latent heat of fu-
as ice, and as a vapor when it becomes steam. As ice sion. It might also be termed the latent heat of melting,
it is a usable form for refrigeration, absorbing heat as or the latent heat of freezing.
it melts at a constant temperature of 32°F (0°C). As
water, when placed on a hot stove in an open pan, its When one pound of ice melts, it absorbs 144 BTUs at
temperature will rise to the boiling point, 212°F (100°C) a constant temperature of 32°F. If one pound of water
at sea level. Regardless of the amount of heat applied, is to be frozen into ice, 144 BTUs must be removed
the waters temperature cannot be raised above 212°F from the water at a constant temperature of 32°F. In the
(100°C) because the water will vaporize into steam. If freezing of food products, it is only the water content

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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for which the latent heat of freezing must be taken into The same condition exists for refrigerants. At the refrig-
account. Normally this is calculated by determining the erants boiling point, both liquid and vapor exist simul-
percentage of water content in a given product. taneously. For example, refrigerant R‑22 has a boiling
point of 45°F at a pressure of 76 psig. It's boiling point
LATENT HEAT OF EVAPORATION changes only as it pressure changes.
A change of a substance from a liquid to a vapor, or SUPERHEATED VAPOR
from a vapor back to a liquid involves the latent heat of
evaporation. Since boiling is only a rapid evaporating After a liquid has changed to a vapor, any further heat
process, it might also be called the latent heat of boil- added to the vapor raises its temperature. As long as
ing, the latent heat of vaporization, or for the reverse the pressure to which it is exposed remains constant,
process, the latent heat of condensation. the resulting vapor is said to be superheated. Since a
temperature rise results, sensible heat has been added
When one pound of water boils or evaporates, it absorbs to the vapor. The term superheated vapor is used to
970 BTUs at a constant temperature of 212°F (at sea describe a vapor whose temperature is above it's boil-
level). To condense one pound of steam to water, 970 ing or saturation point. The air around us is composed
BTUs must be extracted from the steam. of superheated vapor.
Because of the large amount of latent heat involved in Refrigerant 22 at 76 psig has a boiling point of 45°F. At
evaporation and condensation, heat transfer can be 76 psig, if the refrigerants temperature is above 45°F,
very efficient during the process. The same changes it is said to be superheated.
of state affecting water applies to any liquid, although
at different temperatures and pressures. SUBCOOLED LIQUID
The absorption of heat by changing a liquid to a vapor, Any liquid that has a temperature lower than the satura-
and the discharge of that heat by condensing the vapor tion temperature corresponding to its saturation pres-
is the keystone to the whole mechanical refrigeration sure is said to be subcooled. Water at any temperature
process. The movement of the latent heat involved is less than its boiling temperature (212°F at sea level) is
the basic means of refrigeration. subcooled.
When one pound of refrigerant R‑22 boils, evaporates, The boiling point of Refrigerant 22 is 45°F at 76 psig. If
it absorbs 85.9 BTUs at 76 psig. To condense one the actual temperature of the refrigerant is below 45°F
pound of R‑22, 85.9 BTUs must be extracted from the at 76 psig, it is said to be subcooled.
refrigerant vapor.
The atmosphere surrounding the Earth is composed of
A change in state directly from a solid to a vapor without gases, primarily oxygen and nitrogen, extending many
going through the liquid phase can occur with some miles above the surface of the Earth. The weight of
substances. The most common example is the use of that atmosphere pressing down on the Earth creates
"dry ice" or solid carbon dioxide when used for cooling. the atmospheric pressure in which we live. At a given
The same process can occur with ice below the freez- point, the atmospheric pressure is relatively constant
ing point. This process is utilized in some freeze-drying except for minor changes due to changing weather
processes at extremely low temperatures and deep conditions. For purposes of standardization and as a
vacuums. The latent heat of sublimation is equal to the basic reference for comparison, the atmospheric pres-
sum of the latent heat of fusion and the latent heat of sure at sea level has been universally accepted. It has
evaporation. been established at 14.7 pounds per square inch, (psi).
This is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a column
SATURATION TEMPERATURE of mercury 29.92 inches high.
The condition of temperature and pressure at which At altitudes above sea level, the depth of the atmo-
both liquid and vapor can exist simultaneously is spheric blanket surrounding the Earth is less, therefore
termed saturation. A saturated liquid or vapor is one the atmospheric pressure is less. At 5,000 feet eleva-
at its boiling point. For water at sea level, the saturation tion, the atmospheric pressure is only 12.2 psi., 28.84
temperature is 212°F. At higher pressures, the saturation inches of mercury.
temperature increases. With a decrease in pressure,
the saturation temperature decreases.

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ABSOLUTE PRESSURE unit of measurement since even inches of mercury is
too large for accurate reading. The micron, a metric
Absolute pressure, normally expressed in terms of unit of length, is used for this purpose. When we speak
pounds per square inch absolute (psia), is defined as of microns in evacuation, we are referring to absolute
the pressure existing above a perfect vacuum. Therefore pressure in units of microns of mercury.
in the air around us, absolute pressure and atmospheric
pressure are the same. A micron is equal to 1/1000 of a millimeter and there
are 25.4 millimeters per inch. One micron, therefore,
GAUGE PRESSURE equals 1/25,400 inch. Evacuation to 500 microns would
be evacuating to an absolute pressure of approximately
A pressure gauge is calibrated to read 0 psi regardless .02 inch of mercury. At standard conditions this is the
of elevation when not connected to a pressure producing equivalent of a vacuum reading of 29.90 inches mer-
source. The absolute pressure of a closed system will cury.
always be gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi, therefore, PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIPS,
at sea level, absolute pressure will be gauge pressure LIQUIDS
plus 14.7. Pressures below 0 psig are actually negative
readings on the gauge, and are usually referred to as The temperature at which a liquid boils is dependent on
inches of mercury vacuum. A refrigeration compound the pressure being exerted on it. The vapor pressure
gauge is calibrated in the equivalent of inches of mer- of the liquid is the pressure being exerted by the tiny
cury for negative readings. Since 14.7 psi is equivalent molecules seeking to escape the liquid and become
to 29.92 inches of mercury, 1 psi is approximately equal vapor. Vapor pressure increases with an increase in
to 2 inches of mercury on the gauge dial. In the vacuum temperature until at the point when the vapor pressure
range, below 0 psig, 2 inches of mercury vacuum is equals the external pressure, boiling occurs.
approximately equal to a -1 psig.
Water at sea level boils at 212°F, but at 5,000 feet eleva-
It is important to remember that gauge pressure is only tion it boils at 203°F due to the decreased atmospheric
relative to absolute pressure. Table 1-1 shows rela- pressure. (See Table 1-1) If some means, a compressor
tionships existing at various elevations assuming that for example, is used to vary the pressure on the sur-
standard atmospheric conditions prevail. face of the water in a closed container, the boiling point
can be changed at will. At 100 psig, the boiling point is
Table 1-1 337.9°F, and at 1 psig, the boiling point is 215.3°F.
Pressure Relationships at Varying Altitudes
Boiling Since all liquids react in the same fashion, although at
Altitude Inches different temperatures and pressure, pressure provides
PSIG PSIA Point of
(Feet) Hg. a means of regulating a refrigerant's temperature. The
evaporator is a part of a closed system. A pressure can
0 0 14.7 29.92 212°F be maintained in the coil equivalent to the saturation
1000 0 14.2 28.85 210°F temperature (boiling point) of the liquid at the cooling
temperature desired. The liquid will boil at that tempera-
2000 0 13.7 27.82 208°F
ture as long as it is absorbing heat and the pressure
3000 0 13.2 26.81 206°F does not change.
4000 0 12.7 25.84 205°F
In a system using refrigerant R‑22, if the pressure
5000 0 12.2 24.89 203°F within the evaporator coil is maintained at 76 psig,
the refrigerants boiling point will be 45°F (7.2°C). As
Table 1-1 shows that even though the gauge pressure long as the temperature surrounding the coil is higher
remains at 0 psig regardless of altitude, the absolute than 45°F (7.2°C), the refrigerant will continue to boil
pressure does change. The absolute pressure in inches absorbing heat.
of mercury indicates the inches of mercury vacuum that
a perfect vacuum pump would be able to reach at the PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIPS,
stated elevation. At 5,000 feet elevation under standard GASES
atmospheric conditions, a perfect vacuum would be
24.89 inches of mercury. This compares to 29.92 inches One of the basic fundamentals of thermodynamics is
of mercury at sea level. the "perfect gas law." This describes the relationship of
the three basic factors controlling the behavior of a gas:
At very low pressures, it is necessary to use a smaller (1) pressure, (2) volume, and (3) temperature. For all

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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practical purposes, air and highly superheated refriger- unit volume. In the United States, density is normally
ant vapors may be considered perfect gases, and their expressed in pounds per cubic foot (lb./ft3). Since by
behavior follows this relationship: definition, density is directly related to specific volume,
the density of a vapor may vary greatly with changes
Pressure One x Volume One  =  Pressure Two x Volume Two in pressure and temperature, although it still remains
Temperature One Temperature Two a vapor, invisible to the naked eye. Water vapor or
P1V1 P2V2 steam at 50 psia pressure and 281°F temperature is
This is most commonly stated, T = T   . over 3 times as heavy as steam at 14.7 psia pressure
1 2

Although the "perfect gas" relationship is not exact, it and 212°F.

provides a basis for approximating the effect on a gas Refrigerant 22 vapor at 76 psig and at 45°F has a density
with a change in one of the three factors. In this relation- of 1.66 lb/ft3. At 150 psig and at 83°F, the refrigerants
ship, both pressure and temperature must be expressed density is 3.02 lb/ft3 or 1.82 times as heavy.
in absolute values, pressure in psia, and temperature in
degrees Rankine or degrees Fahrenheit above abso- PRESSURE AND FLUID HEAD
lute zero (°F plus 460°). Although not used in practical
refrigeration work, the perfect gas relation is valuable It is frequently necessary to know the pressure created
for scientific calculations and is helpful in understanding by a column of liquid, or possibly the pressure required
the performance of a refrigerant vapor. to force a column of refrigerant to flow a given vertical
distance upwards.
One of the problems of refrigeration is disposing of the
heat that has been absorbed during the cooling process. Densities are usually available in terms of pounds per
A practical solution is achieved by raising the pressure cubic foot, and it is convenient to visualize pressure in
of the vapor so that its saturation or condensing tem- terms of a cube of liquid one foot high, one foot wide,
perature will be sufficiently above the temperature of and one foot deep. Since the base of this cube is 144
the available cooling medium (air or water) to assure square inches, the average pressure in pounds per
efficient heat transfer. This will provide the ability of the square inch is the weight of the liquid per cubic foot di-
cooling medium to absorb heat from the refrigerant and vided by 144. For example, water weighs approximately
cool it below its boiling point (dew point). When the low 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, the pressure exerted by 1
pressure vapor with its low saturation temperature is foot of water is 62.4 ÷ 144 or .433 pounds per square
drawn into the cylinder of a compressor, the volume inch. Ten feet of water will exert a pressure of 10 X .433
of the gas is reduced by the stroke of the compressor or 4.33 pounds per square inch. The same relation of
piston. The vapor is discharged as a high pressure high height to pressure holds true, no matter what the area of
temperature vapor and is readily condensed because a vertical liquid column. The pressure exerted by other
of its high saturation temperature. liquids can be calculated in exactly the same manner if
the density is known.
If refrigerant R‑22’s pressure is raised to 195 psig, its
saturation temperature will be 100°F (37.8°C). If the The density of liquid refrigerant R‑22 at 45°F, 76 psig is
cooling medium’s temperature is lower than 100°F, heat 78.8 lb./ft3. The pressure exerted by one foot of liquid
will be extracted from the R‑22 and it will be condensed, R‑22 is 78.8 ÷ 144 or .55 psig. A column of liquid R‑22
converted back to a liquid. 10 feet high would then exert a pressure of 5.5 psig. At
100°F liquid temperature, the density is 71.2 lb./ft3. A
SPECIFIC VOLUME one foot column then exerts a pressure of .49 psig. A
ten foot column exerts a pressure of 4.9 psig.
Specific volume of a substance is defined as the number
of cubic feet occupied by one pound (ft3/lb). In the case Comparing other refrigerants at 45°F, R‑404A has a den-
of liquids and gases, it varies with the temperature and sity of 70.1 lb./ft3. It then exerts a pressure of .49 psig per
the pressure to which the fluid is subjected. Following foot of lift. R‑134a has a density of 79.3 lb./ft3, therefore
the perfect gas law, the volume of a gas varies with it exerts a pressure of .55 psig per foot of lift.
both temperature and pressure. The volume of a liquid
varies with temperature. Within the limits of practical re- Fluid head is a general term used to designate any kind
frigeration practice, it is regarded as non-compressible. of pressure exerted by a fluid that can be expressed
Specific volume is the reciprocal of density (lb/ft3). in terms of the height of a column of the given fluid.
Hence a pressure of 1 psi may be expressed as being
DENSITY equivalent to a head of 2.31 feet of water. (1 psi ÷ .433
psi/ft. of water). In air flow through ducts, very small
The density of a substance is defined as weight per pressures are encountered, and these are commonly

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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expressed in inches of water. 1 inch of water = .433 ÷ As fluid flows through tubing, the contact of the fluid and
12 = .036 psi. the walls of the tube create friction, therefore resistance
to flow. Valves, fittings, sharp bends in the tubing and
Table 1-2 other obstructions also create resistance to flow. The
Pressure Equivalents in Fluid Head basic design of the piping system and its installation
Pounds Per will determine the pressure required to obtain a given
Inches Inches Feet flow rate.
Square Inch
Mercury Water Water
In a closed system containing tubing through which a
.036 .07 1.0 .083 fluid is flowing, the pressure difference between two
.433 .90 12.0 1.0 given points will be determined by the velocity, viscosity,
and the density of fluid flowing. If the flow is increased,
.491 1.0 13.6 1.13 the pressure difference will increase since more friction
1.0 2.03 27.7 2.31 will be created by the increased velocity of the fluid.
14.7 29.92 408.0 34.0 This pressure difference is termed pressure loss or
pressure drop.
Since control of evaporating and condensing pressures
For a fluid to flow from one point to another, there must is critical in mechanical refrigeration work, pressure
be a difference in pressure between the two points. drop through connecting lines can greatly affect the
With no pressure difference, no flow will occur. Fluids performance of the system. Large pressure drops must
may be either liquids or vapors, and the flow of each is be avoided. When designing and installing refrigeration
important in refrigeration. and air conditioning system piping, pressure drop and
refrigerant velocity must be given serious consideration.
Fluid flow through pipes or tubing is governed by the Section 18 in this series of manuals discusses piping
pressure exerted on the fluid, the effect of gravity due and proper sizing and installation.
to the vertical rise or fall of the pipe, restrictions in the
pipe resisting flow, and the resistance of the fluid itself EFFECT OF FLUID FLOW ON HEAT TRANSFER
to flow. For example, as a faucet is opened, the flow
increases even though the pressure in the water main is Heat transfer from a fluid through a tube wall or through
constant and the outlet of the faucet has no restriction. metal fins is greatly affected by the action of the fluid
Obviously the restriction of the valve is affecting the in contact with the metal surface. As a rule, the greater
rate of flow. Water flows more freely than molasses due the velocity of flow and the more turbulent the flow, the
to a property of fluids called viscosity which describes greater will be the rate of heat transfer. Rapid boiling of
the fluid's resistance to flow. In oils, the viscosity can an evaporating liquid will also increase the rate of heat
be affected by temperatures, and as the temperature transfer. Quiet liquid flow (laminar flow) on the other
decreases the viscosity increases. hand, tends to allow an insulating film to form on the
metal surface that resists heat flow, and reduces the
rate of heat transfer.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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Section 2

Large quantities of heat can be absorbed by a substance MIXTURE AND BLEND

through an increase in sensible heat involving either a
large temperature difference between the cooling media Technically, there is no difference in the terms mixture
and the product being cooled or a large quantity (weight) and blend. They include any fluids which are composed
of the cooling media. When the cooling media is involved of more than one component (i.e., more than one type
in a change of state, latent heat, a smaller amount of of molecule). Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures (ARMs),
the cooling media is needed to absorb an equivalent Near-ARMs, and zeotropes (each is discussed below)
large quantity of heat. (Refer to Section 1.) are subsets of the larger group consisting of blends
and mixtures.
In mechanical refrigeration, a process is required that
can transfer large quantities of heat economically and The following definitions apply to dual component mix-
efficiently on a continuous basis. The processes of tures, but three (“ternary”) or more component mixtures
evaporation and condensing of a liquid are the logical have similar but more complicated characteristics. From
steps in the refrigeration process. a thermodynamic working fluid point of view, the number
of components in the fluid has little or no effect.
Many liquids could be used for absorbing heat through
the evaporation process. Water is ideal in many re- AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURE
spects. Unfortunately it boils at temperatures too high
for ordinary cooling purposes. It freezes at temperatures An azeotropic refrigerant mixture (ARM) is a multi-com-
too high for low temperature conditions. A refrigerant ponent which at the azeotropic point does not change
must satisfy three main requirements: composition when it evaporates or condenses since
both components have exactly the same boiling tem-
1. It must readily absorb heat and change state to a perature at that composition and pressure. It is made up
vapor at the temperature required by the load. of two or more types of molecules. In actuality, an ARM
only exhibits such behavior at one temperature and
2. It must readily reject heat and be returned to a liquid pressure. Deviations from this behavior at other pres-
at a temperature required by the external cooling sures are very slight and essentially undetectable.
media, water or air.
ARMs are fairly complex mixtures whose properties
3. For economy and continuous cooling, the system depend upon molecular interactions which may result
must use the same refrigerant over and over from polarity differences. They can be either minimum or
again. maximum boiling point ARM’s. Even more complicated
behavior can occur with ARMs. However, factors such
There is no perfect refrigerant for all applications. There as these are relatively unimportant when considering
are varying opinions as to which refrigerant is best for their performance in a system. The most important fac-
a specific application. tor is that they essentially behave as a pure substance
when changing phase.
Examples of how minimum and maximum boiling point
The following definitions primarily deal with the way ARMs behave at their azeotropic and zeotropic compo-
the described materials behave as a working fluid in a sition ratios at constant pressure are shown in Figures
thermodynamic system. There may be more specific 2-1 and 2-2. These figures show the “Dew Line” (the
or technically complete definitions which deal with the temperature at which droplets appears as superheated
chemistry, transport properties, or other aspects of these vapor is cooled) and “Bubble Line” (the temperature at
materials’ composition or behavior which are unimport- which bubbles first appear as subcooled liquid is heated)
ant in the present context. for mixtures at various fluid temperature and concentra-
PURE FLUID tions for one pressure value. At concentrations values
away from the azeotropic value, the components (“A”
A pure fluid is a single component fluid which does and “B”) have different boiling temperature, and the liq-
not change composition when boiling or condens- uid and vapor phases change percentage composition
ing. A pure fluid is made up of one type of molecule. as the mixture evaporates or condenses.
Examples: R‑11, R‑12, R‑22, R‑134a.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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position when the fluid evaporates or condenses. It is
made of two or more types of molecules. Under constant
pressure, the evaporating and condensing temperatures
change with composition. (See Figure 2-3.) This change
in temperature during constant pressure phase change
is called glide, and varies with the components used and
their proportions. (See Temperature Glide.) The amount
of glide exhibited by a particular zeotrope is a measure
of its deviation from being an azeotrope. By definition,
azeotropes have zero glide at their azeotropic point. At
other conditions, however, they can exhibit glide.

Figure 2-1

Figure 2-3
R‑401A is a mixture of R‑22, R‑152a, and R‑124 which
closely approximates the vapor pressure and perfor-
mance of R‑12. (R‑401A is considered to be a Near
Figure 2-2
Azeotropic mixture.)
R‑502, an azeotrope of 48.8% R‑22 and 51.2% R‑115
at +66°F, has lower discharge temperatures than does A Near-ARM is a zeotropic fluid whose composition is
R‑22 for high compression ratio applications. such that it exhibits a “small” amount of glide. Thus,
“near-azeotropic” is a relative term. (See Figure 2-4.)
R‑500, an azeotrope of 73.8% R‑12 and 26.2% R‑152a Some researchers use a maximum glide temperature
at +32°F, has approximately 15% more capacity than value of 10°F to distinguish Near-ARMs from zeo-
pure R‑12 and was used to compensate for the capac- tropes.
ity reduction arising from using a 60 Hz. R‑12 system
on 50 Hz. R‑404A is a ternary mixture which closely approximates
the vapor pressure and performance characteristics of
R‑507, a non-ozone depleting azeotrope at -40°F is R‑502. R‑402A is a mixture of R‑22, R‑125, and R‑290
50% R‑125 and 50% R‑143a. It is an HFC replacement (propane) which closely approximates the vapor pres-
for R‑502. sure and performance characteristics of R‑502.


A zeotrope is a working fluid with two or more com- HOW ARE COMPONENTS CHOSEN?
ponents of different vapor pressure and boiling points
whose liquid and vapor components have different com- Components are primarily chosen based on the final
characteristics desired in the mixture. These character-

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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The percentage of an ARM will be virtually the same in
the saturated region where both liquid and vapor are
in contact with each other, except at the Azeotropic
composition point (See Figures 2-1 and 2-2). At this
point its liquid and vapor components will have the same
boiling point. At this condition each component has the
same boiling point and each vaporizes in proportion to
the amount present in the liquid phase. The resulting
vapor is the same composition as the liquid. The same
is true for the reverse (condensing) process. At other
conditions, however, the percentage composition of
liquid and vapor phases will be slightly different.
Figure 2-4 ZEOTROPE
istics could include vapor pressure, transport properties, The percentage composition of a zeotropic mixture
lubricant and materials compatibility, thermodynamic may be substantially different in the saturated mode
performance, cost, flammability, toxicity, stability, and when liquid and vapor are in contact with each other.
environmental properties. Availability of components to This is because there is no unique boiling point for
a particular chemical manufacturer may also be a factor each component, and they will not vaporize at the rates
in component selection. proportional to their composition in the liquid state. The
Proportions of components are chosen based on the higher vapor pressure component (with the lower boiling
exact characteristics desired in the final product. It is point) will vaporize faster than the lower vapor pressure
possible to modify the percentage composition and component (with the higher boiling point), and result in
alter such parameters as capacity, efficiency, discharge percentage composition changes in both the liquid and
temperature, vapor pressure, etc. Of course, changing vapor phases as vaporization progresses. The higher
one parameter will likely change others as well. There vapor pressure component will be in higher composi-
must also be a need to balance proportions to guarantee tion in the vapor phase above the liquid. This process
that a given mixture cannot become flammable, toxic, is called “fractionation.”
or environmentally undesirable under any foreseeable
Near-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures
circumstance, such as leakage.
The percentage composition of the liquid and vapor
In many cases, there are computer programs which can
phases of a Near-ARM will be nearly identical, due to the
use the properties of the individual components and cal-
very similar vapor pressure values of each component.
culate the resulting mixture properties and performance
Thus, a Near-ARM behaves essentially the same as an
with a fairly high degree of accuracy.
ARM from this standpoint.
When an azeotropic or zeotropic mixture is entirely in DURING SYSTEM CHARGING?
the vapor state (i.e., no liquid is present in the container)
the composition is totally mixed and all properties are Depending on how system charging is performed (i.e.
uniform throughout. with vapor or liquid being removed from the cylinder), the
refrigerant may change phase in the cylinder. Since pure
When that same mixture is entirely in the liquid state fluids and ARMs (except as discussed in a previous sec-
(i.e., no vapor present in the container), like the 100% tion) do not change composition with changes in phase,
vapor state, the composition is totally mixed and all there is no change in composition with these materials
properties are uniform throughout. during system charging with vapor or liquid. On the other
hand vapor charging with a zeotropic mixture can result
In a partially full sealed container of a refrigerant mix- in significant composition changes due to fractionation
ture, the composition of the vapor and liquid phases of the components as discussed earlier.
can be different. The degree of difference depends
upon whether the mixture is an azeotrope, zeotrope, If an entire cylinder of refrigerant is used to charge a
or near azeotrope. system, then the composition change process has no
effect since the entire contents of the cylinder will go

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
into the system. However, if only part of a cylinder of is the temperature at which bubbles (flash gas) begin to
a zeotropic refrigerant is vapor charged into a system, appear. The vapor is rich with the high vapor pressure
the vapor composition can change substantially during component. As the temperature increases, more and
the process. As a result, only liquid charging (i.e., what more of the high vapor pressure component vaporizes,
leaves the cylinder) should be used for zeotropes un- reducing its component in the liquid phase. At the same
less the entire cylinder is to be used for one system. time, the lower vapor pressure component eventually
Of course, proper protection against liquid ingestion by reaches its boiling point and begins to vaporize. Finally,
the compressor must be provided. This could be in the the high vapor pressure component is fully evaporated.
form of an accumulator-type device which allows the All that is left is the low vapor pressure component
liquid to boil and enter the compressor as a vapor or and when the last drop evaporates, the “Dew Point”
meters small amounts of liquid into the suction side of temperature is established. This is the temperature at
the system. Another choice is the “Dial-a-Charge” type which liquid begins to appear when the zeotropic vapor
of charging system, which takes a measured amount is cooled. The difference between the dew point and the
of liquid from the cylinder and puts all of it into the sys- bubble point temperature is known as “temperature
tem being sure that it goes into the suction side of the glide.” It varies with percentage composition of the
compressor as a vapor. components as well as pressure.
Since Near-ARMs are actually zeotropes, they also
result in composition changes during charging, but
to a much smaller extent than occurs with zeotropes.
When charging Near-ARM refrigerants, liquid (from the
cylinder) should be used to avoid composition changes
(unless the entire contents is going into the system).
The last few percent of the contents of a cylinder should
not be used as this is when composition changes can
be the greatest.
Guidelines for charging procedures and how much
of cylinder’s refrigerant to use during charging will be
provided by the refrigerant manufacturers.
Azeotropes, as described above behave as a pure
material during boiling and condensing, and do not ap-
preciably change percentage composition.
Figure 2-5
Zeotropes, on the other hand, do not behave as a pure
material during boiling and condensing, and the percent- The practical effect of glide in heat exchangers is that as
age composition of the liquid and vapor phases can the refrigerant mixture flows through the tubing at con-
be different. This characteristic can have a significant stant pressure, the evaporating (or boiling) temperature
effect on the composition of the refrigerant left in the will change as the composition of the liquid and vapor
system after a leak in the vapor-containing region of a phase change. Thus, a constant evaporating tempera-
system, and to the subsequent composition after the ture does not occur, even with constant pressure.
lost refrigerant had been replaced.
The amount of glide varies with the pressure and
The magnitude of this effect depends strongly upon how percentage composition of each component present
much the mixture departs from being an ARM. in the mixture. Glide can vary from an imperceptible
amount with a Near-ARM to ten or more degrees F with
Leakage scenarios are discussed later. a zeotrope. Many researchers consider a Near-ARM to
have glide less than ten degrees F. The glide of many
TEMPERATURE GLIDE mixtures is given in Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Changeover Guidelines and TIP card/PT chart.
Figure 2-5 shows how a zeotropic two-component
mixture behaves during change of phase at various In any heat exchanger, flow of refrigerant through the
concentrations for a constant pressure. As subcooled tubing results in a pressure drop from the entrance to
liquid is heated, the higher vapor pressure component the exit. Consequently, since the pressure at which
eventually reaches its boiling point and begins to form the phase change is occurring is decreasing along the
vapor. This condition is called the “Bubble Point,” and length of the heat exchanger, the evaporating or con-

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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densing temperature will decrease as the saturated re- rate. If a leak occurs in a portion of an operating system
frigerant moves through the heat exchanger. Of course, where only liquid (such as in the liquid line) is present,
the amount of change in evaporating or condensing the composition will not change since the percentage
temperature depends upon the magnitude of the pres- composition of the liquid is identical to the mixture and
sure drop, but it can be several degrees. The change in each component will leak at the same rate.
evaporating and condensing temperature which occurs
with today’s pure fluids in many systems is similar to However, if a leak occurs in a portion of an operating
that which occurs with Near-ARMs due to glide as they system where both liquid and vapor exist simultaneously
pass through the heat exchanger. (such as in the evaporator or condenser), “fractionation”
(unequal evaporation or condensing of the refrigerant
in a change in percentage composition between liquid
and vapor phase as discussed previously) will occur and
there can be a change in percentage composition of the
refrigerant left in the system. For example, if a leak oc-
curs in the two-phase potion of the evaporator and only
vapor leaks out, the vapor will be richer in the higher
vapor pressure component, resulting in a change in the
percentage composition of the remaining refrigerant in
the system. If the system is recharged with the original
composition, the mixture in the system can never get
back to the original composition, and system perfor-
mance (such as capacity or efficiency) may change to
some degree. Repeated leak and recharge cycles will
result in additional change. However, in most operating
systems where two phases are present, turbulent mixing
occurs and liquid will leak along with the vapor which
minimizes the effect the vapor leakage effect
Figure 2-6
It is important to keep in mind that to have a change
A schematic example of how glide with a zeotrope af- in composition in an operating system, the leak must
fects temperatures in an evaporator and condenser occur in a portion of the system where both liquid and
in a system is shown in Figure 2-6. As a result of the vapor phases exist simultaneously, and only vapor
composition change as the refrigerant flows through leaks out.
the heat exchangers, the evaporating and condensing
temperatures decrease. Of course, with Near-ARMs While a system is off, there will be parts of the system
the temperature change is very slight and probably where pure vapor exists and parts where pure liquid
undetectable. exists, and these locations can change with varying
environmental conditions. Since the composition of the
As a practical matter, the pressure drop in the evapora- liquid and vapor phases will be different for a zeotrope
tor tends to counteract the temperature glide being less in liquid-vapor equilibrium (as discussed previously), a
than would be expected at constant pressure conditions. leak in the area where vapor alone is present can result
The effects are additive in the condenser. in a composition change in the system. Such a leak
could be significant during the long wintertime off cycle
WHAT HAPPENS TO REFRIGERANT of an air conditioning system, or during long periods of
COMPOSITION DURING A LEAK? non-use for any system.
In a single component refrigerant there is no change in The effect of such leaks with Near-Azeotropes is
percentage composition of the refrigerant. In an azeo- much less due to the fact that the percentage compo-
tropic mixture there is virtually no change in percentage sition difference between the liquid and vapor phases
composition of the refrigerant. is very small. Theoretical leakage effect calculations
(verified by initial laboratory testing) with Near-ARMs
If a leak occurs in a zeotropic mixture in a portion of an
are undetectable, even with several repeated leak and
operating system where only vapor is present (such
recharge cycles.
as at the compressor discharge or suction line), the
system’s refrigerant composition will not change since TYPES OF REFRIGERANT
the percentage composition of the vapor is identical to
the mixture and each component will leak at the same There are many different types of refrigerants avail-

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

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able. Several have been in common use for a number temperature applications. R‑407C and R‑410A are the
of years. In the United States, because of the Clean HFC replacements for R‑22 for use in high temperature
Air Act of 1990 amended, the common refrigerants are air conditioning applications. R‑410A is a high pressure
changing. The Montreal Protocol also effects the com- refrigerant and is not a retrofit refrigerant for R‑22.
mon usage refrigerants in many parts of the world. These HFC refrigerants are similar to the CFC and
HCFC refrigerants, however, they are not identical with
In early refrigeration applications, ammonia, sulfur diox- respect to pressures, temperatures and enthalpy.
ide, methyl chloride, propane, and ethane were widely
used. Some of these are still used today. Because these Service Refrigerants
products are either toxic, dangerous, or have other
undesirable characteristics, they have been replaced The Clean Air Act of 1990 Amended prohibits the
by compounds developed especially for refrigeration manufacture or import of CFC refrigerants into the
use. Specialized refrigerants are used for ultra-low United States after December 31, 1995. In order to
temperature work, and in large centrifugal compressors. maintain those systems already in operation using these
For normal commercial refrigeration and air condition- refrigerants, the chemical companies have developed
ing applications utilizing reciprocating compressors, service replacement refrigerant blends. These blends
refrigerants R‑12, R‑22, and R‑502 have been used are an HCFC. They use R‑22 as the base refrigerant
almost exclusively. These were developed originally by and blend other refrigerants with it to achieve a desir-
DuPont as Freon® refrigerants. The ASHRAE numerical able property.
designations are now standard with all manufacturers
of refrigerants It is desirable to have a service replacement that looks
very much like the CFC refrigerant in the system.
These refrigerants use chlorine as one of the elements However, they cannot be mixed with the CFC refriger-
in their composition. The scientific community has de- ant. CFC refrigerant in the system must be properly
termined that chlorine reaching the upper atmosphere recovered before the replacement HCFC refrigerant is
causes a reduction in the upper atmospheric Ozone put into the system.
(O3). R‑12 and R‑502 are classified as ChloroFluoro-
Carbons (CFCs) and are being phased out in favor of R‑401A/B and R‑409A are service replacements for
non Ozone depleting refrigerants. R‑22 is classified as R‑12. R‑402A and R‑408A are service replacements
a HydroChloroFluoroCarbon (HCFC). the hydrogen for R‑502.
molecule allows the chlorine to break down lower in the NOTE: Not all service replacement refrigerants are
atmosphere reducing its Ozone Depletion Potential. approved for use in Copeland® brand compres-
The replacement refrigerants are referred to as Hy- sors.
droFluoroCarbons (HFCs). These refrigerants do not
Refrigerants Solubility of Water
contain chlorine. R‑134a is the HFC replacement for
medium temperature R‑12 applications. It is not rec- Table 2-1 lists several comparative properties of refriger-
ommended for use in application at saturated suction ants including the Solubility of Water in different refriger-
temperatures below -10°F. R‑404A and R‑507 are the ants at two different temperatures. We would consider
HFC replacement for R‑502 for use in medium & low the 100°F point to be liquid refrigerant entering the TEV

Table 2-1
Comparative Properties of Several Refrigerants

R-12 R-401A R-401B R-409A R-134a R-22 R-407C R-410A R-502 R-402A R-408A R-404A R-507

  Saturation Pressure,
  psig at 70°F 70.2 85.8* 91.9* 106.1* 71.2 121.4 114.9* 200.6* 137.6 160.4* 135.1* 147.5* 153.6

  Boiling Point, °F, at

  14.7 psia (Standard
  Atmospheric Pressure) -21.6 -27.3** -30.41** -29.6** -14.9 -41.4 -46.4** -69.9** -49.8 -56.5** -46.7** -51.6** -52.1

  Liquid Density, lb./ft3

  at 70°F 82.7 75.4 75.2 77.06 76.2 75.5 71.8 67.6 78.6 72.2 80.9 66.5 66.5

  Solubility of Water,
  PPM at 100°F 165 NA NA 1600 1900 1800 NA 2850 740 NA 900 970 970

  Solubility of Water,
  PPM at -40°F 1.7 NA NA 190 NA 120 NA 90 12 NA 100 100 100
NA - Not Available * Dew Point Pressure ** Bubble Point Temperatures

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Table 2-2
Comparative Refrigeration Effect

R-12 R-401A R-401B R-409A R-134a R-22 R-407C R-410A R-502 R-402A R-408A R-404A R-507

  Evaporating Pressure,
  psig 0.6 2.9 *0.8 *1.9 *3.7 10.2 6.2 26.3 15.5 18.1 13.4 16.3 17.8

  Condensing Pressure
  psig 136 166.1 176.3 140.6 146.5 226 256.6 365.4 246 289.3 252.1 270.3 280.6

  Compression Ratio 9.9 10.3 13.4 11.3 12.5 9.7 13 9.3 8.6 9.3 9.5 9.2 9.1

  Specific Volume of
  Return Gas, ft3/lb 3.03 3.7 4.2 4.1 5.7 2.53 1.6 1.5 1.66 1.4 2.1 1.79 1.69

  Refrigeration Effect
  BTU/lb 53.7 71.7 72.1 68.6 69.5 73.03 70.7 77.3 48.72 51 62 51.8 53.7

* In/Hg
(Data shown at -20°F evaporating temperature, 110°F condensing temperature, 0°F liquid subcooling, 65°F return gas temperature.)
Not all of the refrigerants are recommended at this conditions.

and the -40°F point to be saturated refrigerant in the Each refrigerant has different suction and discharge
evaporator. The concern of the technician should be how pressures for the same operating conditions. This
much water can the refrigerant hold before it becomes should be expected in that each refrigerant is made up
free water and causes problems. Ideally there should not of different chemicals. It is interesting however that the
be any moisture in the refrigerant in the system. Proper compression ratio for the refrigerants is not that dis-
installation and service techniques should assure that similar. The highest is R‑401B, 13.4:1, and the lowest
the system is clean and dry. This includes the proper is R‑502, 8.6:1.
use of a vacuum pump and micron gage.
The Specific Volume (ft3/lb.) of the return gas varies
The table lists the solubility in PPM (parts per million significantly, with the medium pressure refrigerants
by weight). PPM may be a meaningless number to the having the largest Specific Volume, the lowest Density.
average technician and installer so let’s equate it to This equates to a fewer number of pounds of refrigerant
something more understandable. Filter dryers are rated being circulated through the compressor per revolution
in drops of water before they become saturated and of the compressor motor. The Refrigeration Effect is the
can no longer hold any additional water. ARI (The Air pounds of refrigerant in circulation times the refrigerants
Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute) standard is that Enthalpy.
20 drops of water equals 1 cc or 1 gram by weight.
Table 2-1 lists R‑22 at 100°F having a solubility of 1800 Table 2-3
PPM. This simply means that R‑22 liquid at 100°F can Refrigerant/Lubricant Chart
hold up to 11 drops of water per pound before there   Conventional Service Blends (HCFC) Non-Ozone
is free water. In an Air Conditioning system, when the   Refrigerants Depleting (HFC)
refrigerants temperature is lowered to +40°F, the solu-
bility drops to 690 PPM (Not shown in Table 2-1.). This
equates to 6 drops of water before there is free water. In   CFC R-12 R-401A R-134a
an Air Conditioning system, the free water will not freeze R-401B
but may cause other chemical reaction damage.
  CFC R-502 R-402A R-404A
When the refrigerant goes through the TEV and its R-048A R-507A
temperature is lowered to -40°F, the solubility drops to   HCFC R-22 R-407C
120 PPM. This now equates to one drop of water per R-410A
pound of refrigerant. Once there is more than one drop
of water per pound at -40°F, there is free water in the
system and the TEV will freeze closed.   MO AB POE
Comparative Refrigeration Effect POE/MO*

Table 2-2 lists comparative data for different refrigerants. *AB or POE must be at least 50% of the system lubricant.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Again note that each refrigerant has its own Refrigera- REFRIGERANT R‑401A/B
tion Effect. The Density of each refrigerant is different
as is the Enthalpy of each refrigerant different. Note that Refrigerants R‑401A and R‑401B are zeotropic HCFC
the service blends have a higher Refrigeration Effect blends. They are the service replacements for R‑12
than their CFC counter parts. It is for this reason that These refrigerants are a blend of R‑22, R‑124 and
many systems using the service blends do not need as R‑152a. The difference between the two is the percent-
much refrigerant in circulation as they did with the CFCs age of each refrigerant in the blend. (R‑401A, 53%
that were removed. R‑22, 13% R‑152a, 34% R‑124) (R‑401B, 61% R‑22,
11% R‑152a, 28% R‑124) R‑401A is the high and me-
Each chemical company can provide the information dium temperature service replacement for R‑12 and
for the refrigerants they manufacture. The form of the R‑401B is the low temperature service replacement.
information may be in print per the examples shown at
the end of this section in Figures 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 or Because these refrigerants are not as miscible with
may be on a computer disc. mineral oil in the vapor state, Emerson Climate Tech-
nologies, Inc. recommends an approved Alkyl Benzene
Refrigerants and Lubricants (AB) lubricant be used with R‑401A/B. The AB lubricant
must be at least 50% of the lubricant in the system.
Table 2-3 is a cross reference of the various refrigerants
as one goes from the Conventional Refrigerants, to the The Ozone Depletion Factor of R‑401 A/B is 0.030
Service Blends, to the Non Ozone Depleting Refriger- and 0.035 respectively. The glide is 9.5°F and 8.8°F
ants. It also lists the types of lubricants recommended respectively. The Enthalpy of these blends is ap-
for use with each category. A description of each refrig- proximately 25% greater than R‑12, and as such, the
erant and its application follows. system charge may be as much as 15% less than the
R‑12 charge. The systems pressure will be higher than
Because the mineral oil (MO) used for so many years in the R‑12 pressures and the discharge temperature will
air conditioning and refrigeration systems has miscibility be lower. Even though the system may require less
issues with the service blends and HFC refrigerants, the refrigerant than the original refrigerant charge, systems
proper lubricant approved by Emerson Climate Tech- using a TEV must be recharged to insure a full column
nologies, Inc. must be used with each type of refriger- of liquid at the TEV.
ant. (Refer to Application Engineering Bulletin 17-1248,
Refrigerant Oils.) Later in this section the refrigerant-oil REFRIGERANT R‑409A
relationship is discussed.
Like refrigerants R‑401A/B, refrigerant R‑409A is a zeo-
REFRIGERANTS tropic HCFC blend. It is considered to be a medium/low
temperature Service Replacement refrigerant for R‑12.
Refrigerant 12 It is a blend of R‑22, R‑124 and R‑142b. The glide for
R‑409A is 14°F. Because it is less miscible in mineral
Refrigerant 12 is a pure fluid and is categorized as a oil, an approved AB lubricant must be used. The AB
ChloroFluoroCarbon (CFC). It has been widely used in lubricant must be at least 50% or more of the lubricant
household and commercial refrigeration and air con- in the system. The pressures and temperatures in the
ditioning. At temperatures below its boiling point it is a system will be different than when using R‑12.
clear, almost colorless liquid. It is not toxic or irritating,
and is suitable for high, medium, and low temperature REFRIGERANT 134a
applications. Refrigerant 12 has been determined to
cause the depletion of the upper atmosphere Ozone (O3) Refrigerant R‑134a is a pure fluid and is categorized
layer when it reaches the upper atmosphere. It has been as an HydroFluoroCarbon (HFC). It is the medium and
assigned an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of 1. All high temperature replacement for R‑12. Like R‑12, at
other refrigerants ODP is measured against R‑12. R‑12 temperatures below its boiling point, it is a clear color-
primary ingredients are chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. less liquid. Its basic chemical components are Hydro-
The chlorine has been determined to cause the ozone gen, Fluorine, and Carbon. With the chlorine element
depletion. New R‑12 cannot be produced or brought removed, its Ozone depletion factor is 0. Unlike R‑12,
into the United States after December 31, 1995. The R‑134a is not recommended for use in systems where
result should cause the use of this refrigerant to diminish the saturated suction temperature is below -10°F. The
quickly after that date. saturated suction pressure of R‑134a compared to R‑12
is similar. The discharge pressure will be higher there-
fore the compressors compression ratio will be greater.
Compressor displacements for R‑134a will be similar to

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
those for R‑12. Unlike R‑12, it is not miscible in mineral has been the refrigerant of choice for all single stage
oil. R‑134a requires the lubricant in the compressor/sys- applications where the evaporating temperature is 0°F
tem be an approved Polyol Ester (POE). R‑134a is a or below. It has also been very satisfactory for use in two
single element compound. (Refer to Emerson Climate stage systems for ultra low temperature applications.
Technologies, Inc. Application Engineering Bulletins for It gained popularity for use in the medium temperature
the listing of approved lubricants.) range.

REFRIGERANT 22 Like refrigerant R 12, R‑502 is considered to be a CFC.

The R‑115 used to make the azeotropic blend is a CFC.
Refrigerant 22 in most of its physical characteristics is It is this component that makes R‑502 a CFC. Like
similar to R‑12. However, it has much higher saturation R‑12, its production and import into the United States
pressures than R‑12 for equivalent temperatures. It has is banned after December 31, 1995. Its Ozone Deple-
a much greater latent heat of evaporation, and a lower tion Factor is 0.3.
specific volume. For a given volume of saturated refrig-
erant vapor, R‑22 has greater refrigerating capacity. This REFRIGERANT R‑402A
allows the use of smaller compressor displacements,
resulting in smaller compressors for performance com- Like refrigerants R‑401A/B, R‑402A is a Zeotropic HCFC
parable with R‑12. Where size and economy are critical blend. It is considered to be a Service Replacement
factors, such as package air conditioning units, R‑22 is refrigerant for R‑502. It is a blend of R‑22, R‑125, and
widely used. R‑22 is categorized as an HCFC. Its com- R‑290. Its enthalpy is similar to R‑502 therefore the
ponents are hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. system charge will be the same. The glide for R‑402A
Because it contains chlorine, it has an Ozone Depletion is 2.8°F. AB lubricant is recommended for use with this
Factor of .05 and it will ultimately be phased out under refrigerant and must be at least 50% or more of the
the rules of the Clean Air Act of 1990 Amended. lubricant in the system. The system pressures will be
higher than with R‑502, however the discharge tem-
Because of its characteristics at low evaporating tem- perature will be lower.
peratures and it’s high compression ratios, the tempera-
ture of the compressed R‑22 vapor becomes so high REFRIGERANT R‑408A
it can cause damage to the compressor. In the past,
Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. recommended Refrigerant R‑408A is a zeotropic Service Replace-
R‑22 in single stage systems for high and medium tem- ment HCFC blend alternative for R‑502A. It is a blend
perature applications only. It can however be used in of R‑22, R‑125 and R‑143A. Its enthalpy is similar to
low temperature single stage systems only when using R‑502 therefore the systems charge will be the same.
Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. patented Demand The glide for R‑408A is 1.0°F. Because it is less miscible
Cooling® system or some method of de-superheating in mineral oil, it is recommended that an AB lubricant be
before the refrigerant is compressed. It can also be used. The AB lubricant must be at least 50% or more
used in low temperature and ultra-low applications in of the lubricant in the system. The systems pressures
multi-stage systems where the vapor temperature can and temperatures will be different.
be adequately controlled. R‑22 is a single element
Refrigerant R‑404A is a zeotropic blend of three refrig-
REFRIGERANT 502 erants and is one of two refrigerants considered to be
Refrigerant 502 is an azeotropic mixture of R‑22 and the HFC replacement for R‑502. The three refrigerants
R‑115. Its azeotropic rating point is at +66°F. In most are R‑125, R‑143a, and R‑134a. R‑404A has an Ozone
physical characteristics, R‑502 is similar to R‑12 and Depletion Factor of 0. Like R‑502, it is an excellent re-
R‑22. While its latent heat of evaporation is not as high frigerant for low and medium temperature applications. It
as either R‑12 or R‑22, its vapor is much heavier, or to has performance characteristics similar to R‑502 except
describe it differently, its specific volume is much less. that it is not miscible with mineral oil. Like R‑134a, an ap-
For a given compressor displacement, its refrigerat- proved POE lubricants must be used with R‑404A. The
ing capacity is comparable to that of R‑22, and at low system must have less than 5% residual mineral oil.
temperatures is a little greater. As with R‑22, a com- The saturated suction pressures will be similar to R‑502.
pressor with a smaller displacement may be used for The discharge pressures will however be higher than
performance equivalent to R‑12. Because of its excellent R‑502. The compressors discharge temperature will
low temperature characteristics, R‑502 has been well be lower when using R‑404A as compared to R‑502.
suited for low temperature refrigeration applications. It Because R‑404A is a zeotrope, the three refrigerants

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
that make up it composition do not boil at the same system from outside of the refrigerant system. This oc-
temperature at a specific pressure. Its glide is 0.8°F. curs because the refrigerants temperature decreased.
Boiling will continue until the surrounding temperature
REFRIGERANT 507 is reduced to the saturation temperature of the refriger-
ant, or until the pressure in the system again rises to
Refrigerant R‑507 is another HFC replacement for the equivalent saturation pressure of the surrounding
R‑502. Like R‑404A, it has an Ozone Depletion Factor temperature. If a means, a compressor, is provided to re-
of 0. This refrigerant is an azeotropic blend made up move the refrigerant vapor so that the system pressure
of R‑125 and R‑143a. At its azeotropic rating point it is will not increase, and at the same time liquid refrigerant
a true azeotrope. Like R‑404A, R‑507 is not miscible is fed into the system, continuous refrigeration will take
in mineral oil and an approved POE lubricant must be place. This is the process that occurs in a refrigeration
used when the system is using R‑507. or air conditioning system evaporator.
R‑507 saturated suction pressures will be similar to REFRIGERANT CONDENSATION
R‑502, however its discharge pressures will be higher
than R‑502. The discharge temperature will be a little Presume the refrigerant is enclosed in a refrigeration
lower than R‑502. system and its temperature is equalized with the sur-
rounding temperature. If hot refrigerant vapor is pumped
REFRIGERANT SATURATION TEMPERATURE into the system, the pressure in the refrigeration system
At normal room temperatures, the above refrigerants will be increased and its saturation temperature, boiling
can exist only as a vapor unless they are pressurized. point, will be raised.
Their boiling points at atmospheric pressure are below Heat will be transferred from the incoming hot vapor
0°F (See Table 2-1). Therefore, refrigerants are always to the refrigerant liquid and the walls of the system.
stored and transported in special pressure resistant The temperature of the refrigerant vapor will fall to its
drums. As long as both liquid and vapor are present condensing, saturation temperature, and condensa-
in a closed system, and there is no external pressure tion will begin. Heat from the refrigerants latent heat of
influence, the refrigerant will evaporate or condense as condensation flows from the system to the surrounding
a function of the surrounding temperature. Evaporation temperature until the pressure in the system is lowered
or condensation will continue until the saturation pres- to the equivalent of the saturation pressure of the sur-
sure and temperature corresponding to the surrounding rounding temperature. If a means, the compressor, is
temperature is reached. When this occurs, heat transfer provided to maintain a supply of hot, high pressure re-
will no longer take place. A decrease in the surrounding frigerant vapor, while at the same time liquid refrigerant
temperature will allow heat to flow out of the refrigerant. is drawn off, continuous condensation will take place.
This will cause the refrigerant to condense and lower the This is the process taking place in a refrigeration and
pressure. An increase in the surrounding temperature air conditioning system condenser.
will cause heat to flow into the refrigerant. This will cause
the refrigerant to evaporate, and raise the pressure. REFRIGERANT-OIL RELATIONSHIPS
Understanding this principle, and by knowing the In reciprocating and scroll compressors, refrigerant and
surrounding temperature, the refrigerants saturation lubricant mix continuously. Refrigerant gases are soluble
pressure is known. Conversely, knowing the refriger- in the lubricant at most temperatures and pressures. The
ants saturation pressure, the refrigerants temperature liquid refrigerant and the lubricant can be completely
is known. miscible, existing as a single phase mixture. Separa-
tion of the lubricant and liquid refrigerant into separate
REFRIGERANT EVAPORATION layers, two phases, can occur. This generally occurs
Presume the refrigerant is enclosed in a refrigeration over a specific range of temperature and composition.
system and it’s temperature is equalized with the sur- This separation occurs at low temperatures, during
rounding temperature. If the pressure in the refrigera- off-cycles. It occurs in the compressor sump and other
tion system is lowered, the saturation temperature (the places such as accumulators, receivers and oil separa-
boiling point) will be lowered. The temperature of the tors. In the two phase state, the denser liquid refrigerant
liquid refrigerant is now above its boiling point. It will is underneath the less dense lubricant. This separation
immediately start to boil absorbing heat. In the process, does not necessarily affect the lubricating ability of the
the temperature of the remaining liquid will be reduced. lubricant but it may create problems in properly supply-
Vapor (flash gas) will occur as the change of state ing lubricant to the working parts. Those compressors
takes place. Heat will now flow into the refrigeration with oil pumps have their pickup low in the crankcase.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
This will not allow the less dense lubricant to be picked Since oil must pass through the compressor cylinders
up when the mixture is in the two phase state. Accumu- to provide lubrication, a small amount of lubricant is
lators, receivers and oil separators also pick up liquid always in circulation with the refrigerant. Lubricant and
low in the component. The location and size of the oil refrigerant vapor do not mix readily. The lubricant can
pick up hole is critical. It is imperative that the lubricant be properly circulated through the system only if vapor
return to the compressor is not delayed. The industry velocities are high enough to carry the lubricant along.
has had a successful experience with R‑12, R‑22 and If velocities are not sufficiently high, lubricant will tend to
R‑502 refrigerants and mineral oils. The experience lie on the bottom of refrigeration tubing, decreasing heat
with POEs and HFCs has not been as extensive but transfer and possibly causing a shortage of lubricant in
has been very successful. the compressor. As evaporating temperatures are low-
ered, this problem increases. For these reasons, proper
The new chlorine-free HFC refrigerants are more polar design of piping is essential for satisfactory lubricant
than the current CFC/HCFC refrigerants. The result is return. (See Section 18, AE-104)
that mineral oils are not miscible with the HFC refriger-
ants. Polyol Ester (POE) lubricants are more polar than One of the basic characteristics of a refrigerant and
the mineral oils. This polarity of the POE and HFCs lubricant mixture in a sealed system is the fact that
make the two miscible and as such, POE is the lubricant refrigerant is attracted to the lubricant. The refrigerant
to be used with HFC refrigerants. POE lubricants are will vaporize and migrate through the system to the com-
synthetic, formed by mixing a specific organic acid with pressor crankcase even though no pressure difference
a specific alcohol and subjecting them to a reaction. The exists. On reaching the crankcase the refrigerant will
result is a POE base material and water. The water is condense into the lubricant. This migration will continue
driven off and an additive package is mixed with the until the lubricant is saturated with liquid refrigerant.
POE to arrive at a unique approved lubricant. Emerson Further migration will cause the liquid refrigerant to
Climate Technologies, Inc. has approved specific POE settle beneath the lubricant.
lubricants after extensive laboratory and field testing.
Excess refrigerant in the compressor crankcase can
POE lubricants are hygroscopic and want to re-absorb result in violent foaming and boiling action, driving all
water. If care is not taken to keep moisture out of the the lubricant from the crankcase causing lubrication
system, a chemical reaction can occur and produce problems. It can also cause slugging of the compres-
some weak organic acids. The recommended maximum sor at start up. Provisions must be made to prevent
moisture content in POE is 50 Parts Per Million (PPM). the accumulation of excess liquid refrigerant in the
There should be concern when the moisture content is compressor.
in the 50 to 100 PPM range. Should the moisture content
rise above 100 PPM, action must be taken to remove Proper piping and system design for the refrigerants
the moisture. It is important that the engineer and the and lubricants is critical for the lubricant return. The
service technician understand the need for “clean and new HFC refrigerants are relatively more soluble in POE
dry” hermetically sealed air-conditioning and refrigera- lubricants than CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral oil.
tion systems. Proper evacuation techniques and the use It is important that the engineer and the service techni-
of approved filter-driers with adequate moisture removal cian understand that mineral oil can not be used with
capacity is crucial to avoid system problems. the HFC refrigerants and only POE lubricants approved
by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. are to be used
HCFC Service Blend refrigerants are a blend of HCFC in Copeland® brand compressors.
R‑22 and other refrigerants. The other refrigerants are
of different types and can be an HFC. This blending is Refer to Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. Application
done to achieve a service refrigerant that reacts similarly Engineering Bulletins for a listing of approved lubricants
with respect to temperature, pressure and enthalpy as and refrigerants
the CFC refrigerant being removed. These blends are
not as miscible/soluble in mineral oil as is the CFC. REFRIGERANT TABLES

Alkyl Benzene (AB) lubricant is a synthetic hydrocar- To accurately determine the operating performance of a
bon. Its composition is more polar than mineral oil. This refrigeration system, precise and accurate information
polar property makes the HCFC service blends more is required. This includes various properties of refriger-
soluble/miscible in the AB lubricant. Like POE, specific ants at any temperature and pressure to be considered.
AB and Alkyl Benzene Mineral Oil (ABMO) blends have Refrigerant manufacturers have calculated and com-
been approved by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. piled this data in the form of tables of thermodynamic
after extensive laboratory and field testing. properties. These tables are made available to design
and application engineers and others who have a need

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
for this information. SATURATION PROPERTIES
Table 2-4 is an excerpt from an R‑134a saturation table. Temperature/Pressure tables are specific to a refriger-
It lists the five major saturation properties of R‑134a, ant. The temperature and pressure columns of these
both liquid and vapor, at various temperatures. Pres- tables are most usable to a service technician/engineer.
sure, volume, and density have been discussed previ- These tables are cumbersome for the average service
ously. Table 2-5 is an excerpt from an R‑22 saturation person because they generally are multiple pages per
table. refrigerant. Table 2-7 is an example of the basic pres-
sures and saturated temperatures for refrigerant R‑507
Enthalpy is a term used in thermodynamics to describe taken from the basic tables. This consolidates the data
the heat content of a substance. In refrigeration practice, into one single table.
enthalpy is expressed in terms of BTU per pound. An
arbitrary base of saturated liquid at -40°F. has been POCKET TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE CHARTS
accepted as the standard zero value. In other words,
the enthalpy of any refrigerant is zero for liquid at - Small pocket sized folders listing the saturation tem-
40°F. Liquid refrigerant at temperatures below -40°F. is peratures and pressures of common refrigerants are
considered to have a negative enthalpy. Refrigerant at readily available from expansion valve and refrigerant
all temperatures above -40°F. has a positive enthalpy manufacturers. Table 2-8 is a typical example of a
value. pocket sized chart for refrigerants approved for use in
a Copeland® brand compressor.
The difference in enthalpy values at different parts of
the system are commonly used to determine the perfor- A saturation chart for ready reference is an invaluable
mance of a refrigeration unit. When the heat content per tool for the refrigeration and air conditioning technician
pound of the refrigerant entering and leaving a cooling or for anyone checking the performance of a refrigera-
coil is determined, the cooling ability of that coil can be tion or air conditioning system. Suction and discharge
calculated provided the refrigerant flow rate is known. pressures can be readily measured by means of
gauges. From these pressures, the saturated evaporat-
Entropy can best be described as a mathematical ing and condensing temperatures can be determined.
ratio used in thermodynamics. It is used in solving Knowing the saturated temperatures makes it easy for
complex refrigeration engineering problems. It is not the technician to determine the amount of superheat
easily defined or explained. It is seldom used in com- or sub-cooling.
mercial refrigeration applications and a discussion of it
is beyond the scope of this manual. For our purpose,
the compression process within the compressor is an
Isentropic process.
Figure 2-6 is an excerpt from an R‑404A superheat
table. Superheat tables list saturation evaporating
temperature and pressure in increments of 1 psi, and
tabulate changes in specific volume, enthalpy, and
entropy for various increases in temperature of the
refrigerant vapor or superheat. Since superheat tables
are quite lengthy and are available separately in bound
volumes, complete superheat tables have not been
included in this manual.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Table 2-4
Saturation Properties – Temperature Table
TEMP. lb/ft3 lb/ft3 Btu/lb Btu/(lb)(°R) TEMP.
Vf Vg 1/Vf 1/Vg hf hfg hg Sf Sg

90 119.138 0.0136 0.3999 73.54 2.5009 41.6 73.6 115.2 0.0855 0.2194 90
91 121.024 0.0136 0.3935 73.40 2.5416 41.9 73.4 115.3 0.0861 0.2194 91
92 122.930 0.0137 0.3872 73.26 2.5829 42.3 73.1 115.4 0.0868 0.2193 92
93 124.858 0.0137 0.3810 73.12 2.6247 42.6 72.9 115.5 0.0874 0.2193 93
94 126.809 0.0137 0.3749 72.98 2.6672 43.0 72.7 115.7 0.0880 0.2193 94
95 128.782 0.0137 0.3690 72.84 2.7102 43.4 72.4 115.8 0.0886 0.2192 95
96 130.778 0.0138 0.3631 72.70 2.7539 43.7 72.2 115.9 0.0893 0.2192 96
97 132.798 0.0138 0.3574 72.56 2.7981 44.1 71.9 116.0 0.0899 0.2191 97
98 134.840 0.0138 0.3517 72.42 2.8430 44.4 71.7 116.1 0.0905 0.2191 98
99 136.906 0.0138 0.3462 72.27 2.8885 44.8 71.4 116.2 0.0912 0.2190 99
100 138.996 0.0139 0.3408 72.13 2.9347 45.1 71.2 116.3 0.0918 0.2190 100
101 141.109 0.0139 0.3354 71.99 2.9815 45.5 70.9 116.4 0.0924 0.2190 101
102 143.247 0.0139 0.3302 71.84 3.0289 45.8 70.7 116.5 0.0930 0.2189 102
103 145.408 0.0139 0.3250 71.70 3.0771 46.2 70.4 116.6 0.0937 0.2189 103
104 147.594 0.0140 0.3199 71.55 3.1259 46.6 70.2 116.7 0.0943 0.2188 104
105 149.804 0.0140 0.3149 71.40 3.1754 46.9 69.9 116.9 0.0949 0.2188 105
106 152.039 0.0140 0.3100 71.25 3.2256 47.3 69.7 117.0 0.0955 0.2187 106
107 154.298 0.0141 0.3052 71.11 3.2765 47.6 69.4 117.1 0.0962 0.2187 107
108 156.583 0.0141 0.3005 70.96 3.3282 48.0 69.2 117.2 0.0968 0.2186 108
109 158.893 0.0141 0.2958 70.81 3.3806 48.4 68.9 117.3 0.0974 0.2186 109
110 161.227 0.0142 0.2912 70.66 3.4337 48.7 68.6 117.4 0.0981 0.2185 110
111 163.588 0.0142 0.2867 70.51 3.4876 49.1 68.4 117.5 0.0987 0.2185 111
112 165.974 0.0142 0.2823 70.35 3.5423 49.5 68.1 117.6 0.0993 0.2185 112
113 168.393 0.0142 0.2780 70.20 3.5977 49.8 67.8 117.7 0.0999 0.2184 113
114 170.833 0.0143 0.2737 70.05 3.6539 50.2 67.6 117.8 0.1006 0.2184 114
115 173.298 0.0143 0.2695 69.89 3.7110 50.5 67.3 117.9 0.1012 0.2183 115
116 175.790 0.0143 0.2653 69.74 3.7689 50.9 67.0 117.9 0.1018 0.2183 116
117 178.297 0.0144 0.2613 69.58 3.8276 51.3 66.8 118.0 0.1024 0.2182 117
118 180.846 0.0144 0.2573 69.42 3.8872 51.7 66.5 118.1 0.1031 0.2182 118
119 183.421 0.0144 0.2533 69.26 3.9476 52.0 66.2 118.2 0.1037 0.2181 119
120 186.023 0.0145 0.2494 69.10 4.0089 52.4 65.9 118.3 0.1043 0.2181 120
121 188.652 0.0145 0.2456 68.94 4.0712 52.8 65.6 118.4 0.1050 0.2180 121
122 191.308 0.0145 0.2419 68.78 4.1343 53.1 65.4 118.5 0.1056 0.2180 122
123 193.992 0.0146 0.2382 68.62 4.1984 53.5 65.1 118.6 0.1062 0.2179 123
124 196.703 0.0146 0.2346 68.46 4.2634 53.9 64.8 118.7 0.1068 0.2178 124
125 199.443 0.0146 0.2310 68.29 4.3294 54.3 64.5 118.8 0.1075 0.2178 125
126 202.211 0.0147 0.2275 68.13 4.3964 54.6 64.2 118.8 0.1081 0.2177 126
127 205.008 0.0147 0.2240 67.96 4.4644 55.0 63.9 118.9 0.1087 0.2177 127
128 207.834 0.0147 0.2206 67.80 4.5334 55.4 63.6 119.0 0.1094 0.2176 128
129 210.688 0.0148 0.2172 67.63 4.6034 55.8 63.3 119.1 0.1100 0.2176 129
130 213.572 0.0148 0.2139 67.46 4.6745 56.2 63.0 119.2 0.1106 0.2175 130
131 216.485 0.0149 0.2107 67.29 4.7467 56.5 62.7 119.2 0.1113 0.2174 131
132 219.429 0.0149 0.2075 67.12 4.8200 56.9 62.4 119.3 0.1119 0.2174 132
133 222.402 0.0149 0.2043 66.95 4.8945 57.3 62.1 119.4 0.1125 0.2173 133
134 225.405 0.0150 0.2012 66.77 4.9700 57.7 61.8 119.5 0.1132 0.2173 134
135 228.438 0.0150 0.1981 66.60 5.0468 58.1 61.5 119.6 0.1138 0.2172 135
136 231.502 0.0151 0.1951 66.42 5.1248 58.5 61.2 119.6 0.1144 0.2171 136
137 234.597 0.0151 0.1922 66.24 5.2040 58.8 60.8 119.7 0.1151 0.2171 137
138 237.723 0.0151 0.1892 66.06 5.2844 59.2 60.5 119.8 0.1157 0.2170 138
139 240.880 0.0152 0.1864 65.88 5.3661 59.6 60.2 119.8 0.1163 0.2169 139
140 244.068 0.0152 0.1835 65.70 5.4491 60.0 59.9 119.9 0.1170 0.2168 140
141 247.288 0.0153 0.1807 65.52 5.5335 60.4 59.6 120.0 0.1176 0.2168 141
142 250.540 0.0153 0.1780 65.34 5.6192 60.8 59.2 120.0 0.1183 0.2167 142
143 253.824 0.0153 0.1752 65.15 5.7064 61.2 58.9 120.1 0.1189 0.2166 143
144 257.140 0.0154 0.1726 64.96 5.7949 61.6 58.6 120.1 0.1195 0.2165 144
145 260.489 0.0154 0.1699 64.78 5.8849 62.0 58.2 120.2 0.1202 0.2165 145
146 263.871 0.0155 0.1673 64.59 5.9765 62.4 57.9 120.3 0.1208 0.2164 146
147 267.270 0.0155 0.1648 64.39 6.0695 62.8 57.5 120.3 0.1215 0.2163 147
148 270.721 0.0156 0.1622 64.20 6.1642 63.2 57.2 120.4 0.1221 0.2162 148
149 274.204 0.0156 0.1597 64.01 6.2604 63.6 56.8 120.4 0.1228 0.2161 149
Reprinted with permission from E.I. DuPont

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Table 2-5
"FREON" 22
Saturation Properties – Temperature Table
TEMP. cu ft/lb lb/cu ft Btu/lb Btu/(lb)(°R) TEMP.
psia psig
Vf Vg 1/Vf 1/Vg hf hfg hg Sf Sg

10 47.464 32.768 0.012088 1.1290 82.724 0.88571 13.104 92.338 105.442 0.02932 0.22592 10
11 48.423 33.727 0.012105 1.1077 82.612 0.90275 13.376 92.162 105.538 0.02990 0.22570 11
12 49.396 34.700 0.012121 1.0869 82.501 0.92005 13.648 91.986 105.633 0.03047 0.22548 12
13 50.384 35.688 0.012138 1.0665 82.389 0.93761 13.920 91.808 105.728 0.03104 0.22527 13
14 51.387 36.691 0.012154 1.0466 82.276 0.95544 14.193 91.630 105.823 0.03161 0.22505 14
15 52.405 37.709 0.012171 1.0272 82.164 0.97352 14.466 91.451 105.917 0.03218 0.22484 15
16 53.438 38.742 0.012188 1.0082 82.051 0.99188 14.739 91.272 106.011 0.03275 0.22463 16
17 54.487 39.791 0.012204 0.98961 81.938 1.0105 15.013 91.091 106.105 0.03332 0.22442 17
18 55.551 40.855 0.012221 0.97144 81.825 1.0294 15.288 90.910 106.198 0.03389 0.22421 18
19 56.631 41.935 0.012238 0.95368 81.711 1.0486 15.562 90.728 106.290 0.03446 0.22400 19
20 57.727 43.031 0.012255 0.93631 81.597 1.0680 15.837 90.545 106.383 0.03503 0.22379 20
21 58.839 44.143 0.012273 0.91932 81.483 1.0878 16.113 90.362 106.475 0.03560 0.22358 21
22 59.967 45.271 0.012290 0.90270 81.368 1.1078 16.389 90.178 106.566 0.03617 0.22338 22
23 61.111 46.415 0.012307 0.88645 81.253 1.1281 16.665 89.993 106.657 0.03674 0.22318 23
24 62.272 47.576 0.012325 0.87055 81.138 1.1487 16.942 89.807 106.748 0.03730 0.22297 24
25 63.450 48.754 0.012342 0.85500 81.023 1.1696 17.219 89.620 106.839 0.03787 0.22277 25
26 64.644 49.948 0.012360 0.83978 80.907 1.1908 17.496 89.433 106.928 0.03844 0.22257 26
27 65.855 51.159 0.012378 0.82488 80.791 1.2123 17.774 89.244 107.018 0.03900 0.22237 27
28 67.083 52.387 0.012395 0.81031 80.675 1.2341 18.052 89.055 107.107 0.03958 0.22217 28
29 68.328 53.632 0.012413 0.79604 80.558 1.2562 18.330 88.865 107.196 0.04013 0.22198 29
30 69.591 54.895 0.012431 0.78208 80.441 1.2786 18.609 88.674 107.284 0.04070 0.22178 30
31 70.871 56.175 0.012450 0.76842 80.324 1.3014 18.889 88.483 107.372 0.04126 0.22158 31
32 72.169 57.473 0.012468 0.75503 80.207 1.3244 19.169 88.290 107.459 0.04182 0.22139 32
33 73.485 58.789 0.012486 0.74194 80.089 1.3478 19.449 88.097 107.546 0.04239 0.22119 33
34 74.818 60.122 0.012505 0.72911 79.971 1.3715 19.729 87.903 107.632 0.04295 0.22100 34
35 76.170 61.474 0.012523 0.71655 79.852 1.3956 20.010 87.708 107.719 0.04351 0.22081 35
36 77.540 62.844 0.012542 0.70425 79.733 1.4199 20.292 87.512 107.804 0.04407 0.22062 36
37 78.929 64.233 0.012561 0.69221 79.614 1.4447 20.574 87.316 107.889 0.04464 0.22043 37
38 80.336 65.640 0.012579 0.68041 79.495 1.4697 20.856 87.118 107.974 0.04520 0.22024 38
39 81.761 67.065 0.012598 0.66885 79.375 1.4951 21.138 86.920 108.058 0.04576 0.22005 39
40 83.206 68.510 0.012618 0.65753 79.255 1.5208 21.422 86.720 108.142 0.04632 0.21986 40
41 84.670 69.974 0.012637 0.64643 79.134 1.5469 21.705 86.520 108.225 0.04688 0.21968 41
42 86.153 71.457 0.012656 0.63557 79.013 1.5734 21.989 86.319 108.308 0.04744 0.21949 42
43 87.655 72.959 0.012676 0.62492 78.892 1.6002 22.273 86.117 108.390 0.04800 0.21931 43
44 89.177 74.481 0.012695 0.61448 78.770 1.6274 22.558 85.914 108.472 0.04855 0.21912 44
45 90.719 76.023 0.012715 0.60425 78.648 1.6549 22.843 85.710 108.553 0.04911 0.21894 45
46 92.280 77.584 0.012735 0.59422 78.526 1.6829 23.129 85.506 108.634 0.04967 0.21876 46
47 93.861 79.165 0.012755 0.58440 78.403 1.7112 23.415 85.300 108.715 0.05023 0.21858 47
48 95.463 80.767 0.012775 0.57476 78.280 1.7398 23.701 85.094 108.795 0.05079 0.21839 48
49 97.085 82.389 0.012795 0.56532 78.157 1.7689 23.988 84.886 108.874 0.05134 0.21821 49
50 98.727 84.031 0.012815 0.55606 78.033 1.7984 24.275 84.678 108.953 0.05190 0.21803 50
51 100.39 85.69 0.012836 0.54698 77.909 1.8282 24.563 84.468 109.031 0.05245 0.21785 51
52 102.07 87.38 0.012856 0.53808 77.784 1.8585 24.851 84.258 109.109 0.05301 0.21768 52
53 103.78 89.08 0.012877 0.52934 77.659 1.8891 25.139 84.047 109.186 0.05357 0.21750 53
54 105.50 90.81 0.012898 0.52078 77.534 1.9202 25.429 83.834 109.263 0.05412 0.21732 54
55 107.25 92.56 0.012919 0.51238 77.408 1.9517 25.718 83.621 109.339 0.05468 0.21714 55
56 109.02 94.32 0.012940 0.50414 77.282 1.9836 26.008 83.407 109.415 0.05523 0.21697 56
57 110.81 96.11 0.012961 0.49606 77.155 2.0159 26.298 83.191 109.490 0.05579 0.21679 57
58 112.62 97.93 0.012982 0.48813 77.028 2.0486 26.589 82.975 109.564 0.05634 0.21662 58
59 114.46 99.76 0.013004 0.48035 76.900 2.0818 26.880 82.758 109.638 0.05689 0.21644 59
60 116.31 101.62 0.013025 0.47272 76.773 2.1154 27.172 82.540 109.712 0.05745 0.21627 60
61 118.19 103.49 0.013047 0.46523 76.644 2.1495 27.464 82.320 109.785 0.05800 0.21610 61
62 120.09 105.39 0.013069 0.45788 76.515 2.1840 27.757 82.100 109.857 0.05855 0.21592 62
63 122.01 107.32 0.013091 0.45066 76.386 2.2190 28.050 81.878 109.929 0.05910 0.21575 63
64 123.96 109.26 0.013114 0.44358 76.257 2.2544 28.344 81.656 110.000 0.05966 0.21558 64
Reprinted with permission from E.I. DuPont

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Table 2-6
SUVA® HP62 Superheated Vapor­­ – Constant Pressure Tables
V = Volume in ft3/lb     H = Enthalpy in Btu/lb     S = Entropy in Btu/(lb)(°R)     (Saturation properties in parentheses)
16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00
TEMP. (-47.11ºF) (-44.78ºF) (-42.57ºF) (-40.44ºF) TEMP.
°F V H S V H S V H S V H S °F
(2.7271) (84.2) (0.2045) (2.5763) (84.5) (0.2042) (2.4416) (84.9) (0.2039) (2.3206) (85.2) (0.2036)
-40 2.7793 85.5 0.2076 2.6094 85.4 0.2063 2.4584 85.3 0.2050 2.3233 85.3 0.2038 -40
-30 2.8524 87.3 0.2119 2.6786 87.2 0.2106 2.5240 87.2 0.2093 2.3857 87.1 0.2081 -30
-20 2.9253 89.1 0.2161 2.7474 89.1 0.2148 2.5893 89.0 0.2136 2.4478 89.0 0.2124 -20
-10 2.9979 91.0 0.2203 2.8160 90.9 0.2190 2.6543 90.9 0.2178 2.5096 90.9 0.2166 -10
0 3.0703 92.9 0.2245 2.8843 92.8 0.2232 2.7191 92.8 0.2220 2.5712 92.8 0.2208 0
10 3.1425 94.8 0.2285 2.9525 94.8 0.2273 2.7837 94.7 0.2261 2.6326 94.7 0.2250 10
20 3.2145 95.8 0.2327 3.0205 96.7 0.2315 2.8481 96.7 0.2302 2.6938 96.6 0.2291 20
30 3.2864 98.7 0.2368 3.0883 98.7 0.2355 2.9123 98.6 0.2343 2.7548 98.6 0.2331 30
40 3.3581 100.7 0.2408 3.1560 100.7 0.2396 2.9764 100.6 0.2383 2.8157 100.6 0.2372 40
50 3.4296 102.7 0.2448 3.2235 102.7 0.2436 3.0403 102.7 0.2423 2.8764 102.6 0.2412 50
60 3.5010 104.8 0.2488 3.2909 104.8 0.2475 3.1041 104.7 0.2463 2.9370 104.7 0.2452 60
70 3.5723 106.9 0.2528 3.3582 106.8 0.2515 3.1678 106.8 0.2503 2.9975 106.7 0.2491 70
80 3.6435 109.0 0.2567 3.4253 108.9 0.2554 3.2313 108.9 0.2542 3.0578 108.8 0.2530 80
90 3.7146 111.1 0.2606 3.4923 111.0 0.2593 3.2948 111.0 0.2581 3.1180 111.0 0.2569 90
100 3.7855 113.2 0.2644 3.5593 113.2 0.2631 3.3581 113.1 0.2619 3.1782 113.1 0.2608 100
110 3.8564 115.4 0.2682 3.6261 115.3 0.2670 3.4214 115.3 0.2658 3.2382 115.3 0.2646 110
120 3.9272 117.6 0.2721 3.6928 117.5 0.2708 3.4845 117.5 0.2696 3.2981 117.5 0.2684 120
130 3.9978 119.8 0.2758 3.7595 119.7 0.2746 3.5476 119.7 0.2734 3.3580 119.7 0.2722 130
140 4.0685 122.0 0.2796 3.8260 122.0 0.2783 3.6105 121.9 0.2771 3.4177 121.9 0.2760 140
150 4.1390 124.3 0.2833 3.8925 124.2 0.2821 3.6734 124.2 0.2809 3.4774 124.2 0.2797 150
160 4.2094 126.5 0.2870 3.9589 126.5 0.2858 3.7363 126.5 0.2846 3.5370 126.4 0.2834 160
170 4.2798 128.8 0.2907 4.0253 128.8 0.2894 3.7990 128.8 0.2883 3.5966 128.8 0.2871 170
180 4.3502 131.2 0.2944 4.0916 131.1 0.2931 3.8617 131.1 0.2919 3.6561 131.1 0.2908 180
190 4.4204 133.5 0.2980 4.1578 133.5 0.2967 3.9244 133.5 0.2956 3.7155 133.4 0.2944 190
200 4.4906 135.9 0.3016 4.2240 135.8 0.3004 3.9869 135.8 0.2992 3.7748 135.8 0.2980 200
210 4.5608 138.3 0.3052 4.2901 138.2 0.3040 4.0495 138.2 0.3028 3.8342 138.2 0.3016 210
220 4.6309 140.7 0.3088 4.3561 140.6 0.3075 4.1119 140.6 0.3063 3.8934 140.6 0.3052 220
230 4.7009 143.1 0.3123 4.4221 143.1 0.3111 4.1743 143.1 0.3099 3.9526 143.0 0.3088 230
240 4.7709 145.6 0.3159 4.4881 145.5 0.3146 4.2367 145.5 0.3134 4.0118 145.5 0.3123 240
250 4.8409 148.0 0.3194 4.5540 148.0 0.3181 4.2990 148.0 0.3169 4.0709 148.0 0.3158 250
260 4.9108 150.5 0.3229 4.6199 150.5 0.3216 4.3613 150.5 0.3204 4.1299 150.5 0.3193 260
20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00
TEMP. (-38.40ºF) (-36.44ºF) (-34.55ºF) (-32.73ºF) TEMP.
°F V H S V H S V H S V H S °F
(2.2112) (85.5) (0.2034) (2.1119) (85.8) (0.2032) (2.0213) (86.1) (0.2029) (1.9383) (86.4) (0.2027)
-30 2.2612 87.1 0.2070 2.1485 87.0 0.2059 2.0461 87.0 0.2049 1.9525 86.9 0.2039 -30
-20 2.3204 88.9 0.2113 2.2051 88.9 0.2102 2.1003 88.8 0.2092 2.0046 88.8 0.2082 -20
-10 2.3793 90.8 0.2155 2.2615 90.8 0.2145 2.1543 90.7 0.2134 2.0565 90.7 0.2125 -10
0 2.4380 92.7 0.2197 2.3176 92.7 0.2186 2.2081 92.6 0.2176 2.1081 92.6 0.2167 0
10 2.4966 94.6 0.2239 2.3735 94.6 0.2228 2.2616 94.5 0.2218 2.1594 94.5 0.2208 10
20 2.5549 96.6 0.2280 2.4292 96.5 0.2269 2.3150 96.5 0.2259 2.2106 96.5 0.2249 20
30 2.6130 98.6 0.2320 2.4848 98.5 0.2310 2.3681 98.5 0.2300 2.2617 98.4 0.2290 30
40 2.6710 100.6 0.2361 2.5401 100.5 0.2350 2.4212 100.5 0.2340 2.3125 100.4 0.2331 40
50 2.7289 102.6 0.2401 2.5954 102.5 0.2391 2.4740 102.5 0.2381 2.3632 102.5 0.2371 50
60 2.7866 104.6 0.2441 2.6505 104.6 0.2430 2.5267 104.6 0.2420 2.4138 104.5 0.2411 60
70 2.8442 106.7 0.2480 2.7054 106.7 0.2470 2.5793 106.6 0.2460 2.4642 106.6 0.2450 70
80 2.9016 108.8 0.2520 2.7603 108.8 0.2509 2.6318 108.7 0.2499 2.5145 108.7 0.2490 80
90 2.9590 110.9 0.2558 2.8150 110.9 0.2548 2.6842 110.9 0.2538 2.5647 110.8 0.2529 90
100 3.0162 113.1 0.2597 2.8696 113.0 0.2587 2.7364 113.0 0.2577 2.6148 113.0 0.2567 100
110 3.0733 115.2 0.2635 2.9242 115.2 0.2625 2.7886 115.2 0.2615 2.6647 115.1 0.2606 110
120 3.1304 117.4 0.2674 2.9786 117.4 0.2663 2.8406 117.4 0.2653 2.7146 117.3 0.2644 120
130 3.1873 119.6 0.2711 3.0329 119.6 0.2701 2.8926 119.6 0.2691 2.7644 119.5 0.2682 130
140 3.2442 121.9 0.2749 3.0872 121.8 0.2739 2.9445 121.8 0.2729 2.8141 121.8 0.2720 140
150 3.3010 124.1 0.2786 3.1414 124.1 0.2776 2.9963 124.1 0.2766 2.8638 124.0 0.2757 150
160 3.3577 126.4 0.2824 3.1955 126.4 0.2813 3.0480 126.4 0.2804 2.9133 126.3 0.2794 160
170 3.4144 128.7 0.2860 3.2495 128.7 0.2850 3.0997 128.7 0.2840 2.9628 128.6 0.2831 170
180 3.4710 131.1 0.2897 3.3035 131.0 0.2887 3.1513 131.0 0.2877 3.0123 131.0 0.2868 180
190 3.5275 133.4 0.2934 3.3574 133.4 0.2923 3.2028 133.3 0.2914 3.0616 133.3 0.2904 190
200 3.5840 135.8 0.2970 3.4113 135.7 0.2960 3.2543 135.7 0.2950 3.1109 135.7 0.2940 200
210 3.6404 138.2 0.3006 3.4651 138.1 0.2996 3.3057 138.1 0.2986 3.1602 138.1 0.2976 210
220 3.6967 140.6 0.3041 3.5188 140.5 0.3031 3.3571 140.5 0.3022 3.2094 140.5 0.3012 220
230 3.7531 143.0 0.3077 3.5725 143.0 0.3067 3.4084 143.0 0.3057 3.2585 142.9 0.3048 230
240 3.8093 145.5 0.3112 3.6262 145.4 0.3102 3.4596 145.4 0.3092 3.3076 145.4 0.3083 240
250 3.8655 147.9 0.3147 3.6798 147.9 0.3137 3.5109 147.9 0.3128 3.3567 147.9 0.3118 250
260 3.9217 150.4 0.3182 3.7333 150.4 0.3172 3.5620 150.4 0.3163 3.4057 150.4 0.3153 260
270 3.9779 152.9 0.3217 3.7868 152.9 0.3207 3.6132 152.9 0.3197 3.4546 152.9 0.3188 270
Reprinted with permission from E.I. DuPont
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Pressure/Temperature Chart

Vapor Vapor Vapor Vapor Vapor Vapor Vapor Vapor

Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature

0 -52.1 45 9 90 40.1 235 97.5

1 -49.7 46 9.9 91 40.7 240 99
2 -47.3 47 10.7 92 41.2 245 100.4
3 -46 48 11.6 93 41.8 250 101.8
4 -43 49 12.3 94 42.4 255 103.2

5 -41 50 13.1 95 42.9 260 104.6
6 -39 51 14 96 43.4 265 105.9
7 -37 52 14.8 97 44 270 107.2
8 -35.3 53 15.6 98 44.5 275 108.6
9 -33.5 54 16.4 99 45.1 280 109.8

10 -31.8 55 17.2 100 45.6 285 111.1

11 -30.2 56 17.9 101 46.1 290 112.4
12 -28.6 57 18.7 102 46.7 295 113.6
13 -27 58 19.4 103 47.2 300 114.8
14 -25.5 59 20.2 104 47.7 305 116

15 -24 60 20.9 105 48.2 310 117.2

16 -22.6 61 21.6 106 48.7 315 118.4
17 -21.2 62 22.3 107 49.2 320 119.6
18 -19.8 63 23.1 108 49.7 325 120.7
19 -18.4 64 23.8 109 50.2 330 121.8

20 -17.1 65 24.5 110 50.7 335 123

21 -15.8 66 25.2 115 53.2 340 124.1
22 -14.6 67 25.8 120 55.6 345 125.2
23 -13.4 68 26.5 125 57.9 350 126.3
24 -12.2 69 27.2 130 60.1 355 127.3

25 -11 70 27.9 135 62.3 360 128.4

26 -9.8 71 28.5 140 64.4 365 129.4
27 -8.7 72 29.2 145 66.5 370 130.5
28 -7.5 73 29.8 150 68.6 375 131.5
29 -6.4 74 30.5 155 70.6 380 132.5

30 -5.4 75 31.5 160 72.5 385 133.5
31 -4.3 76 31.7 165 74.4 390 134.5
32 -3.3 77 32.4 170 76.3 395 135.5
33 -2.2 78 33 175 78.1 400 136.4
34 -1.2 79 33.6 180 79.9

35 -0.2 80 34.2 185 81.7

36 0.8 81 34.8 190 83.4
37 1.7 82 35.4 195 85.1
38 2.7 83 36 200 86.7
39 3.6 84 36.6 205 88.3

40 4.6 85 37.2 210 89.9
41 5.5 86 37.8 215 91.5
42 6.4 87 38.4 220 93.1
43 7.3 88 39 225 94.6
44 8.2 89 39.5 230 96.1

Figure 2-7

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Typical Pocket Pressure/Temperature Chart
Table 2-8

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 3

Continuous refrigeration can be accomplished by sev- it is rejected. The heat rejected may be given off to the
eral different processes. In the great majority of applica- ambient air, or in a water cooled system, to the cooling
tions, and almost exclusively in the smaller horsepower water. A change of state from liquid to vapor and back
range, the vapor compression system is used for the to liquid allows the refrigerant to absorb and reject large
refrigeration process. However, absorption systems are quantities of heat efficiently and repeatedly.
being successfully used in many applications. In larger
equipment, centrifugal systems are used which basically The basic cycle operates as follows:
is an adaptation of the compression cycle.
High pressure liquid refrigerant is fed from the receiver
Copeland® brand compressors, as their name implies, or condenser through the liquid line, and through the
are designed for use with the compression cycle. This filter-drier to the metering device. It is at this point that
section of this manual will cover only that form of re- the high pressure side of the system is separated from
frigeration. the low pressure side. Various types of control devices
may be used, but for purposes of this illustration, only
SIMPLE COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) will be con-
There are two pressures existing in a compression
system, the evaporating or low pressure, and the con- The TEV controls the quantity of liquid refrigerant be-
densing or high pressure. ing fed into the evaporator. The TEV’s internal orifice
causes the pressure of the refrigerant to the evaporat-
The refrigerant acts as a transportation medium to move ing or low side pressure to be reduced. This reduction
heat absorbed in the evaporator to the condenser where of the refrigerant pressure, therefore its boiling point,

Thermostatic Expansion Valve

Filter Dryer Receiver

Compressor Condenser


Figure 3-1
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
causes it to boil or vaporize, absorbing heat until the always subjected to the highest temperature existing
refrigerant is at the saturation temperature correspond- in the refrigerating system. In the Copeland Compli-
ing to its pressure. As the low temperature refrigerant ant Scroll®, the discharge port or dynamic discharge
passes through the evaporator coil, heat flows through valve will be subjected to the highest temperature in
the walls of the evaporator tubing into the refrigerant. the system.
The boiling action continues until the refrigerant is
completely vaporized. The heat which must be discharged by the condenser,
termed the heat of rejection, is the total of the heat
The TEV regulates the quantity of refrigerant, (lb/min) absorbed by the refrigerant in the evaporator, the heat
through the evaporator to maintain a preset tempera- of compression, and any heat added to the system due
ture difference or superheat between the evaporating to motor inefficiency. Any heat absorbed in the suction
refrigerant and the vapor leaving the evaporator. As the and/or discharge lines must also be rejected by the
temperature of the gas leaving the evaporator varies, condenser. For hermetic and accessible hermetic mo-
the expansion valve power element bulb senses this tor-compressors, the heat which must be rejected in
temperature, and acts to modulate the feed of refriger- addition to the refrigeration load can be approximated
ant through the expansion valve. by the heat equivalent of the electrical power input to
the compressor expressed in BTU/hr. (Motor watts X
The superheated refrigerant vapor leaving the evapora- 3.1416 = BTU/hr. of heat to be rejected)
tor travels through the suction line to the compressor
inlet. The compressor takes the low pressure vapor and VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF THE
compresses it, increasing it’s pressure and temperature. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
The hot, high pressure vapor is forced out of the com-
pressor discharge valve(s), and into the condenser. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual
volume of refrigerant vapor pumped by the compressor
As the high pressure high temperature vapor passes to the volume displaced by the compressor pistons.
through the condenser, it is cooled by an external means. The volumetric efficiency of a piston compressor will
In air cooled systems, a fan, and fin-type condenser vary over a wide range, depending on the compressor
surface is normally used. In water cooled systems, a design and the compression ratio.
refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger is employed. As the
temperature of the refrigerant vapor is lowered to the The compression ratio of a compressor is the ratio of
saturation temperature corresponding to the high pres- the absolute discharge pressure (psia) to the absolute
sure in the condenser, the vapor condenses into a liquid suction pressure (psia). (Discharge Pressure Absolute
and flows back to the receiver or directly to the TEV to ÷ Suction Pressure Absolute)
repeat the cycle. The refrigerating process is continuous
as long as the compressor is operating. Several design factors can influence compressor effi-
ciency including the clearance volume above the piston,
HEAT OF COMPRESSION the clearance between the piston and the cylinder wall,
valve spring tension, valve leakage and the volume of
Heat of compression is defined as the heat added to the the valve plate discharge ports. Reed compressors have
refrigerant vapor as a result of the work energy used in from one to three discharge ports per cylinder to allow
the compression process. When the refrigerant vapor the compressors refrigerant to exit the cylinder/piston
is compressed in a compressors cylinder, its pressure area with a minimum pressure drop. These discharge
is increased and the volume is decreased. The change ports however hold high pressure vapor in them that
in pressure and volume tend to maintain equilibrium cannot be sent out to the system. (See Figure 3-2) To
in the perfect gas law equation, so this change alone improve the volumetric efficiency of low temperature
would not greatly affect the temperature of the refriger- compressors, the number and size of the discharge
ant vapor. In order to compress the refrigerant vapor, ports are reduced. (Figure 3-3) Because the volume
work or energy is required. Following the first law of of refrigerant is less in a low temperature compressor,
thermodynamics, this energy cannot be destroyed, and this can be done with little effect on internal pressure
all of the mechanical energy necessary to compress the drop but with positive results in increased volumetric
vapor is transformed into heat energy. With the excep- efficiency and compressor capacity. Compressor effi-
tion of a small fraction of the total heat given off to the ciency, because of design, is fairly constant for a given
compressor body, all of this heat energy is transferred compressor. Volumetric efficiency will vary inversely
to the refrigerant vapor. This causes a sharp increase with the compression ratio.
in the temperature of the compressed gas, therefore,
in a reciprocating compressor, the discharge valves are Two factors cause a loss of volumetric efficiency with an
increase in compression ratio. As the vapor is subjected

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
to greater compression, the residual vapor remaining Discus® compressor is more volumetric efficient than
in the cylinder clearance space and in the valve plate the same displacement reed compressor and as such
discharge ports becomes more dense. Since it does circulates more pounds of refrigerant therefore delivers
not leave the cylinder on the discharge stroke, it re-ex- more BTUs of refrigeration.
pands on the suction stroke, preventing the intake of a
full cylinder of vapor from the suction line. The higher The second factor is the high temperature of the cylinder
the pressure exerted on the residual vapor, the more walls resulting from the heat of compression. As the
dense it becomes, and the greater volume it occupies compression ratio increases, the heat of compression
on re-expansion. increases, and the cylinders and head of the compressor
become very hot. Suction vapor entering the cylinder
Discus® compressors have less clearance volume on the intake stroke is heated by the cylinder walls, and
and almost no trapped high pressure refrigerant in the expands, resulting in a reduced weight of vapor entering
discharge ports. The Discus® discharge valve seats at the compressor.
the bottom of the valve plate basically eliminating the
trapped high pressure vapor in the valve plate. This Typical volumetric efficiency curves are shown in Figure
reduction in trapped high pressure refrigerant reduces 3-5. Air Conditioning and refrigeration compressors
the amount of re-expansion and increases the com- are designed with a minimum of clearance volume.
pressors capacity and efficiency (See Figure 3-4). The As previously stated, clearance volume is a loss in ac-
tual capacity versus theoretical capacity. The Discus®

High Temperature Low Temperature

Figure 3-2 Valve Plate Valve Plate
Figure 3-3

Typical low
Discus® compressor


Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
compressor because of its reduced clearance volume in an increase in the compression ratio. This results in
is more volumetric efficient than an equivalent displace- a consequent loss of volumetric efficiency except for
ment, horse power, reed compressor the Scroll compressor. While the loss of capacity is not
as great as that caused by an equivalent decrease in
While the volumetric efficiency of each stage of a two suction pressure, it still is severe.
stage compressor would resemble the typical single
stage curves, the overall volumetric efficiency is rela- For operating economy and maximum capacity, the
tively constant over a wide compression ratio range. discharge pressure should be kept as low as practical
Since the use of a liquid subcooler with the two stage but should not be lower than the equivalent of 70°F
compressor can increase the capacity so dramatically. saturated discharge pressure.
a dotted curve has been added for comparison.
When the hot high pressure liquid refrigerant is fed
The volumetric efficiency of the Copeland Compliant into the evaporator through the TXV, the refrigerants
Scroll® is 100%. When the first pocket of the Scroll temperature must first be reduced to the evaporating
closes and captures a volume of refrigerant, all of it temperature in the evaporator before it can start absorb-
will be swept along in the compression process and ing heat. This is accomplished by almost instantaneous
discharged out of the Scroll members to the system. boiling or “flashing” of a portion of the liquid into vapor.
Unlike the piston compressor, there is no clearance The latent heat of vaporization involved in the change of
area, clearance volume, to create losses. state absorbs heat from the remaining liquid refrigerant
lowering its temperature.
The resulting flash gas will produce little to no further
Other factors remaining equal, as the suction pres- cooling. In effect the refrigerating capacity of the re-
sure is reduced, the specific volume(ft3/#) of the vapor frigerant has been reduced by the heat absorbed in
returning to the compressor increases. Density (#/ft3) lowering the liquid temperature. If a portion of this heat
and specific volume are inversely proportional, there- could be extracted from the liquid prior to its entry into
fore the refrigerant density decreases. Since a given the evaporator, the effective capacity of the system will
compressor's pumping capacity (CFH) is fixed by its be increased. This happens because not as much liquid
speed and displacement, the reduction in density of the will flash off to cool the remaining liquid to its desired
suction vapor decreases the weight (#/hr.) of the refriger- temperature.
ant pumped, resulting in a reduction in the compressors
capacity (BTU/hr). The loss of capacity with a reduction This can be accomplished by subcooling the liquid re-
in suction pressure is extremely rapid. Since the energy frigerant after condensing by means of water or air. If
input required by the compressor to perform its work condensing temperatures are relatively high, capacity
does not decrease at the same rate, the BTU/watt ratio increases of 5% to 15% are easily obtainable. Since
decreases rapidly with a drop in suction pressure. This no power is required other than that involved in moving
reflects in the performance of the compressors per unit the cooling medium, subcooling the liquid can result in
of electrical energy consumed, the Energy Efficiency substantial savings in operating cost.
Ratio (EER).
In addition to the specific volume of the refrigerant be- BY SUPERHEATING THE VAPOR
ing reduced when the suction pressure is reduced, the
compression ratio is increased. As stated before, as A suction gas to liquid refrigerant heat exchanger is
the compression ratio is increased, the compressors frequently used for the following reasons:
discharge temperature will also be increased. For best
capacity performance, operating economy and lowered 1. To subcool the liquid refrigerant sufficiently to offset
discharge temperature, it is most important that refrig- any pressure drop that might occur in the liquid line;
eration and air-conditioning systems operate at the to compensate for any heat picked up in the liquid
highest suction pressure possible for the application. line preventing the formation of flash gas in the liquid
2. To provide a source of heat to evaporate any liquid
An increase in the condensing pressure, commonly refrigerant which might have flooded through the
termed the discharge pressure or head pressure, results

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
evaporator, thus preventing the return of liquid re- EFFECT OF PRESSURE DROP IN LIQUID LINE
frigerant to the crankcase.
If the pressure of the liquid refrigerant falls below its
As pointed out in the previous section, subcooling the saturation temperature, a portion of the liquid will flash
liquid refrigerant increases the refrigerating capacity into vapor. This will cool the liquid refrigerant to a new
per pound of the refrigerant circulated. In a perfectly saturation temperature. This will occur in a liquid line if
insulated system with negligible heat transfer into the the pressure drops significantly because of friction or be-
suction line outside the refrigerated space, a liquid to cause of vertical lift. If flashing occurs, the feed through
suction heat exchanger theoretically will increase sys- the expansion valve will be erratic and inadequate for
tem capacity slightly since the heat transferred from the the evaporator demand.
liquid refrigerant to the refrigerant vapor is greater than
the capacity reduction at the compressor resulting from Subcooling of the liquid refrigerant after condensing
the increase in specific volume of the vapor. by an amount sufficient to offset the pressure drop will
insure a solid column of liquid refrigerant at the inlet
EFFECT OF SUPERHEATING THE VAPOR to the expansion valve. At 120°F saturated condens-
LEAVING THE EVAPORATOR ing temperature, 10°F of liquid subcooling will protect
against flash gas forming in the liquid line for pressure
It is essential that the temperature of the vapor return- drops up to those shown in Table 3-1. These are the
ing to the compressor be superheated to avoid carrying maximum allowable that can be tolerated to prevent
liquid refrigerant back to the compressor. It is gener- flashing of the refrigerant in the liquid line.
ally recommended that the minimum superheat value
be 20°F when the system is at low load. If this heat is Table 3-1
added to the vapor inside the refrigerated space, the Liquid Line Pressure Drop
heat absorbed increases the refrigeration capacity, while Press Press Press
the increase in specific volume of the gas decreases the Refrig. Drop Refrig. Drop Refrig. Drop
compressor capacity. These two factors tend to offset (psig) (psig) (psig)
one another, with a negligible effect on capacity.
R-12 21.3 R-22 34.5 R-502 33.9
Heat entering the refrigerant through the suction line R-401A 25.9 R- 38.5 R-402A 41.1
from the ambient air outside the refrigerated space 407C
results in a net loss of system capacity. These losses
may be as high as 10% to 15%. Insulation of the suction R-401B 27.2 R-410A 57.7 R-408A 28.5
line is a worthwhile investment, and may be necessary R-134a 24.8 R-404A 39.4
to prevent the return gas temperature from rising too R-409A 25.4 R-507 41.3
high. This will also prevent the compressors discharge
temperature from rising too high. All of the refrigerants listed in Table 3-1 are slightly
heavier than water. A head of two feet of liquid refriger-
EFFECT OF PRESSURE DROP IN THE ant is approximately equivalent to 1 psi. Therefore if a
DISCHARGE LINE AND CONDENSER condenser or receiver in the basement of a building 20
feet tall is to supply liquid refrigerant to an evaporator
Pressure drop due to friction as the refrigerant vapor
on the roof, a pressure drop of approximately 10 psi
flows through the discharge line and condenser reduces
for the vertical head will occur. This must be provided
compressor capacity. This results in higher compressor
for in system design. (Refer to Section 1 - Pressure &
discharge pressure and lower volumetric efficiency.
Fluid Head.)
Since the condensing temperature is not greatly af-
fected, pressure drops of less than 5 psig have very EFFECT OF PRESSURE DROP IN THE
little effect on system capacity.
However, compressor power consumption will increase
Pressure drop occurring in the evaporator due to fric-
because of the higher compressor discharge pressure.
tional resistance to flow results in the leaving evaporator
For best operating economy, excessively high pres-
pressure being less than the pressure of the refrigerant
sure drops in the discharge line should be avoided. A
at the entrance of the evaporator. For a given load and
pressure drop in the discharge line between five and
coil, the required average refrigerant temperature is
ten psig. should be considered normal. Pressure drops
fixed. The greater the pressure drop, the greater the
over ten psig. should be avoided.
difference between the average evaporator refrigerant
pressure and the leaving evaporator refrigerant pres-

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
As the suction pressure leaving the evaporator is de- tions, the decreasing efficiency and excessively high
creased, the specific volume of the gas returning to the discharge temperatures become increasingly critical.
compressor increases, and the weight of the refriger- The lowest recommended evaporating temperature
ant pumped by the compressor decreases. Therefore for compressors operating on the simple single stage
pressure drop in the evaporator causes a decrease in compression cycle, is -40°F.
system capacity, and it is important that the evaporator
be sized so that abnormally high pressure drops do In order to increase operating efficiency at low tem-
not occur. peratures the compression can be done in two steps
or stages. For internally compound two stage operation
EFFECT OF PRESSURE DROP IN SUCTION LINE with equal compression ratios, the compression ratio
of each stage will be equal to the square root of the
The effect of pressure loss in the suction line is similar total compression ratio (approximately 1/4 of the total
to pressure drop in the evaporator. Since pressure drop compression ratio for the normal two-stage operating
in the suction line does not result in a corresponding range.) Since each stage of compression then is at
decrease in the refrigerant evaporating temperature in a much lower compression ratio, the compressor ef-
the evaporator. Pressure drop in the suction line can be ficiency is greatly increased. The temperature of the
extremely detrimental to system capacity. Suction lines refrigerant vapor leaving the first stage and entering the
must be sized to prevent excessive pressure losses. second stage may be high due to the heat of compres-
sion. This can result in overheating the second stage
Table 3-2 shows the capacity loss for a typical 7-1/2 cylinders and valves. To prevent compressor damage,
HP compressor as the result of suction line pressure saturated refrigerant must be injected between stages
drop. The table lists the losses for both R‑12 and R‑507 to properly cool the compressor.
refrigerants at a specific saturated suction tempera-
ture. The loss in capacity for an R‑12 compressor for a A two-stage compressor is designed so that suction gas
change of 3 psig., 1 psig. to 4 psig., is 20%. The loss is drawn directly into the low stage cylinders and then
in the R‑507 compressor for the same additional pres- discharged into the high stage cylinder or cylinders. On
sure drop is 12%. Copelametic® two-stage compressors the ratio of low
stage to high stage displacement is 2 to 1. The greater
Table 3-2 volume of the low stage cylinders is necessary because
Suction Line Pressure Drop of the difference in specific volume of the gas at the low
R‑12 and interstage pressures.
Suction Line Figures 3-6 and 3-7 illustrate typical two-stage com-
Evap. Pressure BTU/hr.
Pressure pressors as applied to low temperature systems.
Temp. at Comp. Capacity
Drop Two-stage refrigeration is effective down to evaporator
-10°F 1 psi 3.5 psig 27,490 temperatures of -80°F. Below that level, efficiency drops
off rapidly.
-10°F 2 psi 2.5 psig 25,950
-10°F 3 psi 1.5 psig 24,410 For additional application and service information on
internally compound compressors, refer to Application
-10°F 4 psi 0.5 psig 22,100
Engineering Bulletin AE 19-1132.
Suction Line
Evap. Pressure BTU/hr.
Pressure Two stage compression can be accomplished with
Temp. at Comp. Capacity
Drop the use of two compressors. The discharge of the first
-10°F 1 psi 24 psig 40,400 compressor becomes the suction of the second com-
pressor. (See Figure 3-8) Like the internally compound
-10°F 2 psi 23 psig 39,400 compressor, ideally the first compressor will have twice
-10°F 3 psi 22 psig 37,400 the displacement of the second. However, in the exter-
-10°F 4 psi 21 psig 35,500 nally compound system, it is not critical.
In the externally compound system, the ideal interstage
INTERNALLY COMPOUND TWO-STAGE SYSTEMS pressure absolute, can be calculated. It is the square
As the compression ratio increases, the volumetric ef- root of the absolute suction pressure times the absolute
ficiency of the compressor decreases and the heat of discharge pressure.
compression increases. For low temperature applica-

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
The externally compound system can have compres-
sors in parallel in either or both stages of the system.
Compressors can have unloaders. Parallel compres-
sors in both stages can be turned on and off to meet
the demands of the low temperature and interstage

System With 6-Cylinder Compressor (Without Liquid Sub-Cooler)

Figure 3-6

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
System With 6-Cylinder Compressor (With Sub-Cooler)
Figure 3-7

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.


Externally Compound System

Figure 3-8

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Low High
Stage Stage
Low High High
Stage Stage Stage
Cond . Evap . Cond .

Evap .

Cascade System
Figure 3-9

CASCADE SYSTEMS ants in the separate systems. Refrigerants with

characteristics and pressures suitable for ultra-low
In order to operate satisfactorily at even lower evap- temperature refrigeration can be used in the low
orating temperatures, and to increase the flexibility stage system. Cascade systems in multiples of two,
of system design, multiple stage refrigeration can three, or even more separate stages make possible
also be accomplished by using separate systems refrigeration at almost any desired evaporating
with the evaporator of one serving as the condenser temperature. Cascade systems composed of both
of the second by means of a heat exchanger. (See single and two-stage compressors can be used
Figure 3-9) This type of design is termed a cascade very effectively.
system, and allows the use of different refriger-

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Form No. AE 101 R2 (10/06)
Emerson®, Emerson. Consider It Solved™, Emerson Climate Technologies™ and 1675 W. Campbell Rd.
the Emerson Climate Technologies™ logo are the trademarks and service marks of
Emerson Electric Co. and are used with the permission of Emerson Electric Co. Sidney, OH 45365
Discus®, Copeland Compliant Scroll®, Copelametic®, Copeland®, and the
Copeland® brand products logo are the trademarks and service marks of Emerson
Climate Technologies, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Printed in the USA. © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Refrigeration Manual

Part 2 - Refrigeration System Components

This is the second of a series of publications comprising the Emerson Climate Technologies,
Inc. Refrigeration Manual, and follows Part 1, “Fundamentals of Refrigeration.”

The information included on refrigeration components is general in nature and is intended

only to give a brief description of their operation. Detailed information as to specific products
is available from manufacturers of components and accessories.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Part II


Reciprocating Compressors.............................. 4-1 Thermostatic Expansion Valves........................ 7- 1

Open Type Compressors................................... 4-2 Other Types of Expansion Valves...................... 7- 2
Accessible-Hermetic Motor-Compressors......... 4-2 Distributors........................................................ 7- 2
Welded Hermetic Motor-Compressors.............. 4-2 Capillary Tubes.................................................. 7- 2
Compressor Speed........................................... 4-2 Float Valves....................................................... 7- 8
Basic Compressor Operation............................ 4-4 Solenoid Valves................................................. 7- 8
Suction and Discharge Valves........................... 4-4 Crankcase Pressure Regulating Valves............ 7- 9
Compressor Displacement................................ 4-4 Evaporator Pressure Regulating Valve.............. 7- 9
Clearance Volume............................................. 4-4 Hot Gas Bypass Valves..................................... 7- 9
Lubrication......................................................... 4-5 Reversing Valves............................................... 7-10
Dry Air Holding Charge...................................... 4-6 Check Valves..................................................... 7-10
Compressor Cooling.......................................... 4-6 Manual Shut-Off Valves..................................... 7-11
Compressor Capacity........................................ 4-6 Compressor Service Valves.............................. 7-11
Two Stage Compressors................................... 4-6 Schrader Type Valve......................................... 7-11
Compressors with Unloaders .......................... 4-7 Pressure Relief Valves...................................... 7-12
Tandem Compressors....................................... 4-7 Fusible Plugs..................................................... 7-12
Water Regulating Valves................................... 7-12
Section 5.  CONDENSERS
Air Cooled Condensers..................................... 5-1
Water Cooled Condensers................................ 5-2 Control Differential............................................. 8-1
Evaporative Condensers................................... 5-4 Line Voltage and Low Voltage Controls............. 8-1
Condenser Capacity.......................................... 5-5 Low Pressure and High Pressure Controls....... 8-1
Condensing Temperature.................................. 5-5 Condenser Fan Cycling Control........................ 8-2
Non-Condensable Gases.................................. 5-5 Thermostats...................................................... 8-2
Condensing Temperature Difference................. 5-6 Oil Pressure Safety Control............................... 8-2
Time Clocks....................................................... 8-2
Section 6.  EVAPORATORS Relays............................................................... 8-3
Time Delay Relay.............................................. 8-3
Types of Evaporators........................................ 6-1 Transformers..................................................... 8-3
Blower Coil Construction................................... 6-1
Pressure Drop and Other Factors
in Evaporator Design.................................. 6-2
Evaporator Capacity.......................................... 6-2
Temperature Difference and
Dehumidification......................................... 6-2
Defrosting of Blower Coils................................. 6-3

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Section 9.  MOTORS Motor Protection................................................ 10-8
Internal Inherent Line Break Protector.............. 10-8
Motor Temperature............................................ 9-1 External Inherent Protector............................... 10-9
Open Type Motors and Belt Drives.................... 9-1 Internal Thermostats.......................................... 10-9
Hermetic Motors................................................ 9-2 External Thermostats........................................ 10-9
Nameplate Amperage........................................ 9-2 Current Sensitive Protectors............................. 10-9
Voltage and Frequency..................................... 9-3 Thermotector..................................................... 10-9
Three Phase Motors.......................................... 9-3 Solid State Protectors........................................ 10-9
Single Phase Motors......................................... 9-3 Fuses and Circuit Breakers............................... 10-9
Split Phase Motors............................................ 9-3 Effect of Unbalanced Voltage and Current
Capacitor Start-Induction Run Motors on Three Phase Motor Protection.............. 10-10
(CSIR)........................................................ 9-4
Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run Motors Section 11.  ACCESSORIES
(CSR)......................................................... 9-4
Permanent Split Capacitor Motors (PSC).......... 9-5 Receivers.......................................................... 11-1
Dual Voltage Motors.......................................... 9-5 Heat Exchangers............................................... 11-1
Two Phase Motors............................................. 9-6 Suction Accumulators........................................ 11-1
Oil Separators................................................... 11-2
Section 10.  STARTING EQUIPMENT AND MOTOR Dehydrators....................................................... 11-2
PROTECTORS Suction Line Filters............................................ 11-2
Vibration Eliminators.......................................... 11-2
Contactors and Starters.................................... 10-1 Strainers............................................................ 11-3
Capacitors......................................................... 10-1 Sight Glass and Moisture Indicators.................. 11-3
Start Capacitors................................................. 10-2 Discharge Mufflers............................................ 11-3
Run Capacitors.................................................. 10-2 Crankcase Heaters............................................ 11-3
Reduced Voltage Starting.................................. 10-3 Refrigeration Gauges........................................ 11-4

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 4

The compressor has two functions in the compression RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

refrigeration cycle. First it removes the refrigerant vapor
from the evaporator and reduces the pressure in the The design of the reciprocating compressor is somewhat
evaporator to a point where the desired evaporating similar to a modern automotive engine, with a piston
temperature can be maintained. Second, the compressor driven from a crankshaft making alternate suction
raises the pressure of the refrigerant vapor to a level and compression strokes in a cylinder equipped with
high enough so that the saturation temperature is higher suction and discharge valves. Since the reciprocating
than the temperature of the cooling medium available compressor is a positive displacement pump, it is suitable
for condensing the refrigerant vapor. for small displacement volumes, and is quite efficient at
high condensing pressures and high compression ratios.
There are three basic types of compressors; reciprocating, Other advantages are its adaptability to a number of
rotary, and centrifugal. Centrifugal compressors are different refrigerants, the fact that liquid refrigerant may
widely used in large central air conditioning systems, be easily run through connecting piping because of the
and rotary compressors are used in the domestic high pressure created by the compressor, its durability,
refrigerator field, but the overwhelming majority of basic simplicity of design, and relatively low cost.
compressors used in the smaller horsepower sizes
for commercial, domestic, and industrial applications An exploded view of a typical Copelametic® accessible-
are reciprocating, and this manual will cover only hermetic motor-compressor is shown in Figure 10.
reciprocating compressors.

4-1 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Early models of refrigeration compressors were of the In an effort to further decrease size and cost, the welded
so-called open type, with the pistons and cylinders sealed hermetic motor-compressor has been developed, and
within a crankcase, and a crankshaft extending through is widely used in small horsepower unitary equipment.
the body for an external power source. A shaft seal As in the case of the accessible-hermetic motor-
around the crankshaft prevented the loss of refrigerant compressor an electric motor is mounted directly on the
and oil from the body. compressor crankshaft, but the body is a formed metal
shell hermetically sealed by welding. No internal field
Although at one time open type compressors were widely repairs can be performed on this type of compressor
used, they have many inherent disadvantages such as since the only means of access is by cutting open the
greater weight, higher cost, larger size, vulnerability to compressor shell.
seal failures, difficult shaft alignment, excessive noise,
and short life of belts or direct drive components. As
a result, the open type compressor has been largely
replaced with the accessible-hermetic and hermetic
type motor-compressor in most applications, and the
use of open type compressors continues to decline
except for specialized applications such as automobile
air conditioning.


The accessible-hermetic motor-compressor design was

pioneered by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. and
is widely used in the popular Copelametic® models.
The compressor is driven by an electric motor mounted
directly on the compressor crankshaft, with both the motor COMPRESSOR SPEED
and the compressor working parts hermetically sealed
within a common enclosure. The troublesome shaft seal Early models of compressors were designed for relatively
is eliminated, motors can be sized specifically for the slow speed operation, well below 1,000 RPM. In order
load to be handled, and the resulting design is compact, to utilize standard 4 pole electric motors, accessible-
economical, efficient, and basically maintenance free. hermetic and hermetic motor-compressors introduced
operation at 1,750 RPM (1,450 RPM on 50 cycle). The
Removable heads, stator covers, bottom plates, and increasing demand for lighter weight and more compact
housing covers allow access for easy field repairs in air conditioning equipment has been instrumental in the
the event of compressor damage. development of hermetic motor-compressors equipped
with 2 pole motors operating at 3,500 RPM (2,900 RPM
on 50 cycle).

Specialized applications such as aircraft, automotive, or

military air conditioning equipment utilize even higher
speed compressors, but for the normal commercial
and domestic application, the existing 60 cycle electric
power supply will generally limit compressor speeds to
the presently available 1,750 and 3,500 RPM.

Higher compressor speeds introduce lubrication and

life problems, and these factors as well as cost, size
and weight must be considered in compressor design
and application.

(continued on p. 4-4)

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 4-2

4-3 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
BASIC COMPRESSOR OPERATION Technologies, Inc. publishes the displacement of a
compressor in terms of cubic feet per hour, but some
A cross-sectional view of a typical Copelametic® motor- manufacturers rate their compressors in terms of
compressor is shown in Figure 13. Following is a brief cubic inch displacement per revolution, or in cubic feet
description of its operation. per minute. For comparative purposes, compressor
displacement may be calculated by the following
As the piston moves downward on the suction stroke, formulas:
pressure is reduced in the cylinder. When the pressure
falls below that in the compressor suction line, the Displacement
pressure differential causes the suction valves to
open and forces the refrigerant vapor to flow into the CFM = π x D² x L x RPM x N
cylinder. 4 x 1728
CFH = π x D² x L x RPM x N x 60
As the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke and 4 x 1728
starts upward on the compression stroke, pressure is Cu. In./Rev. = π x D² x L x N
developed in the cylinder, forcing the suction valves 4
closed. The pressure in the cylinder continues to rise
as the piston moves upward, compressing the vapor Conversion Factors
trapped in the cylinder. When the pressure in the
cylinder exceeds the pressure existing in the compressor 1750 RPM 3500 RPM
discharge line, the discharge valves are forced open, CFH = 60 x CFM 60 x CFM
and the compressed gas flows into the discharge line CFH = 60.78 x 121.5 x
and on into the condenser. Cu. In./Rev. Cu. In./Rev.
CFM = 1.013 x 2.025 x
When the piston starts downward, the reduction in Cu. In./Rev. Cu. In./Rev.
pressure allows the discharge valves to close because Cu. In./Rev. = .01645 x CFH .00823 x CFH
of the higher pressure in the condenser and discharge CFM = Cubic feet per minute
line, and the cycle is repeated. CFH = Cubic feet per hour
Cu. In./Rev. = Cubic inch displacement per
For every revolution of the crankshaft, there is both a revolution
suction and compression stroke of each piston, so in π = 3.1416
1,750 RPM motor-compressors there are 1,750 complete D= Cylinder bore, inches
compression and suction cycles in each cylinder each L= Length of stroke, inches
minute, and in 3,500 RPM motor-compressors, 3,500 N= Number of cylinders
complete cycles each minute. RPM = Revolutions per minute
1728 = Cubic inches per cubic foot
Since the parts of the compressor most apt to require
service are the suction and discharge valves, on CLEARANCE VOLUME
Copelametic® compressors these valves are mounted
on a valve plate which can be removed for easy service As mentioned previously, the volumetric efficiency of
or replacement. A typical valve plate is shown in Figure a compressor will vary with compressor design. If the
10, part number 11. valves seat properly, the most important factor affecting
compressor efficiency is clearance volume.
Most reciprocating compressor valves are of the reed
type, and must seat properly to avoid leakage. The least At the completion of the compression stroke, there still
bit of foreign material or corrosion under the valve will remains some clearance space which is essential if
cause leakage and the utmost care must be used in the piston is not to hit the valve plate. There is also a
protecting the compressor against contamination. great deal more space in the discharge valve ports in
the valve plate, since the discharge valves are on top of
COMPRESSOR DISPLACEMENT the valve plate. This residual space which is unswept by
the piston at the end of the stroke is termed clearance
The displacement of a reciprocating compressor is the volume, and remains filled with hot, compressed gas
volume displaced by the pistons. Emerson Climate at the end of the compression stroke.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 4-4
When the piston starts down on the suction stroke, the A typical compound gauge is calibrated in inches of
residual high pressure gas expands and its pressure mercury for vacuum readings, and 2 inches of mercury
is reduced. No vapor from the suction line can enter are approximately equal to 1 psi.
the cylinder until the pressure in the cylinder has been
reduced below the suction line pressure. Thus, the first For example:
part of the suction stroke is actually lost from a capacity Pump Net Oil
standpoint, and as the compression ratio increases, a Crankcase Outlet Pump
greater percentage of the suction stroke is occupied by Pressure Pressure Pressure
the residual gas. 50 psig 90 psig 40 psi
8” vacuum 36 psig 40 psi
With high suction pressures, the compression ratio is (equivalent to a reading of minus 4 psig)
low and clearance volume is not critical from a capacity
standpoint. Additional clearance volume is also helpful In normal operation, the net oil pressure will vary
in reducing the compressor noise level. Since lower depending on the size of the compressor, the temperature
gas velocities through the discharge ports reduce both and viscosity of the oil, and the amount of clearance in
wear and operating power requirements, on Copeland® the compressor bearings. Net oil pressures of 30 to 40 psi
brand air conditioning compressors, valve plates are are normal, but adequate lubrication will be maintained
designed with greater clearance volume by increasing at pressures down to 10 psi. The bypass valve is set
the diameter of the discharge ports. at the factory to prevent the net pump pressure from
exceeding 60 psi.
On low temperature applications, it is often necessary
to reduce the clearance volume to obtain the desired The oil pump may be operated in either direction, the
capacity. Low temperature valve plates having smaller reversing action being accomplished by a friction plate
discharge port sizes to reduce the clearance volume are which shifts the inlet and outlet ports. After prolonged
used on low temperature Copelametic® compressors. operation in one direction, wear, corrosion, varnish
formation, or burrs may develop on the reversing plate,
LUBRICATION and this can prevent the pump from reversing. Therefore,
on installations where compressors have been in
An adequate supply of oil must be maintained in the service for some time, care must be taken to maintain
crankcase at all times to insure continuous lubrication. the original phasing of the motor if for any reason the
The normal oil level should be maintained at or slightly electrical connections are disturbed.
above the center of the sight class.
The presence of liquid refrigerant in the crankcase can
On all Copelametic® compressors 5 H.P. and larger in materially affect the operation of the oil pump. Violent
size, and on 3 H.P. “NR” models, compressor lubrication foaming on start up can result in the loss of oil from
is provided by means of a positive displacement oil the crankcase, and a resulting loss of oil pressure until
pump. The pump is mounted on the bearing housing, oil returns to the crankcase. If liquid refrigerant or a
and is driven from a slot in the crankshaft into which the refrigerant rich mixture of oil and refrigerant is drawn
flat end of the oil pump drive shaft is fitted. into the oil pump, the resulting flash gas may result
in large variations and possibly a loss of oil pressure.
Oil is forced through a hole in the crankshaft to the Crankcase pressure may vary from suction pressure
compressor bearings and connecting rods. A spring since liquid refrigerant in the crankcase can pressurize
loaded ball check valve serves as a pressure relief the crankcase for short intervals, and the oil pressure
device, allowing oil to bypass directly to the compressor safety switch low pressure connection should
crankcase if the oil pressure rises above its setting. always be connected to the crankcase.

Since the oil pump intake is connected directly to the During a rapid pull-down of the refrigerant evaporating
compressor crankcase, the oil pump inlet pressure temperature, the amount of refrigerant in solution in the
will always be crankcase pressure, and the oil pump crankcase oil will be reduced, and may cause flash gas at
outlet pressure will be the sum of crankcase pressure the oil pump. During this period the oil pump must pump
plus oil pump pressure. Therefore, the net oil pump both the flash gas and oil, and as a result the oil pressure
pressure is always the pump outlet pressure minus the may decrease temporarily. This will merely cause the oil
crankcase pressure. When the compressor is operating pump to bypass less oil, and so long as the oil pressure
with the suction pressure in a vacuum, the crankcase remains above 9 psi, adequate lubrication
pressure is negative and must be added to the pump
outlet pressure to determine the net oil pump pressure.

4-5 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
will be maintained. As soon as a stabilized condition is compressors have been developed for increased
reached, and liquid refrigerant is no longer reaching the efficiency when evaporating temperatures are in the
pump, the oil pressure will return to normal. -30° F. to -80° F. range.

DRY AIR HOLDING CHARGE Two stage compressors are divided internally into low
(or first) and high (or second) stages. On Copelametic®
All Copeland® brand compressors are thoroughly two stage compressors now in production, the ratio of
dehydrated at the factory, and are shipped with a dry air low stage to high stage displacement is 2 to 1. The three
holding charge. The pressure inside a factory processed cylinder models have two cylinders on the low stage and
compressor is a guarantee that the compressor is leak one on the high, while the six cylinder models have four
tight, and the interior is absolutely dry. When installed, cylinders on the low and two on the high.
the compressor must be evacuated to remove the air
from the system.


Air cooled compressors require an adequate flow

of cooling air over the compressor body to prevent
the compressor from overheating. The air flow from
the fan must be discharged directly on the motor-
compressor. Air drawn through a compartment in which
the compressor is located usually will not cool the
compressor adequately.

Water cooled compressors are provided with a water

jacket or wrapped with a copper water coil, and water
must be circulated through the cooling circuit when the
compressor is in operation.

Refrigerant cooled motor-compressors are designed

so that suction gas flows around and through the
motor for cooling. At evaporating temperatures below
0° F. additional motor cooling by means of air flow is
necessary since the decreasing density of the refrigerant
gas reduces its cooling ability.

COMPRESSOR CAPACITY The suction gas enters the low stage cylinders directly
from the suction line, and is discharged into the interstage
Capacity data is available from the manufacturer on manifold at interstage pressure. Since the interstage
each model of compressor for the refrigerants with which discharge vapor has a relatively high temperature,
the compressor can be used. This data may be in the liquid refrigerant must be metered into the interstage
form of curves or in tabular form, and lists the BTU/hr. manifold by the desuperheating expansion valve to
capacity at various saturated suction and discharge provide adequate motor cooling and prevent excessive
temperatures. temperatures during second stage compression. The
discharge of the low stage enters the motor chamber
It is difficult to estimate compressor capacities accurately and crankcase, so the crankcase is at interstage
on the basis of displacement and compression ratio pressure.
because of design differences between different models,
but occasionally these factors can be valuable in Desuperheated refrigerant vapor at interstage pressure
estimating the comparative performance of compressors enters the suction ports of the high stage cylinders, and
on the same application. is then discharged to the condenser at the condensing
See Figures 6 and 7 on pages 3-6 and 3-7 of Part I
Because of the high compression ratios encountered for typical two stage systems.
in ultra-low temperature applications, two stage

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 4-6

In order to provide a means of changing compressor It is often desirable to interconnect two compressors on a
capacity under fluctuating load conditions, larger single refrigeration system as a means of varying capacity
compressors are frequently equipped with unloaders. according to the system requirement. This immediately
Unloaders on reciprocating compressors are of two introduces lubrication problems, for unless the pressures
general types. In the first, suction valves on one or more in the two crankcases are equalized, the oil will leave
cylinders are held open by some mechanical means in the crankcase having the highest pressure.
response to a pressure control device. With the suction
valves open, refrigerant vapor is forced back into the In order to solve the troublesome problems of oil
suction chamber during the compression stroke, and equalization and vibration of connecting oil lines while
the cylinder performs no pumping action. obtaining the advantage of interconnected compressors,
the tandem compressor was developed.
A second means of unloading is to bypass a portion of
the discharge gas into the compressor suction chamber. Basically this consists of two individual compressors
Care must be taken to avoid excessive discharge with an interconnecting housing replacing the individual
temperatures when this is done. stator covers. Since each compressor may be operated
individually, the tandem provides simple, foolproof
Copelametic® compressors with unloaders have a capacity reduction with maximum power savings, and
bypass valve so arranged that discharge gas from an greatly simplifies system control.
unloaded cylinder is returned to the suction chamber.
During the unloaded operation, the unloaded cylinder The tandem offers a much greater factor of safety than
is sealed from the discharge pressure created by the a single compressor, and allows staggered starting to
loaded cylinders. Since both suction and discharge reduce inrush current requirements. In the event of
pressures on the unloaded cylinder are approximately failure of one of the compressors, emergency operation
the same, the piston and cylinder do no work other of the remaining compressor may be continued until
than pumping vapor through the bypass circuit, and replacement of the inoperative motor-compressor. In
the problem of cylinder overheating while unloaded is order to provide maximum protection for the system in
practically eliminated. Because of the decreased volume the event of the failure of one compressor, a suction line
of suction vapor returning to the compressor from the filter should always be provided in the suction line of
system and available for motor cooling, the operating a tandem compressor, and an adequately sized liquid
range of unloaded compressors must be restricted, line filter-drier should be provided in the liquid line.
and operation beyond established limits can cause
compressor overheating.

4-7 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 5

The condenser is basically a heat exchanger where the surface is amply sized, air cooled condensers can be
heat absorbed by the refrigerant during the evaporating used satisfactorily in all climatic regions. They have been
process is given off to the condensing medium. As used very successfully for many years in hot and dry
mentioned previously, the heat given off by the condenser areas where water is scarce. Because of the increasing
is always greater than the heat absorbed during the scarcity of water in densely populated areas, the use
evaporating process because of the heat of compression. of air cooled condensers will undoubtedly increase in
As heat is given off by the high temperature high the future.
pressure vapor, its temperature falls to the saturation
point and the vapor condenses to a liquid, hence the When space permits, condensers may be made with a
name condenser. single row of tubing, but in order to achieve compact size,
condensers are normally constructed with a relatively
AIR COOLED CONDENSERS small face area and several rows of tubing in depth. As
the air is forced through the condenser, it absorbs heat
The most commonly used condenser is of tube and and the air temperature rises. Therefore, the efficiency
external fin construction, which dissipates heat to of each succeeding row in the coil decreases, although
the ambient air. Except for very small domestic units, coils up to eight rows in depth are frequently used.
which depend on gravity air circulation, heat transfer is
efficiently accomplished by forcing large quantities of Draw-through fans, which pull the air through the
air through a compact condenser assembly. A typical condenser, result in a more uniform air flow through
refrigeration condensing unit equipped with an air cooled the condenser than the blow-through type. Since even
condenser is shown in Figure 16. air distribution will increase the condenser efficiency,
draw-through type fans are normally preferred.

Most air cooled refrigeration systems which are

operated in low ambient temperatures are susceptible
to damage due to abnormally low head pressure, unless
adequate means of maintaining normal head pressure
are provided. This is true, especially with refrigerated
truck units parked outdoors or in unheated garages, roof
mounted refrigeration or air conditioning systems, or any
system exposed to low outside ambient temperatures.
The capacity of refrigerant control devices (expansion
valves, capillary tubes, etc.) is dependent upon the
pressure difference across the device. Since they are
selected for the desired capacity with normal operating
pressures, abnormally low head pressure reducing
the pressure difference across the expansion valve or
capillary tube, may result in insufficient refrigerant flow.
This can cause erratic refrigerant feed to the evaporator,
and may result in frosting of the evaporator coil on air
conditioning applications. The lower refrigerant velocity,
and possibly lower evaporator pressure, permits oil to
settle out and trap in the evaporator, sometimes causing
shortage of oil in the compressor crankcase.

Air cooled condensers are easy to install, inexpensive Several proprietary systems are available employing
to maintain, require no water, and there is no danger of the principle of partially flooding the condenser with
freezing in cold weather. However, an adequate supply liquid refrigerant to reduce condensing capacity. Some
of fresh air is necessary, and the fan may create noise of these systems result in very stable condensing
problems in large installations. In very hot regions, the pressures, but usually they require a large increase
relatively high temperature of the ambient air may result in the refrigerant charge which may cause problems
in high condensing pressures, but if the condenser in system performance. Controlling the condenser air

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 5-1
flow by means of louvers is also an effective means of A pressure or temperature sensitive modulating water
condensing pressure control. Cycling the condenser fan control valve can be used to maintain condensing
is a simple but less effective means of control. pressures within the desired range by increasing or
decreasing the rate of water flow as necessary.
Cooling water circuits in compressors with water jackets
When adequate low cost condensing water is available, and in water cooled condensers may be either series
water cooled condensers are often desirable because or parallel as required by the particular application. The
of the lower condensing pressures and better head use of parallel circuits results in a lower pressure drop
pressure control is possible. Water, particularly from through the circuit, and may be necessary when the
underground sources, is frequently much colder than temperature of the cooling water is such that the water
daytime air temperatures. If evaporative cooling towers temperature rise must be held to a minimum.
are used, the condensing water can be cooled to a point
closely approaching the ambient wet bulb temperature. Occasionally condensers may be damaged by excessive
This allows the continuous recirculation of condensing water velocities or cavitation on the water side of
water and reduces water consumption to a minimum. the condenser tubes. In order to prevent operating
difficulties, care should be taken to follow the installation
Because of water’s excellent heat transfer characteristics, recommendations as outlined below:
water cooled condensers can be quite compact. Several
different types of construction are used including shell 1. Water velocities through the condenser should not
and coil, shell and tube, and tube within a tube styles. exceed 7 feet per second. Higher velocities can result
Normally the cooling water is run through tubing or coils in “impingement corrosion”. This is a condition in which
within a sealed shell into which the hot gas is discharged progressive erosion of the tube can occur due to the high
from the compressor. As the refrigerant condenses it water velocity washing away the inner oxidized surface
can be fed out the refrigerant liquid line, thus making of the tube at points where excessive turbulence may
the use of a separate receiver unnecessary. A water occur. This can originate with a minute imperfection on
cooled condensing unit equipped with a shell and tube the tube inner surface, but it becomes progressively
condenser is shown in Figure 17. worse as the pitting increases.
(continued on p. 5-4)

5-2 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Figure No.18 illustrates the type of circuiting normally used on all standard condensing units using city water supply. All water
cooled condensing units are shipped from the factory with the connections as shown above, and water connections must be
modified in the field if parallel circuits are desired.

Figure No.19 illustrates a condenser with parallel circuits connected to a motor-compressor with a straight-through circuit. This
type of circuiting is frequently used when the condensing water is cooled by a water tower . The straight-through compressor
circuit would be used when connecting a motor-compressor wrapped with an external water coil.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 5-3
Figure No.20 shows parallel circuits in both water cooled condenser and the motor-compressor water jacket. Each water jacket
circuit is connected in series with one circuit of the split condenser. This type of water circuiting is used when a minimum of
water pressure drop is required.

In order to maintain water velocities at an acceptable discharge connection with a high vertical drop could
level, parallel circuiting of the condenser may be result in cavitation in a manner similar to a pump on
necessary when high water flow is required. the outlet of the condenser.

2. If a water circulating pump is used, install so that the EVAPORATIVE CONDENSERS

condenser is fed from the discharge side of the pump. If
the pump were on the discharge side of the condenser, Evaporative condensers are frequently used where
the condenser would have a slight vacuum in the water lower condensing temperatures are desired than are
system, and therefore the water would be much nearer obtainable with air cooled condensers, and where the
its boiling point. A combination of a localized hot spot in available water supply may not be adequate for heavy
the condenser together with a localized velocity increase water usage. The hot refrigerant vapor is piped through
that might reduce pressures even lower, could result in a spray chamber where it is cooled by evaporation of the
triggering a cavitation condition. water coming in contact with the refrigerant tubing.

Cavitation is basically a condition where a fluctuating Water which is exposed to air flow in a spray chamber
combination of pressure and temperature can cause will evaporate rapidly. Latent heat required for the
instantaneous boiling or flashing of water into vapor, with evaporating process is obtained by a reduction in sensible
the subsequent collapse of the bubbles as the conditions heat and, therefore, a reduction in the temperature of
vary. This can result in very rapid erosion and destruction the water remaining. An evaporative spray chamber
of the water tube. Maintaining a positive pressure in the can reduce the water temperature to a point closely
condenser will prevent this condition. approaching the wet bulb temperature of the air.

3. If the condenser is installed more than 5 feet higher Wet bulb temperature is a term used in air conditioning to
than the outlet drain point of the condenser, a vacuum describe the lowest temperature that can be obtained by
breaker or open vent line should be provided to prevent the evaporating process. The term wet bulb temperature
the discharge line from creating a partial vacuum is derived from the fact that a common mercury bulb
condition in the condenser water system. An unvented thermometer exposed to the ambient air

5-4 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
indicates the dry bulb or ambient temperature, while if a difference between the refrigerant gas and the
wick wetted with water is placed around the mercury bulb condensing medium.
and the thermometer is exposed to rapid air movement,
the temperature indicated by the thermometer will be the CONDENSING TEMPERATURE
wet bulb temperature. The difference between the dry
bulb and wet bulb readings is determined by the rate of The condensing temperature is the temperature at which
evaporation from the wet surface of the wick, and this the refrigerant gas is condensing from a vapor to a liquid.
in turn is proportional to the moisture content or vapor This should not be confused with the temperature of
pressure of the air. The wet bulb temperature is always the cooling medium, since the condensing temperature
lower than the dry bulb temperature, and for a given dry must always be higher in order for heat transfer to take
bulb, the less the moisture content of the air, the lower place.
the wet bulb temperature will be.
In order to condense the refrigerant vapor flowing into
Since the cooling is accomplished by evaporation of the the condenser, heat must flow from the condenser at the
water, water consumption is only a fraction of that used same rate at which heat is introduced by the refrigerant
in conventional water cooled applications in which the gas entering the condenser. As mentioned previously,
water once used is discharged to a drain. Evaporative the only way in which the capacity of the condenser
condensing is therefore widely used in hot, arid regions can be increased under a given set of conditions is by
of the world. an increase in the temperature difference through the
condenser walls.
Corrosion, scale formation, and the danger of freezing
are problems that must be solved with both evaporative Since a reciprocating compressor is a positive
and water cooled condensers. With both cooling towers displacement machine, the pressure in the condenser
and evaporative condensers, a bleed to a drain must be will continue to increase until such time as the
provided to prevent the concentration of contaminants temperature difference between the cooling medium and
in the cooling water. the refrigerant condensing temperature is sufficiently
great to transfer the necessary amount of heat. With
CONDENSER CAPACITY a large condenser, this temperature difference may be
very small. With a small condenser or in the event air
The heat transfer capacity of a condenser depends or water flow to the condenser has been blocked, the
upon several factors: necessary temperature difference may be very large.
This can result in dangerously high pressures, and it is
1. Surface area of the condenser . essential that the condenser is operating properly any
time a refrigeration unit is in operation.
2. Temperature difference between the cooling medium
and the refrigerant gas. The condensing temperature and therefore the
condensing pressure is determined by the capacity
3. Velocity of the refrigerant gas in the condenser tubes. of the condenser, the temperature of the cooling
Within the normal commercial operating range, the medium, and the heat content of the refrigerant gas
greater the velocity, the better the heat transfer factor, being discharged from the compressor, which in turn is
and the greater the capacity. determined by the volume, density and temperature of
the gas discharged.
4. Rate of flow of the cooling medium over or through
the condenser. Heat transfer increases with velocity NON-CONDENSABLE GASES
for both air and water, and in the case of air, it also
increases with density. Air is primarily composed of nitrogen and oxygen, and
both elements remain in gaseous form at all temperatures
5. Material of which the condenser is made. Since heat and pressures encountered in commercial refrigeration
transfer differs with different materials, more efficient and air conditioning systems. Therefore, although these
metals will increase the capacity. gases can be liquefied under extremely high pressures
and extremely low temperatures, they may be considered
6. Cleanliness of the heat transfer surface. Dirt, scale, as non-condensable in a refrigeration system.
or corrosion can reduce the heat transfer rate.
Scientists have discovered that one of the basic laws of
For a given condenser, the physical characteristics nature is the fact that in a combination of gases, each
are fixed, and the primary variable is the temperature gas exerts its own pressure independently of others,

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 5-5
and the total pressure existing in a system is the total CONDENSING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
of all the gaseous pressures present. A second basic
characteristic of a gas is that if the space in which it is A condenser is normally selected for a system by sizing it
enclosed remains constant, so that it cannot expand, to handle the compressor load at a desired temperature
its pressure will vary directly with the temperature. difference between the condensing temperature and
Therefore, if air is sealed in a system with refrigerant, the expected temperature of the cooling medium.
the nitrogen and oxygen will each add their pressure Most air cooled condensers are selected to operate on
to the system pressure, and this will increase as the temperature differences (commonly called TD) of 20°
temperature rises. F. to 30° F. at design conditions, but higher and lower
TDs are sometimes used on specialized applications.
Since the air is non-condensable, it will usually trap Standard production air cooled condensing units are
in the top of the condenser and the receiver. During often designed with one condenser for a wide range
operation the compressor discharge pressure will be a of applications. In order to cover as wide a range as
combination of the refrigerant condensing pressure plus possible, the TD at high suction pressures may be from
the pressure exerted by the nitrogen and oxygen. The 30° F. to 40° F., while at low evaporating temperatures
amount of pressure above normal condensing pressure the TD often is no more than 4° F. to 10° F. The design
that may result will depend on the amount of trapped air, condensing temperature on water cooled units is normally
but it can easily reach 40 to 50 psig or more. Any time a determined by the temperature of the water supply and
system is running with abnormally high head pressure, the water flow rate available, and may vary from 90° F.
air in the system is a prime suspect . to 120° F.

Since the condenser capacity must be greater than the

evaporator capacity by the heat of compression and the
motor efficiency loss, the condenser manufacturer may
rate condensers in terms of evaporator capacity, or may
recommend a factor to allow for the heat of compression
in selecting the proper condenser size.

5-6 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 6

The evaporator is that part of the low pressure side of In other types of systems, secondary refrigerants such
the refrigeration system in which the liquid refrigerant as chilled water or brine may be used for the actual
boils or evaporates, absorbing heat as it changes into a space or product refrigeration while the evaporator is the
vapor. It accomplishes the actual purpose of the system, water or brine chiller. A complete packaged water chiller,
refrigeration. designed to furnish chilled water for air conditioning or
other cooling applications is shown in Figure 22.

Evaporators are made in many different shapes and

styles to fill specific needs. The most common style
is the blower coil or forced convection evaporator in
which the refrigerant evaporates inside of finned tubes,
extracting heat from air blown through the coil by a fan.
However, specific applications may use bare coils with
no fins, gravity coils with natural convection air flow,
flat plate surface, or other specialized types of heat
transfer surface.

Direct expansion evaporators are those in which the

refrigerant is fed directly into the cooling coil through a
metering device such as an expansion valve or capillary
tube, absorbing the heat directly through the walls of
the evaporator from the medium to be cooled. Figure
21 shows a direct expansion coil of one manufacturer
prior to assembly in a blower unit.


A typical blower coil is made up of a direct expansion

coil, mounted in a metal housing complete with a fan for
forced air circulation. The coil is normally constructed
of copper tubing supported in metal tube sheets, with
aluminum fins on the tubing to increase heat transfer

If the evaporator is quite small, there may be only one

continuous circuit in the coil, but as the size increases,
the increasing pressure drop through the longer circuit
makes it necessary to divide the evaporator into several
individual circuits emptying into a common header. The
various circuits are usually fed through a distributor which
equalizes the feed in each circuit in order to maintain
high evaporator efficiency.

The spacing of fins on the refrigerant tubing will vary

depending on the application. Low temperature coils may
have as few as two fins per inch, while air conditioning
coils may have up to twelve per inch or more. In general

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 6-1
if the evaporator temperature is to be below 32° F. so commercial range, the higher the velocity the greater
that frost will accumulate, fin spacings of 4 per inch or the heat transfer rate.
less are commonly used, although closer fin spacings
are sometimes used if efficient defrost systems are 4. The velocity and rate of flow over the evaporator
available. In air conditioning applications, icing of the surface of the medium being cooled.
coil is seldom a problem, and the limit on fin spacing
may be dictated by the coil’s resistance to air flow. 5. Material used in evaporator construction.

Since the heat transfer efficiency of the coil increases 6. The bond between the fins and tubing is quite
with an increase in the mass flow of air passing through important. Without a tight bond, heat transfer will be
it, high velocities are desirable. However at face velocities greatly decreased.
greater than 500 to 600 FPM, water collecting on the coil
from condensation will be blown off into the air stream, 7. Accumulation of frost on evaporator fins. Operation
and except for specialized applications, these velocities at temperatures below freezing with blower coils will
are seldom exceeded. cause the formation of ice and frost on the tubes
and fins. This can both reduce the air flow over the
PRESSURE DROP AND OTHER FACTORS IN evaporator and reduce the heat transfer rate.
8. Type of medium to be cooled. Heat flows almost five
As mentioned previously, pressure drop occurring in the times more effectively from a liquid to the evaporator
evaporator results in a loss of system capacity due to than from air .
the lower pressure at the outlet of the evaporator coil.
With a reduction in suction pressure, the specific volume 9. Dewpoint of the entering air. If the evaporator
of the gas returning to the compressor increases, and temperature is below the dewpoint of the entering
the weight of the refrigerant pumped by the compressor air, latent as well as sensible cooling will occur.
However there are other factors which must also be DEHUMIDIFICATION
considered in evaporator design. If the evaporator tubing
is too large, refrigerant gas velocities may become so Since for a given installation, the physical characteristics
low that oil will accumulate in the tubing and will not be are fixed, the primary variable as in the case of the
returned to the compressor. The only means of assuring condenser, is the temperature difference between the
satisfactory oil circulation is by maintaining adequate gas evaporating refrigerant and the medium being cooled,
velocities. The heat transfer ability of the tubing may also commonly called the TD. For a blower coil, the colder
be greatly decreased if velocities are not sufficient to the refrigerant with respect to the temperature of the air
scrub the interior tubing wall, and keep it clear of an oil entering the evaporator, the greater will be the capacity
film. The goals of low pressure drop and high velocities of the coil.
are directly opposed, so the final evaporator design must
be a compromise. Temperature differences of 5° F. to 20° F. are commonly
used. Usually for best economy, the TD should be kept
Pressure drops through the evaporator of approximately as low as possible, since operation of the compressor
1 to 2 psi are acceptable on most medium and high will be more efficient at higher suction pressures.
temperature applications, and 1/2 to 1 psi are common
in low temperature evaporators. The amount of moisture condensed out of the air is
in direct relation to the temperature of the coil, and a
EVAPORATOR CAPACITY coil operating with too great a differential between the
evaporating temperature and the entering air temperature
The factors affecting evaporator capacity are quite similar will tend to produce a low humidity condition in the
to those affecting condenser capacity. refrigerated space. In the storage of leafy vegetables,
meats, fruits, and other similar perishable items, low
1. Surface area or size of the evaporator . humidity will result in excessive dehydration and damage
to the product. For perishable commodities requiring a
2. Temperature difference between the evaporating very high relative humidity (approximately 90%) a TD
refrigerant and the medium being cooled. from 8° F. to 12° F. is recommended, and for relative
humidities slightly lower (approximately 80%) a TD from
3. Velocity of gas in the evaporator tubes. In the normal 12° F. to 16° F. is normally adequate.

6-2 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
DEFROSTING OF BLOWER COILS utilize electric heater coils or rods in the evaporator.
Proprietary systems using water for defrosting are
Ice and frost will accumulate continuously on coils available. Hot gas defrosting is widely used, with the
operating below freezing temperatures, and air flow discharge gas from the compressor bypassing the
through the coil will be eventually blocked unless the condenser and discharging directly into the evaporator
frost is removed. To allow continuous operation on inlet. In hot gas defrost systems, the heat of compression
refrigeration applications where frost accumulation can or some source of stored heat provides defrost heat,
occur, periodic defrost cycles are necessary. and adequate protective devices such as re-evaporators
or suction accumulators must be provided if necessary
If the air returning to the evaporator is well above 32° to prevent liquid refrigerant from returning to the
F., defrosting can be accomplished by allowing the compressor. Other systems may utilize reverse cycle
fan to continue operation while the compressor is shut defrosting, in which the flow of refrigerant is reversed
down, either for a preset time period or until the coil to convert the evaporator temporarily into a condenser
temperature rises a few degrees above 32° F., the until the defrost period is complete.
melting temperature of the frost.
To prevent refreezing of the melted condensate in the
For low temperature applications, some source of heat evaporator drain pan, a drain pan heater is required on
must be supplied to melt the ice. Electric defrost systems low temperature systems.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 6-3
Section 7

In modern refrigeration practice, a wide variety of

refrigerant control devices are used to obtain efficient
economic operation. Small systems with manual control
or simple “on-off” automatic control may require only one
or two controls, but large systems with more elaborate
automatic control may have a multitude of controls,
the proper operation of each being essential to the
satisfactory performance of the system.

In order to adjust a control for efficient performance,

or recognize the effect of a malfunction, it is essential
that the function, operation, and application of each
refrigeration control be completely understood.


The most commonly used device for controlling the flow

of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator is the thermostatic
expansion valve. An orifice in the valve meters the flow
into the evaporator, the rate of flow being modulated
as required by a needle type plunger and seat, which
varies the orifice opening.

The needle is controlled by a diaphragm subject to three

forces. The evaporator pressure is exerted beneath the
diaphragm tending to close the valve. The force of a
superheat spring is also exerted beneath the diaphragm
in the closing direction. Opposing these two forces is
the pressure exerted by the charge in the thermal bulb,
which is attached to the suction line at the outlet of the
With an evaporator and an expansion valve correctly
It is most convenient to visualize the action of the sized for the load, the expansion valve feed will be quite
thermostatic expansion valve by considering the stable at the desired superheat setting. An oversized
thermal bulb charge to be the same refrigerant as that expansion valve or an oversized evaporator can cause
being used in the system. With the unit in operation, erratic feeding of the evaporator, which may result in
the refrigerant in the evaporator is evaporating at its large fluctuations in compressor suction pressure, and
saturation temperature and pressure. So long as the possible liquid return to the compressor.
thermal bulb is exposed to a higher temperature it
will exert a higher pressure than the refrigerant in the Because of the pressure drop due to refrigerant flow
evaporator, and therefore the net effect of these two through the evaporator, the evaporating pressure at the
pressures is to open the valve. The superheat spring outlet of the evaporator coil will be lower than that at the
pressure is a fixed pressure causing the valve to close expansion valve. If this pressure drop is of any magnitude,
whenever the net difference between the bulb pressure a higher superheat will be required to bring the forces
and the evaporator pressure is less than the superheat acting on the valve diaphragm into equilibrium, and
spring setting. the evaporator will be partially starved. To compensate
for pressure drop through the evaporator, an external
As the temperature of the refrigerant gas leaving the equalizer connection is often used on the expansion
evaporator rises (an increase in superheat) the pressure valve. This introduces the evaporator outlet pressure
exerted by the thermal bulb at the outlet of the coil under the valve diaphragm, rather than the evaporator
increases, and the expansion valve flow increases; as inlet pressure, and the valve operation is then free from
the temperature of the leaving gas decreases (a decrease any influence due to evaporator pressure drop. Valves
in superheat) the pressure exerted by the thermal bulb with external equalizer connections are recommended
decreases, and the expansion valve closes slightly and whenever the pressure drop through the evaporator
the flow decreases.

7-1 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
is above 2 1/2 psi for high temperature applications, to starve the evaporator on heavy loads, and flood the
1 1/2 psi in the medium temperature range, and 1/2 evaporator on light loads, it has been largely replaced by
psi in the low temperature range. Valves with external the thermostatic expansion valve and capillary tubes.
equalizers must be employed when a pressure drop
type of distributor is used. Hand expansion valves are sometimes used when an
operator is available and manual liquid refrigerant feed
Pressure limiting expansion valves are often used to limit is acceptable. A needle valve is adjusted as required to
the power requirement of the compressor. The valve is maintain the desired flow.
constructed in such a manner that it limits the suction
pressure to a given maximum value, and restricts the DISTRIBUTORS
refrigerant feed if the suction pressure rises above that
point. When the refrigeration load is such that large evaporators
are required, multiple refrigerant circuits are necessary
Gas charged pressure limiting valves have a limited to avoid excessive pressure drop through the evaporator.
charge, and at temperatures of the thermal bulb To insure uniform feed from the expansion valve to each
equivalent to its maximum operating pressure, all of the of the various circuits, a refrigerant distributor is normally
liquid charge has vaporized, and any further increase used. A typical distributor mounted on a direct expansion
in temperature can only superheat the gas, but cannot coil is shown in Figure 21, page 6-1.
exert additional pressure. Any increase in evaporator
pressure will then act as a closing force on the expansion As liquid refrigerant is fed through the expansion valve,
valve. The disadvantage of the gas charged valve is the a portion of the liquid flashes into vapor in order to
possibility of the limited charge condensing in the head reduce the liquid temperature to evaporator temperature.
of the expansion valve, if the head is colder than the This combination of liquid and flash gas is fed into
thermal bulb, causing the valve to lose control of the the distributor from the expansion valve, and is then
liquid feed. With gas charged valves, the thermal bulb distributed evenly through small feeder tubes, the number
must always be colder than the head of the valve, and depending on the construction of the distributor and the
the gas charged valve normally is used only on high number of circuits required to provide proper refrigerant
temperature applications such as air conditioning. velocity in the evaporator .

Mechanical limiting valves are available, usually with Without the distributor, the flow would separate into
a spring loaded double diaphragm type construction. separate gas and liquid layers, resulting in the starving
If the evaporator reaches a preset pressure, the of some evaporator circuits. To avoid variations in circuit
diaphragm collapses, and the valve feed is restricted feed, extreme care must be taken to insure that tubing
until the pressure decreases sufficiently for the spring lengths are equal, so equal resistance is offered by
tension to restore the diaphragm to its normal operating each circuit.
There are two different approaches in the design of a
In order to achieve closer control for varying applications, distributor. A high-pressure drop distributor depends
expansion valves are available with different types on the turbulence created by an orifice to achieve
of charge in the thermal bulb, each having different good distribution. A low-pressure drop distributor
operating characteristics. The superheat spring is also depends on a contour flow pattern with high velocity in
normally equipped with an external adjusting screw so the distributor throat to give proper distribution of the
that it can be set for the desired superheat on a given refrigerant flow. Both types of distributor give satisfactory
application. Before adjusting any expansion valve, the performance when properly applied in accordance with
exact characteristics of the valve should be thoroughly the manufacturer’s instructions.
understood. The manufacturer’s catalog data must be
consulted for detailed information on a given valve. CAPILLARY TUBES

OTHER TYPES OF EXPANSION VALVES On small unitary equipment such as package air
conditioners, domestic refrigeration equipment, and
The automatic expansion valve is really better described self-contained commercial refrigeration cases, capillary
as a constant pressure expansion valve, since it tubes are widely used for liquid refrigerant control. A
modulates its feed to maintain a constant preset pressure capillary tube is a length of tubing of small diameter with
in the evaporator. The automatic expansion valve was the internal diameter held to extremely close tolerances.
widely used at one time, but because of its tendency It is used as a fixed orifice to perform the same function
(continued on p. 7-8)

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 7-2

45° F. evaporating temperature (Preliminary Selection Only)

Final Selection Should Be Determined by Unit Test

**Length to balance unit at 45° F. evaporating,

130° F. condensing, 10° F.

7-3 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
25°F, to 10°F. Evaporating Temperature (Preliminary Selection Only)
Selection Should Be Determined by Unit Test
**Length to balance unit with 115°F. condensing, °F. sub-cooling in
condenser, Heat Exchanger to give 15°F. sub-cooling.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 7-4
25°F, to 10°F. Evaporating Temperature (Preliminary Selection Only)
Final Selection Should Be Determined by Unit Test
**Length to balance unit with 115°F. condensing, 5°F.
sub-cooling in condenser, Heat Exchanger to give 15°F.

7-5 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
15°F. to 25°F. Evaporating Temperature
(Preliminary Selection Only)
Final Selection Should Be Determined by Unit Test
*Length to balance unit at 110°F. condensing and 20°F.
Liquid sub-cooling (15°F. in condenser, 15°F in heat

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 7-6
15°F. to 25°F. Evaporating Temperature
(Preliminary Selection Only)
Final Selection Should Be Determined by Unit Test
*Length to balance unit at 110°F. condensing and 20°F.
Liquid sub-cooling (15°F. in condenser, 15°F in heat

7-7 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
as the expansion valve, to separate the high and low to maintain a given liquid level. Such applications are
pressure sides of the system, and meter the proper feed quite specialized and the manufacturer’s instructions
of liquid refrigerant. should be followed closely. Unless some means is
provided for positive oil return, oil may accumulate in a
Since there are no moving parts, it is simple and trouble float chamber causing lubrication difficulties.
free if kept free of foreign material. A capillary tube is of
very small diameter, and absolute freedom from foreign Commercial or domestic applications using either high
matter and moisture is essential, making a factory sealed side or low side float chambers for liquid feed have
unit a practical necessity. been largely replaced by capillary tube and expansion
valve control.
Since the orifice is fixed, the rate of feed is relatively
inflexible. Under conditions of constant load, and constant SOLENOID VALVES
discharge and suction pressures, the capillary tube
performs very satisfactorily. However, changes in the A solenoid valve is an electrically controlled refrigerant
evaporator load or fluctuations in head pressure can flow control valve. It is not a modulating valve, and is
result in under or over feeding of the evaporator. either open or closed.

A major advantage of the capillary tube in some systems The valve consists of a body, a plunger with an iron
is the fact that refrigerant continues to flow into the core which seats in the valve orifice, and an electrical
evaporator after the compressor stops operation, thus solenoid coil. A normally closed solenoid valve is closed
equalizing pressures on the high and low sides of when the coil is deenergized and the plunger is seated.
the system. This allows the use of low starting torque When the solenoid coil is energized, the magnetic effect
motors. of the coil lifts the plunger and opens the valve. Normally
open valves with a reverse type action are made, but
The refrigerant charge is critical in capillary tube are rarely used.
systems since normally there is no receiver to store
excess refrigerant. Too much refrigerant will cause Solenoid valves are commonly used in refrigerant
high discharge pressures and motor overloading, and liquid and hot gas lines to stop refrigerant flow when
possible liquid floodback to the compressor during the not desired, or to isolate individual evaporators when
off cycle; too little will allow vapor to enter the capillary
tube causing a loss in system capacity.

Due to its basic simplicity, the elimination of the need for

a receiver, and the low starting torque requirement, a
capillary tube system is the least expensive of all liquid
control systems.

Sizing of a capillary tube is difficult to calculate accurately,

and can best be determined by actual test on the system.
Once determined, the proper size capillary tube can
be applied to identical systems, so it is well adapted to
production units. Figures 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28 give
tentative selection data for capillary tubes.


On some specialized applications, it may be desirable

to operate with completely flooded systems, that is, with
the evaporator completely filled with liquid refrigerant. A
typical application might be an industrial process cooling
installation where a brine or liquid is piped through a chiller
shell in which the refrigerant level is to be maintained.
Special liquid level controls are available from expansion
valve manufacturers. These normally are mounted in a
secondary float chamber and modulate flow as necessary

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 7-8
multiple evaporators are used. On large installations, similarly to the crankcase pressure regulator, except that
large numbers of solenoid valves may be necessary for it is responsive to inlet pressure. It should be located in
satisfactory automatic control. the suction line at the evaporator outlet.


This type of valve, commonly called a CPR valve or

a holdback valve, limits the suction pressure at the
compressor below a preset limit to prevent overloading
of the compressor motor. The valve setting is determined
by a pressure spring, and the valve modulates from
fully open to fully closed in response to outlet pressure,
closing on a rise in outlet pressure.

The crankcase pressure regulating valve should be

located in the suction line between the evaporator and
the compressor. Since the power requirement of the
compressor declines with a fall in suction pressure, the
CPR valve is normally used to prevent motor overloading
on low temperature units during pulldown or defrost
cycles. Use of the valve permits the application of a

An EPR valve modulates from fully open to fully closed,

closing on a fall in inlet pressure, and its sole function is
to prevent the evaporator pressure from falling below a
predetermined value for which the regulator has been


Hot gas bypass valves are used where it is desirable

to modulate the compressor capacity and at the same
time prevent the suction pressure from falling to
objectionable low levels. These valves operate in the

larger displacement compressor without overloading a

given size motor, but pressure drop through the valve
may result in an unacceptable loss of system capacity
unless the valve is adequately sized.


On systems with multiple evaporators operating at

different temperatures, or on systems where the
evaporating temperature cannot be allowed to fall below
a given temperature, an evaporator pressure regulator
valve is frequently used to control the evaporating
temperature. This valve, often called an EPR valve, acts

7-9 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
same fashion as crankcase pressure regulators since
they are responsive to outlet pressure, modulate from
fully open to fully closed, and open in response to a
decrease in downstream pressure. The construction
must be suitable to withstand the high temperature
discharge gas from the compressor.

Hot gas valves are set to maintain a desired minimum

pressure by spring tension, and may be either direct
or pilot operated. They are normally equipped with an
external equalizer connection, which operates in the
same fashion as an external equalizer on an expansion
valve to compensate for pressure drops in the lines. The
external equalizer should be attached to the suction line
at the point where it is desired to control the suction


In recent years, usage of the “heat pump” principle to

enable an air conditioning unit to supply both cooling and
heating has become increasingly popular. Basically this
involves switching the functions of the evaporator and
condenser by a change in refrigerant flow as desired, so
that the indoor coil becomes the evaporator for cooling
purposes, and the condenser for heating usage. The
outdoor coil in turn is a condenser during the cooling
cycle, and an evaporator during the heating cycle.

To conveniently reverse the system operation, four-way

reversing valves have been developed. By means of
a slide action actuated by a solenoid, the connections
from the compressor suction and discharge ports to the
evaporator and condenser can be reversed at will.

Three-way valves are being increasingly used for hot

gas defrosting. This valve enables the flow of hot gas
from the compressor discharge valve to be shunted from
the condenser to the evaporator for defrosting purposes,
and then conveniently returned to the condenser when
normal cooling is resumed.


It is often desirable to prevent refrigerant from reversing

its direction of flow during an off cycle, or during a
change in the operating cycle. A simple spring loaded
valve such as shown in Figure 34 allows flow in one
direction only, and closes if pressures are such that
reverse flow could occur. Check valves may be used
in either liquid or gas lines, and are frequently used to
prevent backflow of liquid refrigerant or hot gas in low
ambient condenser controls, and in reverse cycle heat
pumps. Check valves used in refrigeration systems
should be spring loaded to prevent noise and chattering

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 7-10
which may be caused by pulsations in refrigerant flow
originating in the compressor.


Manual shut-off valves are often used so that portions

of the refrigeration system can be isolated for service or
repairs. Special valves designed for refrigeration usage
are required to avoid leakage.


Compressor suction and discharge service valves are

shut-off valves with a manual operated stem. Most
service valves are equipped with a gauge port so that
the refrigerant operating pressure may be observed.

When the valve is back-seated (the stem turned all the

way out) the gauge port is closed and the valve is open.
If the valve is front-seated (the stem turned all the way
in) the gauge port is open to the compressor and the
line connection is closed. In order to read the pressure
while the compressor is in operation, the valve should
be back-seated, and then turned in one or two turns
in order to slightly open the connection to the gauge
port. The compressor is always open to either the line
or the gauge port, or both if the valve is neither front
nor back-seated.


The Schrader type valve is a recent development

for convenient checking of system pressures where
it is not economical, convenient, or possible to use
the compressor service valves with gauge ports. The
Schrader type valve is similar in appearance and
principle to the air valve used on automobile or bicycle
tires, and must have a cap for the fitting to insure leak-
proof operation.

7-11 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
This type of valve enables checking of the system
pressure, or charging refrigerant without disturbing
the unit operation. An adaptor is necessary for the
standard serviceman’s gauge or hose connection to fit
the Schrader type valve.


Safety relief valves are required by many local

construction codes. Various types of relief valves are
available, and the system requirement may be dictated by
the local code requirement. Normally code requirements
specify that the ultimate strength of the high side parts
shall be a minimum of 5 times the discharge or rupture
pressure of the relief valve, and that all condensing units
with pressure vessels exceeding 3 cubic feet interval
volume shall be protected by a pressure relief device.
Discharge may be to the atmosphere, or it may be a Rupture disc type relief devices have a thin disc which is
discharge from the high pressure side of the system to designed to rupture at a given relief pressure, discharging
the low pressure side. the refrigerant to the atmosphere.

A typical reseating type valve is shown in Figure 38. FUSIBLE PLUGS

The valve opens at a preset pressure, and refrigerant
is discharged until the pressure falls to the reseating A fusible plug is a safety device with a metal insert
point. having a specified melting point. The allowable melting
point is defined by code, but normally it is the saturation
Some Copeland® brand compressors have reseating temperature of the refrigerant at a pressure no greater
type pressure relief valves installed internally in the than 40% of the ultimate bursting pressure of the
discharge chamber which allow excessive pressures refrigerant containing vessel, or the critical temperature
to discharge to the suction chamber. A typical internal of the refrigerant, whichever is lower .
type valve is shown in Figure 39.
Fusible plugs are limited to units with pressure vessels
not exceeding 3 cubic feet internal gross volume. They
are used as a safety device in the event of fire, are
responsive to temperature only and will not protect
against excessively high pressures.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 7-12

On water cooled condensers, a modulating water

regulating valve is normally used to economize on
water usage and to control condensing pressures
within reasonable limits. Water valves may be either
pressure or temperature actuated and act to throttle
flow as necessary.

7-13 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 8

Both electrical and pneumatic controls are widely used voltage to the control circuit voltage, usually 24 volts.
for air conditioning and refrigeration system control.
Pneumatic controls are primarily used on large central LOW PRESSURE AND HIGH PRESSURE
systems, while electric controls are used on applications CONTROLS
of all sizes. Since electric controls are used almost
exclusively in the commercial refrigeration field, this A low pressure control is actuated by the refrigerant
manual will cover only electric controls. suction pressure, and normally is used to cycle the
compressor for capacity control purposes, or as a low
CONTROL DIFFERENTIAL limit control. The low pressure control often is used as
the only control on small systems which can tolerate
The basic function of most electrical control devices is some fluctuations in the temperature to be maintained.
to make or break an electric circuit which in turn controls The standard low pressure control makes on a rise in
a contactor, a solenoid coil, or some other functioning pressure, and breaks on a fall in pressure.
part of the system. Controls are available which may
make or break a circuit on either a rise or fall in pressure
or temperature. The type of action required depends
on the function of the control and the medium being

The point at which a control closes a contact and makes

a circuit is called the cut-in point. The point at which the
control opens the switch and breaks the circuit is called
the cut-out point. The difference between the cut-in and
cut-out points is known as the differential.

A very small differential maintains close control but

can cause short cycling of the compressor. A large
differential will give a longer running cycle, but may
result in fluctuations in the pressure or temperature
being controlled, so the final operating differential must
be a compromise.

The differential may be either fixed or adjustable,

depending on the construction of the control. Adjustment
of controls varies depending on the type and the
manufacturer. On some controls, both the cut-in and
cut-out points may be set at the desired points. On many
pressure controls, the differential can be adjusted, and
this in turn may affect either the cut-in or the cut-out A high pressure control senses the compressor
point. discharge pressure, and is normally used to stop the
compressor in case of excessively high pressures.
LINE VOLTAGE AND LOW VOLTAGE CONTROLS Since the allowable pressure limit varies with different
refrigerants, the proper high pressure control for the
Line voltage controls are designed to operate on the refrigerant in the system must be used. A high pressure
same voltage as that supplied to the compressor. Both control makes on a fall in pressure and breaks on a
110 and 220 volt controls are quite commonly used, rise in pressure. Either manual reset or automatic reset
and 440 volt controls are available but are seldom controls are available, the choice depending on the
used due to the danger from high voltage at the wiring desired system operation.
Dual pressure controls are comprised of a low pressure
Local codes often require low voltage controls, and a and a high pressure control mounted in a single housing
control circuit transformer may be used to reduce line with a single switch operated by either control.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 8-1
CONDENSER FAN CYCLING CONTROL control is actuated by the difference in pressure between
the outlet oil pressure of the oil pump and crankcase
In order to maintain air cooled condensing pressures pressure. Since the inlet pressure of the oil pump is
at a satisfactory level during low ambient conditions, always crankcase pressure, the net difference in the
a condenser fan pressure control is frequently used. two pressures is the net lubrication oil pressure.
The control acts to break the circuit to the condenser
fan on a drop in condensing pressure and makes the Oil pressure safety controls are available with both
circuit on a rise in condensing pressure. Since this is adjustable and non-adjustable control settings, but the
the reverse of the action on a normal high pressure non-adjustable type is preferred to avoid difficulties
control, this is often described as a reverse acting high arising from improper field adjustment.
pressure control.
If the oil pressure falls below safe limits, the control
THERMOSTATS breaks to stop the compressor. As an added refinement,
a time delay circuit is incorporated to delay the action
A thermostat acts to make or break a circuit in response of the control for a period up to 2 minutes to allow the
to a change in temperature. There are numerous types compressor to establish oil pressure on start-up without
of thermostats ranging from a simple bimetallic switch to nuisance tripping.
multiple switch controls operating from remote sensing
bulbs. Thermostats may have a fixed control point or TIME CLOCKS
may have variable adjustments.
Frequently it is desirable to stop the compressor
Normally a cooling thermostat will make on a rise in operation for a period of time to allow defrosting. In order
temperature and break on a fall in temperature, while to insure that this is done regularly at convenient times,
a heating thermostat will make on a fall in temperature a time clock can be used to either make or break wiring
and break on a rise. circuits at preset time intervals. Clocks are available for
both 24 hour and 7 day cycles, and the defrost interval
OIL PRESSURE SAFETY CONTROL and time of initiation and termination can be adjusted
as desired.
Special pressure controls have been developed to
protect the compressor against loss of oil pressure. The Various types of defrost control circuits are commonly
used, such as time initiated, time terminated; time
initiated, temperature terminated; or time initiated,
pressure terminated. Normally on circuits with pressure or
temperature termination, an overriding time termination is

8-2 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
provided in the event the defrost cycle for some reason TRANSFORMERS
is abnormally prolonged.
A transformer is an electrical device for transferring
RELAYS electrical energy from one circuit to another at a
different voltage by means of electromagnetic induction.
A relay consists of a set of contacts together with a Transformers are frequently used in control circuits to
magnetic coil mechanism which controls the contact step voltage down from line voltage to a lower control
position. The contacts may be normally open or normally circuit voltage. There are no moving parts and the action
closed when not energized, and a given relay may have of the transformer is determined by its coil windings.
from 1 to 5 or more sets of contacts. When the coil is
energized, the contacts reverse their action and make The transformer output is limited by its size, but
or break various circuits as desired. transformers are available for almost any output desired
from a tiny alarm bell circuit to the giant transformers
A relay may be used to control a large amperage load by used on high voltage power transmission lines.
means of a pilot circuit, to allow interlocking of controls
on separate circuits, or for any application where remote The selection of control circuit transformers can vitally
control is required. affect the performance and life of many electrical
components in a refrigeration or air conditioning
Most relays are of the potential type, and are actuated system.
when the coil is energized with the proper voltage.
An inadequate transformer supplying abnormally low
Current relays are actuated by a sufficient current voltage to the control circuit will result in improper
flowing through the relay coil, and are normally used operation of contactors and/or motor starters due to
when it is desirable to make or break a circuit when a chattering or sticking contacts, burned holding coils,
large change in current flow occurs. These are used in or failure of contacts to properly close. Since any of
single phase motor starting circuits, and occasionally these conditions can cause eventual system failure and
in safety circuits. possible damage to the compressor, control transformers
must be properly sized.
An impedance relay is similar to a normal potential relay
except that the coil is wound so as to create a high Even though a proper size transformer has been
resistance to current passage. When wired in parallel selected, care must be taken to avoid excessive voltage
with a normal relay, the high impedance (resistance) drop in a low voltage control circuit. When using a 24
of the relay will shunt the current to the normal circuit volt system with a remote thermostat, wire of sufficient
and the impedance coil will be inoperative. If the normal current carrying capacity must be installed between the
circuit is opened and the current must pass through the transformer and the thermostat .
impedance relay, the relay coil will be energized and the
impedance relay will operate. The voltage drop across the According to NEMA standards, a solenoid or contactor
relay coil is so large that other magnetic coils in series must operate satisfactorily at a minimum of 85% of rated
with the impedance coil will not operate because of the voltage. Allowing for a line voltage fluctuation of plus or
resulting low voltage. Impedance relays are frequently minus 10% which can occur on electric utility systems,
used for safety lock-out circuits in the event of a motor the voltage drop of the transformer and connecting wiring
protector trip. must be limited to 5% to insure a minimum of 85% of
rated voltage at the magnetic device.
A transformer works on the magnetic induction principle,
Some relays are constructed with a time delay action has no moving parts, and normally will have a long and
so that the relay must be energized for a predetermined trouble free life. However, overloading of a transformer
length of time before the magnetic coil can actuate the results in excessive temperatures which will cause rapid
contacts. The time delay is normally non-adjustable, but deterioration of the insulation and eventual failure of the
relays are available with varying periods of delay. transformer coils.

This type of relay may be required for part winding start A control circuit transformer will not overheat, nor will its
motors; in circuits to prevent short cycling, or for other secondary output voltage drop below 95% of its rated
specialized applications. voltage if:

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 8-3
1. The continuous VA (volt-amperes) capacity of the 95% of rated output voltage for varying power factors.
transformer is equal to or greater than any continuous To illustrate the selection procedure, assume a control
VA load that can occur in the system. transformer is to be selected from Figure 44 for the
following control circuit:
2. The inrush VA capacity of the transformer is equal to
or greater than the maximum VA load that can occur Example No.1
for any combination of sealed and/or inrush load. Sealed Sealed Inrush Inrush
(A sealed load is the terminology used to describe VA Watts VA Watts
a component load drawn through closed or sealed 1 - 60 amp contactor 25 7 165 124
contacts, after the inrush current has returned to 1 - oil pressure
normal operating conditions.) safety switch 25 25 25 25
1 -10 amp fan starter 8 5 58 12
Selection Procedure
Assume the compressor is cycling on the contactor,
1. To select the proper transformer, the following and the oil pressure safety switch heater element is
information is necessary: energized whenever the compressor oil pressure is
below 15 psig. The fan starter is used to energize a fan
a. A list of all components in the control circuit. circuit at the same time the compressor is energized.
Therefore, the contactor and the fan starter would be a
b. The sealed VA and watts for each. continuous load, and the inrush load would be the inrush
VA of the contactor and the fan starter, plus the heater
c. The inrush VA and inrush watts for each. load of the oil pressure safety switch.

Note: The VA and watts of magnetic devices will vary A. Continuous VA requirement
with each manufacturer, so it is necessary to obtain Contactor 25 VA
exact information on the components to be used. Fan Starter 8 VA
Since not all of the inrush data is included in catalogs, Total 33 VA
it will be necessary to contact representatives of
component manufacturers for information when Any transformer with a rating of 33 VA or more would
designing control circuits. handle the continuous load, so the 60 VA transformer
is satisfactory.
2. The continuous VA requirement is determined by
combining the sealed VA of all components in the B. Inrush VA Requirement
circuit which can be energized at one time. VA Watts
Contactor 165 124
3. The inrush VA capacity of a transformer is determined Fan Starter 58 12
by two factors — the VA inrush and the inrush Oil Pressure
load power factor. Each transformer manufacturer Safety Switch 25 25
publishes rating charts showing the inrush capacity Total 248VA 161 Watts
of each size transformer in terms of the per cent of 161 Watts
rated load at varying secondary output voltages and Power factor equals 248 VA or .65
varying power factors. Since output voltages lower
than 95% are not acceptable, the only variable to Although the continuous VA requirement could be met
be determined is the power factor. with the 60 VA transformer shown on Figure 44 it would
require the 140 VA transformer to satisfy the inrush VA
The maximum VA inrush is found by combining the requirement, and the larger size must be used.
inrush VA that can occur with the maximum sealed
VA that can occur simultaneously. To determine the Example No.2
inrush load power factor, divide the maximum inrush
watts by the maximum inrush VA. Assume the same conditions as in Example No.1 except
that the compressor has two 60 amp contactors for
Examples Of Transformer Selection across the line operation.

Figure 44 is typical of one manufacturer’s curves showing (continued on p. 8-6)

the inrush capacity of three different transformers at

8-4 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 8-5
A. Continuous VA requirement These examples clearly indicate that the continuous
2 Contactors 50 VA VA requirement of the control circuit may be greatly
Fan Starter 8 VA exceeded by the inrush VA requirement, and both factors
Total 58 VA must be considered in selecting transformers.

The 60 VA transformer in Figure 44 is adequate for the Transformer manufacturers use a standard 20% power
continuous load. factor in their catalog literature for determining the
maximum inrush VA rating of a transformer. Since the
B. Inrush VA requirement inrush power factor of contactor coils may be much
VA Watts higher than 20%, and since the resistive load of the oil
2 Contactors 330 VA 248 Watts pressure safety switch will increase the overall power
Fan Starter 58 VA 12 Watts factor, a typical compressor control circuit may have an
Oil Pressure inrush power factor greatly in excess of 20%.
Safety Switch 25 VA 25 Watts
Total 413 VA 285 Watts The allowable inrush VA load on a transformer decreases
with an increase in the power factor (see Figure 44) and
285 Watts the use of an incorrect power factor may result in an
Power factor equals 413 VA or .69 undersized transformer. To properly size a transformer,
the power factor must be calculated for the components
to be used.
Referring to Figure 44 the 140 VA transformer does not
have enough capacity for the inrush VA requirement,
and the 200 VA transformer must be used.

8-6 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 9

Electric motors are used as the power source on the great OPEN TYPE MOTORS AND BELT DRIVES
majority of refrigeration compressors, and practically all
are now alternating current (A. C.) motors. The following Open type motors may be used for compressor drive with
discussion is limited to those motors of interest for driving either a belt drive or a direct drive arrangement, but with
refrigeration compressors. the continued development of hermetic and accessible-
hermetic motor-compressor design, the use of open
Nearly all motors used for refrigeration applications are type motors has declined rapidly. Open type motors for
induction motors, the name coming from the fact that the compressor drives should be selected conservatively
current in the moving part of the motor is induced, the since open type motors do not have the generous
moving component having no connection to the source overloading safety factor found in most motors used in
of current. The stationary part of an induction motor is hermetic and accessible hermetic compressors.
called the stator, and the moving part the rotor. The stator
windings are connected to the power source, while the V-belts are made in several different industry
rotor is mounted on the motor shaft, the rotation of the classifications, which have been standardized for
rotor providing the motor driving power source. interchangeability. For refrigeration use, fractional
horsepower industrial belts and conventional industrial
MOTOR TEMPERATURE belts are the two types commonly used. The fractional
horsepower belts are more flexible and are well adapted
The first law of thermodynamics stated that energy cannot to small radius drives in the smaller horsepower
be either created or destroyed, but may be converted range.
from one form into another. The motor receives electrical
energy from the power source, but because of friction The conventional industrial belts have a higher
and efficiency losses, only a part of this input energy can horsepower rating for heavier loads. Fractional
be turned into mechanical output energy. The balance horsepower “4L” and conventional “A” belts have a
of the input energy is converted to heat energy, and comparable cross section and may be used on the
unless this heat is dissipated, the temperature within the same size pulley, while fractional horsepower “5L” and
motor windings will rise until the insulation is destroyed. conventional “B” belts are similarly interchangeable.
If a motor is kept free from contamination and physical
damage, heat is practically the only enemy that can For belt driven compressors, the compressor speed is
damage the windings. determined by the size of the motor pulley, since the
compressor pulley (flywheel) is normally fixed. The
The amount of heat produced in the motor depends relative speeds of the motor and compressor are in
both on the load and on motor efficiency. As the load direct relation to the diameter of the motor pulley and
is increased, the electrical energy input to the motor the compressor flywheel, but for accurate calculation,
increases. The percentage of the power input converted the pitch diameter of the pulley must be used rather
to heat in the motor depends on motor efficiency, than the outside pulley diameter (O. D.). The pitch
decreasing with an increase in efficiency, and increasing diameter makes allowance for the fact that the V-belt
as efficiency decreases. rides partially inside the pulley O. D. For drives using “A”
and “4L” section belts, the pitch diameter may be taken
The temperature level, which a motor can tolerate, as pulley O. D. less 1/4”, and for “B” and “5L” section
depends largely on the type of motor insulation and the belt drives, pulley O. D. less 3/8”.
basic motor design, but the actual motor life is determined
by the operating conditions to which it is subjected during
use. If operated in a proper environment, at loads within
its design capabilities, a well designed motor should
have an indefinite life. Continuous overloading of a motor
resulting in consistently high operating temperatures will
materially shorten its life.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 9-1
The desired pulley size or the resulting compressor speed may then be calculated from the following relation:

(Motor Speed, RPM) x (Pitch Diameter, Motor Pulley, In.)

Compressor Speed, RPM = (Pitch Diameter, Compressor Pulley, In.)

(Compressor Speed, RPM) x (Pitch Dia., Compressor Pulley, In.)

Pitch Diameter, Motor Pulley, In. = (Motor Speed, RPM)

For example, to find the motor pulley diameter required when a 1750 RPM motor is to be used to drive a compressor
having an 8” pitch diameter compressor pulley, when the desired compressor speed is 500 RPM, proceed as

500 RPM Com. Speed x 8” P. D., Comp. Pulley

P.D., Motor Pulley = 1750 RPM, Motor Speed

= 500 x 8
1750 = Approximately 2 1/4 inches P. D.
For an “A” belt drive
Motor Pulley O. D. = 2 1/4 inches P.D. + 1/4 inch = 2 1/2 inches O.D.

For a “B” belt drive

Motor Pulley O. D. = 2 1/4 inches P.D. + 3/8 inch = 2 5/8 inches O.D.

HERMETIC MOTORS Each Copeland® brand motor-compressor carries on

its nameplate ratings for both locked rotor and full load
In hermetic and accessible-hermetic motor-compressors, amperes. The designation full load amperage persists
the motor is mounted directly on the compressor because of long industry precedent, but in reality a
crankshaft, and is hermetically sealed within the much better term is nameplate amperage. On all welded
compressor body. Aside from the economies inherent in compressors, on all new motors now being developed
this type of construction, the greatest advantage is that for Copelametic® compressors, and on most of the
the motor can be cooled by a variety of means, such as motors developed with inherent protection or internal
air, water, or refrigerant vapor. Sealing the motor in the thermostats, nameplate amperage has been arbitrarily
compressor body eliminates the troublesome problem established as 80% of the current drawn when the
of sealing the crankshaft so that the power may be motor protector trips. The 80% figure is derived from
transmitted without refrigerant leaks. By designing a standard industry practice of many years’ standing in
motor for the specific application, and controlling motor sizing motor protective devices at 125 % of the current
temperature closely, a motor may be matched to a given drawn at rated load conditions.
load with the result that the motor output can be utilized
at its maximum capability, while maintaining a generous In order for the motor to meet Emerson Climate
safety factor considerably above that available with Technologies, Inc. standards, the maximum allowable
standard open type motors. current must be beyond the prescribed operating limits
of the compressor, and is determined during qualification
NAMEPLATE AMPERAGE tests by operating the compressor at established
maximum load conditions and lowering the supply
On open-type motors standard NEMA horsepower voltage until the protector trip point is reached. Use
ratings are used to identify a motor’s power output of the standard 80% factor enables the service and
capability. Because of industry practice, this nominal installation engineer to safely size wiring, contactors,
horsepower classification has carried over into hermetic or other external line protective devices at 125% of the
motor identification, but it may be misleading when nameplate rating, since the motor-compressor protector
applied to this type of motor. With controlled cooling and will not allow the amperage to exceed this figure.
motor protection sized for the exact load, a hermetic
motor may be operated much closer to its maximum In most instances, the motor-compressor is capable
ability, so a given motor may be capable of much greater of performing at nominal rating conditions at less than
power output as a hermetic motor than an equivalent rated nameplate amperage. A given motor frequently
open motor. The amperage draw and watts of power is used in various compressor models for air-cooled,
required are much better indicators of hermetic motor

9-2 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
suction-cooled, water-cooled, high temperature, medium THREE PHASE MOTORS
temperature, low temperature, R-12, R-22, or R-502
applications as required. Obviously on many applications Three phase motors are wound with 3 separate windings
there will be a greater safety factor than on others. or phases. Each of the windings is 120° out of phase with
the other windings, which results in a very high starting
This does not mean that every compressor may be torque motor requiring no supplemental mechanisms
operated continuously at a load greatly in excess of its or devices for starting. The direction of rotation of
nameplate rating without fear of failure. Motor amperage the motor may be changed by reversing any two line
is only one factor in determining a compressor’s operating connections.
limitations. Discharge pressure and temperatures,
motor cooling, and torque requirements are equally Because three phase motors can utilize smaller wire sizes
critical. Safe operating limits have been established and therefore are smaller, they are used on almost all
for each compressor, and are published on compressor applications larger than 5 HP, and if three phase power
specification sheets. is available, are frequently preferred for any load larger
than fractional horsepower applications.
Although electric energy distributed in the United States
is 60 cycle, distribution voltages are not standardized. A single phase motor has but one running winding or
Single phase voltages may be 115, 208, 220, 230, or phase, and basically is not a self starting motor. Once
240, and most utilities reserve the right to vary the started, it will run as a pure induction motor. In order
supply voltage plus or minus 10% from the nominal to provide starting torque, a second winding called the
rating. Three phase voltage may be 208, 220, 240, 440, starting winding is provided, which normally has greater
460, or 480, again plus or minus 10%. Unless motors resistance than the running winding. The different
are specifically designed for the voltage range in which variations of single phase motors are primarily due to
they are operated, overheating may result. the different starting arrangements used.

Most motors may be operated at the voltage on the If the start winding remains in the circuit during operation
motor nameplate, plus or minus 10% without danger it would be damaged by excessive heat. Therefore, the
of overheating, but in order to allow more flexibility of starting winding is removed from the circuit as the motor
operation, extended voltage range motors are now being approaches rated speed by either a potential relay, a
developed where the usage warrants this action. For current relay, or a centrifugal switch.
example, a three phase motor nameplated 208/240 volts
is satisfactory for operation from 187 volts to 264 volts, A current relay is normally open when de-energized,
and a three phase motor nameplated 440/480 volts may and the coil is wound so that the contacts will close
be operated from 396 volts to 528 volts. when starting current is being drawn by the motor, but
will drop out when the current approaches normal full
In many parts of the world, the electrical power supply load conditions. Therefore, the current relay is closed
is 50 cycle rather that 60 cycle. If both voltage and only during the starting cycle.
frequency supplied to a motor vary at the same rate,
operation of a given motor at the lower frequency A potential relay is normally closed when de-energized,
condition within narrow limits is satisfactory in some and the coil is designed to open the contacts only when
cases. For example, a 440 volt, 3 phase, 60 cycle motor sufficient voltage is generated by the start winding. Since
will operate satisfactorily on 380 volt, 3 phase, 50 cycle the voltage or back-EMF generated by the start winding is
power supply. proportional to the motor speed, the relay will open only
when the motor has started and is approaching normal
However, in some 50 cycle applications, the relationship running speed. The illustrations show the schematic
between voltage and frequency is such that standard wiring with the motor in operation so the potential relay
60 cycle motors cannot be used unless the motor is in the energized position.
characteristics are suitable for 50 cycle operation, and
this can be determined only by test. On most single SPLIT PHASE MOTORS
phase 50 cycle applications, specially wound 50 cycle
motors are required. On a split phase motor, the running winding and start
winding are in parallel, and are spaced 90° apart. The

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 9-3
run winding is wound with relatively heavy wire, while
the start winding is wound with fine wire and has a much
greater resistance than the run winding. The combination
of greater resistance and physical displacement results
in the start winding being slightly out of phase with the
run winding, and thus produces sufficient magnetic force
to cause the rotor to rotate.

Figure 45 illustrates a split phase motor schematic

electrical diagram with a current relay to break the
start winding circuit when the compressor has reached
operating speed.

The starting torque of a split phase motor is low, the

starting current is high, and the efficiency is relatively

the low power factor of this type motor, its use is usually
limited to fractional horsepower applications.
low. As a result, this type of motor is generally limited to
capillary tube systems in small fractional HP sizes. CAPACITOR START - CAPACITOR RUN MOTORS
(CSIR) By connecting a running capacitor in parallel with the
starting capacitor (R to S terminals) as shown in
This motor is similar to the split phase motor in Figure 47 the motor is strengthened because the start
construction except for the method used to obtain the winding is loaded in phase with the main winding after
phase displacement necessary for starting. In the split the start capacitor is disconnected, which permits the
phase motor, the phase displacement is due to a higher starting winding to carry part of the running load. The
resistance in the start winding. In the capacitor start running capacitor strengthens the motor, improves
motor, the necessary phase displacement is achieved the power factor, reduces motor current, increases
through the use of a capacitor connected in series with the efficiency, and decreases the temperature of the
the starting winding. A capacitor start-induction run motor under design conditions. However, the motor
schematic electric diagram is shown in Figure 46. must be designed for operation with a run capacitor,
and a capacitor start-induction run motor usually is not
The starting winding is removed from the circuit after the suitable for conversion to capacitor start-capacitor run
motor is started by the potential relay or current relay operation.
as before. This type motor has a high starting torque,
and therefore is suitable for applications where unequal Normally current relays are not recommended for use
pressures may be encountered on start up. Because of with capacitor start-capacitor run motors because of
the danger of the running capacitor discharging to the

9-4 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
start capacitor through the current relay when it closes. relay, this type of motor is economical and efficient, but
The high voltage built up on the running capacitor has low starting torque. Its use is limited to systems on
can cause the current relay contacts to arc, possibly which pressures are equalized prior to start up, and is
welding the contacts and causing compressor failure. primarily used in air conditioning and small commercial
If a current relay is used with a capacitor start-capacitor applications.
run motor, a resistor should be installed between the
running capacitor and start capacitor to prevent a high A permanent split capacitor motor schematic electrical
current flow to the start capacitor on start-up. This diagram is illustrated in figure 48. It is identical to the
condition does not occur on systems equipped with capacitor start-capacitor run diagram without the starting
potential relays since the contacts are normally closed capacitor and relay. If increased starting torque is
at start-up, and the voltage build-up on both start and required, a starting capacitor and relay assembly can
run capacitors is similar. be added to this motor, making it identical to a capacitor
start-capacitor run motor in operation.
The run capacitor is in the circuit continuously and is
designed for continuous operation whereas the start
capacitor is used only momentarily each time the motor DUAL VOLTAGE MOTORS
starts and is designed for intermittent duty.
Certain Copeland® brand three phase motors are wound
Capacitor start-capacitor run motors have high efficiency, with two identical stator windings which are connected
high power factor, and high starting torque and are used in parallel on 208 or 220 volt operation, and in series
in single phase motors from fractional HP through 5 for 440/480 volt operation. Internal connections of this
HP in size. type of motor are shown in Figure 49.

PERMANENT SPLIT CAPACITOR MOTORS (PSC) These models have two parallel windings with nine leads
which must be connected correctly for the voltage of
For some applications not requiring high starting torque, the power supply. If the windings are connected out of
a motor with only a running capacitor is desirable. phase, or if the jumper bars are not positioned correctly,
Because of the elimination of the start capacitor and motor overheating and possible failure can occur.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 9-5

Two phase power is still used in a few isolated areas,

and specially wound two-phase motors are required for
use on this type of power supply. These motors have
two parallel windings, and are similar to three phase
motors in their operation. Capacitors and starting relays
are not required. The motor is started directly across
the line by means of a special 4 pole contactor . The
phase windings are connected in parallel from the two
phase three or four wire power supply.

9-6 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 10

Since hermetic motors must operate under a wide range Overheating of the contacts may cause sticking and
of operating conditions, and vary in size from fractional single phasing, and can cause a motor failure even
horsepower to 35 HP and larger, a wide variety of starting though the motor overload protectors trip and open the
equipment is used. control circuit.

CONTACTORS AND STARTERS In order to insure that definite purpose contactors

are properly applied to Copeland® brand motor-
A contactor is a load current carrying device, which makes compressors with pilot circuit protection, the contactor
and breaks to start and stop the compressor motor. A must meet Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. minimum
starter is merely a contactor with motor protective devices performance requirements.
mounted in a common enclosure.
On single phase motors up to 3 HP in size, the motor
current is often low enough to be handled by the contacts An electrical capacitor is a device which stores electrical
in the low pressure control or thermostat, and no separate energy. They are used in electric motors primarily to
contactor is required. As the motor size increases, the displace the phase of the current passing through the
amperage draw increases beyond the range of small start winding. While a detailed study of electrical theory
control apparatus, and the motor current must be handled is beyond the scope of this manual, capacitors in a
through the contacts of a starter or contactor, while the motor circuit provide starting torque, improve running
control makes and breaks a pilot circuit which energizes characteristics and efficiency, and improve the power
the coil of the contactor . factor.

For motor-compressors whose power requirements The amount of electrical energy a capacitor will hold
are such that contactors are required, it is essential depends on the voltage applied. If the voltage is
that the contactors used are adequately sized for the increased, the amount of electrical energy stored in the
attached load. The rating of the contactor for both full capacitor is increased. The capacity of a capacitor is
load amperes and locked rotor amperes must be greater expressed in microfarads (MFD) and is dependent on
than the nameplate rating of the motor-compressor plus the size and construction of the capacitor.
the nameplate rating of any fans or other accessories
also operated through the contactor . The voltage rating of a capacitor indicates the nominal
voltage at which it is designed to operate. Use of a
NEMA general purpose type contactors are built for the capacitor at voltages below its rating will do no harm. Run
most severe industrial usage, and are designed for a capacitors must not be subjected to voltages exceeding
minimum life of 2,000,000 cycles. Because they must 110% of the nominal rating, and start capacitors must not
be adaptable to any usage, general purpose contactors be subjected to voltages exceeding 130% of the nominal
have a large safety factor, and as a result are both rating. The voltage to which a capacitor is subjected is not
large and costly. For refrigeration and air conditioning line voltage, but is a much higher potential (often called
applications, a life of 250,000 cycles is entirely adequate, electromotive force or back EMF) which is generated
so the physical construction can be lighter, and the cost in the start winding. On a typical 230 volt motor, the
of the contactor correspondingly less. generated voltage may be as high as 450 volts, and
is determined by the start winding characteristics, the
To meet the specific needs of the refrigeration and air compressor speed, and the applied voltage.
conditioning industry, electrical equipment manufacturers
have developed definite purpose contactors. These Capacitors, either start or run, can be connected either
contactors are rated in amperes, and when selected in series or parallel to provide the desired characteristics
properly for the load, are smaller and more economical if the voltage and MFD are properly selected. When two
than the general purpose contactor. Since compressor capacitors having the same MFD rating are connected
contactors are frequently subjected to quick recycling, in series, the resulting total capacitance will be one half
the contacts must be large enough for satisfactory heat the rated capacitance of a single capacitor. The formula
dissipation in order to prevent contactor overheating. for determining capacitance (MFD) when capacitors are
connected in series is as follows:

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 10-1
1 = 1 + 1
MFD total MFD1 MFD2

For example, if a 20 MFD and a 30 MFD capacitor are

connected in series, the resultant capacitance will be

1 1 1
MFDt = MFDl + MFD2

1 1 1
MFDt = 20 + 30

1 5 1
MFDt = 60 = 12

MFDt = 12 MFD

The voltage rating of similar capacitors connected

in series is equal to the sum of the voltage of the
two capacitors. However, since the voltage across
individual capacitors in series will vary with the rating
of the capacitor, for emergency field replacements it is
recommended that only capacitors of like voltage and
capacitance be connected in series to avoid the possibility
of damage due to voltage beyond the capacitor limits. The use of capacitors supplied by Emerson Climate
Technologies, Inc. is recommended, but in case of an
When capacitors are connected in parallel, their MFD emergency exchange, a 15,000 -18,000 ohm, two watt
rating is equal to the sum of the individual ratings. The resistor should be soldered across the terminals of each
voltage rating is equal to the smallest rating of the starting capacitor. Care should be taken to prevent their
individual capacitors. shorting to the case or other nearby metallic objects.

It is possible to use any combination of single, series, If sticking contacts are encountered on any starting relay
or parallel starting capacitors, with single or parallel the first item to check is the starting capacitor resistors.
running capacitors (running capacitors are seldom If damaged, or not provided, install new resistors, and
used in series). clean the relay contacts or replace the relay.

START CAPACITORS Suitable resistors can be obtained from any radio parts
Start capacitors are designed for intermittent service only,
and have a high MFD rating. Their construction is of the RUN CAPACITORS
electrolytic type in order to obtain the high capacity.
Run capacitors are continuously in the operating circuit,
All standard Copeland® brand starting-capacitors are and are normally of the oil filled type. The run capacitor
supplied with bleed-resistors securely attached and capacitance rating is much lower than a start capacitor.
soldered to their terminals as shown in Fig. 51. Because of the voltage generated in the motor start
winding, the run capacitor has a voltage across its
The use of capacitors without these resistors probably terminals greater than line voltage.
will result in sticking relay contacts and/or erratic relay
operation – especially where short cycling is likely to The starting winding of a motor can be damaged by a
occur. shorted and grounded running capacitor. This damage
usually can be avoided by proper connection of the
This is due to the starting capacitor discharging through running capacitor terminals.
the relay contacts as they close, following a very short
running cycle. The resistor will permit the capacitor The terminal connected to the outer foil (nearest the
charge to bleed down at a much faster rate, preventing can) is the one most likely to short to the can and be
arcing and overheating of the relay contacts. grounded in the event of a capacitor breakdown. It is

10-2 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
for full voltage starting. However, due to power company
limitations on starting current, some means of reducing
the inrush starting current on larger horsepower motors
is occasionally necessary. This is particularly true in
other countries, and is necessary in some sections of
the United States and Canada. The principal reason
for these restrictions is to prevent light flicker, television
interference, and undesirable side-effects on other
equipment because of the momentary voltage dip.
The reduced voltage start allows the power company
voltage regulator to pick up the line voltage after part
of the load is imposed, and thus avoids the sharper
voltage dip that would occur if the whole load were
thrown across the line.

Some electrical utilities may limit the inrush current drawn

from their lines to a given amount for a specified period
of time. Others may limit the current drawn on start-up
identified and marked by most manufacturers of running to a given percent of locked rotor current.
capacitors. See Fig. 52.
Unloading the compressor can be helpful in reducing
From the supply line on a typical 115 or 230 volt circuit, the starting and pull-up torque requirement, and will
a 115 volt potential exists from the “R” terminal to enable the motor to accelerate quickly. But regardless of
ground through a possible short in the capacitor. (See whether the compressor is loaded or unloaded, the motor
wiring diagram Fig. 53.) However, from the “S” or start will still draw full starting amperage for a small fraction
terminal, a much higher potential, possibly as high as of a second. Since the principal objection usually is to
400 volts, exists because of the EMF generated in the the momentary inrush current drawn under locked rotor
start winding. Therefore, the possibility of capacitor conditions when starting, unloading the compressor will
failure is much greater when the identified terminal is not always solve the problem. In such cases some type
connected to the “S” or start terminal. of starting arrangement is necessary that will reduce the
starting current requirement of the motor.
BE CONNECTED TO THE SUPPLY LINE, OR “R” Starters to accomplish this are commonly known as
TERMINAL, NEVER TO THE “S” TERMINAL. This reduced voltage starters, although in two of the most
applies to PSC as well as capacitor-start, capacitor-run common methods the line voltage to the motor is not
motors. actually reduced. Since manual starting is not feasible
for refrigeration compressors, the only type of starters
If connected in this manner, a shorted and grounded to be considered are magnetic.
running-capacitor will result in a direct short to ground
from the “R” terminal and will blow line fuse No.1. The There are five types of magnetic reduced voltage starters,
motor protector will protect the main winding from each of which has certain characteristics, which are
excessive temperature. desirable for specific applications.

If, however, the shorted and grounded terminal is 1. Part winding

connected to the start winding terminal “S”, current will 2. Star-Delta
flow from the supply line through the main winding and 3. Autotransformer
through the start winding to ground. Even though the 4. Primary Resistor
protector may trip, current will continue to flow through 5. Reduced voltage step starting accessory
the start winding to ground, resulting in a continuing
temperature rise and failure of the starting winding. As the starting current is decreased, the starting torque
also drops, and the selection of the starter to be used
REDUCED VOLTAGE STARTING may be limited by the compressor torque requirement.
The maximum torque available with reduced voltage
Full voltage “across-the-line” starting is the least starting is 64% of full-voltage torque, which can be
expensive way to start a three-phase motor, and all obtained with an autotransformer starter, while part
motors in Copeland® brand compressors are designed winding starters deliver approximately 45% of full-

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 10-3
voltage torque, and star-delta starters only 33%. For However, it is not necessary for the motor-compressor
Copeland® brand motor-compressors without unloaders, to start and accelerate under the reduced voltage phase
a starting torque of 45% of full-voltage torque or higher of starting to accomplish the objective of reducing the
is recommended. The use of an unloaded start is helpful peak starting current. By energizing the motor a step
in critical applications, and for low torque starting such at a time, the power company requirements may be
as encountered in star-delta starters, an unloaded start satisfied, while at the same time by keeping the time
is essential if the compressor is to start under reduced delay between steps in starting to a minimum, damage to
voltage conditions. the compressor can be avoided. It is of course desirable
for the compressor motor to start and accelerate under

10-4 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
reduced voltage starting conditions to realize the major it is possible that the motor may not start until the
benefits of this type of starting arrangement. second winding is energized, or if it does start, it may
not accelerate. An unloaded start may be desirable
1. Part Winding Start under extreme conditions.

This is not a true reduced voltage start, but it accomplishes On part winding start applications, occasionally an
the same job - limiting inrush current - by utilizing only electrical starting noise or “growl” of short duration
part of the motor windings. Since it uses both the start may be noticed. This occurs when the first half winding
and run contactors to carry the motor current during starts the motor, but is unable to accelerate it beyond
operation, it costs less than the other types. a few hundred rpm. As soon as the second winding is
energized, the motor instantly accelerates, and the noise
To utilize part winding start, the motor must have a dual disappears. Since the time delay between windings is
winding. Copeland® brand 208/220/440 volt, 3 phase no greater than one second, the noise duration is very
motors are wound with two identical stator windings short.
which are connected in parallel on 208 or 220 volt
operation. For part winding start, the first step utilizes The noise will vary with voltage, speed, pressure
only one winding or 1/2 of the stator, and these motors differential, motor horsepower, and will vary slightly
may be used whenever part winding start is required from compressor to compressor. In addition, motors
on 208 or 220 volt power. Part winding start cannot be supplied by different sources may have slight differences
used on these motors when used on 440 volts, since in motor characteristics, and the resulting sound may
the entire winding must be connected in series for 440 be slightly different.
volt power .
Occasionally service personnel mistake the starting noise
Copelametic® model 4R and 6R compressors are for bearing drag. The starting noise is quite normal, will
currently available with dual wound motors, and some be more pronounced on larger motors, and does not
4R and 6R models are available with specially wound harm the compressor In any way.
motors for part winding start on 550 volts.
2. Star-Delta Starting
Basically all that is required for part winding start are
two contactors, each capable of carrying the winding’s For star-delta starting (also referred to as wye-delta)
full load and locked rotor current requirement, with a a specially wound motor is required with both ends of
time delay between the contactors. When the starter each phase winding brought out to terminals. By means
is energized, the first magnetic contactor closes and of contactors a motor designed for normal operation in
puts half of the motor winding across the line. A preset delta is first connected in star, and after a predetermined
time delay relay is energized at the same time, and at time delay, the star connection is changed to delta. This
the completion of the timing cycle, the second magnetic starting arrangement is relatively simple and inexpensive,
contactor closes and puts the second half of the motor and is widely used in Europe.
winding in parallel with the first.
Recently three phase, 50 cycle motors have been
The normal Copeland® brand compressor motor developed for most Copeland® brand compressors 7½
protectors must be used. Where current sensing HP and larger specially wound for star-delta starting.
protectors are required, they must be installed in at Leads were brought out from both ends of each phase
least two phases of each contactor. Motors equipped so that the motors could be connected in either star or
with a Thermotector need no other external protection. delta. Motors are available for star-delta start connections
To prevent tripping of the protectors during starting, the on either 380 volt, 50 cycle, 3 phase or 220 volt, 50
time delay between the first and second contactor must cycle, 3 phase circuits.
be well within the protector’s tolerance for locked rotor
conditions, and a time delay device having a time cycle When a motor designed for delta operation is connected
setting of one second ± 10% is required. in star, the voltage across each phase is reduced to 58%
of normal, and the motor develops 1/3 of the normal
The exact current and torque characteristics of a motor starting torque. The inrush current in star is 1/3 of normal
will vary with design. For Copeland® brand motor- inrush current in delta.
compressors starting on one winding, the motor will
draw approximately 65% of the normal across-the-line Star-delta starting is suitable for low torque starting duty
starting current, and produce approximately 45% of the only. To insure starting on the star connection, some
normal starting torque. Under heavily loaded conditions, means of pressure equalization across the compressor
(continued on p. 10-7)

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 10-5
10-6 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
prior to starting is essential. Unloading the compressor
during the starting phase is also recommended.

In order to eliminate the objectionable flicker or jump in

current occurring during the change from star to delta,
closed transition starters employ an additional contactor
and three resistors which are utilized to keep the motor
connected to power through the resistors during the
transition period. Since the transition period is less than
1/10 of a second in duration, the resistors can be relatively
small. Closed transition starting is recommended to
prevent objectionable surges of current.

Since the relation between line current and phase current

will vary with the switch from star to delta connections,
motor overload protectors must be mounted in the
motor winding circuit. Compressors equipped with
Thermotectors (fast response thermostats) require no
additional external line protection since the Thermotector
protects by sensing an increase in motor winding
temperature. For compressors requiring external
current sensing protectors, specially sized protectors
are required, and the Emerson Climate Technologies,
Inc. Application Engineering Department should be
contacted for specifications.

3. Autotransformer Starters

Autotransformer type starters reduce the voltage across

the motor terminals during the starting and accelerating
period by first connecting the motor to taps on the
transformer, and then after a time delay, switching the
motor connection across the line.

Due to the lower starting voltage, the motor will draw

less current and will develop less torque than if the motor
were connected across the line.

Because of the transformer action, the current in the

motor windings is actually greater than the line current
by a proportion equal to the ratio of transformation, after
allowing for the autotransformer excitation current. This
results in a very flexible control system, since the starting
current inrush can be effectively limited as desired, while
the starting torque per ampere of the line current is the
maximum available from any reduced voltage starter.
The autotransformer starter is the most complex and the
most expensive of the reduced voltage starters, but if
high starting torque is required, it often is the only type
that will perform acceptably.

Taps are provided on the transformer for various stages

of voltage reduction, with reductions of 80% and 65%
of full line voltage normally available on most models.
Closed circuit transition is recommended to prevent
high transient current when transferring from “start” to
“run” conditions.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 10-7
Regular Copeland® brand motor protectors can be two steps which reduces light flicker to a level which is
mounted in the leads to the compressor, or adequate not objectionable.
protection is provided by inherent protectors.
Since no special winding is required in the motor, MOTOR PROTECTION
the autotransformer starter can be used with any
Copelametic® compressor. As with other types, the time Since hermetic motors may have to handle great
delay must be very brief to avoid tripping the protector variations in load for extended periods, close tolerance
during the starting process. protection must be provided to protect the motor in the
event of an overload. Standard heater coils in general
4. Primary Resistor Starters purpose starters do not trip fast enough to protect the
motor under locked rotor conditions. Although fast trip
In many respects, the primary resistor starter is similar heater coils were developed to give faster response,
to the autotransformer type. The motor is connected their variation due to ambient temperature changes
to line current through heavy resistors during the initial makes them undependable under field conditions.
starting step in order to reduce the voltage applied to Therefore specialized types of motor protection have
the motor windings. After a time delay, the resistors been developed for refrigeration motor-compressors.
are shorted out of the circuit, and the compressor is
connected across the line. In the event the compressor fails to start, and an internal
protector or thermostat trips, disconnecting the motor,
However, since starting torque is proportional to the it will normally reset very quickly after the initial trip. If
square of the voltage applied to the motor, the starting several protector trips occur in succession, especially
torque falls off rapidly with the reduction of applied motor when the motor is very hot from operation at heavily
voltage. The resistors act to prevent current surges, and loaded conditions, the motor temperature will rise to a
provide smooth acceleration of the motor once starting point exceeding the protector setting, and an off period
is accomplished, since the voltage drop across the varying from 20 minutes to one hour may be required
resistors decreases as the motor comes up to speed for the compressor motor to cool sufficiently so that
and the inrush starting current decreases. the protector may reset. When this occurs, particularly
on across-the-line internally sealed protectors, service
No special motor windings are required, and regular personnel frequently assume that the motor has been
Copeland® brand motor protectors can be used. As with damaged and is inoperative, when in reality the motor
the autotransformer starter, this system can be applied protection system is performing its intended duty. In the
to any Copelametic® motor. The time delay must be event a compressor is checked and found to be very hot
limited to avoid tripping during starting. and inoperative, allow at least one hour for the motor
to cool, and recheck after the cooling period before
5. Reduced Voltage Step Starting Accessory changing the compressor .

The reduced voltage accessory panel was developed Motor protection may be either of the line break or
primarily as a low cost, special purpose auxiliary to solve pilot circuit type. A line break protector incorporates
the problem of light flicker caused by air conditioners contacts which actually open the line directly when the
of 3 HP and larger on single phase power lines. The protector trips. A pilot circuit protector takes the motor
cost of special transformers and additional equipment off the line indirectly by opening the holding coil circuit
for the power companies made some type of voltage of the contactor, but the compressor protection is still
limitation device essential if service was to be continued dependent on the contactor, since the compressor may
to the large single phase loads. Basically the reduced be subject to damage in case the contacts of a contactor
voltage step starting accessory operates on the same or starter have stuck or welded, despite the fact that the
principle as the primary resistor starter, but it is moderate pilot circuit protector may open.
in cost, is used in conjunction with the regular contactor,
and is designed for consumer applications rather than INTERNAL INHERENT LINE BREAK PROTECTOR
industrial use.
An internal inherent line break protector is a device
The accessory inserts a resistance in series with the carrying full load current, responsive both to current
motor for approximately two seconds, after which a timing and/or temperature, which breaks line current if safe
relay energizes a contactor and shorts the resistors out limits are exceeded.
of the circuit. The resulting torque is low, and the motor
quite possibly will not start with the resistance in the For three phase motors, the internal inherent protector
circuit, but the result is to break the inrush current into is connected in the center of a wye wound motor. It is

10-8 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
located within the motor compartment on the motor motor housing to indirectly sense motor temperature.
winding, and there are no external connections. Because This is a pilot circuit device, and is similar to the internal
of its location, the protector is sensitive to temperature thermostat in operation. Its sensitivity to temperature is
as well as current. When the protector opens, it breaks reduced, and consequently the protection provided is not
all three phases of the motor winding. Since this across- as good as that of the internal type. External thermostats
the-line device provides both over-current and locked are no longer used by Emerson Climate Technologies,
rotor protection, a contactor may be used instead of a Inc. on current production.
motor starter. Internal inherent protectors are among the
best protection systems now available for hermetic and CURRENT SENSITIVE PROTECTORS
accessible-hermetic motor-compressors, but because
of the size of the device required, in larger motors, and External current sensing motor protectors are used in
also because their usage is limited to single voltage conjunction with internal thermostats to provide close
motors, their use is currently restricted to 7½ HP motors tolerance locked rotor protection. They may be either
and smaller. thermal or magnetic in operation, carry full motor current,
and are responsive to the current drawn by the motor.
Single phase internal inherent protectors usually consist Normally these devices act to break the pilot circuit in
of contacts mounted on a bimetal disc which is sensitive the event of a motor overload, but calibrated circuit
to both current passing through the protector and heat breaker types are available, which will break the line
generated by the motor windings. They carry and break current to the compressor.
full line current in the same manner as three phase
protectors, and have proved to be most satisfactory. THERMOTECTOR

EXTERNAL INHERENT PROTECTOR The Thermotector is a quick reacting thermostat

imbedded in the motor windings which senses motor
The external inherent protector is similar in construction temperature. Its current carrying capacity limits its use to
and operation to the internal inherent protector, but the pilot circuit protection, but because of its fast response,
external protector is mounted on the compressor body it provides protection against overheating under locked
and senses motor current and compressor body heat rotor as well as running conditions. Therefore it can be
rather than motor winding heat. Because the external used with a contactor without external current sensing
protector is not subjected to refrigerant pressure, its protective devices, resulting in a simplified control
case is not hermetically sealed as is that of the internal circuit.
inherent protector.
Various electronic solid state devices are now under
On some motor-compressors, particularly larger development for use in motor protection, and it is probable
horsepower sizes where inherent protectors cannot their usage will increase. The control system design will
be used, internal thermostats are located in the motor vary, but normally the sensing device is a temperature
winding. These are pilot circuit devices only, and react sensing element mounted on the motor windings in
only to motor winding heat. When overheated they open which the resistance changes with a change in motor
the control circuit, thereby stopping the compressor. temperature. The change in resistance when amplified
These thermostats cannot be replaced in the field and by other solid state components acts to make or break
are protected against excessive current in the control the pilot circuit. As in the case with the Thermotector
circuit by fuses. the quick response provides both running and locked
rotor current protection.
Because the temperature rise in motor windings during
locked rotor conditions is both rapid and uneven, the FUSES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS
thermostat often lags behind the winding temperature,
and therefore some additional approved protective On air conditioners having motor compressors with PSC
device is necessary to protect the compressor motor motors, it is possible that nuisance tripping of household
against locked rotor conditions. type circuit breakers may occur. PSC motors have very
low starting torque, and if pressures are not equalized
EXTERNAL THERMOSTATS at start up, the motor may require several seconds to
start and accelerate.
On some older models of Copelametic® motor-
compressors, an external thermostat is clamped to the This is most apt to occur where a short cycle of the
compressor can be caused by the thermostat making

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 10-9
contact prematurely due to shock or vibration. Typically
this can occur where the thermostat is wall mounted and
can be jarred by the slamming of a door.

U. L. and most electrical inspection agencies now require

that hermetic type refrigeration motor-compressors
must comply with the National Electric Code maximum
fuse sizing requirement. This establishes the maximum
fuse size at 225% of the motor full load current, and by
definition the motor-compressor nameplate amperage
is considered full load current, unless this rating is
superseded by another on the unit nameplate.

Since the motor protector may take up to 17 seconds to

trip if the compressor fails to start, it is probable that a
standard type fuse or circuit breaker sized on the basis
of 225% of full load current may break the circuit prior to
the compressor protector trip, since locked rotor current
of the motor may be from 400% to 500% of nameplate

To avoid nuisance tripping, Emerson Climate modern motors are normally so small that the effect on
Technologies, Inc. recommends that air conditioners amperage draw is negligible. Under an ideal condition,
with PSC motors be installed with branch circuit fuses or if the phase voltages were always equal, a single motor
circuit breakers sized as closely as possible to the 225% protector in just one line would adequately protect the
maximum limitation, the fuse or circuit breaker to be of motor against damage due to excessive amperage
the time delay type with a capability of withstanding motor draw. As a practical matter, balanced supply voltages
locked rotor current for a minimum of 17 seconds. are not always maintained, so the three line currents
will not always be equal.
CURRENT ON THREE PHASE MOTOR Inherent line break motor protectors mounted at the
PROTECTION center of the wye on wye wound motors provide protection
against all forms of voltage variation. However, on larger
When external current sensing motor protectors are motors the size of the protector makes inherent protectors
used to protect a three phase motor-compressor against impractical, and many larger models of Copeland®
excessive current draw and resulting motor overheating, brand compressors have a combination pilot circuit
unbalanced motor currents can seriously affect the protection system, consisting of internal thermostats and
motor protection system. While it is generally recognized external current sensing protectors. Because internal
that a break in one phase of a three phase distribution thermostats are somewhat slow in reaction, and lag
system can result in excessive amperage draw because behind the actual motor temperature in the event of a
of the resulting single phasing condition, another and fast temperature rise, locked rotor protection is provided
equally serious hazard is the effect on amperage of an by the external protector. Since in most cases adequate
unbalanced voltage in the power supply. protection can be provided by two leg current sensing
protection, and because of the size and cost of external
If single phasing occurs, the motor may stall unless lightly protectors, the majority of compressors are installed with
loaded, and once stopped, it will not start, resulting in two leg protection, although the third protector can be
locked rotor amperage draw. Under unbalanced voltage supplied if desired. In order to determine if the motor
conditions, however, the motor will continue to operate, will be adequately protected under various abnormal
and motor protection may be dependent on the ability conditions, an understanding of the inter-relation of
of the protectors to sense the abnormally high running current and unbalanced voltage is essential.
current or the increase in the motor temperature.
When line voltages applied to a three phase induction
A properly wound three phase motor connected to a motor are not the same, unbalanced currents will flow in
supply source in which the voltages in each phase the stator windings. The effect of unbalanced voltages
are balanced at all times will have identical currents in is equivalent to the introduction of a “negative sequence
all three phases. The differences in motor windings in voltage” which is exerting a force opposite to that created

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

10-10 All rights reserved.
with balanced voltages. These opposing forces will
produce currents in the windings greatly in excess of
those present under balanced voltage conditions.

Voltage unbalance is calculated as follows:

% Voltage Unbalance = 100 x

Max. Voltage Deviation from Average Volt.
Average Voltage

For example, in Figure 57, assume voltage AB is 220

volts, BC is 230 volts, and AC is 216 volts.

Average Voltage =
216 + 220 + 230
3 = 222 Volts

Maximum Deviation = 230 - 222 = 8 Volts

100 X 8
% Voltage Unbalance = 222 = 3.6%
the highest amperage draw.
As a result of the voltage unbalance, the locked rotor
current will be unbalanced to the same degree. However, A common source of unbalanced voltage on a three
the unbalance in load currents at normal operating phase circuit is the presence of a single phase load
speed may be from 4 to 10 times the voltage unbalance, between two of the three phases. (See Figure 58).
depending on the load. With the 3.6% voltage unbalance
in the previous example, load current in one phase might A large unbalanced single phase load, for example a
be as much as 30% greater than the average line current lighting circuit, can easily cause sufficient variations in
being drawn by the other two phases. motor currents to endanger the motor. If at all possible,
this condition should be corrected by shifting the single
The NEMA Motors and Generators Standards Publication phase load as necessary. Supply voltages should
states that the percentage increase in temperature rise be evenly balanced as closely as can be read on a
in a phase winding resulting from voltage unbalance will commercial voltmeter.
be approximately two times the square of the voltage
unbalance. A recent national survey by U.L. indicated that 36 out of
83 utilities surveyed, or 43%, allowed voltage unbalance
% Increase in Temperature = in excess of 3%, and 30% allowed voltage unbalance
2 (Voltage Unbalance %)² of 5% or higher.

Using the voltage unbalance from the previous example, In the event of a supply voltage unbalance, the power
the % increase in temperature can be estimated as company should be notified of such unbalance to
follows: determine if the situation can be corrected.

% Increase in Temperature = 2(3.6 x 3.6) = 25.9% Unless the unbalance can be corrected, the only way
to insure motor safety is to be sure the protectors are
As a result of this condition, it is possible that one phase mounted in the high current phases when using two leg
winding in a motor may be overheated while the other protection, or to use protectors in all three legs.
two have temperatures within normal limits. If only two
motor protectors are being used, and the high current A simple single phase condition in the load circuit will
winding is not protected, ultimate motor failure may cause the current in two of the three phases to increase,
occur even though the protectors do not trip. Therefore, while there will be no current in the open phase.
when installing external motor protectors for a motor in
which only two of the three phases are to be protected, A motor can be protected against this type of failure
be sure the protectors are mounted in the phases with with only two protectors, since there will always be at
least one protector in a line carrying the high single
phase current.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 10-11
The effect of an open phase in the primary circuit of a motor would still be protected should the high current
power transformer depends on the type of transformer fall in either of the two protected legs. Therefore, the
connection. Where both primary and secondary windings statistical chances of failure are small, so normally no
are connected in the same fashion, wye-wye or delta- special provisions for this type of protection are provided
delta, a fault in one phase of the primary will result in unless required by code or regulatory bodies. However,
a low current in one phase of the secondary, and high if a primary single phase fault occurs, it may last for
currents in two phases, with results similar to the simple several hours, and motors not adequately protected
load circuit single phase condition. are quite likely to fail.

But in wye-delta or delta-wye connected power Most of the three phase protections systems used
transformers, an open circuit or single phase on the by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. will protect
primary side of the transformer will result in a high current
in only one phase of the motor with low currents in the
other two phases.

Under locked rotor conditions, the high phase will

draw an amperage slightly less than nameplate locked
rotor current, while the other two legs will each draw
approximately 50% of that amount. Under operating
conditions, the current in the high phase could be in

excess of 200% of full load amperes, depending on load,

while the current in the other two legs will be slightly against primary single phasing, but if there is any
greater than normal full load amperes. question concerning an application, the matter should
be referred to the Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Since the majority of power systems now use wye-delta Application Engineering Department. However, where
or delta-wye transformer connections, occasional faults unbalanced supply voltages and single phase loads
of this type can be expected. represent a continuing threat to three phase motor life,
it is recommended that inherently protected motors be
Most commercial power systems are quite reliable, and if used, or if inherent protection is not available because
a primary single phase condition does occur in a system of motor size, the motor-compressor should be equipped
where the compressor has only two leg protection, the with 3 leg protection.

10-12 © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 11

A number of accessory items are used in refrigeration gas flows through the large center tube, while liquid is
circuits for specific purposes, and their requirement in piped through the smaller tube wrapped around the
a particular system depends on the application. suction tubing. The cold suction vapor absorbs heat
from the warm, high pressure liquid through the tube
RECEIVERS to tube metal contact. Internal fins are often provided

A receiver is primarily a liquid storage tank for refrigerant

which is not in circulation. Small package systems
utilizing capillary tubes for liquid refrigerant feed may
have very small refrigerant charges, and if the operating
load is fairly constant, careful design of the evaporator
and condenser may allow the elimination of the receiver
from the system. If the condenser has volume enough
to provide storage space, a separate receiver is not
required, and this is common design practice in water-
cooled units with shell and tube condensers. However,
on practically all air cooled units equipped with expansion
valves, a separate receiver is required.
in the suction gas section to increase the heat transfer
In order to provide space to store the refrigerant between the suction gas and the liquid refrigerant.
charge when maintenance is required on the system,
the receiver should be large enough to hold the entire SUCTION ACCUMULATORS
refrigerant charge. A valve at the receiver outlet is
required in order to pump the refrigerant charge into If liquid refrigerant is allowed to flood through the system
the receiver, an operation commonly called pumping and return to the compressor before being evaporated,
the system down. it may cause damage to the compressor due to liquid
slugging, loss of oil from the crankcase, or bearing
The outlet of the receiver must be so located that a liquid washout. To protect against this condition on systems
seal is maintained at the outlet even though the level in
the receiver tank may vary, to prevent any vapor from
entering the liquid line. Therefore if the outlet is at the
top, or if a side outlet is provided, a dip tube extending
to approximately ½” from the bottom of the receiver is


A heat exchanger is a device for transferring heat from

one medium to another. In commercial refrigeration
systems the general term of heat exchanger is used
to describe a component for transferring heat from the
liquid refrigerant to the refrigerant suction gas.

As mentioned previously, a heat exchanger is used

to raise the temperature of the return gas to prevent
frosting or condensation, to subcool the liquid refrigerant
sufficiently to prevent the formation of flash gas in the
liquid line, to evaporate any liquid refrigerant flooding
through the evaporator, and to increase system

A typical heat exchanger is shown in Figure 61. Suction

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 11-1
vulnerable to liquid damage such as heat pumps, truck Dehydrators or driers, as they are commonly called,
refrigeration, or on any installation where liquid floodback consist of a shell filled with a desiccant or drying agent,
can occur, a suction accumulator is often used. with an adequate filter at each end. Some driers are made
in porous block form so that the refrigerant is filtered by
The accumulator’s function is to intercept liquid refrigerant the entire block. Driers are mounted in the refrigerant
before it can reach the compressor crankcase. It should liquid line, so that all of the refrigerant in circulation must
be located in the compressor suction line between the pass through the drier each time it circulates through
evaporator and the compressor, should have a capacity the system. Most driers are so constructed that they can
large enough to hold the maximum amount of liquid serve a dual function as both filter and drier.
that might flood through, and must have provisions
for a positive return of oil to the crankcase. Either a Many different drying agents are used, but practically
source of heat must be provided to evaporate the liquid all modern driers are either of the throwaway type, or
refrigerant or a means must be provided to meter the of the replaceable element type, and it is considered
liquid to the compressor at a safe rate. A positive oil good practice to discard the used drier element each
return must also be provided so that oil does not trap time the system is opened, and replace with a new drier
in the accumulator. or drier element.

Figure 62 illustrates a vertical accumulator with a U-tube SUCTION LINE FILTERS

suction connection.


Although well designed systems are effective in

preventing oil return problems, there are some cases
where the use of oil separators may be necessary.
They are most often required on ultra-low temperature
systems, with flooded evaporators, or on other systems
where inherent oil return problems are present.

An oil separator is basically a separation chamber for oil

and discharge gas. There is always some oil in circulation
in a refrigeration system and oil leaving the compressor
is entrained in the hot discharge gas which is traveling
at high velocity. The oil separator when used is installed
in the discharge line between the compressor and the
condenser. By means of baffles and a reduction of gas
velocity in the oil separator chamber, most of the oil
is separated from the hot gas, and is returned to the In order to protect the compressor from contamination
compressor crankcase by means of a float valve and left in the system at the time of installation, suction
connecting tubing. The efficiency of an oil separator line filters are widely used. The suction line filter is
varies with load conditions, and is never 100% effective designed for permanent installation in the suction line,
even under ideal conditions. If system design causes and may be of the sealed type, or may be equipped with
oil logging, an oil separator may only delay lubrication a replaceable element so that the filter can be easily
difficulty rather than cure it. changed if necessary.

DEHYDRATORS The replaceable element type is convenient for installing

a system cleaning filter-drier element in the event of
Moisture is one of the basic enemies of a refrigeration system contamination.
system, and the moisture level in an operating system
must be held to an acceptable low level to avoid system VIBRATION ELIMINATORS
malfunctions or compressor damage. Even with the best
precautions, moisture will enter a system any time it is In order to prevent the transmission of noise and vibration
opened for field service. Unless the system is thoroughly from the compressor through the refrigeration piping,
evacuated and recharged after exposure to moisture, the vibration eliminators are frequently installed in both the
only other effective means of removing small amounts suction and discharge lines. On small units, where small
of moisture is with a dehydrator. diameter soft copper tubing is used for the refrigerant

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

11-2 All rights reserved.
lines, a coil of tubing may provide adequate protection The moisture indicator provides a warning signal for
against vibration. On larger compressors, flexible metallic the serviceman in the event moisture has entered the
hose is most frequently used. system, indicating that the dehydrator should be changed
STRAINERS or that other action should be taken to effectively dry
the system.


On systems where noise transmission must be reduced to

a minimum, or where compressor pulsation might create
vibration problems, a discharge muffler is frequently used
to dampen and reduce compressor discharge noise.
The muffler is basically a shell with baffle plates, with
the internal volume required primarily dependent on
the compressor displacement, although the frequency
and intensity of the sound waves are also factors in
muffler design.
Strainers, as the name implies, are mounted in refrigerant
lines to strain any dirt, metal chips, etc. out of the
refrigerant which might cause a malfunction in either CRANKCASE HEATERS
the refrigerant control devices or the compressor. While
the configuration of the strainer will vary, basically it is When the compressor is installed in a location where
comprised of a shell with a fine mesh screen. Because it will be exposed to ambient temperatures colder than
of the small orifice in expansion and solenoid valves, the evaporator, refrigerant migration to the crankcase
strainers are normally mounted just upstream from them can be aggravated by the resulting pressure difference
in the refrigerant liquid line. between the evaporator and compressor during off
cycles. To protect against the possibility of migration,
SIGHT GLASS AND MOISTURE INDICATORS crankcase heaters are often employed to keep the oil in
the crankcase at a temperature high enough so that any
A sight glass in the liquid line allows the operator or liquid refrigerant entering the crankcase will evaporate
serviceman to observe the flow of liquid refrigerant. and create a pressure sufficient to prevent large scale
Bubbles or foaming in the sight glass indicate a shortage migration.
of refrigerant, or a restriction in the liquid line that is
adversely affecting system operation. Sight glasses are Crankcase heaters may be of the insert type or can be
widely used as a means of determining if the system is mounted externally on the crankcase. The heater is a
adequately charged when adding refrigerant. low wattage resistance element, normally energized
continuously, and must be carefully selected to avoid
Moisture indicators have been incorporated in sight overheating of the oil in the compressor.
glasses as shown in Figure 65.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 11-3
REFRIGERATION GAUGES for pressures above atmospheric pressure in psig, and
for pressures below atmospheric pressure in vacuum in
Pressure gauges, especially calibrated for refrigeration inches of mercury. The compound gauge is calibrated
usage, are the primary tool of the serviceman in checking from 30 inches of vacuum to pressures ranging from 60
system performance. Gauges for the high pressure side psig to 150 psig depending on gauge design.
of the system have scales reading from 0 psig to 300
psig (or for usage on higher pressures, from 0 psig to 400 In addition to the pressure scales, equivalent saturation
psig). Gauges for the low pressure part of the system are temperatures for commonly used refrigerants are usually
termed compound gauges, since the scale is graduated shown on the gauge dial.

© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

11-4 All rights reserved.
© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
© 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Form No. AE 102 R2 (10/06))
1675 W. Campbell Rd.
Emerson®, Emerson. Consider It Solved™, Emerson Climate Technologies™ and Sidney, OH 45365
the Emerson Climate Technologies™ logo are the trademarks and service marks of
Emerson Electric Co. and are used with the permission of Emerson Electric Co.
Copelametic®, Copeland®, and the Copeland® brand products logo are the
trademarks and service marks of Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Printed in the USA. © 1967 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Refrigeration Manual

Part 3 - The Refrigeration Load


The practice of refrigeration undoubtedly goes back as far as the history of mankind, but
for thousands of years the only cooling mediums were water and ice. Today refrigeration in
the home, in the supermarket, and in commercial and industrial usage is so closely woven
into our everyday existence it is difficult to imagine life without it. But because of this rapid
growth, countless people who must use and work with refrigeration equipment do not fully
understand the basic fundamentals of refrigeration system operation.

This manual is designed to fill a need which exists for a concise, elementary text to aid
servicemen, salesman, students, and others interested in refrigeration. It is intended to
cover only the fundamentals of refrigeration theory and practice. Detailed information as to
specific products is available from manufacturers of complete units and accessories. Used
to supplement such literature—and to improve general knowledge of refrigeration—this
manual should prove to be very helpful.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Part 3

Transmission Heat Load — Q........................... 12-1 Tables of Specific Product Data........................ 14-1
Thermal Conductivity — k................................. 12-1 Heat of Respiration............................................ 14-1
Thermal Resistivity — r..................................... 12-1 Sensible Heat Above Freezing.......................... 14-7
Conductance — C............................................. 12-1 Latent Heat of Freezing..................................... 14-8
Thermal Resistance — R.................................. 12-1 Sensible Heat Below Freezing.......................... 14-8
Surface File Resistance.................................... 12-1 Total Product Load............................................ 14-8
Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer — U.......... 12-1 Storage Data..................................................... 14-8
Transmission Heat Load.................................... 12-2
Values of Thermal Conductivity for Section 15.  SUPPLEMENTARY LOAD
Building Materials....................................... 12-3
Outdoor Design Data......................................... 12-3 Electric Lights and Heaters............................... 15-1
Allowance for Radiation from the Sun............... 12-8 Electric Motors................................................... 15-1
Recommended Insulation Thickness................. 12-8 Human Heat Load............................................. 15-1
Quick Calculation Table for Walk-in Coolers..... 12-9 Total Supplementary Load................................. 15-1


Air Change Estimating Method.......................... 13-1 Hourly Load....................................................... 16-1

Air Velocity Estimating Method.......................... 13-1 Sample Load Calculation.................................. 16-1
Ventilating Air..................................................... 13-2 Relative Humidity and Evaporator TD............... 16-2
Infiltration Heat Load......................................... 13-2 Compressor Selection....................................... 16-2
Component Balancing....................................... 16-3
The Effect of Change in Compressor
Only on System Balance............................ 16-9
Quick Select Tables for Walk-in Coolers........... 16-11

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Table 4 Typical Heat Transmission Coefficients.................................................................................. 12-3

Table 5 Summer Outdoor Design Data............................................................................................... 12-5
Table 6 Allowance for Sun Effect......................................................................................................... 12-8
Table 7 Recommended Minimum Insulation Thickness...................................................................... 12-9
Table 7A Quick Estimate Factors for Heat Transmission Through Insulated Walls............................... 12-9
Table 8 Average Air Changes per 24 Hours for Storage Rooms Due to Opening and Infiltration....... 13-1
Table 9 Heat Removed in Cooling Air to Storage Room Conditions................................................... 13-2
Table 10 Food Products Data................................................................................................................ 14-1
Table 11 Properties of Solids................................................................................................................. 14-4
Table 12 Properties of Liquids............................................................................................................... 14-6
Table 13 Storage Requirements and Properties of Perishable Products.............................................. 14-9
Table 14 Storage Conditions for Cut Flowers and Nursery Stock......................................................... 14-11
Table 15 Space, Weight, and Density Data for Commodities Stored in Refrigerated Warehouses...... 14-12
Table 16 Heat Equivalent of Electric Motors.......................................................................................... 15-1
Table 17 Heat Equivalent of Occupancy............................................................................................... 15-1
Table 18 Recommended Condensing Unit Capacity for Walk-in Coolers, 35°F. Temperature.............. 16-12
Table 19 Recommended Condensing Unit Capacity for Walk-in Coolers, Low Temperature................ 16-12

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 12

The heat gain through walls, floors and ceilings will vary the thermal conductivity factor should be as small as
with the type of construction, the area exposed to a dif- possible, and the material as thick as possible.
ferent temperature, the type of insulation, the thickness
of insulation, and the temperature difference between THERMAL RESISTIVITY — r
the refrigerated space and the ambient air.
Thermal resistivity is defined as the reciprocal of thermal
In catalog and technical literature pertaining to heat conductivity of 1/k. “r” is of importance because resis-
transfer, certain letter symbols are commonly used to tance values can be added numerically.
denote the heat transfer factors, and a working knowl-
edge of these symbols is frequently necessary to easily R total = r1 + r2 + r3
interpret catalog data.
Where r1, r2, and r3 are individual resistances. This
TRANSMISSION HEAT LOAD — Q makes the use of r convenient in calculating overall
heat transfer coefficients.
The basic formula for heat transfer through some heat
transfer barrier is: CONDUCTANCE — C

Q = U x A x TD Thermal conductance is similar to thermal conductiv-

Q = Heat transfer, BTU/Hr ity, except that it is an overall heat transfer factor for
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient a given thickness of material, as opposed to thermal
BTU/(hour)(sq. ft.)(°F TD) conductivity, k, which is a factor per inch of thickness.
A = Area in square feet The definition is similar, BTU/(hour)(square foot of
TD = Temperature differential between area)(°F TD).
sides of thermal barrier, for
example, between outside design THERMAL RESISTANCE — R
temperature and the refrigerated
space temperature. Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of conductance, 1/C
in the same way that thermal resistivity is the reciprocal
Q is the rate of heat flow, the quantity of heat flowing of conductivity.
after all factors are considered.
Heat transfer through any material is affected by the
Thermal conductivity, k, is defined as the rate of heat surface resistance to heat flow, and this is determined
transfer that occurs through a material in units of by the type of surface, rough or smooth; its position,
BTU/(hr)(square foot of area)(°F TD) per inch of thick- vertical or horizontal; its reflective properties; and the
ness. Different materials offer varying resistances to rate of airflow over the surface. Surface film conduc-
the flow of heat. tance, normally denoted by fi for inside surfaces and fo
for outside surfaces is similar to conductance.
For example, the heat transfer in 24 hours through two
square feet of material three inches in thickness hav- However, in refrigeration work with insulated walls, the
ing a thermal conductivity factor of .25 with an average conductivity is so low that the surface film conductance
temperature difference across the material of 70°F has little effect, and therefore, can be omitted from the
would be calculated as follows: calculation.

.25(k) x 2 sq. ft. x 24 hours x 70° TD OVERALL COEFFICIENT OF HEAT

Q= 3 inches thickness = 280 BTU TRANSFER — U

Since the total heat transferred by conduction varies The overall coefficient of heat transfer, U, is defined as
directly with time, area, and temperature difference, and the rate of heat transfer through a material or compound
varies inversely with the thickness of the material, it is structural member with parallel walls. The U factor,
readily apparent that in order to reduce heat transfer, as it is commonly called, is the resulting heat transfer

12-1 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
coefficient after giving effect to thermal conductivity, .80, and two inches of insulation having a conductance
conductance, and surface film conductance, and is ex- of .16, the U value is found as follows:
pressed in terms of BTU/(hour) (square foot of area)(°F
TD). It is usually applied to compound structures such 1 X 1

as walls, ceilings, and roofs. R Total = C + k 1

The formula for calculating the U factor is complicated 1 2

by the fact that the total resistance to heat flow through a = .16 + .80
substance of several layers is the sum of the resistance
of the various layers. The resistance of heat flow is the = 6.25 + 2.5 = 8.75
reciprocal of the conductivity. Therefore, in order to
calculate the overall heat transfer factor, it is necessary 1 1
to first find the overall resistance to heat flow, and then U = R Total = 8.75
find the reciprocal of the overall resistance to calculate
the U factor. =.114 BTU/(hour)(sq. ft.)(°F TD)

The basic relation between the U factor and the various TRANSMISSION HEAT LOAD
conductivity factors is as follows:
Once the U factor is known, the heat gain by transmis-
1 X1 X2 sion through a given wall can be calculated by the basic
R Total = C + k1 + k2 heat transfer equation.

1 Assume a wall with a U factor of .114 as calculated in the

U= R Total previous example. Given an area of 90 square feet with
an inside temperature of 0°F, an outside temperature of
In the above equation, k1, k2, etc. are the thermal 80°F, the heat transmission would be:
conductivities of the various materials used, C is the
conductance if it applies rather than k1, and X1, X2, etc. Q = U x A x TD
are the thicknesses of the material. = .114 x 90 sq. ft x 80°TD
= 812 BTU/hr
For example, to calculate the U factor of a wall com-
posed of two inches of material having a k1 factor of The entire heat gain into a given refrigerated space
can be found in a similar manner by determining the
U factor for each part of the structure surrounding the
refrigerated space, and calculating as above.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 12-2
Extensive studies have been made of weather bureau
Extensive testing has been done by many laboratories records for many years to arrive at suitable outdoor
to determine accurate values for heat transfer through design temperatures. For air conditioning or refrigera-
all common building and structural materials. Certain tion applications, the maximum load occurs during the
materials have a high resistance to the flow of heat (a hottest weather.
low thermal conductivity) and are therefore used as
insulation to decrease the heat transfer into the refriger- However, it is neither economical or practical to design
ated space. There are many different types of insulation equipment for the hottest temperature which might ever
such as asbestos, glass fiber, cork, reflective metals, occur, since the peak temperature might occur for only
and the new foam materials. Most good insulating a few hours over the span of several years. Therefore,
materials have a thermal conductivity (k) factor of ap- the design temperature normally is selected as a tem-
proximately .25 or less, and rigid foam insulations have perature that will not be exceeded more than a given
been developed with thermal conductivity (k) factors as percentage of the hours during the four month summer
low as .12 to .15. season. Table 5 lists summer design temperatures,
which will be equaled or exceeded only during 1% of
Heat transmission coefficients for many commonly used the hours during the four summer months.
building materials are shown in Table 4.
(continued on p. 12-8)

12-3 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 12-4
12-5 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 12-6
12-7 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.

The primary radiation factor involved in the refrigeration As the desired storage temperature decreases, the
load is heat gain from the sun’s rays. If the walls of the refrigeration load increases, and as the evaporating
refrigerated space are exposed to the sun, additional temperature decreases, the compressor efficiency
heat will be added to the heat load. For ease in calcu- decreases. Therefore, from a practical and economic
lation, an allowance can be made for the sun load in standpoint, the insulation thickness must be increased
refrigeration calculations by increasing the temperature as the storage temperature decreases.
differential by the factors listed in Table 6.
Table 7 lists recommended insulation thickness from the
This table is usable for refrigeration loads only, and is 1981 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. The recom-
not accurate for air conditioning estimates. mendations are based on expanded polyurethane which
has a conductivity factor of .16. If other insulations are
used, the recommended thickness should be adjusted
base on relative k factors.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 12-8

As an aid in the quick calculation of heat transmission

through insulated walls, Table 7A lists the approximate
heat gain in BTU per 1°F. temperature difference per
square foot of surface per 24 hours for various thick-
nesses of commonly used insulations. The thickness of
insulation referred to is the actual thickness of insulation,
and not the overall wall thickness.

For example, to find the heat transfer for 24 hours

through a 6’ x 8’ wall insulated with 4 inches of glass
fiber when the outside is exposed to 95°F ambient
temperature, and the box temperature is 0°F., calculate
as follows:

1.9 factor x 48 sq. ft. x 95°TD = 8664 BTU

12-9 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 13

Any outside air entering the refrigerated space must be 8 100

reduced to the storage temperature, thus increasing the Velocity = 100 FPM x 7 x 60
refrigeration load. In addition, if the moisture content of
the entering air is above that of the refrigerated space,
2.83 10
the excess moisture will condense out of the air, and
the latent heat of condensation will add to the refrigera- =100 x 2.65 x 7.74
tion load.
= 138 FPM
Because of the many variables involved, it is difficult to
calculate the additional heat gain due to air infiltration. Estimated rate of Infiltration
Various means of estimating this portion of the refrig-
eration load have been developed based primarily on 138 FPM x 8 ft. x 4 ft. = 2210 cu. ft per min.
experience, but all of these estimating methods are 2
subject to the possibility of sizable error, and specific
applications may vary widely in the actual heat gain Infiltration velocities for various door heights and TDs
encountered. are plotted in Figure 67.

AIR CHANGE ESTIMATING METHOD If the average time the door is opened each hour can
be determined, the average hourly infiltration can be
The traffic in and out of a refrigerator usually varies with calculated, and the heat gain can be determined as
its size or volume. Therefore the number of times doors before.
are opened will be related to the volume rather than the
number of doors.

Table 8 lists estimated average air changes per 24 hours

for various sized refrigerators due to door openings
and infiltration for a refrigerated storage room. Note
that these values are subject to major modification if it
is definitely determined that the usage of the storage
room is either heavy or light.


Another means of computing infiltration into a refriger-
ated space is by means of the velocity of airflow through
an open door. When the door of a refrigerated storage
space is opened, the difference in density between cold
and warm air will create a pressure differential causing
cold air to flow out the bottom of the doorway and warm
air to flow in the top. Velocities will vary from maximum
at the top and bottom to zero in the center.

The estimated average velocity in either half of the door

is 100 feet per minute for a doorway seven feet high at
60°F. TD. The velocity will vary as the square root of
the height of the doorway and as the square root of the
temperature difference.

For example the rate of infiltration through a door 8

feet high and 4 feet wide, with a 100°F. TD between
the storage room and the ambient can be estimated
as follows:

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 13-1
VENTILATING AIR per cubic foot of infiltration as given in Table 9. For ac-
curate calculations at conditions not covered by Table
If positive ventilation is provided for a space by means of 9, the heat load can be determined by the difference
supply or exhaust fans, the ventilation load will replace in enthalpy between entering air and the storage room
the infiltration load (if greater) and the heat gain may be air conditions. This is most easily accomplished by use
calculated on the basis of the ventilating air volume. of the psychrometric chart, which will be discussed in
detail in a subsequent section.

Once the rate of infiltration has been determined, the

heat load can then be calculated from the heat gain

13-2 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 13-3
Section 14

The product load is composed of any heat gain occur- HEAT OF RESPIRATION
ring due to the product in the refrigerated space. The
load may arise from a product placed in the refrigerator Fruits and vegetables, even though they have been
at a temperature higher than the storage temperature, removed from the vine or tree on which they grew, are
from a chilling or freezing process, or from the heat of still living organisms. Their life processes continue for
respiration of perishable products. The total product load some time after being harvested, and as a result they
is the sum of the various types of product load which give off heat. Certain other food products also undergo
may apply to the particular application. continuing chemical reactions which produce heat.
Meats and fish have no further life processes and do
TABLES OF SPECIFIC PRODUCT DATA not generate any heat.

The following tables list data on specific products that The amount of heat given off is dependent on the
is essential in calculating the refrigeration product load. specific product and its storage temperature. Table 10
Table 10 covers food products, Table 11 solids, and lists various food products with pertinent storage data.
Table 12 liquids. Note that the heat of respiration varies with the storage
(continued on p. 14-7)

14-1 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 14-2
14-3 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 14-4
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
14-5 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 14-6
SENSIBLE HEAT ABOVE FREEZING temperature above freezing may be calculated as fol-
Most products are at a higher temperature than the stor-
age temperature when placed in a refrigerator. Since Q = W x c x (T1 - T2)
many foods have a high percentage of water content,
their reaction to a loss of heat is quite different above Q = BTU to be removed
and below the freezing point. Above the freezing point, W = Weight of the product in pounds
the water exists in liquid form, while below the freezing c = Specific heat above freezing
point, the water has changed its state to ice. T1 = Initial temperature, °F.
T2 = Initial temperature, °F. (freezing or above)
As mentioned previously, the specific heat of a product
is defined as the BTUs required to raise the temperature For example, the heat to be removed in order to cool
of one pound of the substance 1°F. The specific heats 1,000 pounds of veal (whose freezing point is 29°F.)
of various commodities are listed in Tables 10, 11, and from 42°F. to 29°F. can be calculated as follows:
12. Note that in Table 10 the specific heat of the product
above freezing is different than the specific heat below Q = W x c x (T1 - T2)
freezing, and the freezing point (listed in the first column) = 1000 pounds x .71 specific heat x (42-29)
varies, but in practically all cases is below 32°F. = 1000 x .71 x 13
= 9,230 BTU
The heat to be removed from a product to reduce its

14-7 © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
W = Weight of product in pounds
The latent heat of fusion or freezing for liquids other ci = Specific heat below freezing
than water is given in Table 12. Substances such as Tf = Freezing temperature
metals which contain no water do not have a freezing T3 = Final temperature
point, and no latent heat of fusion is involved in lowering
their temperature. For example, the heat to be removed in order to cool
1,000 pounds of veal from 29°F. to 0°F. can be calcu-
Most food products, however, have a high percentage lated as follows:
of water content. In order to calculate the heat removal
required to freeze the product, only the water need be Q = W x ci x (Tf - T3)
considered. The water content percentage for various = 1,000 lbs. x .39 specific heat x (29-0)
food products is given in Table 10, Column 2. = 1,000 x .39 x 29
= 11,310 BTU
Since the latent heat of fusion or freezing of water is 144
BTU/lb., the latent heat of fusion for the product can be TOTAL PRODUCT LOAD
calculated by multiplying 144 BTU/lb. by the percentage
of water content, and for ease in calculations this figure The total product load is the sum of the individual
is given in Column 5 of Table 10. To illustrate, veal has a calculations for the sensible heat above freezing, the
water percentage of 63%, and the latent heat of fusion latent heat of freezing, and the sensible heat below
listed in Column 5 for veal is 91 BTU/lb. freezing.

63% x 144 BTU/lb. = 91 BTU/lb. From the foregoing example, if 1,000 pounds of veal is
to be cooled from 42°F. to 0°F., the total would be:
The heat to be removed from a product for the latent
heat of freezing may be calculated as follows: Sensible Heat above Freezing 9,230 BTU
Latent Heat of Freezing 91,000 BTU
Q = W x hif Sensible Heat Below Freezing 11,310 BTU
Total Product Load 111,540 BTU
Q = BTU to be removed
W = Weight of product in pounds If several different commodities or crates, baskets, etc.
hif = latent heat of fusion, BTU/lb. are to be considered, then a separate calculation must
be made for each item for an accurate estimate of the
The latent heat of freezing of 1000 pounds of veal at product load.
29°F. is:
Q = W x hif
= 1000 lbs. x 91 BTU/lb. Most commodities have conditions of temperature and
= 91,000 BTU relative humidity at which their quality is best preserved
and their storage life is a maximum. Recommended stor-
SENSIBLE HEAT BELOW FREEZING age conditions for various perishable products are listed
in Table 13 and recommended storage conditions for cut
Once the water content of a product has been frozen, flowers and nursery stock are listed in Table 14.
sensible cooling again can occur in the same manner
as that above freezing, with the exception that the ice in Data on various types of storage containers is listed
the product causes the specific heat to change. Note in in Table 15.
Table 10 the specific heat of veal above freezing is .71,
while the specific heat below freezing is .39,

The heat to be removed from a product to reduce its tem-

perature below freezing may be calculated as follow:

Q = W x ci x (Tf - T3)

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 14-8
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
14-9 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 14-10
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
14-11 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 14-12
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
14-13 All rights reserved.
Section 15

In addition to the heat transmitted into the refrigerated TOTAL SUPPLEMENTARY LOAD
space through the walls, air infiltration, and product load,
any heat gain from other sources must be included in The total supplementary load is the sum of the individual
the total cooling load estimate. factors contributing to it. For example, the total supple-
mentary load in a refrigerated storeroom maintained at
ELECTRIC LIGHTS AND HEATERS 0°F. in which there are 300 watts of electric lights, a 3
HP motor driving a fan, and 2 people working continu-
Any electric energy directly dissipated in the refrigerated ously would be as follows:
space such as lights, heaters, etc. is converted to heat
and must be included in the heat load. One watt hour 300 Watts x 3.41 BTU/hr. 1,023 BTU/hr.
equals 3.41 BTU, and this conversion ratio is accurate 3 HP motor x 2,950 BTU/hr. 8,850 BTU/hr.
for any amount of electric power. 2 people x 1300 BTU/hr. 2,600 BTU/hr.
Total Supplementary Load 12,473 BTU/hr.

Since energy cannot be destroyed, and can only be

changed to a different form, any electrical energy
transmitted to motors inside a refrigerated space must
undergo a transformation. Any motor losses due to fric-
tion and inefficiency are immediately changed to heat
energy. That portion of the electrical energy converted
into useful work, for example in driving a fan or pump,
exists only briefly as mechanical energy, is transferred
to the fluid medium in the form of increased velocity, and
as the fluid loses its velocity due to friction, eventually
becomes entirely converted into heat energy.

A common misunderstanding is the belief that no heat

is transmitted into the refrigerated space if an electric
motor is located outside the space, and a fan inside the
space is driven by means of a shaft. All of the electrical
energy converted to mechanical energy actually be-
comes a part of the load in the refrigerated space.

Because the motor efficiency varies with size, the heat

load per horsepower as shown in Table 16 has different
values for varying size motors. While the values in the
table represent useful approximations, the actual elec-
tric power input in watts is the only accurate measure
of the energy input.


People give off heat and moisture, and the resulting

refrigeration load will vary depending on the duration of
occupancy of the refrigerated space, temperature, type
of work, and other factors. Table 17 lists the average
head load due to occupancy, but stays of short duration,
the heat gain will be somewhat higher.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 15-1
Section 16

Once the refrigeration load is determined, together with able, but in general the fact that the compressor is sized
the required evaporating temperature and the expected on the basis of 16 to 18 hour operation in itself provides
condensing temperature, a compressor can be intel- a sizable safety factor. The load should be calculated
ligently selected for a given application. on the basis of the peak demand at design conditions,
and normally the design conditions are selected on the
For refrigerated fixtures or prefabricated coolers and basis that they will occur no more that 1% of the hours
cold storage boxes to be produced in quantity, the during the summer months. If the load calculations are
load is normally determined by test. If the load must made reasonably accurately, and the equipment sized
be estimated, the expected load should be calculated properly, an additional safety factor may actually result
by determining the heat gain due to each of the factors in the equipment being oversized during light load condi-
contributing to the total load. Many short methods of tions, and can result in operating difficulties.
estimating are commonly used for small refrigerated
walk-in storage boxes with varying degrees of accuracy.
A great deal of judgment must be used in the application SAMPLE LOAD CALCULATION
of any method.
The most accurate means of estimating a refrigeration
HOURLY LOAD load is by considering each factor separately. The follow-
ing example will illustrate a typical selection procedure,
Refrigeration equipment is designed to function continu- although the load has been chosen to demonstrate the
ously, and normally the compressor operating time is de- calculations required and does not represent a normal
termined by the requirements of the defrost system. The loading.
load is calculated on a 24 hour basis, and the required
hourly compressor capacity is determined by dividing Walk-in cooler with 4 inches of glass fiber insulation,
the 24 hour load by the desired hours of compressor located in the shade.
operation during the 24 hour period. A reasonable safety
factor must be provided to enable the unit to recover Outside Dimensions, Height 8 ft., Width 10 ft.,
rapidly after a temperature rise, and to allow for loading Length 40 ft., inside volume 3,000 cu. ft.
heavier than the original estimate.
Floor area (outside dimensions) 400 sq. ft. on insulated
When the refrigerant evaporating temperature will not be slab in contact with ground.
below 30°F., frost will not accumulate on the evaporator,
and no defrost period is necessary. It is general practice Ambient temperature 100°F., 50% relative humidity
to choose the compressor for such applications on the
basis of 18 to 20 hour operation. Ground temperature 55°F.

For applications with storage temperatures of 35°F. Refrigerator temperature 40°F.
or higher, and refrigerant temperatures low enough to
cause frosting, it is common practice to defrost by stop- 1/2 HP fan motor running continuously
ping the compressor and allowing the return air to melt
the ice from the coil. Compressors for such applications Two 100 watt lights, in use 12 hours per day.
should be selected for 16 to 18 hour operation.
Occupancy, 2 men for 2 hours per day.
On low temperature applications, some positive means
of defrost must be provided. With normal defrost peri- In storage: 500 pounds of bacon at 50°F.
ods, 18 hour compressor operation is usually accept- 1000 pounds of string beans
able, although some systems are designed for continu-
ous operation except during the defrost period. Entering product:
500 pounds of bacon at 50°F.
An additional 5% to 10% safety factor is often added to 15,000 pounds of beer at 80°F.
load calculations as a conservative measure to be sure To be reduced to storage temperature
the equipment will not be undersized. If data concerning in 24 hours.
the refrigeration load is very uncertain, this may be desir-
Heavy door usage.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

16-1 All rights reserved.

Sidewalls: 24 Hour Load:

40’ x 8’ x 2 = 640 Ft2 x
60°TD x 1.9 (Table 7A) = 72,960 BTU Heat Transmission 148,200 BTU
Air Infiltration 120,270
10’ x 8’ x 2 = 160 Ft2 x Product 608,025
60°TD x 1.9 = 18,240 Supplementary 62,544
Total 24 Hour Load 939,039 BTU
40’ x 10’ = 400 Ft2 x 60°TD Required compressor capacity:
x 1.9 = 45,600
Based on 16 hour operation 58,690 BTU/Hr.
x 1.9 = 11,400
Relative humidity in a storage space is affected by
Total 24 hour transmission load = 148,200 many variables, such as system running time, moisture
infiltration, condition and amount of product surface ex-
(B) AIR INFILTRATION posed, air motion, outside air conditions, type of system
control, etc. Perishable products differ in their require-
3000 Ft3 x 9.5 air changes ments for an optimum relative humidity for storage, and
(Table 8) x 2 usage factor x recommended storage conditions for various products
2.11 factor (Table 9) 120,270 BTU are shown in Tables 13 and 14. Normally satisfactory
control of relative humidity in a given application can be
(C) PRODUCT LOAD achieved by selecting the compressor and evaporator
for the proper operating temperature difference or TD
500 lbs. bacon x .50 sp. between the desired room temperature and the refriger-
ht. (Table 10) x 10°TD = 2,500 BTU ant evaporating temperature.

15,000 lbs. beer x 1.0 sp. ht. The following general recommendations have proven
(Table 10) x 40°TD = 600,000 BTU to be satisfactory in most normal applications:

500 lbs. lettuce x 2700 Desired TD

BTU/24 Hr/Ton (Table 10) = 675 BTU Temperature Relative (Refrigerant
Range Humidity to Air)
1,000 lbs. beans x 9700 25°F. to 45°F. 90% 8°F. to 12°F.
BTU/24 Hr/Ton (Table 10) = 4,850 BTU 25°F. to 45°F. 85% 10°F. to 14°F.
Total 24 hour Product Load 608,025 BTU 25°F. to 45°F. 80% 12°F. to 16°F.
25°F. to 45°F. 75% 16°F. to 22°F.
(D) SUPPLEMENTARY LOAD 10°F. and below — 15°F. or less

200 Watts x 12 hours x 3.41 COMPRESSOR SELECTION

BTU/Hr 8,184 BTU
In order to select a suitable compressor for a given
1/2 H.P. x 4250 BTU/Hr-Hr application, not only the required compressor capacity
(Table 16) x 24 51,000 BTU must be known, but also the desired evaporating and
condensing temperatures.
2 People x 2 Hrs/Day x 840
BTU/Hr (Table 17) 3,360 BTU Assuming a desired relative humidity of 80%, a 14° TD
might be used, which in a 40°F. storage room result
Total 24 hour Supplementary in evaporating temperature of 26°F. To provide some
Load 62,544 BTU safety factor for line losses, the compressor should be
selected for the desired capacity at 2°F. to 3°F. below
the desired evaporating temperature.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 16-2
The condensing temperature depends on the type of accumulation involving latent heat will occur, unless the
condensing medium to be used, air or water, the design latent load is unusually large, the dry bulb ratings may
ambient temperature or water temperature, and the be used without appreciable error.
capacity of the condenser selected. Air cooled condens-
ers are commonly selected to operate on temperature Because of the many variables involved, the calculation
differences (TD) from 10°F. to 30°F. the lower TD nor- of system balance points is extremely complicated. A
mally being used for low temperature applications, and simple, accurate, and convenient method of forecast-
higher TDs for high temperature applications where the ing system performance from readily available manu-
compression ratio is less critical. For the purposes of facturer’s catalog data is the graphical construction of
this example, a design TD of 20°F. has been selected, a component balancing chart. The following example
and in 100°F. ambient temperatures, this would result illustrates the use of such a chart in checking the pos-
in a condensing temperature of 120°F. sible balance points of a system when selecting equip-
ment. To illustrate the procedure, tentative selections
COMPONENT BALANCING of a compressor, condenser, and evaporator have been
made for the sample load previously calculated.
Commercially available components seldom will exactly
match the design requirements of a given system, and Figure 69 shows the compressor capacity curves as
since system design is normally based on estimated published by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. on
peak loads, the system may often have to operate at the Copeland® brand compressor specification sheet.
conditions other than design conditions. More than It should be noted that Copeland® brand compressor
one combination of components may meet the per- capacity curves for Copelametic® compressors are
formance requirements, the efficiency of the system based on 65°F. return suction gas. In order to realize the
normally being dependent on the point at which the full compressor capacity, the suction gas must be raised
system reaches stabilized conditions or balances under to this temperature in a heat exchanger. If the suction
operating conditions. gas returns to the compressor at a lower temperature,
or if the increase in suction gas temperature occurs due
The capacities of each of the three major system to heat transfer into the suction line outside the refriger-
components, the compressor, the condenser, and the ated space, the effective compressor capacity will be
evaporator, are each variable but interrelated. The somewhat lower. In the example, the desired capacity
compressor capacity varies with the evaporating and was 58,690 BTU/hr. at 24°F. evaporating temperature
condensing temperatures. For illustration purposes an and 120°F.condensing temperature, and this compres-
air cooled condenser will be considered, and for a given sor was the closest choice available, having a capacity
condenser with constant air flow, its capacity will vary of 57,000 BTU/hr. at the design conditions.
with the temperature difference between the condensing
temperature and the ambient temperature. Figure 70 shows the same compressor curves, with
the condenser capacity curves for the tentative con-
The factors involved in the variation in evaporator capac- denser selection superimposed. From the condenser
ity are quite complex when both sensible heat transfer manufacturer’s data, condenser capacity in terms of
and condensation are involved. For component bal- compressor capacity at varying evaporating tempera-
ancing purposes, the capacity of an evaporator where tures are plotted, and the condenser capacity curves can
both latent and sensible heat transfer are involved (a then be drawn. Note that the net condensing capacity
wet coil) may be calculated as being proportional to the decreases at lower evaporating temperatures due to
total heat content of the entering air, and this in turn is the increased heat of compression.
proportional to the wet bulb temperature. For wet coil
conditions, evaporator capacities are normally available It is now possible to construct balance lines for the com-
from coil manufacturers with ratings based on the wet pressor and condenser at various ambient temperatures
bulb temperature of the air entering the coil. For condi- as shown in Figure 71. For an ambient temperature
tions in which no condensation occurs (a dry coil) the of 100°F., point A would represent the balance point
evaporator capacity can be accurately estimated on if the compressor were operating at a suction pres-
the basis of the dry bulb temperature of the air enter- sure equivalent to a 28°F. evaporating temperature
ing the coil. and 120°F. condensing temperature. At this point the
capacity of the condenser would exactly match that of
Some manufacturers of commercial and low tempera- the compressor at a 20° TD (condensing temperature
ture coils publish only ratings based on the temperature minus ambient temperature). The balance point is de-
difference between entering dry bulb temperature and termined by the intersection of the 20°F. TD condenser
the evaporating refrigerant temperature. Although frost capacity curve with the compressor capacity curve for
(continued on p. 16-9)

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

16-3 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 16-4

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

16-5 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 16-6
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
16-7 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 16-8
a condensing temperature 20°F above the specified ambient temperature. With 100°F. ambient temperature
ambient temperature of 100°F., or 120°F. In a similar and an evaporator entering air temperature of 40°F.,
manner balance point B can be located by the inter- the original design conditions, the system would have
section of the 25°F. TD condenser capacity curve and a capacity of 59,000 BTU/hr, a compressor suction
the compressor capacity curve (estimated) for 125°F. pressure equivalent to an evaporating temperature of
condensing, and balance point C can be located by the 26°F., and a condensing temperature of 120°F. Even
intersection of the 15°F. TD condenser capacity curve under extreme load conditions of 50°F. entering air and
with the compressor capacity curve (estimated) for 110°F. ambient, the condensing temperature would not
115°F. condensing. The line connecting points A, B, and exceed 133°F. These conditions are close enough to
C represents all the possible balance points when the the original design requirement to insure satisfactory
system is operating with air entering the condenser at a performance.
temperature of 100°F. In a similar fashion, condenser-
compressor balance lines can be determined for other This type of graphical analysis can be quickly and eas-
ambient temperatures, and plotted as shown in Figure ily made by using the compressor specification sheet
72. (To simplify the illustration, condenser capacity as the basic chart, and superimposing condenser and
curves have not been shown) evaporator capacity curves.

The tentative evaporator coil selected was rated by THE EFFECT OF CHANGE IN COMPRESSOR
the manufacturer only in terms of BTU/hr per degree ONLY ON SYSTEM BALANCE
temperature difference between the entering dry bulb
temperature and the refrigerant evaporating tempera- Occasionally the exact replacement compressor may
ture, and have a capacity of 4,590 BTU/hr/°TD. In Figure not be available, and the question arises as to whether
73 evaporator capacity curves have been plotted and an alternate compressor with either more or less ca-
superimposed on the compressor capacity curves and pacity might provide satisfactory performance. The
the condenser-compressor balance lines. An evaporator graphical balance chart provides a convenient means
capacity curve for each entering air temperature can be of forecasting system performance.
constructed by plotting any two points.
Figure 74 is a revised balance chart for a system utilizing
Point A represents the evaporator capacity at 14°TD the same evaporator and condenser as in the previous
which for an entering air temperature of 40°F. would example, but with a compressor having only 5/6 of the
require a refrigerant evaporating temperature of 26°F. previous capacity. New compressor capacity curves for
However, an allowance must be made for line friction the smaller compressor have been plotted on the same
losses since the pressure in the evaporator will always capacity chart used previously. Since there is no change
be higher than the suction pressure at the compressor in the basic capacity of the condenser or evaporator,
because of pressure drop in the suction line. Allowing the condenser capacity and evaporator capacity curves
2°F. as an estimated allowance for line pressure drop, are unchanged.
an evaporating temperature of 26°F. would result in a
pressure at the compressor equivalent to a saturated However, a new compressor-condenser balance line
evaporating temperature of 24°F. Therefore the capac- must be plotted, and to avoid excessive detail in the il-
ity of the evaporator for a 14° TD and 40°F. entering lustration, a balance line for 100° ambient temperature
air would be plotted at the corresponding compressor only has been shown.
capacity at 24°F.
A comparison can now be made between the system
Point B represents the evaporator capacity at 10° with the original compressor, Figure 73, and the system
TD, which for 40°F. entering air temperature requires with the smaller compressor, Figure 74.
a refrigerant evaporating temperature of 30°F., and
after allowing for suction line losses, a corresponding Original Revised
compressor capacity at 28°F. A line can then be drawn System System
through these two points, representing all possible Ambient Temperature 100°F. 100°F.
capacities of the evaporator with 40°F. entering air Air Entering Evaporator 40°F. 40°F.
and varying refrigerant evaporating temperatures. In a Refrigerant Evaporating
similar fashion, capacity curves can be constructed for Temp. 26°F. 27°F.
other entering air temperatures. Condensing Temperature 120°F. 115°F.
Capacity at 100°F. Ambient
The system performance can now be forecast for any and 40°F. Entering Air,
condition of evaporator entering air temperature and BTU/hr. 59,000 53,000
(continued on p. 16-11)

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

16-9 All rights reserved.
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 16-10
Note that although the compressor capacity was de- QUICK SELECTION TABLES FOR WALK-IN
creased by 1/6 or 16 2/3%, the net system capacity COOLERS
decreased only about 10%. Since the condenser and
evaporator were unchanged, the compressor could The most accurate means of determining the refrigera-
operate at more efficient conditions, with decreased tion load is by calculating each of the factors contributing
condensing pressure and increased suction pressure. to the load as was done in the previous example. How-
ever, for small walk-in coolers, various types of short
The same type of analysis can be applied to determine cut estimating methods are frequently used.
the effect on system capacity if the compressor on a
unit designed for 60 cycle operation is operated on 50 The transmission load will always be dependent on the
cycle power. However for the evaporator and condenser external surface, and an actual calculation should be
capacity to remain constant, the air flow across both made where possible.
evaporator and condenser must be unchanged. If the
original balance chart was made on the basis of fans As an aid in rapid selection of a condensing unit for the
operating on 60 cycle power, and the fan air delivery is normal walk-in cooler application, Tables 19 and 20 give
decreased by operation of the fan motors on 50 cycle recommended refrigeration capacities for various sized
power, then both the evaporator and condenser capac- coolers. The condensing unit capacity must be equal
ity curves must be changed to reflect the decrease in to or greater than the capacity shown at the required
capacity. refrigerant evaporating temperature after allowance for
the desired evaporating and condensing TD.
Another type of application where this type of analysis
may be valuable is on systems with fluctuating loads The capacities given are for average applications. If the
and compressors with capacity control features. Since load is unusual, these tables should not be used. The
the evaporator and condenser remain unchanged, the low temperature tables do not include any allowance
reduced compressor capacity can be plotted as dem- for a freezing load, and if a product is to be frozen, ad-
onstrated, and new balance points determined, taking ditional capacity will be required.
into effect any changes in the temperature of the air
entering the evaporator.

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

16-11 All rights reserved.
Table 18

Table 19

© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 16-12
© 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
16-13 All rights reserved.
Form No. AE 103 R3 (10/06)
1675 W. Campbell Rd.
Emerson®, Emerson. Consider It Solved™, Emerson Climate Technologies™ and Sidney, OH 45365
the Emerson Climate Technologies™ logo are the trademarks and service marks of
Emerson Electric Co. and are used with the permission of Emerson Electric Co.
Copelametic®, Copeland®, and the Copeland® brand products logo are the
trademarks and service marks of Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Printed in the USA. © 1968 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Refrigeration Manual

Part 4 - System Design

This is the fourth of a series of publications comprising the Emerson Climate Technologies,
Inc. Refrigeration Manual. Although each separate part covers a specific area of refrigera-
tion theory and practice, each successive publication presumes a basic understanding of
the material presented in the previous sections.

Part 1 Fundamentals of Refrigeration

Part 2 Refrigeration System Components
Part 3 The Refrigeration Load
Part 4 System Design

The application and design recommendations are intended only as a general guide. The
exact requirements of a given installation can only be determined after the specific design
criteria and desired operating conditions are known.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
­Part 4


Single Stage Low Temperature Systems......... 19-1
Fundamental Design Principles....................... 17-1 Two Stage Low Temperature Systems............ 19-2
Compressor Selection..................................... 17-1 Volumetric Efficiency....................................... 19-2
System Balance.............................................. 17-1 Two Stage Compression and
Refrigerant....................................................... 17-2 Compressor Efficiency............................. 19-2
Compressor Cooling........................................ 17-2 Compressor Overheating at Excessive
Compressor Lubrication.................................. 17-3 Compression Ratios................................. 19-5
Oil Pressure Safety Control............................. 17-3 Basic Two Stage System................................. 19-6
Oil Separators................................................. 17 4 Two Stage System Components..................... 19-6
Suction Line Accumulators.............................. 17-4 Piping on Two Stage Systems......................... 19-9
Pumpdown System Control............................. 17-5 Cascade Refrigeration Systems...................... 19-13
Crankcase Heaters.......................................... 17-5
Crankcase Pressure Regulating Valves.......... 17-6 Section 20.  TRANSPORT REFRIGERATION
Low Ambient Head Pressure Control.............. 17-6
Liquid Line Filter-Drier..................................... 17 6 Compressor Cooling........................................ 20-1
Sight Glass and Moisture Indicator................. 17-7 Compressor Speed......................................... 20-1
Liquid Line Solenoid Valve.............................. 17-7 Compressor Operating Position...................... 20-2
Heat Exchanger............................................... 17-7 Compressor Drive........................................... 20-2
Thermostatic Expansion Valves...................... 17-7 Refrigerant Charge.......................................... 20-2
Evaporators..................................................... 17-8 Refrigerant Migration....................................... 20-2
Suction Line Filters.......................................... 17-9 Oil Charge....................................................... 20-3
High and Low Pressure Controls..................... 17-9 Oil Pressure Safety Control............................. 20-3
Interconnected Systems.................................. 17-10 Oil Separators................................................. 20-3
Electrical Group Fusing................................... 17-10 Crankcase Pressure Regulating Valve............ 20-3
Condenser....................................................... 20-4
Section 18.  REFRIGERATION PIPING Receiver.......................................................... 20-4
Purging Air in a System................................... 20-4
Basic Principles of Refrigeration Liquid Line Filter-Drier..................................... 20-4
Piping Design........................................... 18-1 Heat Exchanger............................................... 20-5
Copper Tubing for Refrigerant Piping.............. 18-2 Liquid Line Solenoid Valve.............................. 20-5
Fittings for Copper Tubing............................... 18-2 Suction Line Accumulator................................ 20-5
Equivalent Length of Pipe............................... 18-2 Crankcase Heaters.......................................... 20-5
Pressure Drop Tables...................................... 18-5 Pumpdown Cycle............................................ 20-5
Sizing Hot Gas Discharge Lines...................... 18-5 Forced Air Evaporator Coils............................ 20-5
Sizing Liquid Lines.......................................... 18-14 Thermostatic Expansion Valves...................... 20-6
Sizing Suction Lines........................................ 18-15 Defrost Systems.............................................. 20-6
Double Risers.................................................. 18-21 Thermostat...................................................... 20-7
Suction Piping for Multiplex Systems.............. 18-22 High-Low Pressure Control............................. 20-7
Piping Design for Horizontal and Eutectic Plate Applications.............................. 20-7
Vertical Lines............................................ 18-23 Refrigerant Piping............................................ 20-10
Suction Line Piping Design at the Vibration.......................................................... 20-10
Evaporator................................................ 18-24 Electrical Precautions...................................... 20-10
Receiver Location............................................ 18-25 Installation....................................................... 20-11
Vibration and Noise......................................... 18-25 Field Troubleshooting on Transport Units........ 20-12
Recommended Line Sizing Tables.................. 18-26

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Section 21.  CAPACITY CONTROL Liquid Refrigerant Flooding............................22-2
Liquid Refrigerant Slugging............................22-2
Internal Capacity Control Valves....................21-1 Tripping of Oil Pressure Safety Control..........22-2
External Capacity Control Valves...................21-1 Recommended Corrective Action...................22-2
Hot Gas Bypass.............................................21-1
Bypass into Evaporator Inlet..........................21-3 Section 23.  ELECTRICAL CONTROL CIRCUITS
Bypass into Suction Line................................21-3
Solenoid Valves for Positive Shut-off Typical Lockout Control Circuit.......................23-1
and Pumpdown Cycle....................................21-5 Control Circuit for Compressor
Desuperheating Expansion Valve...................21-5 Protection Against Liquid
Typical Multiple-Evaporator Refrigerant Flooding................................23-3
Control System........................................21-5 Control Circuits to Prevent Short Cycling.......22-3
Power Consumption with Control Circuits for Compressors with
Hot Gas Bypass......................................21-6 Capacity Control Valves..........................23- 5



Refrigerant-Oil Relationship...........................22-1
Refrigerant Migration......................................22-1

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Table 20A Ventilation Air Requirements for Machine Rooms CFM/1000 BTU/HR at
10° F. Air Temperature Rise.............................................................................................. 17-3
Table 21 Recommended Minimum Low Pressure Control Setting......................................................... 17-9
Table 22 Dimensions and Properties of Copper Tube............................................................................ 18-3
Table 23 Weight of Refrigerant in Copper Lines.................................................................................... 18-4
Table 24 Equivalent Length in Feet of Straight Pipe For Valves and Fittings......................................... 18-5
Table 25 Pressure Drop Equivalent for 2° F. Change in Saturation Temperature at
Various Evaporating Temperatures.................................................................................. 18-15
Table 26 Maximum Recommended Spacing Between Pipe Supports for Copper Tubing..................... 18-26
Table 27 Recommended Liquid Line Sizes............................................................................................ 18-27
Table 28 Recommended Discharge Lines Sizes.................................................................................... 18-28
Table 29 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-12, 40° F...................................................................... 18-29
Table 30 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-12, 25° F...................................................................... 18-30
Table 31 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-12, 15° F...................................................................... 18-31
Table 32 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-12, –20° F.................................................................... 18-31
Table 33 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-12, –40° F.................................................................... 18-32
Table 34 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-22, 40° F...................................................................... 18-32
Table 35 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-22, 25°F....................................................................... 18-33
Table 36 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-22, 15° F...................................................................... 18-34
Table 37 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-22, –20° F.................................................................... 18-35
Table 38 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-502, 25° F.................................................................... 18-35
Table 39 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-502, 15° F.................................................................... 18-36
Table 40 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-502, –20° F.................................................................. 18-37
Table 41 Recommended Suction Line Sizes, R-502, –40° F.................................................................. 18-38
Table 42 Efficiency Comparison of Single Stage vs. Two Stage Compression Typical
Air Cooled Application with Refrigerant R-502................................................................. 19-6
Table 43 Recommended Discharge Line Sizes for Two Stage Compressors........................................ 19-10
Table 44 Recommended Liquid Line Sizes for Two Stage Compressors.............................................. 19-10
Table 45 Recommended Suction Line Sizes for Two Stage Compressors, –60° F................................ 19-11
Table 46 Recommended Suction Line Sizes for Two Stage Compressors, –60° F................................ 19-11
Table 47 Recommended Suction Line Sizes for Two Stage Compressors, –80° F................................ 19-12
Table 48 Recommended Suction Line Sizes for Two Stage Compressors, –80° F................................ 19-12

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 17


Operation at evaporating temperatures above the ap-
There are certain fundamental refrigeration design proved operating range may overload the compressor
principles which are vital to the proper functioning of motor. Operation at evaporating temperatures below the
any system. approved operating range is normally not a problem if
the compressor motor can be adequately cooled, and
1. The system must be clean, dry, and free from all discharge temperatures can be kept within allowable lim-
contaminants. its. Evaporating temperatures below -40° F. are normally
beyond the practical lower limit of single stage operation
2. The compressor must be operated within safe because of compressor inefficiencies and excessive
temperature, pressure, and electrical limits. discharge gas temperatures. Because of problems of
motor cooling or overloading, some motor-compressors
3. The system must be designed and operated so that may have approval for operation at limited condensing
proper lubrication is maintained in the compressor or evaporating temperatures within a given range, and
at all times. if so, these limitations will be shown by limited perfor-
mance curves on the specification sheet.
4. The system must be designed and operated so that
excessive liquid refrigerant does not enter the com- A given compressor may be approved in two different
pressor. Refrigeration compressors are designed operating ranges with different refrigerants, for example,
to pump refrigerant vapor, and will tolerate only a high temperature R-12 and low temperature R-502. Since
limited quantity of liquid refrigerant. the power requirements for a given displacement with
both R-22 and R-502 are somewhat similar, in some
5. Proper refrigerant feed to the evaporator must be cases a compressor may be approved in the same
maintained, and excessive pressure drop in the operating range for either of these refrigerants.
refrigerant piping must be avoided.
Two stage compressors may be approved for evapo-
If these give steps are accomplished, then operation of rating temperatures as low as -80° F., but individual
the system is reasonably certain to be trouble free. If compressor specifications should be consulted for the
any one is neglected, then eventual operating problems approved operating range.
are almost certain to occur. These basic fundamentals
are closely inter-related, and must always be kept in Operation at temperatures below -80° F. is normally
mind with regard to the application of any component, beyond the practical efficiency range of Copeland®
or whenever any change in system operation is con- brand two stage compressors, and for lower evaporating
templated. temperatures, cascade systems should be employed.

COMPRESSOR SELECTION Compressors with unloaders have individually estab-

lished minimum operating evaporating temperatures
The compressor must be selected for the capacity since motor cooling is more critical with these compres-
required at the desired operating conditions in accor- sors. As the compressor is unloaded, less refrigerant is
dance with the manufacturer’s recommendations for circulated through the system, and consequently less
the refrigerant to be used. Standard Copeland® brand return gas is available for motor cooling purposes.
single stage compressors are approved for operation
with a given refrigerant in one of the following operating Copeland® brand motor-compressors should never
ranges. be operated beyond published operating limits without
Evaporat- prior approval of the Emerson Climate Technologies,
ing Inc. Application Engineering Department.
High Temperature 45° F. to 0° F. SYSTEM BALANCE
or 55° F. to 0° F.
If the compressor or condensing unit selected for a given
Medium Temperature 25° F. to -5° F. application is to satisfactorily handle the refrigeration
load, it must have sufficient capacity. However, over ca-
Low Temperature 0° F. to -40° F.

Extra Low Temperature -20° F. to -40° F.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 17-1
pacity can be equally as unsatisfactory as under capacity, on return suction gas for motor cooling, and to a con-
and care must be taken to see that the compressor and siderable extent, on both air and refrigerant cooled
evaporator balance at the desired operating conditions. motor-compressors, the discharge gas temperature is
Checking the proposed system operation by means of directly related to the temperature of the return suction
a compressor-evaporator-condenser balance chart as gas. Discharge temperatures above 325° F. to 350° F.
described in Section 16 is recommended. contribute to oil breakdown and valve plate damage, and
to avoid compressor damage, operating temperatures
If fluctuations in the refrigeration load are to be ex- must be kept below this level. Peak temperatures occur
pected, which could result in compressor operation at at the discharge valves, and normally the temperature
excessively low suction pressures, then some means of of the discharge line will be from 50° F. to 100°F. be-
capacity control must be provided to maintain acceptable low the temperature at the valve plate. Therefore the
evaporating temperatures. If compressors with unloaders maximum allowable discharge line temperatures from
are not available or suitable, and if the load cannot be 225°F. to 250°F.
adequately handled by cycling the compressor, a hot
gas bypass circuit may be required. Suction gas entering the compressor should be no
higher than 65°F. under low temperature load condi-
REFRIGERANT tions, or 90°F. under high temperature load conditions,
and must never exceed 100°F. On some abnormally
Copeland® brand compressors are primarily designed critical low temperature applications it may be desirable
for operation with Refrigerants 12, 22, and 502. Opera- to insulate the suction lines and return the suction gas
tion with other refrigerants in cascade systems may to the compressor at lower than normal temperatures
be satisfactory if the proper motor and displacement to prevent the discharge temperatures from exceeding
combination is selected, adequate lubrication can be safe limits, but this is not normally necessary on com-
maintained, and if adequate compressor protection is mercial application where the saturated evaporating
provided. temperature is -40°F. or above. The low discharge
temperature characteristics of R-502 have made pos-
R-502 is highly recommended for all single stage sible much more trouble free operation in single stage
low temperature applications, and particularly where low temperature applications.
evaporating temperatures of -20° F. and below may be
encountered. Because of the undesirable high discharge Air cooled motor-compressors must have a sufficient
temperatures of R-22 when operated at high compres- quantity of air impinging directly on the compressor body
sion ratios, R-22 should not be used in single stage low for motor cooling. Refrigerant cooled motor-compres-
temperature compressors 5 HP and larger. sors are cooled adequately by the refrigerant vapor at
evaporating temperatures above 0°F., but at evaporating
Different expansion valves are required for each refrig- temperatures below 0°F., additional motor cooling by
erant, so the refrigerants are not interchangeable in a means of air flow is necessary.
given system, and should never be mixed. If for some
reason it is desirable to change from one refrigerant to On air cooled condensing units, adequate cooling can
another in an existing system, it is usually possible to normally be accomplished by locating the compressor
convert the system by changing expansion valves and in the discharge air blast from the condenser fan. For
control settings providing the existing piping sizes and proper cooling, the fan must discharge air directly against
component working pressures are compatible. In some the compressor, since the compressor usually cannot be
cases the existing motor-compressor may be satisfac- adequately cooled by air pulled through a compartment
tory—for example, in converting from R-22 to R-502. If in which the compressor is located. If the compressor
the conversion will result in higher power requirements is not located in the condenser discharge air stream,
as is the case in changing from R-12 to R502, then it may cooling must be provided by means of an auxiliary fan
also be necessary to change the motor-compressor. discharging air directly again the compressor body. On
Copeland® brand compressors with multiple heads such
The refrigerant charge should be held to the minimum as the 4R and 6R models, auxiliary horizontal airflow
required for satisfactory operation, since an abnormally may not provide satisfactory cooling, and vertical cool-
high charge will create potential problems of liquid re- ing fans are required.
frigerant control.
Water cooled compressors are provided with a water
COMPRESSOR COOLING jacket or are wrapped with a copper water coil, and wa-
ter must be circulated through the compressor cooling
Refrigerant cooled motor-compressors are dependent circuit before entering the condenser.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

17-2 All rights reserved.
Two-stage compressors are equipped with a desuper-
heating expansion valve for interstage cooling, and no
auxiliary cooling is required.

If compressors or condensing units are located in a ma-

chine room, adequate ventilation air must be provided
to avoid an excessive temperature rise in the room. To
allow for peak summer temperatures a 10°F. temperature
rise is recommended, although a 15°F. rise in cooler
ambients might be acceptable.

The most accurate calculation is to determine the total

heat to be rejected by adding the compressor refriger- with the Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. Application
ating capacity at the design operating condition to the Engineering Department. The naphthenic base oil has
heat equivalent of the motor input. The CFM can then definite advantages over paraffinic base oils because
be calculated by the formula… separation of refrigerant from paraffinic oils occurs at
substantially higher temperatures with the same oil-
BTU/HR refrigerant concentration. When this separation or two
CMF = ºTD phase condition exists the oil floats on top of the refrig-
erant and the oil pump inlet at the bottom of the sump
For example, determine the machine room ventilation is fed almost pure refrigerant at start up. The resulting
for an air cooled condensing unit operating at -25°F. improper lubrication can result in bearing failure. Because
evaporator, 120°F. condensing with a net refrigeration of the lower separating temperature of naphthenic oil,
capacity of 23,000 BTU/HR, 6,400 watts input to the the possibility of two-phasing is greatly reduced.
compressor motor, and a 1 H.P. condenser fan motor.
Copelametic® compressors are shipped with a generous
Compressor capacity 23,000 BTU/HR supply of oil in the crankcase. However the system may
Heat equivalent 6400 watts x 3.413 21,843 BTU/HR require more or less oil depending on the refrigerant
Heat equivalent 1 H.P. fan motor 3,700 BTU/HR charge and the system design. On field installed sys-
Total Heat to be Rejected 48,543 BTU/HR tems, after the system stabilizes at its normal operating
conditions, it may be necessary to add or remove oil to
48,543 BTU/HR maintain the desired level.
CMF = 10º TD = 4.854 CFM
With remote condensers, approximately 10% of the heat
rejected is given off by the compressor casting and the A major percentage of all compressor failures are caused
discharge tubing, and the ventilation can be calculated by lack of proper lubrication. Improper lubrication or the
accordingly. loss of lubrication can be due to a shortage of oil in the
system, logging of oil in the evaporator or suction line due
For convenience, table 20A gives a quick estimate of to insufficient refrigerant velocities, shortage of refriger-
the ventilation air requirement if only the compressor ant, refrigerant migration or floodback to the compressor
capacity is known. crankcase, failure of the oil pump, or improper operation
of the refrigerant control devices.
Regardless of the initial source of the difficulty, the great
An adequate supply of oil must be maintained in the majority of compressor failures due to loss of lubrication
crankcase at all times to insure continuous lubrication. could have been prevented. Although proper system
The normal oil level should be maintained at or slightly design, good preventive maintenance, and operation
above the center of the sight glass while operating. within the system’s design limitations are the only cure
An excessive amount of oil must not be allowed in the for most of these problems, actual compressor damage
system as it may result in slugging and possible damage usually can be averted by the use of an oil pressure
to the compressor valves. safety control.

Compressors leaving the factory are charged with An oil pressure safety control with a time delay of 120
naphthenic refrigerant oils. A complete list of acceptable seconds is a mandatory requirement of the Emerson
refrigerants and lubricants are listed on form #93-11. Climate Technologies, Inc. warranty on all Copelametic®
The use of any other oil must be specifically cleared compressors having an oil pump. The control oper-

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 17-3
ates on the differential between oil pump pressure and ditions. Oil separators are mandatory on systems with
crankcase pressure, and the two minute delay serves flooded evaporators controlled by a float valve, on all
to avoid shut down during short fluctuations in oil pres- two stage and cascade ultra-low temperature systems,
sure during start-up. and on any system where oil return is critical.

A trip of the oil pressure safety switch is a warning that Oil separators should be considered as a system aid
the system has been without proper lubrication for a but not a cure-all or a substitute for good system de-
period of two minutes. Repeated trips of the oil pressure sign. They are never 100% efficient, and in fact may
safety control are a clear indication that something in the have efficiencies as low as 50% depending on system
system design or operation requires immediate remedial operating conditions. On systems where piping design
action. On a well designed system, there should be no encourages oil logging in the evaporator, an oil separa-
trips of the oil pressure safety control, and repeated tor can compensate for system oil return deficiencies
trips should never be accepted as a normal part of the only on a temporary basis, and may only serve to delay
system operation. lubrication difficulties.

The oil pressure safety control will not protect against If a system is equipped with a suction accumulator, it
all lubrication problems. It cannot detect whether the is recommended that the oil return from the separa-
compressor is pumping oil or a combination of refriger- tor be connected to the suction line just ahead of the
ant and oil. If bearing trouble is encountered on systems accumulator. This will provide maximum protection
where the oil pressure safety control has not tripped, against returning liquid refrigerant to the crankcase. If
even though inspection proves it to be properly wired, the system is not equipped with a suction accumulator,
with the proper pressure setting, and in good operating the oil return line on suction cooled compressors may
condition, marginal lubrication is occurring which prob- be connected to the suction line if more convenient
ably is due to liquid refrigerant floodback. than the crankcase, but on air cooled compressors, oil
return must be made directly to the crankcase to avoid
OIL SEPARATORS damage to the compressor valves.

Proper refrigerant piping design and operation of the If the separator is exposed to outside ambient tem-
system within its design limits so that adequate refriger- peratures, it must be insulated to prevent refrigerant
ant velocities can be maintained are the only cure for oil condensation during off periods, resulting in return of
logging problems, but an oil separator may be a definite liquid to the compressor crankcase. Small low wattage
aid in maintaining lubrication where oil return problems strap-on heaters are available for oil separators, and if
are particularly acute. any problem from liquid condensation in the separator
is anticipated, a continuously energized heater is highly
For example, consider a compressor having an oil recommended.
charge of 150 ounces, with the normal oil circulation
rate being 2 ounces per minute. This means that on a SUCTION LINE ACCUMULATORS
normal system with proper oil return at stabilized condi-
tions, two ounces of oil leave the compressor through If liquid refrigerant is allowed to flood through a refrigera-
the discharge line every minute, and two ounces return tion or air conditioning system and return to the compres-
through the suction line. If a minimum of 30 ounces of sor before being evaporated, it may cause damage to
oil in the crankcase is necessary to properly lubricate the compressor due to liquid slugging, loss of oil from
the compressor, and for some reason oil logged in the crankcase, or bearing washout. To protect against
the system and failed to return to the compressor, the this condition on systems vulnerable to liquid damage
compressor would run out of oil in 60 minutes. Under a suction accumulator may be necessary.
the same conditions with an oil separator having an
efficiency of 80%, the compressor could operate 300 The accumulator’s function is to intercept liquid re-
minute or 5 hours before running out of oil. frigerant before it can reach the compressor valves or
crankcase. It should be located in the suction line near
As a practical matter, there seldom are conditions in a the compressor, and if a reversing valve is used in the
system when no oil will be returned to the compressor, system, the accumulator must be located between the
and even with low gas velocities, some fraction of the reversing valve and the compressor. Provisions for posi-
oil leaving the compressor will be returned. If there are tive oil return to the crankcase must be provided, but a
regular intervals of full load conditions or defrost periods direct gravity flow which will allow liquid refrigerant to
when oil can be returned normally, an oil separator can drain to the crankcase during shut-down periods must
help to bridge long operating periods at light load con- be avoided. The liquid refrigerant must be metered back

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

17-4 All rights reserved.
to the compressor during operation at a controlled rate most completely fill the compressor crankcase due to
to avoid damage to the compressor. the oil attraction. For example, in a system using R-12
refrigerant which is allowed to equalize at an ambient
Some systems, because of their design, will periodically temperature of 70° F., the oil-refrigerant mixture in the
flood the compressor with liquid refrigerant. Typically, crankcase will end up about 70% refrigerant before
this can occur on heat pumps at the time the cycle is equilibrium is reached.
switched from cooling to heating, or from heating to cool-
ing. The coil which has been serving as the condenser is The most positive and dependable means of keeping
partially filled with liquid refrigerant, and when suddenly refrigerant out of the compressor crankcase is the use
exposed to suction pressure, the liquid is dumped into of a pumpdown cycle. By closing a liquid line solenoid
the suction line. On heat pumps equipped with expansion valve, the refrigerant can be pumped into the condenser
valves, there may be further flooding due to the inability and receiver, and the compressor operation controlled
of the expansion valve to effectively control refrigerant by means of a low pressure control. The refrigerant can
feed for a short period after the cycle change until the thus be isolated during periods when the compressor
system operation is again stabilized. is not in operation, and migration of refrigerant to the
compressor crankcase is prevented.
A similar situation can occur during defrost cycles. With
hot gas defrost, when the defrost cycle is initiated, the Pumpdown control can be used on all thermostatic ex-
sudden introduction of high pressure gas into the evapo- pansion valve systems with the addition of a liquid line
rator may force the liquid refrigerant in the evaporator solenoid valve, provided adequate receiver capacity is
into the suction line. If the defrost cycle is such that the available. Slight refrigerant leakage may occur through
evaporator can fill with condensed liquid during defrost, the solenoid valve, causing the suction pressure to rise
or on systems utilizing electric defrost without a pump- gradually, and a recycling type control is recommended to
down cycle, an equally dangerous situation may exist repeat the pumpdown cycle as required. The occasional
at the termination of the defrost cycle. short cycle usually is not objectionable.

On systems with a large refrigerant charge, or on any A pumpdown cycle is highly recommended whenever
system where liquid floodback is likely to occur, a suc- it can be used. If a non-recycling pumpdown circuit is
tion line accumulator is strongly recommended. On heat required, then consideration should be given to the use
pumps, truck applications, and on any system where of a crankcase heater in addition to the pumpdown for
liquid slugging can occur during operation, a suction line more dependable compressor protection.
accumulator is mandatory for compressor protection
unless otherwise approved by the Emerson Climate CRANKCASE HEATERS
Technologies, Inc. Application Engineering Department.
The actual refrigerant holding capacity needed for a On some systems operating requirements, noise consid-
given accumulator is governed by the requirements of erations, or customer preference may make the use of a
the particular application, and the accumulator should pumpdown system undesirable, and crankcase heaters
be selected to hold the maximum liquid floodback an- are frequently used to control migration.
By warming the oil, the absorption of refrigerant by the
PUMPDOWN SYSTEM CONTROL oil is minimized, and under mild weather conditions,
any liquid refrigerant in the crankcase can be vaporized
Refrigerant vapor will always migrate to the coldest and forced out of the compressor. For effective protec-
part of the system, and if the compressor crankcase tion, heaters must be energized several hours before
can become colder than other parts of the system, starting the compressor. It is recommended that they
refrigerant in the condenser, receiver, and evaporator be energized continuously, independent of compressor
will vaporize, travel through the system, and condense operation. Improperly sized heaters can overheat the
in the compressor crankcase. oil, and heaters used on Copeland® brand compres-
sors must be specifically approved by the Emerson
Because of the difference in vapor pressures of oil and Climate Technologies, Inc. Application Engineering
refrigerant, refrigerant vapor is attracted to refrigera- Department.
tion oil, and even though no pressure or temperature
difference exists to cause a flow, refrigerant vapor will It would be a mistake to assume that crankcase heaters
migrate through the system and condense in the oil until are a dependable cure for all migration problems. As the
the oil is saturated. During off cycles extending several ambient conditions contributing to migration worsen, the
hours or more, it is possible for liquid refrigerant to al- ability of the crankcase heater to keep refrigerant out

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 17-5
of the crankcase decreases. If the suction line slopes tubes and expansion valves is proportional to the dif-
toward the compressor, and the temperature to which ferential pressure across the capillary tube or valve, a
the suction line is exposed is sufficiently lower than the reduction in discharge pressure will reduce its capacity
temperature of the oil, refrigerant may condense in the and produce a drop in evaporating pressure.
suction line and flow back to the compressor by gravity
at a rate sufficient to offset the heat introduced by the Low discharge pressures can result in starving the
heater. Heaters will not protect against liquid slugs or evaporator coil with resulting oil logging, short cycling
excessive liquid flooding. However, where operating on low pressure controls, reduction of system capacity,
conditions are not too severe, crankcase heaters can or erratic expansion valve operation.
provide satisfactory protection against migration.
Systems with water cooled condensers and cooling
Where a pumpdown cycle is not used, crankcase heaters towers require water regulating valves, or some other
are mandatory on heat pumps, and on other air con- means of controlling the temperature or the quantity of
ditioning applications if the refrigerant charge exceeds water passing through the condenser.
the established limits for Copeland® brand compres-
sors, unless tests prove the compressor is adequately If air cooled air conditioning systems are required to
protected by other means. operate in ambient temperatures below 60° F., a suitable
means of controlling head pressures must be provided.
To prevent possible damage in shipment, crankcase heat- Refrigeration systems are also vulnerable to damage
ers are not installed on compressors at the factory. from low head pressure conditions, and adequate head
pressure controls should be provided for operation in
CRANKCASE PRESSURE REGULATING VALVES ambient temperatures below 50°F.

In order to limit the power requirement of the compressor Several proprietary control systems are available for low
to the allowable operating limit, a crankcase pressure ambient operation, most of which maintain head pres-
regulating valve may be necessary. This most frequently sure above a preset minimum by partially flooding the
occurs on low temperature compressors where the power condenser and thus reducing the effective surface area.
requirement during pulldown periods or after defrost Methods of this type can control pressures effectively, but
may be greatly in excess of the compressor motor’s do require a considerable increase in refrigerant charge
capabilities. Copeland® brand compressors should and adequate receiver capacity must be provided.
not be operated at suction pressures in excess of the
published limits on compressor specification sheets Air volume dampers on the condenser operated from
without approval of the Emerson Climate Technologies, refrigerant discharge pressure provide a simple, eco-
Inc. Application Engineering Department. nomical, and effective means of control which is widely
Since any pressure drop in the compressor suction line
lowers the system capacity, the CPR valve should be Adequate protection at lowest cost can often be pro-
sized for a minimum pressure drop. In order to restrict vided by a reverse acting high pressure control which
pull down capacity as little as possible, the valve set- senses discharge pressure, and acts to disconnect the
ting should be as high as the motor power requirement condenser fan circuit when the head pressure falls below
will allow. the control’s minimum setting. The proper adjustment
of the off-on differential is particularly important to avoid
Thermal expansion valves of the pressure limiting type excessive fan motor cycling, and the resulting fluctua-
are not recommended when a CPR valve is used, par- tions in discharge pressure may contribute to uneven
ticularly if the pressure settings are fairly close, because expansion valve feeding. In cold ambient temperatures
of the possibility of the action of the two valves coming the condenser must be shielded from the wind.
in conflict in their response to system pressures.
A liquid line filter-drier must be used on all field installed
Within the operating limitations of the system, it is desir- systems, and on all systems opened in the field for
able to take advantage of lower condensing tempera- service. Filter-driers are highly recommended for all sys-
tures whenever possible for increased capacity, lower tems, but are not mandatory on factory assembled and
discharge temperatures, and lower power requirements. charged units where careful dehydration and evacuation
However, too low a discharge pressure can produce is possible during manufacture. Precharged systems with
serious malfunctions. Since the capacity of capillary quick connect fittings having a rupture disc are considered
to be the equivalent of factory charged systems.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

17-6 All rights reserved.
Moisture can be a factor in many forms of system dam- compressor is not operating, and will control migration
age, and the reduction of moisture to an acceptable of liquid refrigerant from the receiver and condenser to
level can greatly extend compressor life and slow down the evaporator and compressor crankcase.
harmful reactions. The desiccant used must be capable
of removing moisture to a low end point and further If a pumpdown cycle is not used, the liquid line solenoid
should be of a type which can remove a reasonable valve should be wired to the compressor motor terminals
quantity of acid. It is most important that the filter-drier so that the valve will be de-energized when the motor
be equipped with an excellent filter to prevent circulation is not operating.
of carbon and foreign particles.
A liquid to suction heat exchanger is highly recom-
A combination sight glass and moisture indicator is es- mended on all refrigeration systems, and is required on
sential for easy field maintenance on any system, and is package water chillers and water to water heat pumps
required on any field installed system unless some other because of the low operating superheat. On medium
means of checking the refrigerant charge is provided. and low temperature applications, a heat exchanger
increases system capacity, helps to eliminate flashing
A sight glass is a convenient means of determining of liquid refrigerant ahead of the expansion valve, and
the refrigerant charge, showing bubbles when there is aids both in preventing condensation on suction lines
insufficient charge, and a solid clear glass when there and in evaporating any liquid flooding through the
is sufficient charge. However, the operator should bear evaporator.
in mind that under some circumstances even when the
receiver outlet has a liquid seal, bubbles or flash gas may On small systems, soldering the liquid and suction
show in the sight glass. This may be due to a restriction lines together for several feet makes an effective heat
or excessive pressure drop in the receiver outlet valve, exchanger.
a partially plugged drier or strainer, or other restriction in
the liquid line ahead of the sight glass. If the expansion THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVES
valve feed is erratic or surging, the increased flow when
the expansion valve is wide open can create sufficient Thermostatic expansion valves must be selected and
pressure drop to cause flashing at the receiver outlet. applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc-
tions. Either internally equalized or externally equalized
Another source of flashing in the sight glass may be valves will feed properly if applied correctly. If the thermal
rapid fluctuations in compressor discharge pressure. expansion valve is of the externally equalized type, the
For example, in a temperature controlled room, the external equalizer line must be connected, preferably
sudden opening of shutters or the cycling of a fan can at a point beyond the expansion valve thermal bulb. Do
easily cause a reduction in the condensing temperature not cap or plug the external equalizer connection as the
of 10°F. to 15°F. Any liquid in the receiver may then be valve will not operate without this connection.
at a temperature equivalent to the lower condensing
pressure, and flashing will continue until the system has Valve superheat should be preset by the valve manu-
stabilized at the new condensing temperature. facturer, and field adjustment should be discouraged.
Valves in need of adjustment should be set to provide
While the sight glass can be a valuable aid in servic- 5°F. to 10°F. superheat at the thermal bulb location.
ing a refrigeration or air conditioning system, a more Too high a superheat setting will result in starving the
positive liquid indicator is desirable, and the system evaporator, and can cause poor oil return. Too low a
performance must be carefully analyzed before placing superheat setting will permit liquid floodback to the
full reliance on the sight glass as a positive indicator of compressor.
the system charge.
A minimum of 15°F. superheat at the compressor must
LIQUID LINE SOLENOID VALVE be maintained at all times to insure the return of dry gas
to the compressor suction chamber, and a minimum of
A liquid line solenoid valve is recommended on all 20°F. superheat is recommended. Note that this is not
field installed systems with large refrigerant charges, superheat at the expansion valve, but should be calcu-
particularly when the system has a charge in excess of lated from pressure measured at the suction service valve
three pounds of refrigerant per motor HP. The solenoid and the temperature measured 18” from the compres-
valve will prevent continued feed to the evaporator sor on the bottom of the horizontal run of suction line
through the expansion valve or capillary tube when the tubing. Lower superheat can result in liquid refrigerant

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 17-7
flooding back to the compressor during variations in the system oil charge or other factors which could cause
evaporator feed with possible compressor damage as excessive oil circulation, or from low velocities in the
a result. Excessively wet refrigerant vapor continually evaporator which result in oil logging. In low tempera-
returning to the compressor can reduce the lubricating ture applications where proper oil circulation cannot be
qualities of the oil and greatly increase compressor wear, maintained, an oil separator may be required.
as well as resulting in a loss of capacity.
Vapor charged valves are satisfactory for air condition-
It is important that users realize that flash gas in the ing usage, and are desirable in many cases because
liquid line can seriously affect expansion valve control. of their inherent pressure limiting characteristics. For all
So long as a head of pure liquid refrigerant is maintained refrigeration applications, liquid charged valves should be
at the expansion valve, its performance is relatively used to prevent condensation of the charge in the head
stable. But if flash gas is mixed with liquid refrigerant of the valve and the resulting loss of control in the event
fed to the valve, a larger orifice opening is required to the head becomes colder than the thermal bulb.
feed the same weight of liquid refrigerant. The only way
the orifice opening can be increased is by an increase in A pressure limiting type valve may be helpful in limiting
superheat, and as the percentage of flash gas increases, the compressor load, and also prevents excessive liquid
the superheat increases, the valve opens wide, and the refrigerant floodback on start-up. On systems using hot
evaporator is progressively more starved. gas defrost, the defrost load is normally greater than the
refrigeration load, and some other means of limiting the
If the valve has been operating with a large percentage compressor power input must be used if required.
of flash gas entering the expansion valve, and a head
of pure liquid refrigerant is suddenly restored, the orifice The thermostatic expansion valve must be sized prop-
opening will be larger than required for the load, and erly for the load. Although a given valve normally has a
liquid will flood through the system to the compressor wide operating capacity range, excessively undersized
until the valve again regains control. Conventional or oversized valves can cause system malfunctions.
expansion valves with the thermal bulb strapped to the Undersized valves may starve the evaporator, and the
suction line may be somewhat sluggish in response, resulting excessive superheat may adversely affect
and it may be several minutes before control can be the system performance. Oversized valves can cause
restored to normal. hunting, alternately starving and flooding the evaporator,
resulting in extreme fluctuations in suction pressure.
Typically, changes in the quality of liquid refrigerant feed-
ing the expansion valve can occur quickly and frequently The thermal bulb should normally be located on a hori-
because of the action of head pressure control devices, zontal section of the suction line, close to the evaporator
sudden changes in the refrigeration load, hunting of the outlet, on the evaporator side of any suction line trap
expansion valve, action of an unloading valve, or rapid or heat exchanger. Do not under any circumstances
changes in condensing pressure. locate the thermal bulb in a location where the suction
line is trapped since this can result in erratic feeding.
On systems with short suction lines and low superheat Satisfactory performance can usually be obtained with
requirements, quick response thermal bulbs or wells the bulb strapped to the suction line at the 3 o’clock
in the suction line may be essential to avoid periodic position. Mounting on the top of the suction line will de-
floodback to the compressor. crease sensitivity, and may allow possible liquid flooding.
Mounting on the bottom of the suction line can cause
Temperatures and pressure alone may not give a true erratic feeding due to the rapid temperature changes that
picture of the actual liquid refrigerant control in a system. can result from even small amounts of liquid refrigerant
Excessive oil circulation has the effect of increasing the reaching the thermal bulb location. Particular attention
evaporating temperature of the refrigerant. The response should be given to the location of the thermal bulb on
of the expansion valve is based on the saturation pressure multiple evaporator systems to insure that the refriger-
and temperature of pure refrigerant. In an operating sys- ant returning from one evaporator does not affect the
tem, the changed pressure-temperature characteristics control of another evaporator.
of the oil rich refrigerant will give the expansion valve
a false reading of the actual superheat, and can result EVAPORATORS
in a somewhat lower actual superheat than apparently
exists, causing excessive liquid refrigerant floodback to Evaporators must be properly selected for the refrig-
the compressor. The only real cure for this condition is to eration load. Too large an evaporator might result in
reduce oil circulation to a minimum. Normally excessive low velocities and possible oil logging. Too small an
oil in the evaporator can only result from an excessive evaporator will have excessive temperature differentials

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

17-8 All rights reserved.
between the evaporating refrigerant and the medium to HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE CONTROLS
be cooled. The allowable TD between the entering air
and the evaporating refrigerant may also be dictated by Both high and low pressure controls are recommended
the humidity control required. for good system design on all air cooled systems 1 HP
and larger, and are essential on all field installed air
Internal volume of the evaporator tubing should be at a cooled systems and on all water cooled systems.
minimum to keep the system refrigerant charge as low
as possible, so the smallest diameter tubing that will When used for low temperature unit operation control,
give acceptable performance should be used. Since the low pressure control must not be set below the
pressure drop at low evaporating temperatures is criti- minimum operating limits of the compressor or the
cal so far as capacity is concerned, multiple refrigerant system. One of the most frequent causes of motor
circuits with fairly short runs are preferred. At the same overheating and inadequate lubrication is operation of
time, it is essential that velocities of refrigerant in the the compressor at excessively low suction pressures.
evaporator be high enough to avoid oil trapping. Product specification sheets list the approved compres-
sor operating range, and recommended minimum low
Vertical headers should have a bottom outlet to allow pressure control settings for various operating ranges
gravity oil drainage. are shown in Table 21.
SUCTION LINE FILTERS High pressure controls may be either manual or automatic
reset as desired by the customer. If of the manual reset
A heavy duty suction line filter is recommended for type, provision must be made to prevent liquid refrigerant
every field installation. The filter will effectively remove flooding through the system to the compressor in the
contaminants from the system at the time of installation, event of a trip of the high pressure control.
and serves to keep the compressor free of impurities
during operation. In the event of a motor burn, the filter Internal automatic reset pressure relief valves (Co-
will prevent contamination from spreading into the system pelimit) are provided in most welded compressors
through the suction line. 1 ¾ HP and larger. On factory assembled package
systems, the internal Copelimit valve may satisfy U.L.
The suction line filter should be selected for a reason- and code requirements without the use of an external
able pressure drop, and should be equipped with a high pressure control. A similar high side to low side
pressure fitting just ahead of the filter, preferably in the automatic reset pressure relief valve is installed in all
shell, to facilitate checking pressure drop across the Copelametic® compressors with displacements of 3,000
filter during operation. CFH or greater.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 17-9
On factory assembled and charged package systems, Because of the potential operating problems, intercon-
such as room air conditioners, where loss of charge nection of individual compressors is not approved with
protection is not considered critical, or where the motor the exception of factory designed, tested, and assembled
protection device can provide loss of charge protection, units specifically approved by the Emerson Climate Tech-
low pressure controls may not be essential although nologies, Inc. Application Engineering Department.
Individual circuit breakers or fuses should be provided
When the crankcases of two or more compressors for each compressor motor. Group fusing, where two or
are interconnected for parallel operation on a single more compressors are installed on one fused discon-
refrigeration system, serious problems of oil return and nect, is not recommended since an electrical failure in
vibration may be encountered unless the system is one compressor would not trip the fuse, and extensive
properly designed. The tandem compressor consisting electrical damage could result.
of two individual compressors with an interconnecting
housing replacing the individual stator covers provides
a simple, trouble free solution to this problem.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

17-10 All rights reserved.
Section 18

Probably the first skill that any refrigeration apprentice In general, pressure drop in refrigerant lines tends to
mechanic learns is to make a soldered joint, and run- decrease capacity and increase power requirements, and
ning piping is so common a task that often its critical excessive pressure drops should be avoided. The mag-
importance in the proper performance of a system is nitude of the pressure drop allowable varies depending
overlooked. It would seem elementary in any piping on the particular segment of piping involved, and each
system that what goes in one end of a pipe must come part of the system must be considered separately. There
out the other, but on a system with improper piping, it are probably more tables and charts available covering
is not uncommon for a serviceman to add gallons of oil line pressure drop and refrigerant line capacities at a
to a system, and it may seemingly disappear without a given pressure drop than on any other single subject in
trace. It is of course lying on the bottom of the tubing the field of refrigeration.
in the system, usually in the evaporator or suction line.
When the piping or operating condition is corrected, It is most important, however, that the piping designer
the oil will return and those same gallons of oil must realize that pressure drop is not the only criteria that
be removed. must be considered in sizing refrigerant lines, and that
often refrigerant velocities rather than pressure drop
Refrigeration piping involves extremely complex relation- must be the determining factor in system design. In
ships in the flow of refrigerant and oil. Fluid flow is the addition to the critical nature of oil return, there is no
name given in mechanical engineering to the study of better invitation to system difficulties than an exces-
the flow of any fluid, whether it might be a gas or a liquid, sive refrigerant charge. A reasonable pressure drop
and the inter-relationship of velocity, pressure, friction, is far more preferable than over-sized lines which can
density, viscosity, and the work required to cause the contain refrigerant far in excess of the system’s needs.
flow. These relationships evolve into long mathematical An excessive refrigerant charge can result in serious
equations which form the basis for the fan laws which problems of liquid refrigerant control, and the flywheel
govern fan performance, and the pressure drop tables effect of large quantities of liquid refrigerant in the low
for flow through piping. But 99% of the theories in fluid pressure side of the system can result in erratic opera-
flow textbooks deal with the flow of one homogenous tion of the refrigerant control devices.
fluid, and there is seldom even a mention of a combi-
nation flow of liquid, gas, and oil such as occurs in any The size of the service valve supplied on a compressor,
refrigeration system. Because of its changing nature, or the size of the connection on a condenser, evapora-
such flow is just too complex to be governed by a simple tor, accumulator, or other accessory does not determine
mathematical equation, and practically the entire working the size of line to be used. Manufacturers select a valve
knowledge of refrigeration piping is based on practical size or connection fitting on the basis of its application
experience and test data. As a result, the general type to an average system, and such factors as the type of
of gas and liquid flow that must be maintained to avoid application, length of connecting lines, type of system
problems is known, but seldom is there one exact an- control, variation in load, and other factors can be major
swer to any problem. factors in determining the proper line size. It is quite
possible the required line size may be either smaller or
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION PIPING larger than the fittings on various system components.
DESIGN In such cases, reducing fittings must be used.

The design of refrigeration piping systems is a continuous Since oil must pass through the compressor cylinders
series of compromises. It is desirable to have maximum to provide lubrication, a small amount of oil is always
capacity, minimum cost, proper oil return, minimum circulating with the refrigerant. Refrigeration oils are
power consumption, minimum refrigerant charge, low soluble in liquid refrigerant, and at normal room tem-
noise level, proper liquid refrigerant control, and perfect peratures they will mix completely. Oil and refrigerant
flexibility of system operation from 0 to 100% of system vapor, however, do not mix readily, and the oil can be
capacity without lubrication problems. Obviously all of properly circulated through the system only if the mass
these goals cannot be satisfied, since some are in direct velocity of the refrigerant vapor is great enough to sweep
conflict. In order to make an intelligent decision as to the oil along. To assure proper oil circulation, adequate
just what type of compromise is desirable, it is essential refrigerant velocities must be maintained not only in
that the piping designer clearly understand the basic the suction and discharge lines, but in the evaporator
effects on system performance of the piping design in circuits as well.
the different parts of the system.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-1
Several factors combine to make oil return most critical Only types K or L should be used for refrigerant piping,
at low evaporating temperatures. As the suction pres- since type M does not have sufficient strength for high
sure decreases and the refrigerant vapor becomes less pressure applications. Type L tubing is most commonly
dense, the more difficult it becomes to sweep the oil used, and all tables and data in this manual are based
along. At the same time as the suction pressure falls, the on type L dimensions.
compression ratio increases, and as a result compres-
sor capacity is reduced, and the weight of refrigerant It is highly recommended that only refrigeration grade
circulated decreases. Refrigeration oil alone becomes copper tubing be used for refrigeration applications,
the consistency of molasses at temperatures below 0°F., since it is available cleaned, dehydrated, and capped
but so long as it is mixed with sufficient liquid refrigerant, to avoid contamination prior to installation. Copper
it flows freely. As the percentage of oil in the mixture tubing commonly used for plumbing usually has oils
increases, the viscosity increases. and grease or other contaminants on the interior wall,
and these can cause serious operating problems if not
At low temperature conditions all of these factors start removed prior to installation.
to converge, and can create a critical condition. The
density of the gas decreases, the mass velocity flow Table 22 lists the dimensions and properties of standard
decreases, and as a result more oil starts accumulating commercial copper tubing in the sizes commonly used
in the evaporator. As the oil and refrigerant mixture be- in refrigeration systems, and Table 23 lists the weight
comes more viscous, at some point oil may start logging of various refrigerants per 100 feet of piping in liquid,
in the evaporator rather than returning to the compressor, suction and discharge lines.
resulting in wide variations in the compressor crankcase
oil level in poorly designed systems. FITTINGS FOR COPPER TUBING

Oil logging can be minimized with adequate velocities For brazed or soldered joints, the required elbows, tees,
and properly designed evaporators even at extremely low couplings, reducers, or other miscellaneous fittings may
evaporating temperatures, but normally oil separators be either forged brass or wrought copper. Cast fittings
are necessary for operation at evaporating temperatures are not satisfactory since they may be porous and often
below -50°F. in order to minimize the amount of the oil lack sufficient strength.
in circulation.
Each valve, fitting, and bend in a refrigerant line con-
For installations using R-12, R-22, and R-502, copper tributes to the friction pressure drop because of its
tubing is almost universally used for refrigerant piping. interruption or restriction of smooth flow. Because of the
Commercial copper tubing dimensions have been stan- detail and complexity of computing the pressure drop
dardized and classified as follows: of each individual fitting, normal practice is to establish
an equivalent length of straight tubing for each fitting.
Type K Heavy Wall This allows the consideration of the entire length of line,
Type L Medium Wall including fittings, as an equivalent length of straight
Type M Light Wall pipe. Pressure drop and line sizing tables and charts
are normally set up on the basis of a pressure drop per
100 feet of straight pipe, so the use of equivalent lengths
allows the data to be used directly.

(continued on p. 18-5)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

18-2 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-3
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-4 All rights reserved.
The equivalent length of copper tubing for commonly representing the desired capacity to the intersection with
used valves and fittings is shown in Table 24. the diagonal line representing the operating condition
desired. Then move horizontally to the left. A vertical
line dropped from the intersection point with each size
of copper tubing to the design condensing temperature
line allows the pressure drop in psi per 100 feet of tubing
to be read directly from the chart. The diagonal pres-
sure drop lines at the bottom of the chart represent the
change in pressure drop due to a change in condensing

For example, in Figure 78 for R-502, the dotted line

represents a pressure drop determination for a suction
line in a system having a design capacity of 5.5 tons
or 66,000 BTU/hr operating with an evaporating tem-
perature of -40°F. The 2 5/8” O.D. suction line illustrated
has a pressure drop of 0.22 psi per 100 feet at 85°F.
condensing temperature, but the same line with the
same capacity would have a pressure drop of 0.26 psi
per 100 feet at 100°F. condensing, and 0.32 psi per 100
feet at 120°F. condensing.

In the same manner, the corresponding pressure drop for

any line size and any set of operating conditions within
the range of the chart can be determined.
For accurate calculations of pressure drop, the equiva-
lent length for each fitting should be calculated. As a SIZING HOT GAS DISCHARGE LINES
practical matter, an experienced piping designer may
be capable of making an accurate overall percentage Pressure drop in discharge lines is probably less criti-
allowance unless the piping is extremely complicated. cal than in any other part of the system. Frequently the
For long runs of piping of 100 feet or greater, an allow- effect on capacity of discharge line pressure drop is
ance of 20% to 30% of the actual lineal length may be over-estimated since it is assumed the compressor
adequate, while for short runs of piping, an allowance discharge pressure and the condensing pressure are
as high as 50% to 75% or more of the lineal length may the same. In fact, there are two different pressures, the
be necessary. Judgment and experience are necessary compressor discharge pressure being greater than the
in making a good estimate, and estimates should be condensing pressure by the amount of the discharge
checked frequently with actual calculations to insure line pressure drop. An increase in pressure drop in the
reasonable accuracy. discharge line might increase the compressor discharge
pressure materially, but have little effect on the condens-
For items such as solenoid valves and pressure ing pressure. Although there is a slight increase in the
regulating valves, where the pressure drop through heat of compression for an increase in head pressure,
the valve is relatively large, data is normally available the volume of gas pumped is decreased slightly due
from the manufacturer’s catalog so that items of this to a decrease in volumetric efficiency of the compres-
nature can be considered independently of lineal length sor. Therefore the total heat to be dissipated through
calculations. the condenser may be relatively unchanged, and the
condensing temperature and pressure may be quite
PRESSURE DROP TABLES stable, even though the discharge line pressure drop
and therefore the compressor discharge pressure might
Figure 76, 77, and 78 are combined pressure drop vary considerably.
charts for refrigerants R-12, R-22, and R-502. Pressure
drops in the discharge line, suction line, and liquid line The performance of a typical Copelametic® compres-
can be determined from these charts for condensing sor, operating at air conditioning conditions with R-22
temperatures ranging from 80°F. to 120°F. and an air cooled condenser indicates that for each 5
psi pressure drop in the discharge line, the compres-
To use the chart, start in the upper right hand corner with sor capacity is reduced less than ½ of 1%, while the
the design capacity. Drop vertically downward on the line power required is increased about 1%. On a typical low
(continued on p. 18-9)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-5
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-6 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-7
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-8 All rights reserved.
temperature Copelametic® compressor operating with Oil circulation in discharge lines is normally a problem
R-502 and an air cooled condenser, approximately 1% only on systems where large variations in system capac-
of compressor capacity will be lost for each 5 psi pres- ity are encountered. For example, an air conditioning
sure drop, but there will be little or no change in power system may have steps of capacity control allowing
consumption. it to operate during periods of light load at capacities
possibly as low as 25% or 33% of the design capacity.
As a general guide, for discharge line pressure drops The same situation may exist on commercial refrigera-
up to 5 psi, the effect on system performance would be tion systems where compressors connected in parallel
so small as to be difficult to measure. Pressure drops are cycled for capacity control. In such cases, vertical
up to 10 psi would not be greatly detrimental to system discharge lines must be sized to maintain velocities
performance provided the condenser is sized to maintain above the minimum necessary to properly circulate oil
reasonable condensing pressures. at the minimum load condition.

Actually a reasonable pressure drop in the discharge For example, consider an air conditioning system using
line is often desirable to dampen compressor pulsation, R-12 having a maximum design capacity of 300,000
and thereby reduce noise and vibration. Some discharge BTU/hr with steps of capacity reduction up to 66%.
line mufflers actually derive much of their efficiency from Although the 300,000 BTU/hr condition could return oil
pressure drop through the muffler. up a 3 1/8” O.D. riser, at light load conditions the system
would have only 100,000 BTU/hr capacity, so a 2 1/8”
Discharge lines on factory built condensing units usually O.D. riser must be used. In checking the pressure drop
are not a field problem, but on systems installed in the chart, Figure 76, at maximum load conditions, a 2 1/8”
field with remote condensers, line sizes must be selected O.D. pipe will have a pressure drop of approximately 3 psi
to provide proper system performance. per 100 feet at a condensing temperature of 120°F.

Because of the high temperatures existing in the dis- One other limiting factor in discharge line sizing is
charge line, oil flows freely, and oil circulation through excessive velocity which can cause noise problems.
both horizontal and vertical lines can be maintained Velocities of 3,000 FPM or more may result in high noise
satisfactorily with reasonably low velocities. Since oil levels, and it is recommended that maximum velocities
traveling up a riser usually creeps up the inner surface be kept well below this level. Figures 81 and 82 give
of the pipe, oil travel in vertical risers is dependent on equivalent discharge line gas velocities for varying
the velocity of the gas at the tubing wall. The larger the capacities and line sizes over the normal refrigeration
pipe diameter, the greater will be the required velocity and air conditioning range.
at the center of the pipe to maintain a given velocity at
the wall surface. Figures 79 and 80 list the maximum Because of the flexibility in line sizing that the allowable
recommended discharge line riser sizes for proper oil pressure drop makes possible, discharge lines can al-
return for varying capacities. The variation at different most always be sized satisfactorily without the necessity
condensing temperatures is not great, so the line sizes of double risers. If modifications are made to an existing
shown are acceptable on both water cooled and air cooled system which result in the existing discharge line being
applications. oversized at light load conditions, the addition of an oil
separator to minimize oil circulation will normally solve
If horizontal lines are run with a pitch in the direction the problem.
of flow of at least ½” in 10 feet, there is normally little
problem with oil circulation at lower velocities in horizontal To summarize, in sizing discharge lines, it is recom-
lines. However, because of the relatively low velocities mended that a tentative selection of line size be made
required in vertical discharge lines, it is recommended on the basis of a total pressure drop of approximately
wherever possible that both horizontal and vertical dis- 5 psi plus or minus 50%, the actual design pressure
charge lines be sized on the same basis. drop to a considerable degree being a matter of the
designer’s judgment. Check Figure 79 or 80 to be sure
To illustrate the use of the chart, assume a system that velocities at minimum load conditions are adequate
operating with R-22 at 40°F. evaporating temperature to carry oil up vertical risers, and adjust vertical riser size
has a capacity of 100,000 BTU/hr. The intersection if necessary. Check Figure 81 or 82 to be sure velocities
of the capacity and evaporating temperature lines at maximum load are not excessive.
at point X on Figure 80 indicate the design condi-
tion. Since this is below the 2 1/8” O.D. line, the Recommended discharge line sizes for varying capaci-
maximum size that can be used to insure oil return ties and equivalent lengths of line are given in Table
up a vertical riser is 1 5/8” O.D. 28.
(continued on p. 18-14)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-9
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-10 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-11
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-12 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-13
SIZING LIQUID LINES On the typical air cooled condensing unit with a conven-
tional receiver, it is probable that very little subcooling of
Since liquid refrigerant and oil mix completely, velocity liquid is possible unless the receiver is almost completely
is not essential for oil circulation in the liquid line. The filled with liquid. Vapor in the receiver in contact with
primary concern in liquid line sizing is to insure a solid the subcooled liquid will condense, and this effect will
liquid head of refrigerant at the expansion valve. If the tend toward a saturated condition.
pressure of the liquid refrigerant falls below its saturation
temperature, a portion of the liquid will flash into vapor At normal condensing temperatures, the following
to cool the liquid refrigerant to the new saturation tem- relation between each 1°F. of subcooling and the cor-
perature. This can occur in a liquid line if the pressure responding change in saturation pressure applies.
drops sufficiently due to friction or vertical lift.
Equivalent Change
Flash gas in the liquid line has a detrimental effect on in Saturation
system performance in several ways. It increases the Refrigerant Subcooling Pressure
pressure drop due to friction, reduces the capacity of the
expansion device, may erode the expansion valve pin and R-12 1° F. 1.75 psi
seat, can cause excessive noise, and may cause erratic
feeding of the liquid refrigerant to the evaporator. R-22 1° F. 2.75 psi

For proper system performance, it is essential that R-502 1° F. 2.85 psi

liquid refrigerant reaching the expansion device be
subcooled slightly below its saturation temperature. To illustrate, 5°F. subcooling will allow a pressure drop
On most systems the liquid refrigerant is sufficiently of 8.75 psi with R-12, 13.75 psi with R-22, and 14.25
subcooled as it leaves the condenser to provide for psi with R-502 without flashing in the liquid line. For the
normal system pressure drops. The amount of subcool- previous example of a condensing unit in a basement
ing necessary, however, is dependent on the individual requiring a vertical lift of 30 feet or approximately 15
system design. psi, the necessary subcooling for the liquid head alone
would be 8.5°F. with R-12, 5.5°F. with R-22, and 5.25°F.
On air cooled and most water cooled applications, the with R-502.
temperature of the liquid refrigerant is normally higher
than the surrounding ambient temperature, so no heat The necessary subcooling may be provided by the
is transferred into the liquid, and the only concern is condenser used, but for systems with abnormally high
the pressure drop in the liquid line. Besides the friction vertical risers, a suction to liquid heat exchanger may be
loss caused by flow through the piping, a pressure drop required. Where long refrigerant lines are involved, and
equivalent to the liquid head is involved in forcing liquid the temperature of the suction gas at the condensing unit
to flow up a vertical riser. A head of two feet of liquid is approaching room temperatures, a heat exchanger
refrigerant is approximately equivalent to 1 psi. For located near the condenser may not have sufficient
example, if a condenser or receiver in the basement of temperature differential to adequately cool the liquid,
a building is to supply liquid refrigerant to an evapora- and individual heat exchangers at each evaporator may
tor three floors above, or approximately 30 feet, then a be necessary.
pressure drop of approximately 15 psi must be provided
for in system design for the liquid head alone. In extreme cases, where a great deal of subcooling is
required, there are several alternatives. A special heat
On evaporative or water cooled condensers where exchanger with a separate subcooling expansion valve
the condensing temperature is below the ambient air can provide maximum cooling with no penalty on system
temperature, or on any application where liquid lines performance. It is also possible to reduce the capacity
must pass through hot areas such as boiler or furnace of the condenser so that a higher operating condens-
rooms, an additional complication may arise because ing temperature will make greater subcooling possible.
of heat transfer into the liquid. Any subcooling in the Liquid refrigerant pumps may also be used to overcome
condenser may be lost in the receiver or liquid line due large pressure drops.
to temperature rise alone unless the system is properly
designed. On evaporative condensers where a receiver Liquid line pressure drop causes no direct penalty in
and subcooling coil are used, it is recommended that power consumption, and the decrease in system capac-
the refrigerant flow be piped from the condenser to ity due to friction losses in the liquid line is negligible.
the receiver and then to the subcooling coil. In critical Because of this the only real restriction on the amount
applications it may be necessary to insulate both the of liquid line pressure drop is the amount of subcooling
receiver and the liquid line.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

18-14 All rights reserved.
available. Most references on pipe sizing recommend drops for various operating conditions are shown in
a conservative approach with friction pressure drops Table 25.
in the 3 to 5 psi range, but where adequate subcooling
is available, many applications have successfully used Table 25
much higher design pressure drops. The total friction Pressure drop Equivalent for 2° F.
includes line losses through such accessories as sole- Change in Saturation Temperature at
noid valves, filter-driers, and hand valves. Various Evaporating Temperatures

In order to minimize the refrigerant charge, liquid Evaporating Pressure Drop, PSI
lines should be kept as small as practical, and exces- Temperature R-12 R-022 R-502
sively low pressure drops should be avoided. On most 45ºF 2.0 3.0 3.3
systems, a reasonable design criteria is to size liquid 20ºF 1.35 2.2 2.4
lines on the basis of a pressure drop equivalent to 2°F. 0ºF 1.0 1.65 1.85
subcooling. -20ºF .75 1.15 1.35
-40ºF .5 .8 1.0
A limitation on liquid line velocity is possible damage
to the piping from pressure surges or liquid hammer Of equal importance in sizing suction lines is the ne-
caused by the rapid closing of liquid line solenoid valves, cessity of maintaining adequate velocities to properly
and velocities above 300 FPM should be avoided when return oil to the compressor. Studies have shown that
they are used. If liquid line solenoids are not used, then oil is most viscous in a system after the suction vapor
higher velocities can be employed. Figure 83 gives liquid has warmed up a few degrees from the evaporating
line velocities corresponding to various pressure drops temperature, so that the oil is no longer saturated with
and line sizes. refrigerant, and this condition occurs in the suction line
after the refrigerant vapor has left the evaporator. Move-
To summarize, in sizing liquid lines, it is recommended ment of oil through suction lines is dependent on both
that the selection of line size be made on the basis of a the mass and velocity of the suction vapor. As the mass
total friction pressure drop equivalent to 2°F. subcool- or density decreases, higher velocities are required to
ing. If vertical lifts or valves with large pressure drops force the oil along.
are involved, then the designer must make certain that
sufficient subcooling is available to allow the necessary Nominal minimum velocities of 700 FPM in horizontal
pressure drop without approaching a saturation condi- suction lines and 1500 FPM in vertical suction lines
tion at which gas flashing could occur. Check Figure 83 have been recommended and used successfully for
to be sure velocities do not exceed 300 FPM if a liquid many years as suction line sizing design standards.
line solenoid is used. Use of the one nominal velocity provided a simple and
convenient means of checking velocities. However,
Recommended liquid line sizes for varying capacities tests have shown that in vertical risers the oil tends to
and equivalent lengths of line are given in Table 27. crawl up the inner surface of the tubing, and the larger
the tubing, the greater velocity required in the center of
SIZING SUCTION LINES the tubing to maintain tube surface velocities which will
carry the oil. The exact velocity required in vertical lines
Suction line sizing is the most critical from a design and is dependent on both the evaporating temperature and
system standpoint. Any pressure drop occurring due to the line size, and under varying conditions, the specific
frictional resistance to flow results in a decrease in the velocity required might be either greater or less than
pressure at the compressor suction valve, compared 1500 FPM.
with the pressure at the evaporator outlet. As the suc-
tion pressure is decreased, each pound of refrigerant For better accuracy in line sizing, revised maximum
returning to the compressor occupies a greater volume, recommended vertical suction line sizes based on the
and the weight of the weight of the refrigerant pumped minimum gas velocities shown in the 1980 ASHRAE
by the compressor decreases. For example, a typical Handbook have been calculated and are plotted in
low temperature R-502 compressor at -40°F. evaporating chart form for easy usage in Figures 84 and 86. These
temperature will lose almost 6% of its rated capacity for revised recommendations superseded previous vertical
each 1 psi suction line pressure drop. suction riser recommendations. No change has been
made in the 700 FPM minimum velocity recommenda-
Normally accepted design practice is to use as a design tion for horizontal suction lines, and Figures 85 and 87
criteria a suction line pressure drop equivalent to a 2°F. cover maximum recommended horizontal line sizes for
change in saturation temperature. Equivalent pressure proper oil return.

(continued on p. 18-21)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-15
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-16 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-17
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-18 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-19
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-20 All rights reserved.
To illustrate, again assume a system operating with R-
12 at 40°F. evaporating temperature has a capacity of
100,000 BTU/hr. On Figure 84, the intersection of the
evaporating temperature and capacity lines indicate
that a 2 1/8” O.D. line will be required for oil return in
the vertical suction risers.

Even though the system might have a much larger design

capacity, the suction line sizing must be based on the
minimum capacity anticipated in operation under light
load conditions after allowing for the maximum reduction
in capacity from capacity control if provided.

Since the dual goals of low pressure drop and high

velocities are in direct conflict, obviously compromises
must be made in both areas. As a general approach,
in suction line design, velocities should be kept as high
as possible by sizing lines on the basis of the maximum
pressure drop that can be tolerated, but in no case should
gas velocity be allowed to fall below the minimum levels
necessary to return oil. It is recommended that a tenta-
tive selection of suction line sizes be made on the basis
of a total pressure drop equivalent to a 2°F. change in
the saturated evaporating temperature. Check Figures
84 or 86 to be sure that velocities in vertical risers are
satisfactory. Where refrigerant lines are lengthy, it may be
desirable to use as large tubing as practical to minimize additional pressure drop imposed by a single vertical
pressure drop, and Figure 85 or 87 should be checked riser. But on medium or low temperature applications
to determine the maximum permissible horizontal line where pressure drop is more critical and where separate
size. The final consideration must always be to maintain risers from individual evaporators are not desirable or
velocities adequate to return oil to the compressor, even possible, a double riser may be necessary to avoid an
if this results in a higher pressure drop than is normally excessive loss of capacity.
A typical double riser configuration is shown in Figure
Recommended suction line sizes for varying capaci- 88. The two lines should be sized so that the total cross-
ties and equivalent lengths of line are given in Tables sectional area is equivalent to the cross-section area
29 to 41. of a single riser that would have both satisfactory gas
velocity and acceptable pressure drop at maximum load
DOUBLE RISERS conditions. The two lines normally are different in size,
with the larger line trapped as shown, and the smaller
On systems equipped with capacity control compressors, line must be sized to provide adequate velocities and
or where tandem or multiple compressors are used with acceptable pressure drop when the entire minimum load
one or more compressors cycled off for capacity control, is carried in the smaller riser.
single suction line risers may result in either unaccept-
ably high or low gas velocities. A line properly sized In operation, at maximum load conditions gas and en-
for light load conditions may have too high a pressure trained oil will be flowing through both risers. At minimum
drop at maximum load, and if the line is sized on the load conditions, the gas velocity will not be high enough
basis of full load conditions, then velocities may not be to carry oil up both risers. The entrained oil will drop out
adequate at light load conditions to move oil through the of the refrigerant gas flow, and accumulate in the “P”
tubing. On air conditioning applications where somewhat trap, forming a liquid seal. This will force all of the flow
higher pressure drops at maximum load conditions can up the smaller riser, thereby raising the velocity and
be tolerated without any major penalty in overall sys- assuring oil circulation through the system.
tem performance, it is usually preferable to accept the

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-21
For example, assume a low temperature system as SUCTION PIPING FOR MULTIPLEX SYSTEMS
It is common practice in supermarket applications to
operate several fixtures, each with liquid line solenoid
Maximum capacity 150,000 BTU/hr.
valve and expansion valve control, from a single com-
Minimum capacity 50,000 BTU/hr. pressor. Temperature control of individual fixtures is
Refrigerant R-502 normally achieved by means of a thermostat opening
and closing the liquid line solenoid valve as necessary.
Evaporating Temperature -40°F. This type of system, commonly called multiplexing,
Equivalent length of requires careful attention to design to avoid oil return
problems and compressor overheating.
piping, horizontal 125 ft.
Vertical Riser 25 ft. Since the fixtures fed by each liquid line solenoid valve
may be controlled individually, and since the load on
Desired design pressure drop each fixture is relatively constant during operation, in-
(equivalent to 2°F.) 1 psi dividual suction lines and risers are normally run from
each fixture or group of fixtures controlled by a liquid line
A preliminary check of the R-502 pressure drop chart, solenoid valve for minimum pressure drop and maximum
Figure 78, indicates for a 150 foot run with 150,000 BTU/ efficiency in oil return. This provides excellent control so
hr capacity and a total pressure drop of approximately long as the compressor is operating at its design suction
1 psi, a 3 1/8” O.D. line is indicated. At the minimum pressure, but there may be periods of light load when
capacity of 50,000 BTU/hr, Figure 87 shows a 3 5/8” most or all of the liquid line solenoids are closed. Un-
O.D. horizontal suction line is acceptable, but Figure 84 less some means of controlling compressor capacity is
indicates that the maximum vertical riser size is 2 1/8” provided, this can result in compressor short cycling or
O.D. Referring again to the pressure drop chart, Figure operation at excessively low suction pressures, which
78, the pressure drop for 150,000 BTU/hr through 2 1/8” can result not only in overheating the compressor, but in
O.D. tubing is 4 psi per 100 feet, or 1.0 psi for the 25 foot reducing the suction pressure to a level where the gas
suction riser. Obviously, either a compromise must be becomes so rarefied it can no longer return oil properly
made in accepting a greater pressure drop at maximum in lines sized for much greater gas density.
load conditions, or a double riser must be used.
Because of the fluctuations in refrigeration load caused
If the pressure drop must be held to a minimum, then by closing of the individual liquid line solenoid valves,
the size of the double riser must be determined. At some means of compressor capacity control must be
maximum load conditions, a 3 1/8” O.D. riser would provided. In addition, the means of capacity control must
maintain adequate velocities, so a combination of the be such that it will not allow extreme variations in the
sizes approximating the 3 1/8” O.D. line can be selected compressor suction pressure.
for the double riser. The cross sectional area of the line
sizes to be considered are: Where multiple compressors are used, cycling of indi-
vidual compressors provides satisfactory control. Where
3 1/8” O.D. 6.64 sq. in. multiplexing is done with a single compressor, a hot
gas bypass system has proven to be the most satisfac-
2 5/8” O.D. 4.77 sq. in. tory means of capacity reduction, since this allows the
compressor to operate continuously at a reasonably
2 1/8” O.D. 3.10 sq. in. constant suction pressure while compressor cooling
can be safely controlled by means of a desuperheating
1 5/8” O.D. 1.78 sq. in. expansion valve.

At the minimum load condition of 50,000 BTU/hr., the In all cases, the operation of the system under all pos-
1 5/8” O.D. line will have a pressure drop of approxi- sible combinations of heavy load, light load, defrost, and
mately .5 psi, and will have acceptable velocities, so a compressor capacity must be studied carefully to be
combination of 2 5/8” O.D. and 1 5/8” O.D. tubing should certain that operating conditions will be satisfactory.
be used for the double riser.
Close attention must be paid to piping design on mul-
In a similar fashion, double risers can be calculated for tiplex systems to avoid oil return problems. Lines must
any set of maximum and minimum capacities where be properly sized so that the minimum velocities neces-
single risers may not be satisfactory. sary to return oil are maintained in both horizontal and

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

18-22 All rights reserved.
vertical suction lines under minimum load conditions.
Bear in mind that although a hot gas bypass maintains
the suction pressure at a proper level, the refrigerant
vapor being bypassed is not available in the system to
aid in returning oil.



Horizontal suction and discharge lines should be pitched

downward in the direction of flow to aid in oil drainage,
with a downward pitch of at least ½ inch in 10 feet.
Refrigerant lines should always be as short and should
run as directly as possible.

Piping should be located so that access to system com-

ponents is not hindered, and so that any components
which could possibly require future maintenance are
easily accessible. If piping must be run through boiler
rooms or other areas where they will be exposed to
abnormally high temperatures, it may be necessary
to insulate both the suction and liquid lines to prevent
excessive heat transfer into the lines.

Every vertical suction riser greater than 3 to 4 feet in

height should have a “P” trap at the base to facilitate
oil return up the riser as shown in Figure 89. To avoid
the accumulation of large quantities of oil, the trap
should be of minimum depth and the horizontal section
should be as short as possible. Prefabricated wrought
copper traps are available, or a trap can be made by
using two street ells and one regular ell. Traps at the
foot of hot gas risers are normally not required because
of the easier movement of oil at higher temperatures.
However, it is recommended that the discharge line
from the compressor be looped to the floor prior to be-
ing run vertically upwards to prevent the drainage of oil
back to the compressor head during shut down periods.
See Figure 90.

For long vertical risers in both suction and discharge

lines, additional traps are recommended for each full
length of pipe (approximately 20 feet) to insure proper
oil movement.

In general, trapped sections of the suction line should

be avoided except where necessary for oil return. Oil or
liquid refrigerant accumulating in the suction line during
the off cycle can return to the compressor at high velocity
as liquid slugs on start up, and can break compressor
valves or cause other damage.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-23
SUCTION LINE PIPING DESIGN Where a suction riser is taken directly upward from an
AT THE EVAPORATOR evaporator, a short horizontal section of tubing and a
trap should be provided ahead of the riser so that a
If a pumpdown control system is not used, each evapo- suitable mounting for the thermal expansion valve bulb
rator must be trapped to prevent liquid refrigerant from is available. The trap serves as a drain area, and helps
draining back to the compressor by gravity during the to prevent the accumulation of liquid under the bulb
off cycle. Where multiple evaporators are connected to which could cause erratic expansion valve operation. If
a common suction line, the connections to the common the suction line leaving the evaporator is free draining
suction line must be made with inverted traps to prevent or if a reasonable length of horizontal piping precedes
drainage from one evaporator from affecting the expan- the vertical riser, no trap is required unless necessary
sion valve bulb control of another evaporator. for oil return.

Typical evaporator connections are illustrated in Figure


© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

18-24 All rights reserved.
RECEIVER LOCATION erant actually returning down the discharge line will be
minimized and rarely if ever will this cause compressor
Gas binding at the receiver can occur when the receiver damage if good piping practice is followed. It is possible
is exposed to an ambient temperature higher than the to mount a check valve in the discharge line near the
condensing temperature. Heat transfer through the re- condenser as a means of preventing refrigerant back-
ceiver shell causes some of the liquid in the receiver to flow of this nature, but check valves in this location are
evaporate, creating a pressure in the receiver high than noisy, expensive, and subject to damage, and should
in the condenser. This forces liquid refrigerant to back be employed only if absolutely essential.
up into the condenser until its efficiency is reduced to
the point where the condensing pressure again exceeds VIBRATION AND NOISE
the pressure in the receiver.
No matter how well the compressor is isolated, some
The best remedy for this problem is to make sure the noise and vibration will be transmitted through the pip-
receiver is always exposed to ambient temperatures ing, but both can be minimized by proper design and
lower than the condensing temperature. If this is not support of the piping.
possible, the receiver should be insulated to minimize
heat transfer. Various types of venting arrangements On small units a coil of tubing at the compressor may
for receivers have been proposed, but these require provide adequate protection against vibration. On larger
extreme care in circuiting to avoid flow problems. When units, flexible metallic hose is frequently used. When the
the receiver is vented back to the condenser, the only compressor is supported by vibration absorbing mounts
force causing flow from the condenser to the receiver allowing compressor movement, refrigerant lines should
is gravity. Vented piping arrangements are complicated not be anchored solidly at the unit, but at a point beyond
at best, and should be avoided if possible. the vibration absorber, so the vibration can be isolated
and not transmitted into the piping system.
Even though there may not be sufficient heat transfer
into a receiver to cause gas binding, on systems where The noise characteristics of a large refrigeration or air
the condensing temperature is lower than the ambient conditioning system, particularly when installed with long
(for example water cooled or evaporative condensers refrigerant lines and remote condensers, are not predict-
with remote receivers) the liquid refrigerant may be able. Variations in piping configuration, the pattern of
warmed sufficiently in the receiver to lose most and gas flow, line sizes, operating pressures, the compressor
possibly all of its subcooling. As mentioned previously, and unit mounting, all can affect the noise generated by
special subcooling coils or insulation may be required the system. Occasionally a particular combination of gas
for proper operation under these conditions. flow and piping will result in a resonant frequency which
may amplify the sound and vibration to an undesirable
If a difference in temperature exists between two parts of level. Gas pulsation from the compressor may also be
an idle refrigeration system with interconnecting piping, amplified in a similar manner.
this actually creates a little built-in static refrigeration
system. The liquid refrigerant at the high temperature If gas pulsation or resonant frequencies are encountered
point will slowly vaporize, travel through the system as on a particular application, a discharge line muffler may
vapor, and recondense at the lowest temperature point. be helpful in correcting the problem. The purpose of a
This most often is a matter of concern with a roof mounted muffler is to dampen the pulses of gas in the discharge
remote condenser when the compressor is located in line and to change the frequency to a level which is
an inside machine room. If the system is idle, the sun not objectionable. A muffler normally depends on mul-
is shining on the condenser, and the machine room is tiple internal baffles and/or pressure drop to obtain an
cool, then liquid is going to move out of the condenser even flow of gas. In general, the application range of a
and back down the discharge line to the machine room. muffler depends on the mass flow of gas through the
Occasionally inverted traps are made in the discharge muffler, so the volume and density of the refrigerant
line at the condenser in the belief they will prevent this gas discharged from the compressor are both factors
type of reverse flow. Actually with even a few degrees in muffler performance.
temperature difference, an inverted loop 20 feet high
would be of no value. A given muffler may work satisfactorily on a fairly wide
range of compressor sizes, but is also quite possible that
However, if the receiver is located either in the machine a given system may require a muffler with a particular
room, or at some other point where it will not be exposed pressure drop to effectively dampen pulsations. On
to the roof heat, reverse flow from the condenser seldom problem applications, trial and error may be the only final
is a source of operating difficulty. The amount of refrig- guide. While larger mufflers are often more efficient in
reducing the overall level of compressor discharge noise,

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 18-25
in order to satisfactorily dampen pulsations, smaller lengths of pipe based on the design criteria discussed
mufflers with a greater pressure drop are usually more previously. (For piping recommendations on two stage
effective. Adjustable mufflers are often helpful since they systems, refer to Section 19).
allow tuning of the muffler pressure characteristics to
the exact system requirement. Vertical suction line sizes have been selected on the
basis of a total vertical rise up to 30 feet. For longer
Occasionally, a combination of operating conditions, risers, individual calculations should be made since
mounting and piping arrangement may result in a reso- the increased pressure drop may require different line
nant condition, which tends to magnify compressor pul- sizes and possibly the use of double risers in place of
sation and cause a sharp vibration, although noise may the single riser shown.
not be a problem. For larger Copelametic® compressors,
discharge muffler plates have been developed for use Discharge line sizes have been calculated on the basis
when necessary to dampen excessive pulsation. The of a nominal pressure drop of 5 psi. Vertical line sizes
muffler plate fits between the discharge valve and the have been selected so that minimum velocities neces-
compressor body and has a number of muffling holes sary to carry oil up the riser will be maintained under
to provide the proper characteristics for the particular the reduced load conditions shown, and velocities have
compressor displacement. The muffling holes break up been checked to see that they do not exceed 2,700 FPM
the pattern of gas flow and create sufficient restriction at maximum load conditions. Because of the relatively
to reduce the gas pulsation to a minimum. small variation in discharge line velocity over the normal
refrigeration and air conditioning range, the line sizes
When piping passes through walls or floors, precautions shown may be safely used for evaporating temperatures
should be taken to see that the piping does not touch from -40°F. to 45°F., and condensing temperatures from
any structural members and is properly supported by 80°F. to 130°F.
hangers in order to prevent the transmission of vibra-
tion into the building. Failure to do so may result in the Liquid line sizes have been calculated on the basis of a
building structure becoming a sounding board. nominal pressure drop equivalent to 2 ½° F. subcooling,
and velocities have been checked to see that they do
Table 26 gives the maximum recommended spacing not exceed 250 FPM. Liquid lines from the condenser
for pipe supports. to receiver have been selected on the basis of 100 FPM
velocity in accordance with standard industry practice
RECOMMENDED LINE SIZING TABLES in order to allow a free draining line with gas equaliza-
tion where piping allows. As in the case with discharge
Tables 27 to 41 give recommended line sizes for single lines, the relatively small variation in liquid line velocities
stage applications at various capacities and for equivalent over the normal refrigeration and air conditioning range
allows use of the recommended line sizing for evaporat-
ing temperatures from -40°F. to 45°F., and condensing
temperatures from 80°F. to 130°F.

Suction line sizes have been calculated on the basis of

a nominal pressure drop equivalent to a 2°F. change in
the saturated evaporating temperature. Both horizontal
and vertical line sizes have been checked to see that
the necessary minimum velocities are maintained under
the reduced load conditions shown. Line sizes have
been calculated for various evaporating temperatures,
and may be safely applied for condensing temperatures
from 80°F. to 130°F.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

18-26 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-27
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-28 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-29
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-30 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-31
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-32 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-33
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-34 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-35
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 18-37
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
18-38 All rights reserved.
Section 19

SINGLE STAGE LOW TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS Either the evaporator must be properly designed, or
a pressure limiting device such as a pressure limiting
Low temperature single stage systems become increas- expansion valve or crankcase pressure regulating valve
ingly critical from a design and application standpoint must be provided to prevent motor overloading during
as the desired evaporating temperature is decreased. pulldown periods, or after defrost.
The combination of high compression ratios, low oper-
ating temperatures, and rarefied return gas can cause Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. now recommends
lubrication and overheating problems, and make the R-502 for all single stage low temperature applications
compressor more vulnerable to damage from moisture where evaporating temperatures of -20°F. and below may
and contaminants in the system. be encountered. Now that R-502 is readily available, R-
22 should not be used in single stage low temperature
The compressor selection, suction temperature, and compressors, 5 H.P. and larger. The lower discharge
application must be such that the temperature of the temperatures of R-502 have resulted in much more
discharge line measured within 1” to 6” of the discharge trouble-free operation.
service valve does not exceed 230°F. for Refrigerants
12, 22, and 502. Under these conditions, the estimated An adequate supply of oil must be maintained in the
average temperature at the discharge port (measured at crankcase at all times to insure continuous lubrication.
the valve retainer on the valve plate) will be approximately If the refrigerant velocity in the system is so low that
310°F. for R-12 and R-502, and 320°F. for R-22. rapid return of the oil is not assured, an adequate oil
separator must be used. The normal oil level should be
The compressor displacement, pressure limiting devices, maintained at or slightly above the center of the sight
and quantity of cooling air or water must be selected glass. An excessive amount of refrigerant or oil must not
to prevent the motor temperature from exceeding the be allowed in the system as it may result in excessive
limits stated below: liquid slugging and damage to the compressor valves,
pistons, or cylinders.
A. 210°F. when protected by inherent
protectors affected by line current and The formation or make up of the lines must be so de-
motor temperature. signed that oil trapping will not exist. The highest velocity
possible without encountering excessive pressure drop
B. 190°F. when protected by motor starters. is recommended.

The temperature of the motor should be determined by Care must be taken to prevent the evaporating
the resistance method and should be determined when temperature from dropping so far below the normal
the compressor is tested in the highest ambient in which system operating point that the refrigerant veloc-
it is expected to operate, at 90 per cent of rated voltage, ity becomes too low to return oil to the compressor.
with 90°F. return suction gas temperature. For longer The low pressure control cut-out setting should not
motor life, operating temperatures of 170°F. to 190°F. be below the lowest published rating point for the
are highly recommended. compressor, without prior approval of the Emerson
Climate Technologies, Inc. Application Engineering
In order to prevent the discharge and motor tempera- Department.
tures from exceeding recommended limits, it is very
desirable, and in some instances absolutely necessary, The smallest practical size tubing should be used in
to insulate the suction lines and return the suction gas condensers and evaporators in order to hold the system
to the compressor at a lower than normal tempera- charge to a minimum. When large refrigerant charges
ture. This is particularly important with suction-cooled are unavoidable, recycling pumpdown control should
compressors when R-22 is used. (Approximately 30°F. be used.
superheat suggested.)
If air cooled condensing units are required to operate
Suction cooled compressors require auxiliary cooling by in low ambient temperatures, the use of some means
means of an air blast on the compressor for operation of head pressure control to prevent the condensing
below 0°F evaporator temperature. pressure from falling too low is highly recommended to
maintain normal refrigerant velocities. Several commonly
used types of control are described in Section 17.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 19-1
An adequate filter-drier of generous size must be in- charge pressure (psia) to the absolute suction pressure
stalled in the liquid line, preferably in the cold zone. The (psia).
desiccant used must be capable of removing moisture
to a low end point and be capable of removing a rea- The absolute pressure is gauge pressure plus atmo-
sonable quantity of acid. It is most important that the spheric pressure, which at sea level is standardized at
filter-drier be equipped with an excellent filter to prevent 14.7 pounds per square inch.
circulation of carbon and foreign particles. A permanent
suction line filter is highly recommended to protect the Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual
compressor from contaminants which may be left in the volume of the refrigerant gas pumped by the compressor
system during installation. to the volume displaced by the compressor pistons.

A combination liquid sight glass and moisture indicator Figure 92 illustrates a typical single stage volumetric
should be installed for easy field maintenance. efficiency curve. Note that as the compression ratio
increase, the volumetric efficiency decreases.
After complete assembly, all systems should be thor-
oughly evacuated with a high grade vacuum pump and Two factors cause a loss of efficiency with an increase
dehydrated to assure that no air or moisture remains in in compression ratio. The density of the residual gas
the system. The compressor motor must not be operated remaining in the cylinder clearance space after the
while the high vacuum pump is in operation, otherwise compression stroke is determined by the discharge pres-
motor damage is very likely to occur. sure—the greater the discharge pressure the greater
the density. Since this gas does not leave the cylinder
The system should be charged with clean dry refrigerant on the discharge stroke, it re-expands on the suction
only through a dehydrator. Other substances such as stroke, thus preventing the intake of a full cylinder of
liquid dehydrants or alcohol must not be used. vapor from the suction line. As the compression ratio
increases, the more space in the cylinder on the intake
TWO STAGE LOW TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS stroke is filled by the residual gas.

Two stage systems because of their basic design and The second factor in the loss of efficiency is the high
operation are inherently more efficient and encounter temperature of the cylinder walls resulting from the heat
fewer operating hazards at low operating temperatures of compression. As the compression ratio increases, the
than single stage equipment. The two stage compressor heat of compression increases, and the cylinders and
has its limitations. At evaporating temperatures below head of the compressor become very hot. Suction gas
-80°F. it loses efficiency and motor heating becomes entering the cylinder on the intake stroke is heated by
an increasing problem. The lowest approved operating the cylinder walls and expands, resulting in a reduced
range is -80°F. and at lower evaporating temperatures a weight of gas entering the compressor.
cascade system is recommended. But for applications
with evaporating temperatures in the -20°F. to -80°F. Obviously, a single stage compressor has its limita-
range, the two stage compressor efficiency is high, the tions as compression ratios increase. The effective
discharge temperatures are low, and field experience low limit of even the most efficient single stage system
with properly applied two stage compressors has been is approximately -40°F. evaporating temperature. At
excellent. lower evaporating temperatures, the compression ratio
becomes so high that capacity falls rapidly, the com-
The two stage system is somewhat more complex and pressor may no longer be handling a sufficient weight
sophisticated than a simple single stage system, and of return gas for proper motor cooling, and because of
many of the operating problems encountered on two decreased gas density, oil may no longer be properly
stage systems stem from the fact that too often they circulated through the system.
have been applied without sufficient appreciation of the
safeguards which must be taken in system design. TWO STAGE COMPRESSION AND COMPRESSOR
In order to increase operating efficiency at low evapo-
Three definitions given previously are of importance in rating temperatures, the compression can be done in
analyzing two stage systems. two steps or stages. For two stage operation, the total
compression ratio is the product of the compression ratio
The compression ratio is the ratio of the absolute dis- of each stage. In other words, for a total compression

(continued on p. 19-4)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

19-2 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 19-3
ratio of 16 to 1, the compression ratio of each stage
might be 4 to 1; or compression ratios of 4 to 1 and 5
to 1 in separate stages will result in a total compression
ratio of 20 to 1.

Two stage compression may be accomplished with

the use of two compressors with the discharge of one
pumping into the suction of the second, but because of
the difficulty of maintaining proper oil levels in the two
crankcases, it is more satisfactory to use one compres-
sor with multiple cylinders. On Copeland® brand two
stage compressors, the ratio of low stage to high stage
displacement is 2 to 1. The greater volume of the low
stage cylinders is necessary because of the difference
in specific volume of the refrigerant vapor at low and
interstage pressures. While the compression ratios of
the two stages are seldom exactly equal, they will be
approximately the same. A typical 6 cylinder two stage
compressor with its external manifold and desuperheat-
ing expansion valve is shown in Figure 93, and a typical
3 cylinder two stage compressor with external manifold
is shown in Figure 94.

Figure 95 shows a comparison of five different volu-

metric efficiency curves. The three straight lines are
typical single stage curves—one for an air conditioning
compressor, one for a typical multi-purpose compres-
sor, and one for a low temperature compressor. There
are some variations in compressor design involved,
but the primary difference in characteristics is due to
clearance volume.

The two vertical curved lines represent the compara-

tive efficiency of a two stage compressor. Actually each
separate stage would have a straight line character-
istic similar to the single stage curves, but to enable
comparison with single stage compressors, the overall
volumetric efficiency has been computed on the basis
of the total displacement of the compressor, not just the
low stage displacement.

The solid black curve represents the efficiency of a two

stage compressor without a liquid subcooler. Note that
the efficiency is relatively constant over a wide range
of total compression ratios, and that the crossover in rator is first subcooled by liquid refrigerant fed through
efficiency with the best low temperature single stage the interstage desuperheating expansion valve, and
compressor is at a compression ratio of approximately a much greater share of the refrigeration load has
13 to 1. In other words, at compression ratios lower been transferred to the high stage cylinders. Since the
than 13 to 1, a single stage compressor will have more high stage cylinders operate at a much higher suction
capacity than a two stage compressor of equal displace- pressure, the refrigeration capacity there is far greater
ment without liquid subcooling. per cubic foot of displacement than in the low stage
cylinders. In effect the capacity of the compressor has
The dotted curve represents the efficiency of the same been greatly increased without having to handle any
two stage compressor with a liquid subcooler. In the additional suction gas returning from the evaporator.
subcooler, the liquid refrigerant being fed to the evapo- Note that with the liquid subcooler, the crossover point
in efficiency as compared with a single stage compres-

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

19-4 All rights reserved.
sor is at a compression ratio of approximately 7 to 1. practical for ultra-low temperature applications. Figure
In other words, at compression ratios lower than 7 to 96 shows a valve plate with carbon formation due to
1, the single stage compressor will have more capac- oil breakdown from excessive heat. Excessive cylinder
ity for equal displacement, but at compression ratios temperatures can also cause rapid piston and cylinder
higher than 7 to 1, the two stage compressor will have wear, cylinder scoring, and early failure of the compres-
more capacity. sor. With two stage compressors, the interstage expan-
sion valve maintains safe operating temperatures and
Table 42 lists comparative operating data at varying this type of damage is prevented.
evaporating temperatures for a Copeland® brand com-
pressor available either as a single stage or two stage
compressor. Although the displacement, refrigerant, and
motor are the same, the rapidly increasing advantage
of two stage operation as the evaporating temperature
decreases is plainly shown.



In addition to efficiency, the extremely high temperatures

created by operation at abnormally high compression
ratios makes the use of single stage compressors im-

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 19-5
BASIC TWO STAGE SYSTEM ahead of the desuperheating expansion valve. It should
be wired so as to be open when the motor is running and
The basic flow of refrigerant in a six cylinder two stage closed when not running. A toggle switch placed in the
compressor is shown schematically in Figure 97. The electric line to the solenoid valve will facilitate service
suction gas returning from the evaporator enters the during pumpdown.
four low stage cylinders directly from the suction line.
Since the discharge gas from the first stage cylinders A 100 mesh strainer must be installed in the liquid line
is heated from compression, it must be cooled by the feeding the desuperheating valve, up stream from the
desuperheating expansion valve before entering the solenoid valve, to protect both valves from contami-
motor chamber. The desuperheated refrigerant vapor, nants.
now at interstage pressure, enters the high stage cyl-
inders, is compressed, and is then discharged to the b. Oil Separator
At ultra-low temperatures, the decrease in density of the
Figure 98 is a schematic view of a typical two stage refrigerant suction vapor and the increasing viscosity of
system showing the various components necessary the refrigeration oil make oil return during extended pe-
for proper operation. riods of operation or during light load periods extremely
difficult. In order to minimize oil circulation and safely
TWO STAGE SYSTEM COMPONENTS bridge the operating periods between defrost periods
when oil will be returned, oil separators are standard on
a. Liquid Line Solenoid Valve all Copeland® brand two stage condensing units, and are
strongly recommended on all two stage compressors.
To prevent leakage during the off period, a solenoid valve
must be placed in the liquid supply line immediately The oil separator will provide some increase in refrigerat-

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

19-6 All rights reserved.
ing capacity due to the increased heat transfer capability left in the system. The nominal cost of the filter is good
of the evaporator surface resulting from the reduced insurance for the most vulnerable part of the system.
oil in circulation. It will also act as a muffler to reduce
discharge pulsation and system noise transmission. e. Liquid Sight Glass

c. Suction Line Accumulator A liquid line sight glass should be installed in the liq-
uid line just ahead of the desuperheating expansion
Since the suction gas is returned directly to the low valve to provide a positive check for shortage of liquid
stage cylinders without going through the motor cham- refrigerant.
ber, the two stage compressor is vulnerable to damage
if excessive liquid floods back from the evaporator. To When a liquid subcooler is used, the regular liquid line
prevent damage from slugging, adequate suction line sight glass (additional to the one ahead of the desuper-
accumulators are mandatory on any system prone to heating expansion valve) should be installed between
return slugs of liquid or oil to the compressor. This may the receiver and the subcooler. If installed beyond the
be especially critical on systems with hot gas defrost. subcooler it will not be dependable since it may not show
bubbles even when the system is short of refrigerant.
d. Suction Line Filter
f. Crankcase Pressure Regulating Valve
A good suction line filter is recommended on any field
installed system to prevent damage from copper filings, Two stage compressors will overload if allowed to oper-
solder, flux, bits of steel wool, or other contamination ate for extended periods with high suction pressures.
The suction pressure on some systems can be limited

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 19-7
to a satisfactory point by the size and type of evapora- It is recommended that the branch liquid line to the
tor used, or by the use of pressure limiting expansion desuperheating expansion valve be taken from the
valves. However, the load after defrost is often the most bottom of the main liquid line. Never install a tee with a
critical, and pressure limiting expansion valves will not branch off the top of the main liquid line, since this can
protect against an overload at this time. If the system result in improper refrigerant feed, and possible motor
can overload at any time during its operating cycle, a overheating.
crankcase pressure regulating valve must be used.
h. Defrost Cycle
g. Desuperheating Expansion Valve
With electric defrost, the compressor is not running dur-
Expansion valves currently supplied as original equip- ing the defrost cycle, so no special precautions other
ment with Copeland® brand two stage compressors than those normally required with single stage systems
are of the non-adjustable superheat type. In the event are necessary.
of valve failure, standard field replacement valves with
adjustable superheat which have been approved by However, motor cooling on two stage compressors is
Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. may be used. dependent on an adequate feed of liquid refrigerant
Improper valve selection can result in compressor from the desuperheating expansion valve. If a hot gas
overheating and possible damage due to improper liquid defrost system is used, it is imperative that a solid head
refrigerant control. of liquid is maintained at the desuperheating expansion
valve at all times, and that the compressor be adequately

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

19-8 All rights reserved.
protected against liquid refrigerant returning from the that the expansion valve will have greatly increased
evaporator after condensation during the defrost cycle. capacity due to the low temperature of the refrigerant
Since hot gas defrost systems vary widely in design, it entering the valve. Unless this is taken into consider-
is not possible to make a general statement as to what ation, the increased refrigerating effect per pound of
special controls may be required. Most manufacturers refrigerant may result in an oversized expansion valve
have thoroughly pretested their systems, but on field with resulting erratic operation.
installations, restrictor valves to maintain head pressure,
additional refrigerant charge, suction accumulators, or PIPING ON TWO STAGE SYSTEMS
other special controls may be necessary. In general, an
electric defrost system is much less complicated and The exact oil return characteristics of any system are
therefore usually more dependable on field installed difficult to forecast, and there is very little published
two stage systems. data available on the design of refrigeration piping for
ultra-low temperature systems. It is quite probable that
i. Condenser Capacity any ultra-low temperature system will trap some oil dur-
ing operation, even with the most conservative piping
When two stage compressors were first introduced design, and the evaporator design may have a major
into commercial usage for supermarkets, some users influence on oil circulation.
assumed that a condenser designed for a 10 HP single
stage compressor would also be suitable for a 10 HP two In order to minimize oil circulation and prolong the operat-
stage unit. They failed to take into account the increased ing periods between defrost periods or other heavy load
efficiency of the compressor, and apparently did not conditions which will return oil normally, oil separators are
check the relative compressor capacities when selecting almost invariably required on two stage systems. Even
condensers. At -40°F. evaporating temperature, a two with oil separators (which are never 100% efficient), it
stage compressor may have almost twice the capac- may be necessary to increase the number and frequency
ity of a low temperature single state compressor. As a of defrost periods if oil is lost in the system.
result some field problems were encountered on early
two stage units because of lack of condensing capacity. Users frequently fail to realize that two stage systems
This is really not a basic problem, but it is a pitfall to be with and without liquid subcooling present differences in
aware of when working with those who are accustomed piping design requirements. Two stage systems without
to thinking of condensing units and condensers in terms liquid subcoolers are similar to single stage systems in
of horsepower. that the liquid refrigerant temperature approaches the
condensing temperature. On two stage systems with
j. Liquid Refrigerant Subcooler liquid subcoolers the refrigeration effect per pound of
refrigerant is greatly increased because of the cold
Two stage systems may be operated either with or with- liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator. Therefore
out liquid subcoolers. The function of the subcooler is the pounds of refrigerant circulated for a given capacity
to cool the liquid refrigerant being fed to the evaporator will be greatly reduced, and line velocities correspond-
by the evaporation of refrigerant fed through the desu- ingly less. Most standard line sizing and pressure drop
perheating expansion valve. This transfers a greater tables are based on liquid refrigerant temperatures
portion of the refrigeration load to the high stage cylin- equivalent to normal air and water cooled condensing
ders, and because of the greater compressor capacity temperatures, and do not apply to two stage systems
at higher suction pressures, the system capacity is with liquid subcoolers.
greatly increased.
Tables 43 through 48 give recommended line sizes for
The temperature of the liquid refrigerant being fed to two stage systems. Line sizing has been calculated
the evaporator is reduced in the subcooler to within ap- where possible on the basis of normal single stage pres-
proximately 10°F. of the interstage saturated evaporating sure drop criteria, but line sizes have been selected to
temperature, and the increase in system capacity can maintain the same mass velocity flow as that which has
only be realized if the subcooled liquid is maintained at been found to be acceptable in the normal commercial
this low temperature, and heat transfer into the liquid range. It is essential that the piping designer realize that
line is prevented. Normally this requires insulation of no piping design on ultra-low stage systems can guar-
the liquid line. antee proper oil return, and that the requirement for an
oil separator and possibly frequent defrost periods still
When selecting expansion valves for two stage systems remains, depending on the system characteristics.
with liquid subcoolers, the designer must bear in mind
(continued on p. 19-13)

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© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
19-10 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 19-11
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
19-12 All rights reserved.
CASCADE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS ing periods, an expansion tank as shown in Figure 99
must be provided so that the entire refrigerant charge
Multiple stage refrigeration can also be accomplished can exist as a vapor during off periods without exposing
by using separate systems with the evaporator of the the compressor crankcase or the piping to excessive
high stage serving as the condenser of the low stage pressures. (Normally non-operating system pressures
by means of a heat exchanger. This type of system, should be held to 150 psig or below).
termed a cascade system, is extremely flexible, and is
well adapted to extremely low temperature systems, Normally the expansion tank is located in the low pres-
or to any system where the total compression ratio is sure side of the system, with a relief valve from the
very large. Since different refrigerants can be used in high pressure side of the system discharging into the
the separate systems, refrigerants with characteristics tank. The sizing of the tank is determined from the total
suitable for the specific application can be used. Cas- refrigerant charge, the internal volume of the system,
cade systems in multiples of two, three, or even more the maximum pressure desired, and the design ambient
separate stages make possible refrigeration at almost temperature. The specific volume of the vapor at the
any desired evaporating or condensing temperature. design storage conditions can be determined from the
pressure enthalpy diagram of the refrigerant, such as
Cascade systems have many hazards and potential shown in Figure 100. For example, at a temperature of
problems not normally encountered in single stage re- 120°F. and a pressure of 140 psia, the specific volume
frigeration, and successful system design and application of R-13 is .40 cubic feet per pound. If the system charge
require specialized knowledge and experience. is 10 pounds of refrigerant, then the internal volume of
the system including the expansion tank must be at
Figure 99 is a schematic diagram of a typical cascade least 4 cubic feet.
system consisting of two stages. The cascade condenser
is basically a direct expansion heat exchanger, acting Because of the pressure relation of the system charge
as the evaporator of the high stage and the condenser to the internal volume, the refrigerant charge in cascade
of the low stage. systems is usually critical. Charging by means of a sight
glass is unsafe. Either the exact charge must be mea-
Various refrigerants can be and are used in cascade sured into the system, or the low stage may be charged
systems, with R-12, R-22, or R-502 frequently used in with vapor to a stabilized non-operating pressure of 150
the high stage. The absolute pressures necessary to to 175 psi in maximum ambient conditions.
obtain evaporating temperatures below -80°F. with R-
12, R-22, and R-502 are so low that the specific volume The pull down load may be many times the load at de-
of the refrigerant becomes very high, and the resulting sign operating conditions, and some means of limiting
compressor displacement requirement is so great that the compressor loading during the pull down period is
the use of these refrigerants in the low stage becomes normally required, since it is seldom economical to size
uneconomical. R-13, ethane, and a new refrigerant, either the compressor motor or the condenser for the
R-23/13 (R-503) are frequently used for low stage maximum load. Pressure limiting expansion valves or
applications. crankcase pressure regulating valves are acceptable
if they are sized properly. Frequently a control system
R-13 is commonly used for evaporating temperatures in is designed to lock out the low stage system until the
the -100°F. to -120°F. range since its pressure at those high stage evaporating temperature is reduced to the
evaporating temperatures is such that its use is practi- operating level so that excessive low stage condensing
cal with commonly available refrigeration compressors. pressures do not occur on start up.
However the critical temperature of R-13 is 84°F. and
the critical pressure is 561 psia. This means it cannot Various means of capacity control are employed, usu-
be liquefied at temperatures above 84°F regardless of ally by means of hot gas bypass. Care must be taken
pressure, and the equilibrium pressure of a mixture of to insure proper compressor motor cooling and to avoid
gas and liquid at 84°F. is 561 psia. In order to prevent liquid floodback to the compressor.
excessive pressures in the system during non-operat-
(continued on p. 19-16)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 19-13
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
19-14 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 19-15
The cascade condensing temperature varies with Copeland® brand compressors are not tested with the
individual system design. With normal high stage con- refrigerants normally used in the low stage of cascade
densing temperatures, either air cooled or water cooled, systems. Although many models of Copeland® brand
and evaporating temperatures in the -90°F. to -140°F. compressors have been successfully applied for many
range, high state evaporating temperatures from 30°F. years on cascade systems, the responsibility for the
to -30°F. are commonly used. A difference of 10°F. to selection and application of the compressor must be that
20°F. between the high stage evaporating temperature of the system designer, based on his testing, experience,
and the low stage condensing temperature results in a and design approach.
reasonably sized cascade condenser. The compression
ratios of the high stage and low stage should be approxi-
mately equal for maximum efficiency, but small variations
will not materially affect system performance.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

19-16 All rights reserved.
Section 20

Truck and trailer refrigeration is an increasingly impor- cooled by air pulled through a compartment in which the
tant segment of the refrigeration industry. Despite the compressor is located. If the compressor is not located
fact that transport applications face many operating in the condenser discharge air stream, adequate air
problems peculiar to their usage, there exists very little circulation must be provided by an auxiliary fan.
application data pertaining to this field.
Many compressor failures in transport refrigeration usage
are the result of system malfunction rather than the result Open type compressors operating from a truck engine by
of mechanical wear. It is clear that substantial savings means of a power take-off or by a belt drive are subject
in operating cost, and tremendous improvements in unit to extreme speed ranges. A typical truck engine may idle
performance and life would be possible if the causes at 500 RPM to 700 RPM, run at 1,800 RPM at 30 MPH,
of compressor failure could be removed. Primarily the and run at 3,600 RPM to 4,000 RPM over the highway at
problem boils down to one of making sure that the com- high speeds. Whatever the power take-off or belt ratio,
pressor has adequate lubrication at all times. this means the compressor must operate through a speed
ratio range of 6 to 1 or greater unless it is disconnected
Part of the problem of identifying the cause of failure from the power source by some means.
stems from the fact that far too few users realize that
ultimate failure of a compressor resulting from lack of The compressor speed must be kept within safe limits
lubrication frequently takes place at a time when there is to avoid loss of lubrication and physical damage. Op-
an adequate supply of oil in the crankcase. This is due eration within the physical limitations of the compressor
to continued deterioration of the moving parts resulting may be possible, for example from 400 RPM to 2,400
from the original or repeated damage in the past. It is RPM. It may be possible to use a cut-out switch to
not uncommon for a damaged compressor to operate disconnect the compressor from the power source at a
satisfactorily all winter and then fail in the spring when given speed. The compressor manufacturer should be
subjected to heavier loads. contacted for minimum and maximum speeds of specific
Another source of field problems is the fact that many
units are installed by personnel who may not have ad- If the compressor is of the accessible-hermetic type,
equate training, equipment, or experience. Often units, there is no problem concerning speed so long as the
particularly those in common carrier service, may be electrical source is operating at the voltage and frequency
serviced in emergencies by servicemen not familiar for which the motor was designed. If the speed of the
with the unit, or indeed, with transport refrigeration generator is varied in order to obtain variable speed
generally. operation, the voltage and frequency on the normal al-
ternating current generator will vary proportionally. Since
Because of the installation and service hazards, it is the compressor speed and motor load will vary directly
extremely important that the unit be properly designed with the frequency, it is often possible to operate over
and applied to minimize, and if possible, prevent service a wide speed range with satisfactory results.
However, it should be born in mind that increasing the
COMPRESSOR COOLING frequency and voltage of the generator above the level
for which the compressor motor was designed will in-
Air-cooled motor-compressors must have a sufficient crease the load on the compressor, may overload the
quantity of air passing over the compressor body for motor, and can result in bearing or other compressor
motor cooling. Refrigerant-cooled motor-compres- damage. Operation at speeds too low to provide ad-
sors are cooled adequately by the refrigerant vapor at equate compressor lubrication must also be avoided,
evaporating temperatures above 0°F. saturation, but at although normally lubrication can be maintained on
evaporating temperatures below 0°F. additional motor Copelametic® compressors down to 600 RPM and
cooling by means of air flow is necessary. possibly lower speeds.

Normally the condenser fan if located so that it discharges Each new application involving operation of the com-
on the compressor will provide satisfactory cooling. For pressor at a voltage and frequency differing from its
proper cooling, the fan must discharge air directly against nameplate rating should be submitted to the Emerson
the compressor. The compressor cannot be adequately

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-1
Climate Technologies, Inc. Application Engineering U-joints must be kept parallel to each other. Where
Department for approval. possible, the compressor rotation should be in the
same direction whether on electric standby or driven
One other problem that may arise with operation from from the engine.
a variable speed generator is the operation of electrical
contactors, relays, etc. on voltages below or above their In driving a compressor with V-belts, care must be taken
nameplate rating. Field test have shown that the winding to avoid excessive belt tension and belt slap. A means
design and physical construction of electrical compo- for easily adjusting belt tension should be provided. It
nents can cause wide variation in voltage tolerance. may be necessary to provide an idler pulley to dampen
The drop-out voltage of various types of commercially belt movement on long belt drives. Care should be taken
available 220 volt contactors may vary from 145 volts to to mount the compressor so that the compressor shaft
180 volts depending on construction. If it is planned to is parallel with the engine crankshaft.
operate at variable voltage and frequencies, the electrical
components which are to be used should be extensively REFRIGERANT CHARGE
tested at the electrical extremes in cooperation with the
manufacturer to insure proper operation. Refrigerant R-12 is used in most transport systems at
the present time, but R-502 is well suited for low tem-
COMPRESSOR OPERATING POSITION perature applications, and its use is increasing. Since
R-502 creates a greater power requirement for a given
Occasionally compressor failures will occur due to loss compressor displacement than R-12, the motor-com-
of lubrication caused by parking the truck on too steep pressor must be properly selected for the refrigerant to
a slope. The resulting tilt of the compressor may cause be used. Different expansion valves are required for
the oil level to fall below the pick-up point of the oil each refrigerant, so the refrigerants are not interchange-
flinger or oil pump. able in a given system and should never be mixed.
Receivers for R-502 require higher maximum working
Operation of the unit while the truck is parked on steep pressures than those used with R-12, so normally it is
inclines should be avoided. If this is unavoidable, then not feasible to attempt to convert an existing R-12 unit
consideration should be given to mounting the compres- for the use of R-502.
sor so that oil will tend to flow to the oil pick-up point.
Since this will vary on different model compressors, and The refrigerant charge should be held to the minimum
the individual parking arrangement will affect the direc- required for satisfactory operation. An abnormally high
tion of the compressor pitch, each application must be refrigerant charge will create potential problems of liquid
considered individually. refrigerant migration, oil slugging, and loss of compres-
sor lubrication due to bearing washout or excessive
In severe cases, consult with the compressor refrigerant foaming in the crankcase.
Systems should be charged with the minimum amount
COMPRESSOR DRIVE of refrigerant necessary to insure a liquid seal ahead of
the expansion valve at normal operating temperatures.
Direct drive form an engine, either gasoline or diesel, to For an accurate indication of refrigerant charge, a sight
a compressor requires very careful attention to the cou- glass is recommended at the expansion valve inlet, and
pling design. Alignment between the engine drive shaft a combination sight glass and moisture indicator is es-
and the compressor crankshaft is critical both in parallel sential for easy field maintenance checking. It should
and angular planes. Even slight angular misalignment be born in mind that bubbles in the refrigerant sight
can cause repetitive compressor crankshaft breakage. glass can be caused by pressure drop or restrictions in
Because of the sharp impulses from the engine firing, the liquid line, as well as inadequate liquid subcooling.
a flexible coupling giving some resiliency is required. Manufacturer’s published nominal working charge data
The coupling should be capable of compensating for should be used only as a general guide, since each
slight parallel or angular misalignment and should also installation will vary in its charge requirements.
allow some slight endplay movement of the crankshafts.
Nylon splines, neoprene bushings, and flexible disc type REFRIGERANT MIGRATION
couplings have all been used successfully.
Refrigerant migration is a constant problem on transport
For a compressor driven from a power take-off by means units because of the varying temperatures to which the
of a shaft and two universal joints, the crosses in the different parts of the system are exposed. On eutectic

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

20-2 All rights reserved.
plate applications, liquid refrigerant will be driven from proved manual reset type oil pressure safety control with
the condensing unit to the plates during the day’s opera- a time delay of 120 seconds be used on all Copelametic®
tion, with the threat of floodback on start-up. On both compressors having an oil pump. The control operates on
plate and blower units not in operation, the body and the differential between oil pump pressure and crankcase
evaporator immediately after operation will be colder than pressure, and the time delay serves to avoid shut down
the condensing unit, causing migration to the evapora- during short fluctuations in oil pressure during start-up. A
tor. During daytime hours the body and evaporator will non-adjustable control is strongly recommended, but if
warm up, and because of body insulation will remain an adjustable type control is used, it must be set to cut
much warmer than the compressor during the night out at a net differential pressure of 9 psig. Oil pressure
hours when the ambient temperature falls, resulting in safety controls are available with alarm circuits which
a pressure differential sufficient to drive the refrigerant are energized should the oil pressure safety control
to the compressor crankcase. open the compressor control circuit.

Excessive refrigerant in the compressor crankcase on OIL SEPARATORS

start-up can cause slugging, bearing washout, and loss
of oil from the crankcase due to foaming. Dilution of oil Proper refrigerant velocities and good system design
with excessive refrigerant results in a drastic reduction are the only cure for oil trapping problems. Oil separa-
of the lubricating ability of the oil. Adequate protective tors are vulnerable to damage from float valve vibration,
measures must be taken to keep migration difficulties at and for that reason are not commonly used on transport
a minimum. Consideration should be given to keeping units. Oil separators are not normally recommended for
the refrigerant charge as low as possible, using a pump over-the-road use on trailers, but they have been used
down cycle, use of a suction accumulator, and the use successfully in some city operations on ice cream truck
of a liquid line solenoid valve. applications.

OIL CHARGE The oil separator traps a major part of the oil leaving the
compressor, and since the oil is returned directly to the
Compressors leaving the factory are charged crankcase by means of a float valve, oil circulation in
with naphthenic 150 viscosity refrigeration oil. A the system is minimized. On low temperature systems,
complete list of acceptable refrigerants and oils is oil separators may be of value in holding the amount of
available on form #93-11. The naphthenic oil has oil in circulation to a level which can be adequately re-
definite advantages over paraffinic oils because of turned to the compressor by the refrigerant in the system.
less tendency to separate from the refrigerant at However, on systems where piping design encourages
reduced temperatures. oil logging in the evaporator circuit, an oil separator may
only serve to delay lubrication difficulties.
Compressors are shipped with a generous supply of oil.
However, the system may require additional oil depend- The oil separator should be insulated to prevent refriger-
ing on the refrigerant charge and system design. After the ant condensation and return of liquid to the compressor
unit stabilizes at its normal operating conditions on the crankcase. A convenient means of returning oil to the
initial run-in, additional oil should be added if necessary compressor, and still providing maximum protection
to maintain the oil level at the ¾ full level of the sight against liquid return is to connect the oil return line to
glass in the compressor crankcase. The high oil level the suction line just before the suction accumulator.
will provide a reserve for periods of erratic oil return.
In order to limit the load on the compressor, a crankcase
A major percentage of all compressor failures are pressure regulating valve may be necessary. During
caused by lack of proper lubrication. Only rarely is the periods when the valve is throttling, it acts as a restrictor,
lack of lubrication actually due to a shortage of oil in and on start-up or during a hot gas defrost cycle, it acts
the system or failure of the oiling system. More often as an expansion valve in the line. The preferred location
the source of the lubrication failure may be refrigerant for the CPR valve is ahead of the suction line accumula-
floodback, oil trapping in the coils, or excessive slug- tor. The accumulator will trap liquid refrigerant feeding
ging on start up. back and allow it to boil off or feed the compressor at a
metered rate to avoid compressor damage. However,
To prevent failures from all these causes, the Emerson location of the accumulator ahead of the CPR valve is
Climate Technologies, Inc. warranty requires that an ap- acceptable if the accumulator has adequate capacity to

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-3
prevent liquid floodback to the compressor. RECEIVER

The CPR valve should be sized for a minimum pres- Because of field installation and repair, all units should
sure drop to avoid loss of capacity, and should never be equipped either with a receiver or an adequately
be set above the published operating range of the sized condenser so that the refrigerant charge is not
compressor. critical. Valves should be provided so that the system
can be pumped down. A positive liquid level indicator
CONDENSER on the receiver will aid in preventing over-charging, and
high and low test cocks have been used satisfactorily
Condenser construction must be rigid and rugged, for this purpose. The size of the receiver should be held
and the fin surface should be treated for corrosion to the minimum required for safe pump down.
resistance unless the metal is corrosion resistant. The
area in which the condenser is mounted affects its It is recommended that a charging valve be provided in
design. Condensers mounted on the skirt of a truck or the liquid line. While not essential, it is a fact that most
beneath a trailer receive a great deal of road splash, servicemen will charge liquid rather than vapor into a
while those mounted high on the nose of a truck or trailer system, and a charging valve makes this possible without
are in somewhat cleaner atmosphere. If the condenser damage to the compressor.
is mounted beneath a trailer facing in the direction of
travel, a mud guard should be provided. The type of tube On units in operation over-the-road, powered either from
and fin construction affects the allowable fin spacing, the truck engine or a separate engine power source, the
but in general, fin spacing of no more than 8 fins to the receiver may be subjected to temperatures higher than
inch is recommended, although some manufacturers are the condensing temperature because of the heat given
now using fin spacing as high as 10 and 12 per inch. off by the engine. This can result in abnormally high
condensing pressures because of liquid refrigerant being
Since the unit will operate for extended periods when forced back into the condenser, excessive refrigerant
the vehicle is parked, ram air from the movement of the charge requirements, and flashing of liquid refrigerant
vehicle cannot be considered in designing for adequate in the liquid line. If excessive heating of the receiver can
air flow, but the condenser fan should be located so that occur, provisions should be made for ventilation of the
the ram air affect aids rather than opposes condenser receiver compartment with ambient air, or the receiver
air flow. It also should be born in mind that often many should be insulated.
trucks or trailers will be operating side by side at a load-
ing dock, and the air flow pattern should be such that PURGING AIR IN A SYSTEM
one unit will not discharge hot air directly into the intake
of the unit on the next vehicle. Occasionally due to improper installation or maintenance
procedures, a unit will not be completely evacuated,
Since the space available for condenser face area is or air will be allowed to enter the system after evacu-
limited in transport refrigeration applications, the con- ation. The noncondensable gases will exert their own
denser tube circuiting should be designed for maximum pressures in addition to refrigerant pressure, and will
efficiency. result in head pressures considerably above the normal
condensing pressure.
Low head pressure during cold weather can result in
lubrication failure of compressors. With trucks operating Aside from the loss of capacity resulting from the higher
or parked outside or in unheated garages in the winter head pressure, the presence of air in the system will
months, this condition can frequently occur. A decreased greatly increase the rate of corrosion and can lead to
pressure differential across the expansion valve will possible carbon formation, copper plating, and/or mo-
reduce the refrigerant flow, resulting in decreased tor failure.
refrigerant velocity and lower evaporator pressures,
permitting oil to trap in the evaporator. Frequently the If it is discovered that air has been allowed to contami-
feed will be decreased to the point that short-cycling nate the system, the refrigerant should be removed, and
of the compressor results. The use of a reverse acting the entire unit completely evacuated with an efficient
pressure control for cycling the condenser fan, or some vacuum pump.
other type of pressure stabilizing device to maintain
reasonable head pressure is highly recommended. LIQUID LINE FILTER-DRIER

On all transport refrigeration systems, because of the

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

20-4 All rights reserved.
uncertainties of installation and service, a liquid line accumulator usually should be a minimum of 50% of
filter-drier is essential. It is recommended that the filter- the system charge, but the required size will vary with
drier be oversized by at least 50% for the refrigerant system design. Tests are recommended during the de-
charge because of the many opportunities during field sign phase of any new unit to determine the minimum
maintenance for moisture to enter the system. It should capacity for proper compressor protection.
have flare connections for easy replacement.
An external source of heat is desirable to accelerate
HEAT EXCHANGER the boiling of the liquid refrigerant in the accumulator so
that it may return to the compressor as gas. Mounting
A heat exchanger should be considered mandatory on in the condenser air stream or near the compressor will
all units. It improves the performance, insures liquid normally be satisfactory.
refrigerant at the expansion valve, and helps assure the
return of dry gas. Normally it should be located inside CRANKCASE HEATERS
the refrigerated space to avoid loss of capacity, but it
can be located externally if insulated. Because of the interruptible power source inherent in
transport refrigeration, it is difficult to insure continuous
LIQUID LINE SOLENOID VALVE operation of the heaters. A continuous drain on the truck
battery would not be acceptable.
When, because of the design of the system, the refrig-
erant charge cannot be held to a level which can be Crankcase heaters will help when connected to a continu-
safely handled by the compressor should refrigerant ous power source, but cannot be relied on for complete
migration occur, a normally closed liquid line solenoid protection against damage from liquid migration.
may be required. On 3 HP systems with refrigerant
charges exceeding 15 pounds, and on 5 HP systems PUMPDOWN CYCLE
with refrigerant charges exceeding 20 pounds, a liquid
line solenoid is recommended, and some manufactur- A pumpdown cycle is the best means of protecting the
ers make liquid line solenoids mandatory on all units 1 compressor from refrigerant damage, particularly if an
½ HP and larger. excessively large charge cannot be avoided. As in the
case of crankcase heaters, the fact that power may
The valve should be wired in parallel with the compres- not always be available makes a pumpdown system
sor so that it will be closed when the system is not in unreliable. It is quite possible that the power to the unit
operation. It should be installed between the receiver might be shut off at any moment with the unit in opera-
and the expansion valve, and should have a filter-drier tion and refrigerant in the coils. If pumpdown control is
or strainer mounted just upstream from it in the liquid used, special operating precautions should be taken to
line. A soft-seated valve, of non-stick coating or similar insure complete pumpdown before the electric power
material, is preferred for better control during over-the- is disconnected.
road operation.
Air velocities across the coil should not exceed 500-600
A suction line accumulator is considered mandatory FPM in order to avoid blowing water from the coil onto
on all systems 2 HP and larger in size, and is recom- the load. Care should be taken to insure even air distri-
mended for all units. The purpose of the accumulator bution across the coil, since uneven airflow can cause
is to intercept any liquid refrigerant which might flood uneven loading of the refrigerant circuits. Fin spacing
through the system before it reaches the compressor, exceeding 6 per inch is not recommended because of
particularly on start-up or on hot gas defrost cycles. the rapid build-up of frost on the fins. However, some
Because crankcase heaters or a pumpdown cycle are users and manufacturers recommend spacing as low
not always operative on transport units, the accumula- as 3 or 4 fins per inch, while others report satisfactory
tor is the best protection that can be provided for the experience with spacings as high as 8 per inch provided
compressor. proper defrost controls are used.

Provisions for positive oil return to the crankcase must Delivered air velocity should be adequate to insure
be provided, but a direct gravity flow is not acceptable good air circulation in the vehicle. Noise level is not a
since this would allow liquid refrigerant to drain to the design limitation in a van, so velocities up to 1,500 FPM
crankcase during shutdown periods. Capacity of the or higher can be used.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-5
Internal volume of the refrigerant tubes should be kept Therefore, the valve operation and the amount of su-
to a minimum to keep the refrigerant volume as low as perheat may be materially affected by changes of head
possible. Since pressure drop at low temperatures is pressure caused by changes in the ambient temperature.
critical so far as capacity is concerned, multiple refriger- Some means of stabilizing head pressure is desirable
ant circuits with fairly short runs are preferred. Pressure to provide a uniform expansion valve feed.
drop in the evaporator should be no more than 1 to 2
psig. At the same time, it is essential that velocities of DEFROST SYSTEMS
refrigerant in the evaporator be high enough to avoid oil
trapping. 5/8” evaporator tubes are acceptable, but ½” are A defrost system, either electrical, reverse cycle, or
preferred, and 3/8” tubing has been used successfully. hot gas, is essential for satisfactory operation of any
Vertical headers should have a bottom outlet to allow low temperature transport unit equipped with forced air
gravity oil draining. evaporators. If trucks are to be used as weekend stor-
age containers at temperatures close to 32°F., return air
An evaporator face guard should be provided to protect as a defrosting medium may result in load temperature
the fins and tubing from cargo damage. Ample air inlet fluctuations.
area should be provided, with access from both sides
and the bottom if possible, to prevent blocking of air to An electrical defrost system is feasible when the unit is
the evaporator by cargo stacked in the vehicle. operating from an engine generator set or from a station-
ary electrical supply. The reverse cycle defrost using a
THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVES four-way valve is exceedingly fast and effective, but may
be sensitive to any foreign material in the system. Hot
Because of the wide range of load conditions and the gas defrost using the heat of compression is effective
premium on pulldown time in the transport field, it has only if some means of maintaining head pressure on
been common practice for some manufacturers to the compressor is available, or if refrigerant condensing
oversize expansion valves used on transport units, in the evaporator can be re-evaporated. Partial flooding
particularly on units equipped with blower evaporator of the condenser has been used, but this results in car-
coils. If the expansion valve is oversized too greatly, rying a very large charge of refrigerant in the system.
surging of the refrigerant feed will result with possible Some proprietary systems using heat from the engine
floodback and erratic operation. If this occurs, a smaller cooling water or heat from the engine exhaust have
valve must be used. been used with success.

A liquid charged type valve is essential to retain control, Drain pan heaters are required on low temperature instal-
since the head may frequently be colder than the sens- lations to prevent the build up of ice in the drain pan. To
ing bulb. Vapor charged expansion valves should not prevent the defrost heat from entering the cargo space,
be used on transport refrigeration systems. the evaporator fan should be stopped during defrost, or
a damper installed in the air outlet.
Valve superheat should be preset by the valve manu-
facturer and field adjustment should be discouraged. Automatic start of the defrost cycle is recommended to
However, valves in need of adjustment should be set avoid excessive accumulation of frost on the evaporator,
to provide 5°F. to 10°F. superheat at the evaporator. and automatic termination should be provided to avoid
Too high a superheat setting will result in starving the returning overheated gas to the compressor. Since vibra-
evaporator and poor oil return. Too low a superheat set- tion will cause maintenance problems on time clocks, a
ting will permit liquid floodback to the compressor. control responsive to fan air pressure is frequently used
for defrost initiation, and a temperature responsive con-
Pressure limiting type valves are sometimes used to trol for defrost termination. Another method of automatic
limit the compressor load according to the allowable defrost control that has been used satisfactorily is a two
suction pressure. Since oil return to the compressor is element control sensing return air and coil tempera-
extremely slow during the pulldown period due to the tures, and operating on the differential between the two
throttling action of this type of valve, MOP valves are temperatures.
generally not recommended for transport applications,
and a crankcase pressure regulating valve is recom- A suction accumulator is considered mandatory with any
mended if the compressor load must be limited. system using a hot gas or reverse cycle defrost system.
The use of steam or hot water for cleaning or defrost
It should be born in mind that the pressure across the
valve affects its maximum capacity and its rate of feed.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

20-6 All rights reserved.
purposes should be avoided unless a suction accumula- The following table may be used as a guide in deter-
tor of adequate size is used to intercept the liquid driven mining the minimum eutectic plate surface that must be
out of the plates or evaporator by the heat. connected to one expansion valve to insure velocities
sufficient to return oil to the compressor. The recommen-
THERMOSTAT dations are based on refrigerant evaporating tempera-
tures 15°F. below the plate eutectic temperature, place
If the unit is controlled by a thermostat, a snap action manufacturers’ catalog data and recommendations,
type is essential to prevent chattering of the contacts. It and a leaving gas velocity of 1,500 FPM. For easy field
is recommended that enclosed type switches be sealed calculation, the eutectic plate surface shown is for one
against moisture. A calibrated adjustment with a set tem- side of the plate only, e.g. a 24” x 60” plate would have
perature indicator is highly desirable. The construction 10 square feet of surface.
of the control should be such that it will withstand road
shock and vibration. A liquid charged sensing bulb is Recommended Plate Surface
desirable for fast response and accuracy of control. For Each Expansion Valve Circuit

HIGH-LOW PRESSURE CONTROL Low Temperature Medium Temperature

Tubing Plates Below Plates Above
A combination high and low pressure control is recom- Diameter 0°F. Eutectic 0°F. Eutectic
mended for all systems. If a thermostat is used for unit
control, and a pumpdown system is not used, a low pres- Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
sure control of the manual reset type should be wired in
series with the thermostat to serve as a safety cut-off in 5/8” O.D. 12 sq. ft. 32 sq. ft. 15 sq. ft. 32 sq. ft.
the event of loss of refrigerant charge or other abnormal
conditions resulting in low suction pressures. 3/4” O.D. 17 sq. ft. 40 sq. ft. 22 sq. ft. 40 sq. ft.

When used for low temperature unit operational control, 7/8” O.D. 35 sq. ft. 50 sq. ft. 40 sq. ft. 50 sq. ft.
the low pressure control should be provided with a low
differential for accurate control. For accuracy, refrigera-
tion gauges must be used in setting cut-in and cut-out Basically the circuiting and valving of a truck plate
points, since the indicator on the face of the control is system should be designed so that velocities in each
not sufficiently accurate for control purposes. refrigeration circuit will be above a given minimum (for
adequate oil return) and below a given maximum (for a
Motor-compressors with single phase motors having pressure drop that does not cause excessive capacity
inherent protection, 2 HP and smaller, can be operated penalty). It is recommended that circuits approaching
directly on a pressure control, but larger HP compres- the maximum should be used whenever possible.
sors usually require a contactor since oil pressure safety
controls require a pilot circuit, as they cannot carry the For example, if in a given truck for low temperature
running current. use, plates with below 0°F. eutectic solution were used,
circuits might be selected as follows:
Eutectic plate applications are subject to both oil logging 2 - 24” x 120” plates @ 20 sq. ft. each
in the evaporator and liquid floodback to the compressor 2 - 24” x 60” plates @ 10 sq. ft. each
on start-up unless care is taken in system layout and 1 - 30” x 60” plate @ 12.5 sq. ft.
installation. Since either of these conditions can result
in compressor failure, adequate steps must be taken 5/8” O.D. Tubing
to protect the compressor.
In order to avoid trapping oil, high refrigerant velocity A 1 - 24” x 120” plate 20 sq. ft.
must be maintained through the evaporator tubing. Since
the velocity is dependent on the volume of refrigerant B 1 - 24” x 120” plate 20 sq. ft.
in circulation, plates should be connected in series as
required to provide an adequate refrigeration load for C-Series (1 - 30” x 60” plate 12.5 sq. ft.
each expansion valve circuit. ( 2 - 24” x 60” plates 20 sq. ft.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-7
3/4” O.D. Tubing for this superheating function would be required, and
the effective refrigeration area would be increased. The
Circuit use of one expansion valve on multiple plates results
A-Series ( 1 - 30” x 60” plate 12.5 sq. ft. in a much higher velocity, and as a result the scrubbing
( 2 - 24” x 60” plates 20 sq. ft. action of the refrigerant on the walls of the tube causes a
much higher rate of heat transfer. Our experience would
B-Series 2 - 24” x 120” plates 40 sq. ft. indicate, particularly at low evaporating temperatures,
that very possibly multiple plates operating on one
7/8” O.D. Tubing expansion valve will have more capacity and a better
pulldown than the same plates operating with individual
Circuit expansion valves.

A-Series ( 1 - 30” x 60” plate 12.5 sq. ft. A similar misconception is that the use of larger O.D.
( 2 - 24” x 60” plates 20 sq. ft. tubing in plates will result in a lower pressure drop and
therefore increase capacity. As in the case of expan-
B-Series 2 - 24” x 120” plates 40 sq. ft. sion valves, the use of smaller tubing, although possibly
resulting in a slightly higher pressure drop, will greatly
Normally the eutectic plates are selected by the system increase refrigerant velocity, increase the heat transfer
designer for the particular truck and application require- rate as a result, and again our experience indicates on
ment. In order to keep the refrigerant charge within ac- low temperature plates that capacity may actually be
ceptable limits, it is important that both the total number increased because of the smaller tubing. The smaller tub-
of plates and the plate internal refrigerant volume be ing requires a smaller refrigerant charge, and therefore
kept to a absolute minimum required to accomplish the also decreases the problem of refrigerant migration.
desired refrigeration.
Expansion valves on plate circuits should be no larger
Because of the large refrigerant charge required for than 1 ton size, and ½ ton valves will give better control
plates, and the variable nature of the load imposed on the on smaller circuits in the medium temperature range. The
compressor, plate circuits are subject to extreme varia- piping and thermal sensing bulbs should be located so
tions in refrigerant velocity. It has been our experience that each valve operates independently and is not influ-
that proper velocities are of much greater importance enced by the return line controlled by another valve.
than low pressure drop in determining the heat transfer
rate between the refrigerant and the eutectic solution. Field experience indicates that due to the throttling action
Many users, following normal commercial refrigeration of an MOP valve after shut-down or defrost periods, oil
practice where it is assumed that refrigerant charges may not be returned to the crankcase at a fast enough
are low and velocities are consistently high, have placed rate to maintain compressor lubrication in the event oil
an undue importance on low pressure drop in selecting is lost from the compressor on start-up due to liquid re-
and circuiting plates, and as a result have unknowingly frigerant foaming in the crankcase. Therefore, pressure
created lubrication problems in their systems while gain- limiting type expansion valves are not recommended
ing little or nothing in capacity performance. In many for plate circuits.
instances capacity has actually been reduced due to
loss of proper refrigerant control. Because of the amount of oil trapped in the plates dur-
ing operation, additional oil normally must be added
A common misconception is that the use of separate to the compressor during the initial pulldown cycle, or
expansion valves on each plate will give increased ca- after the unit reaches its normal operating conditions.
pacity and more rapid pulldown. This is not necessarily Sufficient oil should be added to maintain the oil level
so. The use of more expansion valves will result in a at approximately the ¾ full level of the compressor oil
lower pressure drop through the refrigerant circuit which sight glass.
might aid capacity slightly, but in most cases the resulting
improper control actually decreases capacity. As the eutectic solution becomes frozen, the boiling
action of the refrigerant slows, and a higher percentage
On two plates, for example, the use of two expansion of liquid refrigerant lies in the bottom of the evapora-
valves would result in two sections of tubing being used tor tubing. When the unit cycles off, or the power is
as drier area in order to obtain the necessary superheat disconnected, the plates may be partially filled with
for proper operation of the expansion valves. If only one liquid refrigerant and oil. At some later time when the
expansion valve were used, only one length of tubing compressor is again started, the liquid will flood back
to the compressor.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

20-8 All rights reserved.
To protect against liquid floodback, a suction accumu- and from -25°F. to -50°F. the reduction in capacity may
lator is mandatory on units of 2 HP and larger, and is be as high as 75%. As a result, there may no longer be
recommended on all transport units. If a crankcase adequate refrigerant velocity in the evaporator circuit
pressure regulating valve is used, the accumulator to return oil to the crankcase. At such low capacities,
should be located if possible between the CPR valve the expansion valve may no longer be able to properly
and the compressor in order to provide the maximum control the liquid refrigerant feed.
Repeated extended periods of operation below the
A liquid line solenoid valve can be helpful in minimizing operating range of the system are almost certain to
migration from the condenser and receiver to the evapo- result in eventual compressor failure. There is no cure
rator and compressor during periods when the unit is for this situation except adequate education of the user.
not in operation. If the system refrigerant charge is not To provide proper protection for the compressor the low
excessive, a liquid line solenoid may not be required, pressure control should be set to cut out at approximately
but some manufacturers feel they should be mandatory 10°F. below the normal evaporating temperature.
on all plate systems 1 ½ HP in size and larger.
For example, a system equipped with plates containing
All plate applications should be equipped with the follow- -8°F. or -9°F. eutectic solution will normally operate with
ing: a refrigerant evaporating temperature of approximately
-25°F., and the low pressure cut-out should be set at
a. Properly sized expansion valves. the equivalent of -35°F. or 8” of vacuum on R-12 refrig-
erant, and 5 psig on R-502. If the system is controlled
b. A liquid to suction heat exchanger for maximum by a thermostat sensing the truck air temperature, the
efficiency. thermostat should be set no lower than the plate eutectic
c. A liquid line filter-drier.
The user must realize that a compressor’s application
d. A combination sight glass and moisture indicator is limited by the rest of the system. Because of the
for easy maintenance. inherent problems of oil return presented by the shape
and mounting characteristics necessitated in truck ap-
e. An oil pressure safety control on all compressors plications, and the large amounts of tubing which must
having oil pumps. be used in plate construction, the minimum satisfactory
evaporating temperature for both R-12 and R-502 is
f. A reverse acting pressure control to stop the con- approximately -40°F. Low pressure controls on all
denser fan in order to maintain satisfactory compres- plate systems must be set to cut out at or above
sor head pressure during cold weather operation. the equivalent pressure setting; for R-12, 11” of
vacuum, and for R-502, 5 psig.
g. Suction line accumulator (2 HP and larger).
In order to maintain the evaporating temperature within
One of the major problems is low temperature eutectic acceptable limits, it is essential that the combination of
plate applications is the practice of the operator or condensing unit and plates be properly balanced. The
serviceman of reducing the low pressure cut-out below selection of too small a condensing unit may result in a
the operating limits of the refrigeration system, possibly freezing rate that is too slow. But of equal and possibly
to such a low setting that the resulting refrigerant ve- greater importance, the selection of too large a condens-
locities are too low to return oil to the compressor. This ing unit may result in an excessively large temperature
practice has been stimulated by the demand for lower difference between the plate eutectic temperature and
and lower ice cream temperatures, and the serviceman the refrigerant evaporating temperature. This condi-
often fails to realize the hazard he is creating. The in- tion most frequently occurs when a large condensing
creased compression ratio is not a problem in a properly unit is selected in order to achieve a quick pulldown,
designed compressor so long as adequate lubrication or to shorten the time necessary to freeze the eutectic
is maintained. But once the eutectic solution is frozen, solution. Since the minimum satisfactory evaporating
the decrease in evaporator load causes the compres- temperature is approximately -40°F., the condensing
sor suction pressure to drop rapidly, and at extremely unit should be selected so that the normal operating
low suction pressures, compressor capacity falls off evaporating temperature on low temperature plates is
rapidly. From -25°F. to -40°F. the capacity may decrease not below -30°F. to -35°F.
by 50% in the best R-12 low temperature compressor,

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-9
REFRIGERANT PIPING refrigerant may be used in place of metallic vibration
absorbers. Metallic vibration absorbers should have
Normal good piping practice should be followed in joints adequately sealed to prevent condensation from
installing refrigerant lines for split systems. A silver freezing and damaging the joints.
solder alloy should be used for making connections
to the compressor and for long runs of tubbing where Welding is preferable to bolting in fastening structural
vibration may be a problem, and a high temperature members. Sheet metal screws, and other metal fas-
silver solder alloy only must be used on compressor teners not securely held by lock washers or lock nuts
discharge lines. For other connections, 95/5 solder are not dependable. All wiring and piping should be
is acceptable, and makes possible easier field repair. protected with grommets where passing through sheet
50/50 solder should not be used since it does not have metal holes.
sufficient strength for transport usage. Acid core type
solder should not be used. Evaporator and condenser tube sheets, when used for
mounting, should be of solid, one piece construction,
VIBRATION and may require heavier gauge construction than used in
normal commercial practice for strength purposes. Coil
The greatest single hazard of transport refrigeration tube sheets should be manufactured with collars, as raw
usage is damage from vibration and shock. Although edge holes can cut the tubing due to vibration.
shock tests on the nose of trailers have recorded very
high shock levels, the great majority of all failures from ELECTRICAL PRECAUTIONS
this source are due to the cumulative effect of small
vibrations. Any line, capillary tube, or structural member Electrical failures are a common field maintenance prob-
that is subjected to continuous sharp vibration, or that lem due to the wet environment, shock and vibration,
rattles against a neighboring member in operation is and the possibility of improper power from an engine
almost certain to fail within a fairly short period of time. It generator set.
cannot be stressed too strongly that normal commercial
construction of condensing units and evaporators for For the safety of operating and maintenance personnel,
the usual commercial application is not adequate for the electrical system should be grounded to the
over the road usage. frame, and the frame in turn grounded by means of
a chain or metal link to the ground if a generator set
Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. manufactures a is mounted on the vehicle. All components should be
line of condensing units specially designed for transport grounded from one to the other, such as the generator
usage. The frames are ruggedly constructed, and all set to condensing section to evaporator section. Cables
components are mounted to minimize vibration. to remote sources of power should carry an extra
wire for grounding purposes at the supply plug.
When compressors are installed in a system manufac-
turer’s condensing unit, care must be taken to see than At the time of manufacturer, each system should be
the compressor is bolted down firmly. Neoprene or other given a high potential test to insure against electrical
resilient shock mounts may be used, but spring mounting flaws in the wiring. All relays and terminals should be
is not acceptable. Internally spring mounted compres- protected against the weather, and all wiring should be
sors are not suitable for transport applications due to covered with protective loom to guard against abrasion.
the danger of internal damage from severe shocks, and All switches should be of the sealed type, recommended
continuous spring movement. by the manufacturer for use in wet environments. Plug
type line connectors should be of the waterproof type.
Vibration eliminators should be mounted in the com- Electrical cables connecting split units should have a
pressor discharge and suction lines. A very common watertight cable cover, or should be run in conduit. All
fault is the installation of a vibration absorber between wiring should be fastened securely to prevent chafing,
two sections of rigid piping, in which case the vibration and should be clearly identified by wire marking and/or
absorber may be as rigid as the piping. Metal vibration following the color code specified by the National Elec-
eliminators should never be mounted in such a fashion trical Code.
that they are subjected to stress in either compression
or extension. An improperly installed vibration elimina- Adequately sized extension cords, plugs, and recep-
tor can actually cause line failure. Flexible refrigerant tacles must be used to avoid excessive voltage drop.
lines such as Aeroquip, Stratoflex, or Anchor which Voltage at the compressor terminals must be within 10%
are specifically designed for use with the appropriate of the nameplate rating, even under starting conditions.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

20-10 All rights reserved.
Many single phase starting problems on small delivery repaired, and retested to insure that it is ready for
trucks can be traced to the fact that power is supplied evacuation and charging.
to the compressor from household type wiring circuits
through long extension cords, neither of which are sized 8. Use a good high vacuum pump to evacuate the
properly for the electrical load. Single phase open type system and leave the pump on the system for a
motors which are used for belt driving a compressor minimum of 4 hours. Evacuate to less than 1,500
during over-the-road operation must be equipped with microns, and break the vacuum with refrigerant to
a relay to break the capacitor circuit, rather than a 5 psig. Repeat the evacuation process, and break
centrifugal switch. The variable speed operation expe- with refrigerant as before. Evacuate a final time to
rienced during truck operation may cause a centrifugal 500 microns or less and the system is ready for
switch to fail because of excessive wear at low operat- charging.
ing speeds. All start capacitors must be equipped with
bleed resistors to permit the capacitor charge to bleed WARNING: To prevent motor damage do not
off rapidly, preventing arcing and overheating of the use the motor-compressor to evacuate the
relay contacts. system. A motor-compressor should never be
started or operated while the system is under
When units are operated from several power sources, a deep vacuum, or serious damage may result
be sure all plugs and receptacles are wired in the because of the reduced dielectric strength of
same sequence, so that the compressor rotation the atmosphere within the motor chamber.
will not be reversed.
9. Charge the unit with refrigerant, either vapor through
INSTALLATION the suction valve, or preferably liquid through a liquid
line charging valve if provided. The compressor
A large number of field failures that now occur could must never be charged with liquid refrigerant
be prevented by proper installation practice. To assure through the suction side.
trouble free operation, every effort should be made to
carry out the following minimum procedures. 10. If using an engine-generator as a power source,
start the engine and check the generator output
1. Read the manufacturer’s instructions. voltage to be sure it is correct.

2. Be sure that structural or reinforced members are 11. Check the voltage at the compressor terminals, start
provided to mount the units. the unit, check the amperage draw of the compres-
sor, and the rotation of the fans to be sure the unit
3. Thoroughly clean all copper lines before assembling. is phased properly.
Do not use steel wool for cleaning since the metal
slivers may cause electrical problems in the com- 12. Observe the discharge and suction pressures. If an
pressor. If the tubing is not precleaned and capped, abnormal pressure develops, stop the unit immedi-
pull a rag saturated with refrigerant oil through the ately and check to see what is causing the difficulty.
tube and blow out with nitrogen prior to connecting Take corrective action if required.
lines to the evaporator and condenser.
13. Observe the refrigerant oil level and check the oil
4. Use only a suitable silver solder alloy or 95/5 solder pressure, if the compressor is equipped with a posi-
in making soldered joints. tive displacement oil pump. If the oil level becomes
dangerously low during the pulldown period, add oil
5. When brazing lines, circulate inert gas such as dry to the compressor. After the unit reaches normal
nitrogen through the line to prevent oxidation. operating conditions, add oil if necessary to bring the
level to a point ¾ full in the crankcase sight glass.
6. Install piping in the wall or floor of the vehicle, or
provide an adequate guard. 14. Check all manual and automatic controls.

7. After the lines are installed, pressurize to 150 psig, 15. After a minimum of two hours of operation, make
and leak test. The use of an electronic leak detector another leak test.
is recommended for greater sensitivity. As a final
check, the system should be sealed for 12 hours 16. After the unit has reached the proper operating
after pulling a deep vacuum. If the vacuum will not conditions, and all controls have been checked,
hold, the system should be rechecked for leaks, run the unit overnight on automatic control to be

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-11
sure operation is satisfactory. Check oil level in the 4. Liquid Line Solenoid Valve
compressor, and add oil if necessary.
If excessive refrigerant migration to eutectic plates
17. When unit is delivered to the customer, be sure that is occurring during over-the-road operation, a liquid
operating personnel have proper written instruc- line solenoid valve may be required to properly
tions on operating and maintenance procedures. control large refrigerant charges.
The responsible sales personnel should verbally
explain the operation of the unit to the user, and 5. Suction Line Accumulator
wiring diagrams and operating instructions should be
permanently carried on the vehicle, either by means A suction line accumulator is the best protection that
of a decal or in an envelope properly protected form can be provided to guard against liquid floodback.
loss or damage. It should be mandatory on all truck applications
2 HP and larger. For maximum efficiency, it should
FIELD TROUBLESHOOTING ON TRANSPORT be installed close to the compressor, and if a CPR
UNITS valve is used, between the compressor and the
CPR valve. The accumulator must have provisions
The great majority of all low temperature compressor for positive oil return.
failures in transport refrigeration can be traced to lubrica-
tion problems. No compressor can operate satisfactorily 6. Head Pressure Control
unless oil logging and liquid floodback can either be
prevented or safely controlled by safeguard devices in In winter operation, head pressures may drop so
the refrigeration system. low that inadequate feeding of the expansion valve
may result, and the evaporator may be starved. A
The following check-off list covers possible corrective reverse acting high pressure control should be used
action on units experiencing field difficulties. For a more to cycle the condenser fan if head pressure drop
detailed discussion of each item, refer to the appropri- below 80 psig on R-12 operation, or 125 psig on
ate section in this manual. The need for any particular R-502 operation, unless other acceptable means
modification would of course depend on the individual of controlling head pressure are provided.
7. Oil Level in Crankcase
1. Eutectic plate circuiting for high refrigerant
velocity When the compressors without oil pumps are
used on truck applications, the oil level should
It is essential for proper oil return to the compressor be maintained high in the compressor sight
that high refrigerant velocities be maintained through glass to assure a reserve of lubricating oil for
the evaporator circuits. For a rough rule of thumb periods of erratic oil return. The user should be
on plates with 7/8” or ¾” O.D. tubing, there should warned that the compressor may not be getting
be no less than 3 small or 2 large plates in series adequate lubrication if the oil level drops below
on one expansion valve. On plates with 5/8” O.D. the bottom of the sight glass. Only a naphthenic
tubing, there should be no less than 2 small or one oil should be used which has a viscosity of 150,
large plate on one expansion valve. a pour point of -35°F. and a floc point of -70°F.
This oil has proven satisfactory for all low tem-
2. Expansion valves on eutectic plates perature applications.

Expansion valves should be no larger than 1 ton 8. Oil Pressure Safety Control
capacity in size, liquid or cross charged, and inter-
nally equalized. On all compressors having positive displacement
type oil pumps, an oil pressure safety control is
3. Refrigerant Charge required.

The refrigerant charge must be held to a minimum 9. High Pressure Cut-Out

to avoid refrigerant migration problems. Use a sight
glass to check for a liquid seal at the expansion Several manufacturers have produced units with
valve at low temperature operating conditions. no high pressure control. Failure of the condenser
fan motor may result in excessive head pressures,

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

20-12 All rights reserved.
and subsequent compressor failure. A high pressure the compressor can operate under such conditions,
control is essential. the compressor pays the penalty. The user must
realize that a compressor’s application is limited
10. Liquid Line Filter-Drier and Heat Exchanger by the rest of the system. Because of the inherent
problems of oil return presented by the shape and
These should be standard on all units. mounting characteristics necessitated in truck ap-
plications, and the large amounts of tubing which
11. Low Pressure Control Setting must be used in plate construction, the minimum
satisfactory evaporating temperature for both R-12
A major educational effort is required to point out to and R-502 is approximately -40°F. Low pressure
the user the dangers of by-passing the low pressure controls on transport systems must be set to
cut-out, or setting it at dangerously low levels. cut out at or above 11” of vacuum on R-12, and
5 psig on R-502.
When eutectic plates are completely frozen, the
compressor suction pressure falls very rapidly, with 12. Location of Truck while System is Operating
a consequent sharp drop in compressor capacity,
and resulting lubrication difficulties, since velocity Trucks must be parked on a reasonably level surface
in the plates may no longer be sufficient to return while the refrigeration unit is in operation. Short pe-
oil to the compressor. Users, particularly ice cream riods of operation on an incline such as experienced
distributors, frequently try to reduce the van body in over-the-road operation are not a problem, but
temperature to the lowest temperature possible as long periods of operation while the truck is parked
an added safety factor for the day’s operation. on a steep incline or on the side of a hill may rob
the compressor of lubrication if the oil level flows
Since the system is normally not designed for the away from the pick up point of the oil flinger or oil
extremely low evaporating temperatures at which pump.

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 20-13
Section 21

On many refrigeration and air conditioning systems, EXTERNAL CAPACITY CONTROL VALVES
the refrigeration load will vary over a wide range. This
many be due to differences in product load, ambient For Copeland® brand three cylinder compressors, a
temperature, usage, occupancy, or other factors. In solenoid operated external bypass valve is used for
such cases compressor capacity control is a necessity unloading, as shown in Figure 101.
for satisfactory system performance.
Copelametic® compressors with external capacity con-
The simplest form of capacity control is “on-off” opera- trol have a bypass valve so arranged that the unloaded
tion of the compressor. This works acceptably with small cylinder is isolated from the discharge pressure created
compressors, but for larger compressors, it is seldom by the unloaded cylinders. The bypass valve connects
satisfactory, because of fluctuations in the controlled the discharge ports of the unloaded cylinder to the com-
temperature. Under light load conditions it can result in pressor suction chamber. Since the piston and cylinder
compressor short cycling. On refrigeration applications do not work other than pumping vapor through the by-
where ice formation is not a problem, users frequently pass circuit, and handle only suction vapor, the problem
reduce the low pressure cut-out setting to a point beyond of cylinder overheating while unloaded is practically
the design limits of the system in order to prevent short eliminated. At the same time, the power consumption
cycling. As a result, the compressor may operate for of the compressor motor is greatly reduced because of
long periods at extremely low evaporating temperatures. the reduction in work performed.
Both of these conditions can cause compressor damage
and ultimate failure. Because of the decreased volume of suction vapor
returning to the compressor from the system and avail-
Two different types of unloading are used on Copeland® able for motor cooling, the operating range of unloaded
brand compressors, internal and external. compressors must be restricted. In general, Copeland®
brand compressors with capacity control are recom-
INTERNAL CAPACITY CONTROL VALVES mended only for high temperature applications, but in
some instances they can be satisfactorily applied in the
A schematic illustration of the Copeland® brand internal medium temperature range. Because of the danger of
unloading valve is shown in Figure 101. overheating the compressor motor on low temperature
systems, either cycling the compressor or hot gas bypass
In the normal operating position with the solenoid valve is recommended.
de-energized, the needle valve is seated on the lower
port, and the unloading plunger chamber is exposed HOT GAS BYPASS
to suction pressure through the suction pressure port.
Since the face of the plunger is open to the suction Compressor capacity modulation by means of hot gas
chamber, the gas pressures across the plunger are bypass is recommended where normal compressor
equalized, and the plunger is held in the open position cycling or the use of unloaders may not be satisfactory.
by the spring. Basically this is a system of bypassing the condenser with
compressor discharge gas to prevent the compressor
When the solenoid valve is energized, the needle valve suction pressure from falling below a desired setting.
is seated on the upper port, and the unloading plunger
chamber is exposed to discharge pressure through All hot gas bypass valves operate on a similar principle.
the discharge pressure port. The differential between They open in response to a decrease in downstream
discharge and suction pressure forces the plunger pressure, and modulate from fully open to fully closed
down, sealing the suction port in the valve plate, thus over a given range. Introduction of the hot, high pres-
preventing the entrance of suction vapor into the un- sure gas into the low pressure side of the system at a
loaded cylinders. metered rate prevents the compressor from lowering
the suction pressure further.
With the suction port sealed, the cylinder pumps down
into a vacuum until it reaches a point where no pump- The control setting of the valve can be varied over a
ing action occurs. wide range by means of an adjusting screw. Because of
the reduced power consumption at lower suction pres-
sures, the hot gas valve should be adjusted to bypass at
(continued on p. 21-3)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

21-1 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 21-2
the minimum suction pressure within the compressor’s return is aided. Because of these advantages, this type
operating limits which will result in acceptable system of control is the simplest, least costly and most satisfac-
performance. tory bypass system. This type of bypass is illustrated
in Figure 102.
If a refrigeration system is properly designed and in-
stalled, field experience indicates that maintenance BYPASS INTO SUCTION LINE
may be greatly reduced if the compressor operates
continuously within the system’s design limitations as Where multiple evaporators are connected to one
opposed to frequent cycling. Electrical problems are compressor, or where the condensing unit is remote
minimized, compressor lubrication is improved, and from the evaporator it may be necessary to bypass hot
liquid refrigerant migration is avoided. gas into the refrigerant suction line. Suction pressures
can be controlled satisfactorily with this method, but a
Therefore, on systems with multiple evaporators where desuperheating expansion valve is required to meter
the refrigeration load is continuous, but may vary over liquid refrigerant into the suction line in order to keep
a wide range, hot gas bypass may not only provide a the temperature of the refrigerant gas returning to the
convenient means of capacity control, it may also result compressor within allowable limits. It is necessary to
in more satisfactory and more economical operation. thoroughly mix the bypassed hot gas, the liquid refrig-
erant, and the return gas from the evaporator so that
BYPASS INTO EVAPORATOR INLET the mixture entering the compressor is at the correct
temperature. A mixing chamber is recommended for
On single evaporator, close connected systems, it is this purpose, and a suction line accumulator can serve
frequently possible to introduce the hot gas into the as an excellent mixing chamber while at the same time
evaporator inlet immediately after the expansion valve. protecting the compressor from liquid floodback. See
Distributors are available with side openings for hot gas Figure 103 for typical installation.
inlet. Bypassing at the evaporator inlet has the effect
of creating an artificial cooling load. Since the regular Another commonly used method of mixing is to arrange
system thermostatic expansion valve will meter its feed the piping so that a mixture of discharge gas and liquid
as required to maintain its superheat setting, the refriger- refrigerant is introduced into the suction line at some
ant gas returns to the compressor at normal operating distance form the compressor, in a suction header if
temperatures, and no motor heating problem is involved. possible. Figure 104 illustrates this mixing method.
High velocities are maintained in the evaporator, so oil
(continued on p. 21-5)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

21-3 All rights reserved.
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. 21-4
SOLENOID VALVES FOR POSITIVE SHUT-OFF On low temperature applications where hot gas bypass
AND PUMPDOWN CYCLE is used to prevent the compressor suction pressure
from falling below safe operating levels, valves with
In order to allow the system to pumpdown, a solenoid unusually high superheat settings may be required. For
valve must be installed ahead of the hot gas bypass example, suppose a control was desired to prevent a
valve. Since the hot gas valve opens on a decrease of system using R-502 from operating below -35°F. The
downstream pressure, it will be open any time the sys- temperature of the gas returning to the compressor
tem pressure is reduced below its setting. If the system must be prevented from exceeding 65°F. Therefore,
control is such that this solenoid valve is closed during when the desuperheating expansion valve is feeding,
the normal cooling cycle, it may also prevent possible it will sense on one side of its diaphragm, the system
loss of capacity due to leakage. pressure equivalent to -35°F. or 6.7 psig, and in order
to maintain 65°F. return gas, it will require a superheat
A solenoid valve is also recommended ahead of the setting of 65°F. plus 35°F. or 100°F. Expansion valves
desuperheating expansion valve to prevent leakage and with special charges are available from expansion
allow pumpdown. Both of the solenoid valves should be valve manufacturers with superheat settings over ex-
of the normally closed type, and wired so they are de- tremely wide ranges, although these will not normally
energized when the compressor is not operating. be available in a local wholesaler’s stock. Contact the
expansion valve manufacturer’s local representative
DESUPERHEATING EXPANSION VALVE for assistance in selecting valves with nonstandard
superheat settings.
If a desuperheating expansion valve is required, it
should be of adequate size to reduce the temperature TYPICAL MULTIPLE-EVAPORATOR ­
of the discharge gas to the proper level under maximum CONTROL SYSTEM
bypass conditions. The temperature sensing bulb of the
expansion valve must be located so that it can sense the A typical hot gas bypass control system with three
temperature of the gas returning to the compressor after evaporators is illustrated in Figure 103 together with
the introduction of the hot gas and the desuperheating a schematic electric control system for cycling control
liquid. Suction gas entering the compressor should be no of the compressor. The double pole thermostats close
higher than 65°F. under low temperature load conditions, on a demand for refrigeration, and as long as any one
or 90°F. under high temperature load conditions. evaporator is demanding cooling the compressor oper-
ates, and the hot gas bypass valve modulates flow as

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

21-5 All rights reserved.
necessary to prevent the suction pressure from falling event the inherent protector should trip, the hot gas
below a fixed set point. solenoid valve and the liquid line solenoid valve should
be connected through a current sensing relay such as
If all evaporators are satisfied, all of the thermostats are the Penn R-10A, as shown in Figure 105.
open, and all liquid line solenoid valves and the hot gas
solenoid valve are de-energized, and therefore closed. POWER CONSUMPTION WITH HOT GAS BYPASS
The compressor will then cycle off on low pressure
control until a thermostat again closes. Since the power consumption as well as the capacity
of a compressor is reduced with a decrease in com-
In order to protect the compressor against danger from pressor suction pressure, the control system should
liquid flooding in the event of a trip of a compressor safety be such that the system is allowed to reach its lowest
device, provision must be made in the wiring circuit to satisfactory operating suction pressure before hot gas
de-energize the hot gas and the desuperheating liquid is bypassed. Where major reductions in capacity are
line solenoid valves if the compressor is inoperative. required, operating economy may be best achieved by
On a pumpdown system, this can be accomplished by handling the load with two compressors. One can be
means of a solenoid valve control relay as shown in cycled for a 50% reduction in both capacity and power,
Figure 103. while the capacity of the compressor remaining on the
line is modulated by hot gas control.
If continuous compressor operation is desired, single
pole thermostats can be used, and the hot gas and It is not necessarily true that continuous compressor
desuperheating liquid line solenoid valves should be operation with hot gas bypass will result in a higher
connected directly to the load side of the compressor power bill than cycling operation for a given load.
contactor. In the event all three evaporators are satisfied, Almost all utilities make a monthly demand charge
the compressor will operate on 100% hot gas bypass based on peak loads. Since the peak motor demand
until cooling is again required. occurs when locked rotor current is drawn on start-up,
the utility demand charge may reflect motor starting
Compressors equipped with inherent protection can requirements rather than the true running load. With
cycle on the inherent protection can cycle on the inher- continuous operation, once the motors are on the line,
ent protector independently of the contractor. To avoid starting peaks may be eliminated and the reduction in the
flooding the compressor with liquid refrigerant in the demand charge may offset the increased running power

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 21-6
Section 22

One of the major causes of compressor failure is dam- attracted by oil and will vaporize and migrate through
age caused by liquid refrigerant entering the compressor the system to the compressor crankcase even though
crankcase in excessive quantities. Since improper control no pressure difference exists to cause the movement.
of liquid refrigerant can often cause a loss of lubrication On reaching the crankcase the refrigerant will condense
in the compressor, most such compressor failures have into a liquid, and this migration will continue until the
been classified as lubrication failures, and many people oil is saturated with liquid refrigerant. The amount of
fail to realize that the problem actually originates with refrigerant that the oil will attract is primarily dependent
the refrigerant. on pressure and temperature, increasing rapidly as the
pressure increases and approaching a maximum at
A well designed, efficient compressor for refrigeration, saturated pressures and temperatures in the normal
air conditioning and heat pump duty is primarily a va- room temperature range.
por pump designed to handle a reasonable quantity of
liquid refrigerant and oil. To design and build a pump to When the pressure on a saturated mixture of refrigerant
handle more liquid would require a serious compromise and oil is suddenly reduced, as happens in the compres-
in one or more of the following: size, weight, capacity, sor crankcase on start-up, the amount of liquid refrigerant
efficiency, noise, and cost. required to saturate the oil is drastically reduced, and
the remainder of the liquid refrigerant flashes into vapor,
Regardless of design there are limits to the amount of causing violent boiling of the refrigerant and oil mixture.
liquid a compressor can handle, and these limits depend This causes the typical foaming often observed in the
on factors such as internal volume of the crankcase, oil compressor crankcase at start-up, which can drive all of
charge, type of system and controls, and normal operat- the oil out of the crankcase in less than a minute. (Not
ing conditions. Proper control of liquid refrigerant is an all foaming is the result of refrigerant in the crankcase
application problem, and is largely beyond the control - agitation of the oil will also cause some foaming.)
of the compressor manufacturer.
One condition that is somewhat surprising when first
The potential hazard increases with the size of the re- encountered by field personnel is the fact that the intro-
frigerant charge and usually the cause of damage can duction of excessive liquid refrigerant into the compressor
be traced to one or more of the following: crankcase can cause a loss of oil pressure and a trip of
the oil pressure safety control even though the level of
1. Excessive refrigerant charge. the refrigerant and oil mixture may be observed high in
the compressor crankcase sight glass. The high percent-
2. Frosted evaporator. age of liquid refrigerant entering the crankcase not only
reduces the lubricating quality of the oil, but on entering
3. Dirty or plugged evaporator filters. the oil pump intake may flash into vapor, blocking the
entrance of adequate oil to maintain oil pump pressure,
4. Failure of evaporator fan or fan motor. and this condition can continue until the percentage of
refrigerant in the crankcase is reduced to a level which
5. Incorrect capillary tubes. can be tolerated by the oil pump.

6. Incorrect selection or adjustment of expansion Liquid refrigerant problems can take several different
valves. forms, each having its own distinct characteristics.

7. Refrigerant migration. REFRIGERANT MIGRATION

REFRIGERANT - OIL RELATIONSHIP Refrigerant migration is the term used to describe the
accumulation of liquid refrigerant in the compressor
In order to correctly analyze system malfunctions, crankcase during periods when the compressor is
and to determine if a system is properly protected, a not operating. It can occur whenever the compressor
clear understanding of the refrigerant-oil relationship is becomes colder than the evaporator, since a pressure
essential. differential then exists to force refrigerant flow to the
colder area. Although this type of migration is most
One of the basic characteristics of a refrigerant and oil pronounced in colder weather, it can also exist even at
mixture in a sealed system is the fact that refrigerant is relatively high ambient temperatures with remote type
condensing units for air conditioning and heat pump

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

22-1 All rights reserved.
Anytime the system is shut down and is not operative temperature unit. The system design on many units
for several hours, migration to the crankcase can occur allows refrigerant to condense in the evaporator and
regardless of pressure due to the attraction of the oil suction line during the defrost period, and on start-up
for refrigerant. this refrigerant floods back to the compressor crankcase,
causing a loss of oil pressure and recurring trips of the
If excessive liquid refrigerant has migrated to the com- oil pressure safety control.
pressor crankcase, severe liquid slugging may occur on
start-up, and frequently compressor damage such as One trip or a few trips of the oil pressure safety control
broken valves, damaged pistons, bearing failures due may not result in serious damage to the compressor,
to loss of oil from the crankcase, and bearing washout but repeated short periods of operation without proper
(refrigerant washing oil from the bearings) can occur. lubrication are almost certain to result in ultimate com-
pressor failure. Trips of the oil pressure safety control
LIQUID REFRIGERANT FLOODING under such circumstances are frequently viewed by the
serviceman as nuisance trips, but it cannot be stressed
If an expansion valve should malfunction, or in the too strongly that they are warning trips, indicating the
event of an evaporator fan failure or clogged air filters, compressor has been running without oil pressure for 2
liquid refrigerant may flood through the evaporator and minutes, and that prompt remedial action is required.
return through the suction line to the compressor as
liquid rather than vapor. During the running cycle, liquid RECOMMENDED CORRECTIVE ACTION
flooding can cause excessive wear of the moving parts
because of the dilution of the oil, loss of oil pressure The potential hazard to a refrigeration or air conditioning
resulting in trips of the oil pressure safety control, and system is in almost direct proportion to the size of the
loss of oil from the crankcase. During the “off” cycle refrigerant charge. It is difficult to determine the maximum
after running in this condition, migration of refrigerant safe refrigerant charge of any system without actually
to the crankcase can occur rapidly, resulting in liquid testing the system with its compressor and other major
slugging when restarting. components. The compressor manufacturer can deter-
mine the maximum amount of liquid the compressor will
LIQUID REFRIGERANT SLUGGING tolerate in the crankcase without endangering the working
parts, but has no way of knowing how much of the total
Liquid slugging is the term used to describe the passage system charge will actually be in the compressor under
of liquid refrigerant through the compressor suction the most extreme conditions. The maximum amount of
and discharge valves. It is evidenced by a loud metallic liquid a compressor can tolerate depends on its design,
clatter inside the compressor, possibly accompanied by internal volume, and oil charge. Where liquid migration,
extreme vibration of the compressor. flooding, or slugging can occur, corrective action should
be taken, the type normally being dictated by the system
Slugging can result in broken valves, blown head gas- design and the type of liquid problem.
kets, broken connecting rods, broken crankshafts, and
other major compressor damage. 1. Minimize Refrigerant Charge

Slugging frequently occurs on start-up when liquid The best compressor protection against all forms
refrigerant has migrated to the crankcase. On some of liquid refrigerant problems is to keep the charge
units, because of the piping configuration or the loca- within the compressor limits. Even if this is not pos-
tion of components, liquid refrigerant can collect in the sible, the charge should be kept as low as reasonably
suction line or evaporator during the off cycle, returning possible.
to the compressor as solid liquid with extreme velocity Use the smallest practical size tubing in condensers,
on start-up. The velocity and weight of the liquid slug evaporators, and connecting lines. Receivers should
may be of sufficient magnitude to override any internal be as small as possible.
anti-slug protective devices of the compressor.
Charge with the minimum amount of refrigerant re-
TRIPPING OF OIL ­ quired for proper operation. Beware of bubbles showing
PRESSURE SAFETY CONTROL in the sight glass caused by small liquid lines and low
head pressures. This can lead to serious overcharg-
One of the most common field complaints arising from ing.
a liquid flooding condition is that of a trip of the oil
pressure safety control after a defrost period on a low

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 22-2
2. Pumpdown Cycle which has flooded through the system, with a provision
for metered return of the liquid to the compressor at
The most positive and dependable means of properly a rate which the compressor can safely tolerate.
controlling liquid refrigerant, particularly if the charge
is large, is by means of a pumpdown cycle. By clos- Flooding typically can occur on heat pumps at the
ing a liquid line solenoid valve, the refrigerant can time the cycle is switched from cooling to heating, or
be pumped into the condenser and receiver, and the from heating to cooling, and a suction accumulator
compressor operation controlled by means of a low is mandatory on all heat pumps unless otherwise
pressure control. The refrigerant can thus be isolated approved by the Emerson Climate Technologies,
during periods when the compressor is not in opera- Inc. Application Engineering Department.
tion, and migration to the compressor crankcase is
prevented. A recycling type of pumpdown control is Systems utilizing hot gas defrost are also subject to
recommended to provide protection against possible liquid flooding either at the start or termination of the
refrigerant leakage through control devices during hot gas cycle. Compressors on low superheat ap-
the off cycle. With the so-called one time pumpdown, plications such as liquid chillers and low temperature
or non-recycling type of control, sufficient leakage display cases are susceptible to occasional flooding
may occur during long off periods to endanger the from improper refrigerant control. Truck applications
compressor. experience extreme flooding conditions at start up
after long non-operating periods.
Although the pumpdown cycle is the best possible
protection against migration, it will not protect against On two stage compressors the suction vapor is
flooding during operation. returned directly to the low stage cylinders without
passing through the motor chamber, and a suction
3. Crankcase Heaters accumulator should be used to protect the com-
pressor valves from liquid slugging.
On some systems, operating requirements, cost, or
customer preference may make the use of a pump- Since each system will vary with respect to the total
down cycle undesirable, and crankcase heaters are refrigerant charge and the method of refrigerant con-
frequently used to retard migration. trol, the actual need for an accumulator and the size
required is to a large extent dictated by the individual
The function of a crankcase heater is to maintain the system requirement. If flooding can occur, an accumu-
oil in the compressor at a temperature higher than lator must be provided with sufficient capacity to hold
the coldest part of the system. Refrigerant enter- the maximum amount of refrigerant flooding which can
ing the crankcase will then be vaporized and driven occur at any one time, and this can be well over 50%
back into the suction line. However, in order to avoid of the total system charge in some cases. If accurate
overheating and carbonizing of the oil, the wattage test data as to the amount of liquid floodback is not
input of the crankcase heater must be limited, and available, then 50% of the system charge normally
in ambient temperatures approaching 0°F., or when can be used as a conservative design guide.
exposed suction lines and cold winds impose an added
load, the crankcase heater may be overpowered, and 5. Oil Separators
migration can still occur.
Oil separators cannot cure oil return problems caused
Crankcase heaters when used are normally energized by system design, nor can they remedy liquid refrig-
continuously, since its takes several hours to drive the erant control problems. However, in the event that
refrigerant from the crankcase once it has entered and system control problems cannot be remedied by other
condensed in the oil. They are effective in combating means, oil separators may be helpful in reducing the
migration if conditions are not too severe, but they amount of oil circulated through the system, and can
will not protect against liquid floodback. often make possible safe operation through critical
periods until such time as system control can be re-
4. Suction Accumulators turned to normal conditions. For example, on ultra low
temperature applications or on flooded evaporators,
On systems where liquid flooding is apt to occur, a oil return may be dependent on defrost periods, and
suction accumulator should be installed in the suction the oil separator can help to maintain the oil level in
line. Basically the accumulator is a vessel which serves the compressor during the period between defrosts.
as a temporary storage container for liquid refrigerant

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

22-3 All rights reserved.
Section 23

Electrical control circuits may be quite simple or extremely TYPICAL LOCKOUT CONTROL CIRCUIT
complicated, depending on the control requirements of
the particular system. Most wiring diagrams furnished A typical wiring diagram of a compressor control circuit
with refrigeration equipment are of the pictorial type, and with part winding motor start, and a 10 minute lockout
show the wiring as nearly as possible in the manner in circuit in the event of a compressor protector trip is
which it is installed. Normally the different components shown in Figure 106. The pictorial diagram is shown
are shown, together with terminal designations and wire in the upper half of the illustration, while the schematic
colors. The pictorial diagram is essential as a guide to diagram is shown at the bottom.
proper wiring.
In this circuit, which is designed for fully automatic op-
Schematic wiring diagrams are useful in analyzing and eration, fast cycling of the compressor from the opera-
explaining the performance of a control circuit, since tion of the motor protectors is eliminated by the use of
the schematic diagram shows the various parts of the a 10 minute time delay in conjunction with double pole
circuit in a functional manner only, thus reducing the impedance relay.
diagram to its simplest form.
Basically an impedance relay is similar to a normal relay
Both types of diagram may be used to describe the except that the coil has been wound so as to create a
same control circuit.
(continued on p. 23-3)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 23-1
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
23-2 All rights reserved.
high resistance to current passage. If wired in parallel pressor. When the safety device is either manually or
with a circuit having lower resistance, the high imped- automatically reset and the compressor is restarted, the
ance (resistance) of the relay will shunt the current to crankcase will be filled with liquid refrigerant.
the alternate circuit and the impedance relay will be
inoperative. If the alternate circuit is opened and the On larger horsepower compressors, this can be a seri-
current must pass through the impedance relay, the relay ous problem, both because of the potential cost of the
coil is energized and the relay operates. The voltage possible damage to the compressor and the amount of
drop across the impedance relay is so large that other refrigerant involved. Flooding of the compressor under
magnetic coils in series with the relay will not operate non-operative conditions can be prevented by the use
because of the resulting low voltage. of a reverse acting low pressure control as shown in
Figure 107.
In the control circuits shown, the coil of the impedance
relay is connected in parallel with the automatic pro- The liquid line solenoid valve is controlled by the ther-
tectors, and in series with the holding coil of the motor mostat, but to complete the circuit through the solenoid
starter or contactor. In the event of an overload on the valve, the contacts in the reverse acting low pressure
compressor, the stator thermostats or the overload control must be closed. Since the dual pressure control
protectors open, and the control circuit current must completes the compressor contactor circuit when the
pass through the impedance relay coil, energizing the suction pressure reaches 50 psig, the reverse acting
impedance relay. Because of the high impedance of this control will remain closed during normal system opera-
coil, the voltage to the holding coil of the motor starter tion. However, should the compressor contactor circuit
or contactor falls below the voltage required for opera- be broken by any of the safety devices so that the
tion, and the contactor or starter opens, removing the compressor could not start, the reverse acting control
compressor from the line. When the impedance relay will open on a rise in pressure when the evaporator
is energized, a single pole double through 10 minute pressure rises above 90 psig. Opening of the reverse
time delay relay is energized through a set of normally acting control de-energizes the liquid line solenoid valve,
open contacts on the impedance relay. A set of normally and stops the liquid refrigerant feed.
closed contacts on the time delay relay break the control
circuit and prevent a normal circuit being re-established When the compressor is again restored to operation, the
through the automatic protectors while the time delay suction pressure is reduced, the reverse acting control
relay is operative. A set of normally open contacts on again closes, and operation proceeds normally.
the time delay relay close when the relay is energized
to maintain a circuit to the time delay coil. After a 10 The pressure settings shown are tentative settings
minute internal, a cam on the time delay relay trips, for an R-22 air conditioning system, and actual set-
automatically returning the circuit to normal operation. tings must be determined after reviewing the system’s
In the event the stator thermostats have not reset, or the normal operating range. The important factor is that
overload condition again occurs, the circuit will continue the reverse acting low pressure control must be set to
repeating the 10 minute lockout cycle. open well above the setting at which the dual pressure
control closes.

On systems with large refrigerant charges, compressor Short cycling often occurs on air conditioning and re-
damage can occasionally be caused by liquid refrigerant frigeration equipment due to a shortage of refrigerant,
flooding the compressor crankcase should the compres- leaking solenoid valves, incorrect pressure control set-
sor be non-operative due to a trip of a safety device. tings, thermostat chatter, or other causes. Short cycling
This can occur even if the control circuit provides for a causes overheating of the compressor and contactor,
continuous pumpdown cycle. may cause nuisance tripping of the motor protectors,
and in some cases has resulted in welded contactor
Typically this can happen if the compressor trips either points and motor failure.
on the motor overload protectors or on the oil pressure
safety control. The compressor would then be non- Figure 108 shows a control circuit similar to the lockout
operative, but if the thermostat or other control device circuit discussed previously, with the addition of a pump-
is calling for cooling, the liquid line solenoid valve will down control circuit with a 45 second time delay to delay
be open and liquid refrigerant will continue to feed into starting after closing of the dual pressure control. When
the evaporator, eventually flooding through to the com- the operational control is closed, the normally closed
(continued on p. 23-5)

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 23-3
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
23-4 All rights reserved.
liquid line solenoid valve is energized. The resulting In control circuits operating at line voltage, the solenoid
flow of liquid refrigerant into the low pressure side of valve and control can be connected to the load side of
the system increases the suction pressure, causing the the contactor as shown in Figure 109.
contacts of the low pressure control to make, energizing
the time delay relay. On large installations, the control circuit may have a
power source independent of the compressor power
After 45 seconds the time delay relay makes, complet- supply. In such cases, the unloading solenoid valve and
ing the main control circuit “XY” through the compres- control may be connected in parallel with the compres-
sor contactor holding coil. In the event of an overload sor contactor coil as in Figure 110.
in the compressor circuit, the 10 minute lockout circuit
functions as described previously. In the event the op- There are thousands of variations and types of control
erational control or dual pressure control chatter or close circuits, and the above examples are shown merely to
immediately after opening, the time delay will prevent illustrate typical circuits frequently encountered in refrig-
re-energizing the circuit for 45 seconds. eration work. The basic circuits shown can be adapted as
necessary depending on the individual requirement.

To avoid damage to the compressor from refrigerant

migration, and to allow proper operation on pumpdown
systems, it is essential that capacity control solenoid
valves be de-energized when the compressor is not

© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 23-5
© 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Form No. AE 104 R2 (10/06))
1675 W. Campbell Rd..
Emerson®, Emerson. Consider It Solved™, Emerson Climate Technologies™ and Sidney, OH 45365
the Emerson Climate Technologies™ logo are the trademarks and service marks of
Emerson Electric Co. and are used with the permission of Emerson Electric Co.
Copelametic®, Copeland®, and the Copeland® brand products logo are the
trademarks and service marks of Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Printed in the USA. © 1969 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Refrigeration Manual

Part 5 - Installation and Service

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
This is the fifth and last of a series of publications comprising the Emerson Climate Tech-
nologies, Inc. Refrigeration Manual.

Part 1 — Fundamentals of Refrigeration

Part 2 — Refrigeration System Components
Part 3 — The Refrigeration Load
Part 4 — System Design
Part 5 — Installation and Service

The installation and service information is intended as a guide to good installation practice,
and as an aid in analyzing system malfunctions. The section on service fundamentals is
designed to serve as an introduction to various service procedures for beginning service
men, students, salesmen, and others, needing a basic understanding of service tech-

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Part 5


Recommended Installation
Procedures......................................24-1 Contaminants.........................................26-1
Fundamentals of Evacuation and Handling of Refrigerant Containers........26-1
Dehydration.....................................24-6 Safe Handling of Compressed Gases
Brazing Connections on Welded When Testing or Cleaning
Motor Compressors.........................24-11 Refrigeration Systems.....................26-3
Installation of Suction and Discharge Handling Copper Tubing.........................26-6
Line Vibration Absorbers..................24-12 Brazing Refrigerant Lines.......................26-6
Typical Installation Specifications...........24-13 Service Valves........................................26-8
The Gauge Manifold...............................26-9
Section 25.  SERVICING COPELAND® Purging Non-Condensables...................26-10
BRAND COMPRESSORS System Pumpdown................................26-11
Refrigerant Leaks...................................26-11
Nameplate Identification.........................25-1 Evacuation..............................................26-13
Identification of Port Locations in Charging Refrigerant into a System.......26-14
Heads of Copelametic® Removing Refrigerant from a System....26-17
Motor-Compressors.........................25-5 Handling Refrigeration Oil......................26-18
Identification of Motor Terminals on Determining the Oil Level.......................26-18
Single Phase Compressors.............25-5 Adding Oil to a Compressor...................26-19
Proper Valve Plate and Head Gaskets Removing Oil from a Compressor..........26-20
for 3, 4, and 6 Cylinder Handling Filter-Driers.............................26-21
Compressors...................................25-6 Compressor Burnouts—What to Do.......26-21
Copeland® Brand Oil Pumps.................25-10 Compressor Failures That Could
Typical Copelametic® Compressor Have Been Prevented......................26-24
Construction.....................................25-20 Preventive Maintenance.........................26-29
Maintenance Accessibility on
Copelametic® Compressors............25-20 Section 27.  USEFUL ENGINEERING DATA
Field Troubleshooting.............................25-23

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Table 49 Boiling Point of Water at Varying Pressures.................................................................24-8

Table 50 Comparison of Gauge and Absolute Pressures at Varying Altitudes............................24-8
Table 51 Melting Points of Typical Commercial Brazing Compounds.........................................24-12
Table 52 Service Diagnosis Chart...............................................................................................25-29
Table 53 Temperature Scales......................................................................................................27-1
Table 54 International Rating Conditions....................................................................................27-1
Table 55 Thermal Units...............................................................................................................27-2
Table 56 Fahrenheit—Centigrade Temperature Conversion Chart.............................................27-3
Table 57 Properties of Saturated Steam.....................................................................................27-4
Table 58 Decimal Equivalents, Areas, and Circumferences of Circles........................................27-5
Table 59 Conversion Table — Inches into Millimeters.................................................................27-6
Table 60 Conversion Table — Decimals of an Inch into Millimeters............................................27-7
Table 61 Conversion Table — Millimeters into Inches.................................................................27-7
Table 62 Conversion Table — Hundredths of Millimeter into Inches...........................................27-9
Table 63 Metric Prefixes..............................................................................................................27-9
Table 64 Length...........................................................................................................................27-10
Table 65 Area..............................................................................................................................27-10
Table 66 Weight, Avoirdupois......................................................................................................27-10
Table 67 Volume, Dry..................................................................................................................27-11
Table 68 Volume, Liquid..............................................................................................................27-11
Table 69 Density..........................................................................................................................27-11
Table 70 Pressure.......................................................................................................................27-11
Table 71 Velocity.........................................................................................................................27-12
Table 72 Heat, Energy, Work.......................................................................................................27-12
Table 73 Solid and Liquid Expendable Refrigerants...................................................................27-12

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 24

Recommended Installation Handling and Receiving of Equipment

Responsibility should be assigned to a dependable
It is quite probable that a majority of operating individual at the job site to receive material. Each
failures on field installed systems can be traced shipment should be carefully checked against the
to careless or inadequate installation procedures. bill of lading. The shipping receipt should not be
The following instructions have been prepared to signed until all items listed on the bill of lading have
help the installation and/or service engineer sys- been accounted for.
tematically cover the many points which must be
considered to provide each installation with trouble Check carefully for concealed damage. Any short-
free performance. age or damages should be reported to the delivering
carrier. Damaged material becomes the delivering
These instructions are general in nature, and have carrier’s responsibility, and should not be returned
been primarily for field installed and connected sys- to the manufacturer unless prior approval is given
tems normally utilizing compressors 2 horsepower to do so.
in size or larger. However, the procedures can be
applied to almost any type of field installed system, When uncrating, care should be taken to prevent
utilizing only those procedures which apply to the damage. Heavy equipment should be left on its
specific installation. shipping base until it has been moved to the final
Design and Application
The packing list included with each shipment should
A location for the compressor should be selected be carefully checked to determine if all parts and
which provides good ventilation, even when re- equipment have been received. Any accessories
mote condensers are to be used, since the motor- such as starters, contactors or controls should be
compressor and discharge lines give off heat. Air fastened to the basic unit to avoid loss and prevent
cooled compressors must be provided with forced possible interchanging with other units.
convection air cooling.
Installation, Electrical
Air cooled condensers must be located to insure
adequate air for condensing purposes. Care must The supply power, voltage, frequency, and phase
be taken to avoid recirculation of air from one con- must coincide with the compressor nameplate.
denser to another. All wiring should be carefully checked against the
manufacturer’s diagrams. Field wiring must be
Water cooled units must be provided with an ad- connected in accordance with the National Electric
equate supply of water to maintain desired condens- Code, or other local codes that may apply.
ing temperatures. In order to avoid concentration
of impurities, fungus, and scaling in cooling towers Check to insure proper:
and evaporative condensers, a continuous waste
bleed to a drain of approximately 2 gallons per (a) Wire Sizes to handle the connected load.
hour per horsepower must be provided so that a
continuous addition of fresh make-up water will (b) Fuses recommended for compressors. (See
be required. Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. Electrical
Units and compressors must be level to insure
proper lubrication. (c) Magnetic starters, contactors, and motor pro-
tection devices approved by Emerson Climate
Refrigerant suction lines must be sized to maintain Technologies, Inc.
adequate velocities for proper oil return.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved. 24-1
(d) Operation of oil pressure safety control. (i) Limit the soldering paste or flux to the minimum
required to prevent contamination of the s o l -
(e) Direction of rotation and speed of fans and/or der joint internally. Flux only the male portion of
water pumps. the connection, never the female. After brazing,
remove surplus flux with a damp cloth.
(f) Wiring with no grounded lines or controls.
(j) If vibration absorbers are to be installed in
Installation, Refrigerant Piping suction or discharge lines they must be ap-
plied according to the manufacturer’s
Take extreme care to keep refrigeration tubing recommendations. With Copelametic® motor-
clean and dry prior to installation. The following compressors, the preferred position is parallel
procedures should be followed: to the crankshaft, as close to the compressor
as possible. Vibration eliminators may be in-
(a) Do not leave dehydrated compressors filter- stalled in a vertical position if joints are sealed
driers open to the atmosphere any longer than against trapping of condensation which might
is absolutely necessary. (One or two minutes damage the vibration absorber bellows due to
maximum suggested.) freezing. Filling of the joints with soft solder as
a means of sealing is recommended. Installa-
(b) Use only refrigeration grade copper tubing, tion of the vibration absorber in a horizontal
properly sealed against contamination. Water plane at right angles to the crankshaft is not
tubing often contains wax and other trouble- acceptable since the resulting stress from
some contaminants. compressor movement may cause failure of
the bellows or of the refrigerant line.
(c) Permanent suction line filters and liquid line
filter-driers are recommended in all field installed (k) Two evacuation valves are necessary. One
systems. should be in the suction line and one in the
liquid line at or near the receiver.
(d) Suction lines should slope ˚ inch per 10 feet
towards the compressor. (l) After all lines are connected, the entire system
must be leak tested. The complete system
(e) Suitable P-type oil traps should be located at should be pressurized to not more than 175 psig
the base of each suction riser to enhance oil with refrigerant and dry nitrogen (or dry CO2).
return to the compressor. The use of an electronic type leak detector is
highly recommended because of its greater
(f) When brazing refrigerant lines, an inert gas sensitivity to small leaks. As a further check
should be passed through the line at low pres- it is recommended that prior to charging, the
sure to prevent scaling and oxidation inside the system be evacuated to a pressure of 1 PSIA
tubing. Dry nitrogen is preferred. or less, and sealed for 12 hours. Any leakage
of air into the system will cause the vacuum
(g) Use only a suitable silver solder alloy or 95/5 reading to decrease. If an air leak is indicated,
solder on suction and liquid lines, and a high the system should again be leak tested, and
temperature silver solder alloy only on discharge leaks repaired. For a satisfactory installation,
lines. the system must be leak tight.

(h) In order to avoid damage to the internal joints (m) After the final leak test, refrigerant lines ex-
in vibration eliminators, line connections to posed to high ambient conditions should be
vibration eliminators should be made with a insulated to reduce heat pick-up and prevent
silver solder alloy such as Easy-Flo having a the formation of flash gas in the liquid lines.
melting temperature of 900°F. to 1200°F. Suction lines should be insulated, if exposed,
to prevent condensation.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-2 All rights reserved.
Installation, Plumbing A shut off valve between the gauge connection and
the vacuum pump should be provided to allow the
Good practice requires the following: system pressure to be checked after evacuation.
Do not turn off vacuum pump when connected to an
(a) Lines should be sloped adequately to drain by evacuated system before closing shut off valve.
gravity any water accumulated from condens-
ing, defrosting, or cleaning operations. The vacuum pump should be operated until a
pressure of 1,500 microns absolute pressure is
(b) All plumbing connections should be made in reached—at which time the vacuum should be
accordance with local plumbing codes. broken with the refrigerant to be used in the sys-
tem through a drier until the system pressure rises
(c) Condensate lines from refrigerated fixtures above “0” psig.
must be trapped and run to an open drain. They
must not be connected directly to the sewer Repeat this operation a second time.
Open the compressor service valves (if supplied)
IF THE SYSTEM IS WATER-COOLED: and evacuate the entire system to 500 microns
absolute pressure.
(d) Water pipe sizes should be adequate to provide
the required flow at the lowest inlet pressure Raise the pressure to 2 psig with the refrigerant
anticipated. and remove the vacuum pump.

(e) Control devices such as solenoid valves, Under no conditions is the motor-compressor to
modulating valves, or hand valves that could be started or operated while the system is under
cause hydraulic hammer should be protected a high vacuum. To do so may cause serious dam-
by a stand-pipe and air pocket to absorb age to the motor windings because of the reduced
this shock. Electrical or pressure oper- dielectric strength of the atmosphere within the
ated water control valves should be installed motor chamber.
between the water supply and the condenser
inlet—never between the condenser and the Check-Out and Start Up
drain. If water supply pressure is excessive, a
pressure reducing valve must be used since the After the installation has been completed, the fol-
allowable working pressure of water valves is lowing points should be covered before the system
normally 150 psig. Pressures above this level is placed in operation.
can also cause damage to the condenser.
(a) Check electrical connections. Be sure they are
(f) The water pump must be checked for rotation all tight.
and proper performance.
(b) Observe compressor oil level before start-up.
(g) Check for water leaks. The oil level should be at or slightly above the
center of the sight glass. Use only oil approved
Evacuation by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

A good high vacuum pump should be connected to (c) Remove or loosen shipping retainers under
both the low and high side evacuation valves with motor-compressors. Make sure hold down
copper tube or high vacuum hoses (¼” ID minimum). nuts on spring mounted compressors are not
If the compressor has service valves, they should touching the compressor feet.
remain closed. A high vacuum gauge capable of
registering pressure in microns should be attached
to the system for pressure readings.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
(d) Check high and low pressure controls, water conditions without any indication of malfunction, it
valves, pressure regulating valves, oil pressure should be allowed to operate over-night on auto-
safety controls, and all other safety controls, matic controls. Then a thorough recheck of the entire
and adjust if necessary. system operation should be made as follows:

(e) Check thermostat for normal operation. (a) Check compressor head and suction pressures.
If not within system design limits, determine
(f) Suitable tags or other means should be provided why and take corrective action.
to indicate refrigerant used in the system. Some
Copeland® brand condensing unit nameplates (b) Check liquid line sight glass and expansion
have two detachable corner tabs. One should valve operation. If there are indications that
be removed so that the nameplate indicates more refrigerant is required, leak test all con-
the refrigerant used. nections and system components and repair
any leaks before adding refrigerant.
(g) Wiring diagrams, instruction bulletins, etc., at-
tached to motor-compressors or condensing (c) When applicable, observe oil level in com-
units should be read and filed for future refer- pressor crankcase sight glass, and add oil as
ence. necessary to bring level to center of the sight
(h) Make the proper refrigerant connections and
charge the unit with the refrigerant to be used. (d) Thermostatic expansion valves must be
Weigh the refrigerant drum before charging so checked for proper superheat settings. Feeler
an accurate record can be kept of the weight bulbs must be in positive contact with the suc-
of refrigerant put in the system. If the refriger- tion line. Valves with high superheat settings
ant must be added to the system through the produce little refrigeration and poor oil return.
suction side of the compressor, charge in vapor Too little superheat causes low refrigeration
form only. Liquid charging must be done in the capacity and promotes liquid slugging and
high side only. compressor bearing washout. Liquid refrigerant
must be prevented from reaching the crankcase.
(i) Observe system pressures during charging If proper control cannot be achieved with the
and initial operation. Do not add oil while the system in normal operation, a suction accumu-
system is short of refrigerant, unless oil level lator must be installed in the suction line just
is dangerously low. ahead of the compressor to prevent liquid
refrigerant from reaching the compressor.
(j) Continue charging until system has sufficient
refrigerant for proper operation. Do not over-
charge. Remember that bubbles in a sight glass (e) Using suitable instruments, carefully check
may be caused by a restriction as well as a line voltage and amperage at the compressor
shortage of refrigerant. terminals. Voltage must be within 10% of that
indicated on the compressor nameplate. If high
(k) Do not leave unit unattended until the system or low voltage is indicated, notify the power
has reached normal operating conditions and company. The current normally should not
the oil charge has been properly adjusted to exceed 120% of the nameplate rating. If amper-
maintain the oil level at the center of the sight age draw is excessive, immediately determine
glass. the cause and take corrective action. On three
phase motor-compressors, check to see that
Operational Check-Out a balanced load is drawn by each phase.

After the system has been charged and has op- (f) All fan motors on air cooled condensers,
erated for at least two hours at normal operating evaporators, etc. should be checked for proper

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-4 All rights reserved.
rotation. Fan motor mounts should be carefully (b) Equipment manufacturer, model, and serial
checked for tightness and proper alignment. If number.
belt drives are used, check the belt tension. All
motors requiring lubrication should be oiled or (c) Design operating temperatures.
greased as necessary.
(d) Condensing unit model, and serial number. (If
(g) Check defrost controls for initiation and termina- package condensing unit.)
tion setting, and length of defrost period. Check
crankcase heaters if used. (e) If remote condenser, type, manufacturer, model,
fan data.
(h) Check winter head pressure controls for pres-
sure setting. (f) Refrigerant and weight of charge.

(i) Check crankcase pressure regulating valves, (g) Electrical service, volts, cycles, phase, wire
if any, for proper setting. size.

(j) Adjust water valves on water cooled systems (h) Control circuit, voltage, fuse size.
to maintain desired condensing temperatures.
Check water pumps for proper rotation. (i) Contactor or starter, manufacturer, model, size,
part number.
(k) Install instruction card and control system dia-
gram for use of store manager or owner. (j) Compressor motor protection, type, size, part
(k) Data on capacitors, relays, or other electrical
Each refrigerated fixture and cooler coil should be components.
numbered starting at No. 1. These numbers should
be not less than ˚” in height and should be stenciled (l) Pressure control, type, size, model number,
or marked neatly on the fixture in an inconspicu- setting.
ous location easily available to the serviceman.
The compressors or condensing units serving the (m) Oil pressure safety control, type, model num-
fixtures should be marked with the numbers of the ber.
cases and coils served with figures not less than
1” in height. (n) Defrost control, type, manufacturer, model
number, setting.
Service Record
(o) Data on miscellaneous refrigeration compo-
A permanent data sheet should be prepared on nents such as pressure controls, winterizing
each installation, with a copy for the owner and the controls, oil separators, crankcase heaters,
original for the installing contractor’s files. If another solenoids, valves, etc.
firm is to handle service and maintenance, additional
copies should be prepared as necessary. (p) Liquid line drier, manufacturer, size, model
number, connections.
The form of the data sheet may vary, but a complete
record of sizes and identification of all components (q) Schematic diagram of refrigerant piping.
used in the installation, together with any pertinent
information should be included. Following is a sug- (r) Final settings on all pressure, regulating, and
gested check-off list: safety controls.

(a) Compressor manufacturer, model, and serial


© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
FUNDAMENTALS OF EVACUATION AND occur in exactly the same fashion inside a cold
DEHYDRATION evaporator which has been opened and exposed
to the atmosphere.
Although millions of dollars have been spent on
refrigeration research, many of the reactions in- Despite the fact that water vapor exists as part of
side air conditioning and refrigeration systems are the air around us, it acts quite independently of
still a mystery. We do know that the presence of the air. Vapor pressure is independent of air pres-
moisture, heat, and oxygen under certain condi- sure, and its speed of movement is astonishing.
tions can result in many forms of system damage. This means that water vapor cannot be stopped
Corrosion, sludging, copper plating, oil breakdown, by air movement.
carbon formation, and eventual compressor failure
can be caused by these contaminants. Obviously it is impossible to prevent water vapor
from entering the system anytime it is opened to
The absence of any one of the three, or its reduction the atmosphere. However, if the temperature of the
to an acceptable level can greatly extend compres- exposed part of the system is above the dew point,
sor life and slow down harmful reactions. If all three or if the time of exposure is short, the amount of
can be controlled, then a sound foundation has moisture actually entering the system will be small.
been made for a trouble free installation. If a new drier is installed in the liquid line each time
the system is opened for maintenance, the drier
Copeland® brand compressors are carefully tested will normally have sufficient capacity to lower the
to determine limits within which operation is possible moisture in the system to a safe level.
without creating excessive heat in the compressor.
But under the best operating conditions, heat is However, at the time of original installation, or after
going to be produced as a natural consequence exposure for long periods during maintenance, the
of compression of the refrigerant gas. Discharge amount of moisture in the system may be greater
temperatures in excess of 200°F. are unavoidable. than a drier’s effective capacity. In such cases,
Therefore, major efforts must be directed at prevent- evacuation is the only effective means of removing
ing moisture and air from entering the system. large quantities of moisture from the system, and
to successfully dehydrate a system by evacuation,
Moisture In A Refrigeration System pressures within the system must be reduced to
levels which will cause the trapped moisture to
Moisture exists in three forms; as a solid when it vaporize.
is frozen into ice, as liquid water, and as a vapor
or gas. It is extremely rare that moisture will enter Air In A Refrigeration System
a refrigeration system in the form of ice or water.
It is the invisible water vapor that exists in the air The air we breathe is primarily composed of nitrogen
around us that creates the real hazard. and oxygen. Both elements remain in a gaseous
form at all temperatures and pressures encountered
The ability of air to hold water vapor increases with in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning
the temperature of the air. On a hot, humid summer systems. Therefore, although these gases can
day, the air may be actually loaded with moisture. be liquefied under extremely low temperatures,
Relative humidity is the term commonly used to they may be considered as non-condensable in a
express the percentage of saturation, that is, the refrigeration system.
existing moisture content of the air expressed as
a percentage of the maximum moisture that the air Scientists have discovered that one of the basic
could contain at a given temperature. laws of nature is the fact that in a combination of
gases, each gas exerts its own pressure indepen-
The relative humidity determines the dew point, or dently of others, and the total pressure existing in
the temperature at which moisture will condense a system is the total of all the gaseous pressures
out of the air. Condensation occurs on the outside present. A second basic characteristic of a gas is
of a cold glass of water in a warm room, and it can that if the space in which it is enclosed remains

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-6 All rights reserved.
constant, so that it cannot expand, its pressure The atmosphere surrounding the Earth is composed
will vary directly with the temperature. Therefore, of gases, primarily oxygen and nitrogen, extending
if air is sealed in a system with refrigerant, the many miles above the surface of the Earth. The
nitrogen and oxygen will each add their pressure weight of that atmosphere pressing down on the
to the system pressure, and this will increase as Earth creates the atmospheric pressure we live
the temperature rises. in. At a given point, the atmospheric pressure is
relatively constant except for minor changes due
Since the air is non-condensable, it will usually trap to changing weather conditions. For purposes
in the top of the condenser and the receiver. Dur- of standardization and as a basic reference for
ing operation the compressor discharge pressure comparison, the atmospheric pressure at sea level
will be a combination of the refrigerant condensing has been universally accepted, and this has been
pressure plus the pressure exerted by the nitrogen established at 14.7 pounds per square inch, which
and oxygen. The amount of pressure above normal is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a column
condensing pressures that may result will depend of mercury 29.92 inches high.
on the amount of trapped air, but it can easily
reach 40 to 50 psig or more. Any time a system is At very low pressures, it is necessary to use a
running with abnormally high head pressure, air in smaller unit of measurement since even inches of
the system is a prime suspect. mercury are too large for accurate reading. The
micron, a metric unit of length, is commonly used
Nitrogen is basically an inert gas and does not easily for this purpose, and when we speak of microns in
enter into chemical reactions. Oxygen, however, is evacuation, we are referring to absolute pressure
just the reverse, and at the slightest opportunity will in units of microns of mercury. Relationships of the
combine with other elements. Rust, corrosion, and various units of measurement are as follows:
burning are all common oxidation processes.
1 pound per sq. in. = 2.03 inches mercury
In the refrigeration system, oxygen and moisture 1 inch mercury = .491 pounds per sq. in.
quickly join in a common attack on the refrigerant 1 inch mercury = 25,400 microns mercury
and oil, and can cause corrosion, copper plating, 1 inch = 25,400 microns
acid formation, sludging, and other harmful reac- 1 millimeter = 1,000 microns
tions. Tests have shown that in the presence of 1 micron = .001 millimeter
heat, the combination of air and moisture is far
more apt to cause breakdown of the refrigerant The refrigeration serviceman’s bourdon tube gauge
and oil mixture than greatly increased amounts of reads 0 pounds per square inch when not con-
moisture alone. nected to a pressure producing source. Therefore
the standard relationship has been established
Pressure - Temperature - Evaporating that absolute pressure is equal to gauge pressure
Relationships plus 14.7 psi. Pressures below 0 psig are actually
negative readings on the gauge, and are referred
Anyone familiar with refrigeration knows that re- to as inches of vacuum. The gauge is calibrated
frigerants follow a definite fixed pressure-tempera- in the equivalent of inches of mercury.
ture relationship, and that at a given pressure the
refrigerant will boil or vaporize at a corresponding Factors Affecting Vacuum Pump
saturation temperature. Water follows exactly the Performance
same pattern, and this is the basis for dehydration
by evacuation. A vacuum pump suitable for refrigeration work must
not only be capable of pulling a high vacuum, but
The pressure which determines the boiling points must be capable of maintaining that vacuum on
of refrigerants and water is absolute pressure, nor- the system for prolonged periods. As moist air is
mally expressed in terms of psia, which is defined as pumped through the vacuum pump, the moisture
the pressure existing above a perfect vacuum. will seek to condense in the vacuum pump oil
sump, and once the oil is saturated, water vapor
(continued on p. 24-9)

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
The above table clearly illustrates the reduction of the boiling point of water with a reduction of pressure.
It is clear that at normal room temperatures, dehydration by evacuation requires pressures below 0.40
psia, which means a corresponding vacuum reading at sea level of 29.2 inches of mercury. At pressures
above that, boiling simply would not take place. From a practical standpoint, much lower pressures are
necessary to create a temperature difference to the boiling water so that heat transfer can take place, and
also to offset pressure drop in the connecting lines, which is extremely critical at very low pressures. Pres-
sures from 1,500 to 2,000 microns are required for effective dehydration, and equipment to accomplish
this is normally described as being designed for high vacuum work. Heat should be applied to systems
which are known to contain free water to aid in evacuation.

It is important to remember that gauge pressures are only relative to absolute pressure. The table shows
relationships existing at various elevations assuming that standard atmospheric conditions prevail. Obvi-
ously, a given gauge pressure at varying elevations may actually reflect a wide variation in actual absolute

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-8 All rights reserved.
escaping from the oil may prevent the pump from that a system is saturated with water, for example
achieving a high vacuum. Unless the pump is after the rupture of tubes in a water cooled con-
specifically designed to prevent this condition, the denser, a special low temperature moisture trap
oil may become saturated before one evacuation should be installed in the suction line ahead of the
job is completed. vacuum pump intake. Suitable traps are available
from vacuum pump manufacturers.
In order to prevent condensation, some vacuum
pumps have a vented exhaust or gas ballast feature. One factor that is not fully appreciated by most
Basically this involves allowing a small bleed of servicemen is the critical nature of the pressure
atmospheric air to enter the second stage of a two drop that occurs due to restrictions in the line dur-
stage pump, or the discharge chamber of a single ing evacuation. For field evacuation with portable
stage pump prior to the discharge stroke to prevent vacuum pumps, lines connecting the vacuum pump
condensation of water during compression. to the system should be a minimum of ¼ in. I.D.
on small systems, and on larger systems at least
Since reciprocating pumps lose efficiency at ½ in. I.D. copper tubing should be used. Evacuat-
vacuums greater than 27 inches of mercury, rotary ing valves are recommended for every system.
pumps are primarily used for high vacuum work. These should be installed in both the suction and
Single stage vacuum pumps are available which liquid lines, and should be at least as large as the
are capable of pulling a very high vacuum, but in connecting lines. The typical serviceman’s manifold
general they are vulnerable to oil contamination, and and charging hose will cause sufficient restriction
if the exhaust is vented to protect the oil, then the to prevent a high vacuum being reached, and
pump’s efficiency is reduced. Although single stage compressor service valves are also unsatisfac-
pumps may be quite satisfactory for small systems, tory for high vacuum work. If restrictions exist in
for best high vacuum performance in refrigeration the connecting lines, gauges at the vacuum pump
usage a two stage vacuum pump with gas ballast will reflect pump pressure, but will not give a true
on the second stage is recommended. picture of pressures in the system.

Even at extremely low pressures, it is essential The speed with which a system may be evacuated
that the system to be evacuated is at a tempera- depends on both the displacement of the vacuum
ture high enough to insure boiling of any water to pump and the size of the connecting lines and fit-
be removed. With pressures of 2000 microns and tings. A good high vacuum pump has a very high
below, normal room temperatures of 70°F. to 80°F. pumping efficiency down to absolute pressures of
are adequate. Evacuation of temperatures below 1,000 microns and below, possibly as high as 85%
50°F. is not recommended. to 90% or more. This means that a vacuum pump
with 1 CFM displacement may still be capable of
If a great deal of moisture must be removed from a pumping up to .9 CFM with a suction pressure of
system by the vacuum pump, the oil may become 1,000 microns and discharging to atmosphere.
saturated with moisture despite the gas ballast
feature or the best pump design. Once this has oc- However, a vacuum pump’s performance can be
curred, the only solution is to change the oil in the greatly reduced by the size of connecting lines
vacuum pump. Even with the best vacuum pump, and fittings. In the low or medium vacuum range,
frequent oil changes are necessary to maintain ef- this may not greatly affect a pump’s efficiency,
ficiency. It is recommended that the oil be changed but at pressures below 5,000 microns the pump’s
before each major evacuation. net capacity can decrease rapidly. The following
comparison is based on one pump manufacturer’s
If there is any possibility that large amounts of water catalog information on pumping speed of rotary
may be trapped in a system, the lines should be vacuum pumps.
blown out with dry nitrogen prior to attaching the
vacuum pump. This will not only aid in prolonging It is interesting to note that more efficiency can be
the life of the pump, it will materially decrease the gained by increasing the connecting line size on a
time required to evacuate the system. If it is known 1 CFM pump from ¼ in. I.D. to a larger size than

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
perfectly satisfactory.

Measurement of Vacuum

As indicated earlier, the refrigeration serviceman’s

gauge reads pressure only in relation to absolute
pressure, and a given gauge reading may cover a
wide range of actual pressures. For this reason, and
also because the ordinary bourdon tube compound
gauge is not designed for the extreme accuracy
required in evacuation work, a special vacuum
gauge is required for high vacuum readings.
can be gained by putting a 5 CFM pump on the
same ¼ in. connection. For accurate pressure readings in the micron range
for refrigeration use, a thermocouple vacuum gauge
Calculations to determine pull down time are quite is recommended. This type of gauge is relatively
complicated, since the pump’s efficiency changes inexpensive, easy to operate, rugged enough for
with the reduced pressure, and the size and length field use, and requires little or no maintenance.
of the connecting lines may greatly affect the per- The advantage of this gauge where moisture may
formance of a given pump. The following estimate be encountered in a system is that it measures
of pull down time is based on one manufacturer’s not only the pressure due to residual gases, but
catalog data, but because of the assumptions that also the pressure contributed by any water vapor
must be made in the calculation, the figures are at remaining in the system. The McLeod type gauge
best an approximation. is widely used in laboratory work, and is highly ac-
curate for readings where moisture is not a factor,
The above table provides a good comparison of but it is not recommended for use in refrigeration
relative pump performance. It is quite clear that if work since it will not measure the pressure due to
a connecting line no larger than ¼ in. I.D. is to be water vapor.
used, there is little to be gained by going to a larger
vacuum pump. For large systems it is obvious that Triple Evacuation
both a good sized vacuum pump and a large con-
necting line are necessary if the required time is to In order to insure a complete evacuation, Emerson
be held to a minimum. The pull down time will vary Climate Technologies, Inc. recommends a triple
directly with the internal volume of a given system, evacuation, twice to 1,500 microns and the final time
so for smaller systems the 1 CFM pump may be to 500 microns. The vacuum should be broken to
2 psig each time with the same type of refrigerant
to be used in the system.
Estimated Time Required For System
Pull Down It is quite possible that the original evacuation, if
based on 5 cubic feet internal volume not continued for a sufficient period of time may
not completely remove all of the air and moisture
from the system. Breaking the initial vacuum with
dry refrigerant allows the fresh refrigerant to absorb
and mix with any residual moisture and air, and the
succeeding evacuation will remove a major portion
of any remaining contaminants. If for example,
each evacuation removed only 98% of the contents
of the system, and any remaining contaminants
mixed thoroughly with the refrigerant used to
break the vacuum, after the triple evacuation the
remaining contaminant percentage would be 2%

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-10 All rights reserved.
x 2% x 2% or .0008%. The residual contaminants
have been reduced to such a low level they no
longer are a danger to the system. This illustrates
why triple evacuation is increasingly important if
the vacuum pump is not of the highest efficiency,
or if the evacuation time is not adequate to insure
complete evacuation.

Many manufacturers use process pressures of

50 to 100 microns. However, in field evacuation,
pressures in this range are very difficult to reach,
particularly if refrigerant has been allowed to mix
with oil in the system. The refrigerant will escape
from the oil very slowly, and the time required to
reach such low pressures might be quite unreason-
able. The triple evacuation method to a pressure of
500 microns is practical under field conditions, and
represents a specification that can be met.

For manufacturers having process equipment, the

use of dry air with a dew point below -60°F. in place
of refrigerant for dehydration in connection with a
triple evacuation to the pressures described above
is also highly recommended. Figure 111 illustrates a typical suction line connec-
tion. The torch flame should be used primarily on
To evacuate a system properly requires time and the refrigerant line, with only enough heat applied
care. Any slight carelessness in protecting the to the stub tube to make the connection properly.
sealed system can undo all the precautions taken Heat will be conducted into the joint area from
previously. But the slight extra effort required to the refrigerant line. The torch fame should have a
make an evacuation properly and completely will greenish “feather” extending from the tip of the inner
pay big dividends in reduced maintenance and blue cone as illustrated in Figure 112. Heat should
trouble free operation. be applied to both sides of the tube, and the flame
should be moved continuously in a circular motion
BRAZING CONNECTIONS ON WELDED to distribute the heat, and prevent overheating of
MOTOR-COMPRESSORS the tubing. Compressors with damaged joints usu-
ally show evidence of the torch flame having been
Suction and discharge line connections to welded allowed to burn directly on the compressor shell
motor-compressors are normally made by brazing and the stub tube-shell joint.
the refrigerant lines directly into stub tubes on the
compressor with a silver brazing alloy. Occasionally Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. recommends
the joint between the stub tube and the steel shell that a low melting point alloy such as Easy-Flo or
is damaged by overheating during factory or field Easy-Flo 45 be used in making the line joint rather
installation when the refrigerant line connections than a higher melting point alloy such as Sil-Fos. The
are made. This type of damage can be avoided by heat necessary to make a Sil-Fos joint is somewhat
proper care during the brazing operation. greater than required for Easy-Flo, making it more
difficult to avoid overheating. Another advantage of
The connection between the stub tube and the shell a lower temperature brazing alloy is the reduced
is made with a 35% silver brazing alloy which has a annealing effect which takes the place, thus result-
melting range of 1125°F. to 1295°F. The temperature ing in a stronger joint.
of this joint must be kept below this range during
the line brazing operation to avoid damage.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
units, flexible metallic hose is frequently used.

Metallic vibration absorbers should be selected to

have the same or greater internal diameter than
the connecting piping. Because of the convolu-
tions of the inner wall of the absorber, excessive
refrigerant gas velocity can cause whistling and
noise problems.

Unless properly installed, stress resulting from

line movement may cause failure of the vibration
absorber, and possibly can lead to line breakage.
Because of its construction, a metallic vibration
absorber can easily adjust to movement in a radial
direction, but it must not be subjected to stress in
To assure a sound, leak tight tubing connection
either compression or extension. Some manufac-
without overheating, the surfaces must be properly
turers recommend using two vibration absorbers
cleaned and a suitable flux must be used. A low
at right angles, but normally this is not necessary
temperature brazing flux that is fully liquid and ac-
on Copeland® brand compressors.
tive below the flow point of the silver brazing alloy
is required. Only the male connection should be
Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. recommends
fluxed, and only enough flux should be used to
installation parallel to the crankshaft, as close to
adequately cover the surface. Excess flux allowed
the compressor as possible. The starting torque
to enter the system can cause starting failures on
of the motor will tend to rock the compressor from
PSC motors, plug filters and valves, and may cause
side to side when starting, and mounting parallel
other complications due to chemical reactions.
to the crankshaft will allow the absorber to easily
adjust to the movement.
Vibration absorbers may be installed in a vertical
position if the joints are sealed against trapping
In order to prevent the transmission of noise and
of condensation which might damage the bellows
vibration from the compressor through the refrigera-
due to freezing. Filling of the joints with soft solder
tion piping, vibration eliminators are often required
as a means of sealing is recommended. Flexible
in the suction and discharge lines. On small units
metal hoses are available with a neoprene jacket
where small diameter soft copper tubing is used for
which protects the absorber against any possible
the refrigerant lines, a coil of tubing may provide
damage from condensation or moisture.
adequate protection against vibration. On larger

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-12 All rights reserved.
Installation of an angle 45° from the vertical and
parallel to the crankshaft is acceptable, although
horizontal or vertical installation is preferred. A 45°
angle installation at right angles to the compressor
crankshaft can actually act as a brace, causing
compression stress, and is not acceptable.

Installation in the horizontal plane at right angles to

the crankshaft is not acceptable, since compressor
movement would tend to either compress or extend
the absorber, and early failure of the absorber or
connecting fittings could result.

The line connected to the end of the absorber op-

posite the source of vibration should be firmly an-
chored to a solid member. No movement will then be
transmitted into the refrigerant lines beyond. Where
a vertical or 45° mounting is used, the piping must be
arranged so that sufficient allowance for movement
is made. As a convenient means of checking the
installation, a spring mounted compressor should
be free to bottom solidly on the mounting pad or
mounting snubber without stressing the absorber.
The refrigerant lines should be in proper alignment
prior to installation of the absorber, and sufficient
space should be allowed so that it can be installed
without being either stressed or compressed.

Internal joints of metallic vibration absorbers are

often made up with a brazing compound which has
a melting point of approximately 1,300°F. In order to
avoid damage to the internal joints, line connections
should be made with a silver solder alloy having a
melting temperature below 1,200°F.


On large field installed refrigeration and air con-

ditioning systems, it is advisable to have a written
specification covering the work to be done and the
responsibilities of each party. The specification is
an aid in assuring a clear understanding of the
contractor’s responsibility prior to the start of the
job, so that disputes and disagreements may be
on supermarket or other large commercial refrig-
Specifications may vary from a short paragraph
eration installations, and is readily adaptable to
covering the scope of the work to a detailed de-
different types of applications.
scription of the work to be done. The following
specification is typical of the type frequently used

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Typical Specification

Large Commercial Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Installation

1. Definition of Terms

1.1 “Contractor” shall mean the refrigeration installation contractor.

1.2 “Owner” is .

1.3 “Manufacturer” shall mean the company or companies which will supply various equipment such
as fixtures, compressors, coils, etc.

1.4 “Refrigeration Installation” shall mean the necessary labor and all parts and accessories neces-
sary to complete the work outline in this specification.

2. Scope of Work

2.1 These specifications are intended to cover the installation of compressors, condensers, coils,
condensing units, fixtures, and all other fittings, devices, and accessories required to complete
the refrigeration systems as shown or called for on the refrigeration plans and schedules. The
omission from these specifications or from the refrigeration plans and schedules of express ref-
erence to any parts necessary for the complete installation is not to be construed as releasing
the contractor from responsibility for furnishing such parts.

2.2 For details of installation refer to the fixture plan, refrigeration schedule, floor plan, plumbing
plan, electric plan, air conditioning, heating, and ventilating plan, manufacturer’s installation
instructions, and to applicable codes and ordinances.

2.3 The Contractor shall furnish and install any necessary refrigerant piping, fittings, vibration elimina-
tors, line valves, solenoid valves, crankcase pressure regulating valves, thermostatic expansion
valves, dehydrators, strainers, sight glasses, moisture indicators, refrigerant, oil, filters, insulation
and all fittings and accessories necessary to make a complete installation unless otherwise speci-
fied, together with all labor required to complete the installation and perform the service covered
by this specification. The Contractor is responsible for unloading, assembling, and installing all
fixtures, coolers, coils, compressors, condensing units, air conditioners, condensers, and other
refrigeration equipment unless otherwise specified. The Contractor shall also arrange for the
removal of crating and packing materials, and shall leave the uncrating area and the compressor
room clean and neat.

2.4 The Contractor shall familiarize himself with the project, and shall cooperate with other contractors
doing work on the building. If any conflict, interference, or discrepancies come to the attention
of the contractor, he shall notify the owner immediately before proceeding any further with the

2.5 No additional payment over and above the contract price will be made unless the Contractor
receives a written order by the Owner or his representative for the addition.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-14 All rights reserved.
2.6 Equipment and services shall be furnished as follows:

To Be Furnished By
Owner Contractor Others

Refrigerated fixtures
Coils for coolers
Air conditioning units
Air conditioning temperature controls
Air cooled condensers
Condensing units
Refrigeration system controls
Coolers & freezers (walk in)
Coolers & freezers (reach in)
Ventilation and exhaust fans and controls
Cooling tower and controls
Sheet metal, duct work, dampers, etc.
Motor starters and protectors
Electrical wiring, disconnect switches
and connections

3. Fees, Permits, Licenses, and Insurance

3.1 All necessary permits and licenses incident to the work and required by local ordinance shall
be secured and paid for by the contractor. All equipment shall be installed in strict compliance
with all local building codes and ordinances.

3.2 The Contractor shall not commence work under this contract until he has obtained all the insur-
ance required hereunder, and has filed certificates to that effect with the Owner. The Contractor
shall indemnify and hold harmless the Owner for any and all claims, suits, losses, damages,
or expenses on account of bodily injury, sickness, disease, death, and property damage as a
result of the Contractor’s operations, acts, omissions, neglect or misconduct in connection with
this project. Insurance coverage shall include but is not limited to

(a) Contractor’s Public Liability Insurance

(b) Contractor’s Contingent Liability Insurance
(c) Property Damage Insurance
(d) Automotive Public Liability Insurance
(e) Automotive Property Damage Insurance

4. Refrigerant Piping Materials

4.1 Unless otherwise specified, all refrigeration piping shall be refrigeration grade Type L or Type K
hard drawn degreased sealed copper tubing. Alternate proposals may be submitted for the use
of Type L refrigeration grade soft copper tubing for long underfloor runs only providing runs are
straight and free from kinks and bends.

4.2 Extreme care shall be taken to keep all refrigerant piping clean and dry. It shall be kept sealed
except when cutting or fabricating. Each length shall be inspected and swabbed with a cloth
soaked in refrigeration oil if any dirt, filings, or visible moisture are present.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
4.3 All sweat-type fittings shall be wrought copper or forged brass. All elbows and return bends
shall be of the long radius type. If flare fittings are required, they shall be of the frost proof type,
(except on connections not subject to condensation), and constructed of forged brass. Soldered
joints are preferred and shall be used wherever practical.

5. Refrigerant Piping Installation

5.1 Tubing shall be installed in a neat, workmanlike manner with horizontal runs sloped toward the
compressor at a rate of 1” per 20’. All lines shall be supported at intervals of not more than 8’
and suitably anchored. Rubber grommets shall be used between tubing and clamps to prevent
line chafing.

5.2 Where vertical risers of more than 5 feet occur in a suction line, the riser shall be trapped at the

5.3 Where a branch suction line enters a main suction line it shall enter at the top. Piping shall be
arranged so refrigerant or oil cannot drain from the suction line into the coil.

5.4 Individual fixture or unit suction and liquid lines shall be of the size recommended by the Manu-
facturer as shown in the applicable installation and service instructions. Liquid and hot gas
refrigerant lines shall be sized in accordance with good industry practice to avoid excessive
pressure drops. Branch and main suction lines shall be sized to maintain adequate velocities
to properly return oil to the compressor under minimum load conditions at the lowest saturated
suction pressure to be expected.

5.5 All joints in the compressor discharge line shall be brazed with a suitable high temperature
silver solder alloy containing not less than 15% silver. Use only a suitable silver solder alloy on
all copper to copper connections in the suction line and liquid line. At any copper to brass joint
where damage could occur from excess heat use 95/5 solder. Use a solder with at least 35%
silver content on all copper to steel, brass to steel, or steel to steel joints. During the brazing
operation, dry nitrogen must be bled through the piping at very low pressure to prevent oxidation
and scaling.

5.6 In order to avoid damage to the internal Silfos joints in vibration eliminators, line connections to
vibration eliminators are to be made with a silver solder alloy such as Easy-Flo having a melting
temperature of 900°F. to 1,200°F. (well below the 1,300°F. melting point of Silfos).

5.7 To prevent contamination of the line internally, limit the soldering paste or flux to the minimum
required. Flux only the male portion of the connection, never the female.

5.8 Suction lines from low temperature cases shall be insulated where run below the floor level. All
exposed suction lines, both low and medium temperature, shall be insulated as necessary to
prevent condensation.

5.9 Insulation shall be of the cellular type such as Armstrong “Armaflex” or equal, shall fit the tubing
snugly, and shall be applied and sealed in accordance with the Manufacturer’s instructions.

5.10 The refrigerant piping shall be adequately protected. Permanent guards shall be installed as
required to protect the piping and fittings from damage. Metal pipe sleeves shall be provided
where tubing passes through a concrete wall or floor, and the space around the tubing shall be
filled with a mastic insulating compound.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-16 All rights reserved.
5.11 Arrange the piping so that normal inspection and servicing of the compressor and other equip-
ment is not hindered. Do not obstruct the view of the crankcase oil sight glass, or run piping so
that it interferes with removal of the compressor or other components.

5.12 Tubing installed in trenches or conduit under the floor must be level to prevent oil trapping. Guard
against deformation or damage from trucks carrying heavy loads, or cement being poured.

6. Installation of Accessories

6.1 Vibration eliminators shall be installed in the suction and discharge lines of all compressors
with spring or flexible mounting. The vibration eliminator must be applied according to the Man-
ufacturer’s recommendations. For Copelametic® compressors, the vibration eliminator should
be mounted parallel to the crankshaft, as close to the compressor as possible. Installation in a
horizontal plane at right angles to the crankshaft is not acceptable, since the resulting stress
from compressor movement may cause failure of the vibration absorber. If installed in a vertical
position, the eliminator joints must be sealed against dripping from condensation to protect from

6.2 A solder type combination liquid sight glass and moisture indicator shall be installed in each
system and located for easy visibility.

6.3 If liquid line driers are not otherwise specified, they shall be of the filter-drier type, and of the
size recommended by the Manufacturer. Drier cartridges shall not be installed until the second
evacuation has been completed.

6.4 Two evacuation fittings are necessary. One should be in the suction line at the inlet side of the
suction line filter, and one should be in the liquid line at the outlet side of the filter-drier. If prop-
erly valved, the connection in the liquid line may serve as a charging valve. After evacuation
and charging, the fittings are to be capped or removed. Connections should be at least 3/8” and
preferably ˚” in size.

6.5 A permanent suction line filter shall be installed in each compressor suction line. A pressure fitting
must be provided ahead of the filter, preferably in the shell, to facilitate checking the pressure
drop. If the pressure drop across the filter is in excess of 1 psig after the initial 24 hours of opera-
tion, the suction line filter cartridge shall be replaced, or if the filter is of the sealed permanent
type, the filter shall be replaced.

7. Drain Connections

7.1 Unless otherwise specified, condensate drains from coils and cases to the floor drain will be the
responsibility of the Contractor. No drain line shall be smaller than the coil drain pan connection.
All drain lines shall be hard copper tubing except for those in reach-in coolers. Lines should be
sloped adequately to drain by gravity any water accumulated from condensing, defrosting, or
cleaning operations. All condensate lines from refrigerated fixtures must be trapped and run to
an open drain. They must not be connected directly to the sewer system. If necessary for clean-
ing, threaded unions shall be provided in the most accessible location near the fixture.

8. Testing, Evacuation, and Charging

8.1 The Contractor shall notify the Owner 24 hours in advance of any test so that the Owner and/or
Manufacturer’s representative may be present for the test if desired.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
8.2 When the refrigeration connections have been completed, the system shall be tested at a mini-
mum of 150 psig with the compressor suction and discharge valves closed, and all other valves
in the system open. (If local codes require higher test pressures, such codes must be complied
with). Leak testing shall be performed with an electronic leak detector, unless the use of a halide
torch is specifically authorized by the Owner. Refrigeration piping will not be acceptable unless
it is gas tight. If any leaks are found, isolate the defective area, discharge the gas and repair the
leaks, and then repeat the test. When testing has been completed, release all pressure freely
to the atmosphere.

8.3 The system shall be evacuated with a vacuum pump specifically manufactured for vacuum duty,
having a capability of pulling a vacuum of 50 microns or less. Evacuation of the system must
never be done by the use of the refrigeration compressor. The pump should be connected to
both the low and high side evacuation valves with copper tube or high vacuum hoses. (1/4” I.D.
minimum). The compressor service valves should remain closed. A high vacuum gauge capable of
registering pressure in microns should be attached to the system for pressure readings. Hermetic
or accessible-hermetic motor compressors must not be operated during evacuation because of
the reduced dielectric strength of the atmosphere within the motor chamber. To check system
pressure, a hand valve must be provided between the pressure gauge and the vacuum pump
which can be closed to isolate the system and check the pressure.

8.4 Evacuate each system to an absolute pressure not exceeding 1,500 microns. Install a drier of the
required size in the liquid line, open the compressor suction and discharge valves, and evacuate
to an absolute pressure not exceeding 500 microns. Leave the vacuum pump running for not
less than two hours without interruption. Raise the system pressure to 2 psig with refrigerant,
and remove the vacuum pump.

8.5 Refrigerant shall be charged directly from the original drums through a combination filter-drier.
Each drier may be used for a maximum of three cylinders of refrigerant, and then must be
replaced with a fresh drier. Charge the system by means of a charging fitting in the liquid line.
Weigh the refrigerant drum before charging so that an accurate record can be kept of the weight
of refrigerant put in the system. If refrigerant is added to the system through the suction side of
the compressor, charge in vapor form only.

9. Start-Up

9.1 Compressors and condensing units will normally be delivered to the job with sufficient oil for
the average installation. Check all compressors for proper oil level, and if necessary add suf-
ficient oil to bring the level to the center of the crankcase sight glass. Use only the refrigeration
oil recommended by the compressor manufacturer. All oil must be delivered to the job in factory
sealed, unopened containers.

9.2 Before operating any motor or other moving parts, they are to be lubricated with the proper oil
or grease as necessary.

9.3 Remove or loosen shipping retainers under motor compressors. Make sure hold down nuts on
spring mounted compressors are not touching the compressor feet, and are not more than 1/16”
above the mounting foot.

9.4 Check high and low pressure control cut-in and cut-out points. Check water valve settings. Adjust
if necessary.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-18 All rights reserved.
9.5 After the compressor is started, continue charging until system has sufficient refrigerant for proper
operation. Do not overcharge. During start-up, no compressor is to be left operating unattended
and unwatched until the system is properly charged with refrigerant and oil.

9.6 Do not add refrigeration oil while the system is short of refrigerant unless oil level is dangerously
low. If oil has been added during charging, carefully check the compressor crankcase sight glass
after reaching a normal operating condition to be sure the system does not contain an excessive
amount of oil which can cause slugging or loss of refrigerating capacity.

9.7 The temperature controls shall be set to maintain the following temperatures in the center of the
fixture before stocking:


(Minimum) (Maximum)
Meat walk-in cooler 31 33
Meat holding cooler 29 31
Self-Service meat counter 31 33
Dairy walk-in cooler 36 38
Self-Service dairy case 36 38
Produce walk-in cooler 38 40
Self-Service produce counter 38 40
Self-Service beverage case 38 40
Frozen food storage cooler -15 -10
Self-Service frozen food case -5 0
Self-Service ice cream case -15 -10
Meat preparation room 54 56

10. Operation and Check-Out

10.1 The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper adjustment of all controls in the system, in-
cluding the controls on each refrigeration circuit, air temperature controls in the machine room,
remote condenser or water tower controls, water regulating valves, or such other controls as
may be required.

10.2 The Contractor shall check the compressor overload protectors with the manufacturer’s speci-
fications, and inform the Owner if they are incorrect.

10.3 The Contractor shall furnish a competent refrigeration service mechanic to check and make
any necessary adjustments to the controls during the time the fixtures are being stocked. The
mechanic shall remain at the store for at least 8 hours during the first day the store is open for
business beginning 1 hour before opening time.

11. Identification and User Instruction

11.1 Each refrigerated fixture and cooler coil should be numbered starting at No. 1. These numbers
shall be not less than 1” in height and shall be stenciled or marked neatly on the fixture in an
inconspicuous location easily available to the serviceman. The compressors or condensing
units serving the fixtures should be marked with the numbers of the cases and coils served with
figures not less than 1 ½” in height.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
11.2 All switches, starters, and controls shall be identified as to the fixture or condensing unit they

11.3 The Contractor shall turn over to the Owner one copy of all manufacturer’s literature furnished
with each piece of equipment. Within 30 days after the store is opened, the Contractor shall
instruct the store management on the proper operation, care and upkeep of all equipment.

11.4 A permanent data sheet shall be prepared on each installation with two copies for the Owner and
the original for the installing Contractor’s files. The data sheet shall contain a complete record
of sizes and identification of all components used in the installation together with any pertinent
information. The data sheet should include but is not limited to the following:

A. Compressor manufacturer, model, and serial number.

B. Fixture manufacturer, model, and serial number.
C. Design operating temperatures.
D. Condensing unit model, and serial number. (If package condensing unit)
E. If remote condenser, type, manufacturer, model, fan data.
F. Refrigerant and weight of charge.
G. Electrical service, volts, phase, cycles, wire size.
H. Control circuit, voltage, fuse size.
I. Contactor or starter, manufacturer, model, size, part number.
J. Compressor motor protection, type, size, part number.
K. Data on capacitors, relays, or other electrical components.
L. Pressure control, type, size, model number, setting.
M. Oil pressure safety control, type, model number.
N. Defrost control, type, manufacturer, model number, setting.
O. Data on miscellaneous refrigeration system components such as pressure controls, winterizing
controls, oil separators, crankcase heaters, solenoid valves, valves, etc.
P. Liquid line drier, manufacturer, size, model number, connections.
Q. Schematic diagram of refrigerant piping.

12. Warranty and Guarantees

12.1 All equipment and material supplied and installed by the Contractor shall be guaranteed for one
year from the date of the store opening. The Contractor shall provide the necessary labor, materi-
als, and incidental expenses to maintain the equipment in proper operation for a period of one
year from the date the store opens for business, without additional cost to the owner. (Tempera-
ture rises caused by improper stocking or abnormal air currents shall not be the responsibility
of the Contractor). The service shall not include repairs or replacements due to damage by fire,
earthquake, tornado, the elements or act of God, or damage caused by misuse of the system
by the Owner, power failures, broken glass, or lightning.

12.2 Official acceptance of the completed job shall be when the job is complete in every detail and
has been run under load conditions with satisfactory performance for a period of at least one

12.3 In the event any equipment furnished by the Owner is found to be defective, the Owner will com-
pensate the Contractor for the labor and material used in replacing the equipment or repairing
the defects.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

24-20 All rights reserved.
12.4 The first year service shall include at least three complete lubrications at approximately 4 month
intervals. At the time the equipment is lubricated, each system shall be checked for proper ad-
justment, and any necessary repairs or corrections shall be made.

12.5 Approximately 30 days prior to the expiration of the one year warranty period, the Contractor
shall make a final inspection, checking each system for proper adjustment, and correcting any
deficiencies, and shall write the Owner a letter certifying that each system is free of leaks and
is operating at the specified temperature.

© 1970 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

All rights reserved.
Section 25

Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. manufac- year of manufacture. The third digit is a code letter
turers both welded and accessible hermetic identifying the month of manufacture, the twelve
(Copelametic®) motor-compressors. Welded months of the year being denoted by the first twelve
compressors cannot be repaired internally in the letters of the alphabet (A for January, B for February,
field, and service operations on these compressors etc.). The last five digits are assigned in numerical
are limited to external electrical components and order during each month’s production.
normal system repairs.
The manufacturer of the motor used in the motor-
Copelametic® motor-compressors are specifically compressor is also shown by a code letter preceding
designed for field accessibility if required. Remov- the serial number. Code letters are as follows:
able heads, stator covers, bottom plates and hous-
ing covers allow access for easy field repairs in the C Century
event of compressor damage. D Delco
E Emerson
The description of service operations that follows is G General Electric
general in nature, but those sections dealing with S A. O. Smith
internal maintenance apply only to Copelametic® W Wagner
To illustrate, a typical serial number might be C
NAMEPLATE IDENTIFICATION 69G19417. This would indicate:

The model number designation on Copeland®

brand compressors and condensing units provides C Century Motor
a basic identification of the electrical and physical 69G Manufactured in July, 1969
characteristics. The model numbering system for 19417 Identification number
Copelametic® compressors is shown in Figure
114, for welded compressors in Figure 115, and The motor electrical characteristics are also
for condensing units in Figure 116. stamped on the nameplate. The motor may be
operated at voltages plus or minus 10% of the
For example, model number 4RH1-2500-TMK-105 nameplate rating.
identifies a Copelametic® motor-compressor as
follows: Most Copeland® brand motor-compressors have