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Ambar N. Sengupta

November, 2008

2 Ambar N. Sengupta

Contents

Introductory Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1 Ordered Fields and The Real Number System 7

1.1 Ordered Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.1.1 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.1.2 Order Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.1.3 Ordered Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.1.4 The absolute value function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.1.5 The Archimedean Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.2 The Real Number System R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.2.1 Hilbert Maximality and the Completeness Property . . . . 19

1.2.2 Completeness of R and measurement . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Problem Set 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2 The Extended Real Line and Its Topology 23

2.1 The extended real line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.2 Neighborhoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.3 Types of points for a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.4 Interior, Exterior, and Boundary of a Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.5 Open Sets and Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.6 Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2.7 Open Sets and Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2.8 Closed sets in R and in R

∗

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.9 Closure of a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.10 The closure of a set is closed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.11 S is the smallest closed set containing S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.12 R

∗

is compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.13 Compactness of closed subsets of R

∗

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.14 The Heine-Borel Theorem: Compact subsets of R . . . . . . . . . 36

3

4 Ambar N. Sengupta

2.15 Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.16 Limits points of a sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

2.17 Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

2.18 Limit points and suprema and inﬁma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

2.19 Limit of a sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

2.20 Simple Examples of limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

2.21 The sequence 1/n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

2.22 The sequence R

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

2.23 Monotone Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

2.24 The limit of a sequence is unique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

2.25 Convergent sequences and Cauchy sequences . . . . . . . . . . . 49

2.26 Every Cauchy sequence is bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

2.27 Every Cauchy sequence is convergent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

2.28 The rationals are countable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

2.29 The real numbers are uncountable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

2.30 Connected Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

3 Integration 57

3.1 Approaching the Riemann Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

3.2 Riemann Sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

3.3 Deﬁnition of the Riemann Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.4 Reﬁning Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

3.5 The Darboux Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

3.6 Integrable functions are bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

3.7 Variation of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3.8 The algebra R [a, b] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

3.9 C[a, b] ⊂R [a, b] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

3.10 The Integral as a Non-negative Linear Functional . . . . . . . . . 73

3.11 Additivity of the Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

3.12 Monotone Functions are Riemann Integrable . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

3.13 Riemann Sums and the Riemann Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

A Question Bank 89

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 5

Introductory Remarks

These notes were written for an introductory real analysis class, Math 4031, at

LSU in the Fall of 2006. In addition to these notes, a set of notes by Professor L.

Richardson were used.

There are several different ideologies that would guide the presentation of

concepts and proofs in any course in real analysis:

(i) the historical way

(ii) the most natural way

(iii) the most efﬁcient way

(iv) a comprehensive way, explaining the insights from several different ap-

proaches

The reality of constraints of time makes (iii) the most convenient approach,

and perhaps the best example of this approach is Rudin’s Principles of Mathemat-

ical Analysis [5]. The downside is that there is little possibility of conveying any

insights or intuition.

In studying the notion of completeness, a choice has to be made whether to

treat the Cauchy sequence point of view or the existence of suprema as funda-

mental. I have chosen the latter; it conforms to the classical geometric notion of

a positive real number being speciﬁed by quantities greater than it and those less

than it. This point of view also guides the choice of approach in the treatment of

the Riemann integral; the Riemann integral of a function is the unique real number

lying between the upper Riemann sums and lower Riemann sums.

The notes here do not include a chapter on continuous functions, for which we

followed the Richardson notes.

These notes have not been proof read carefully. I will update them time to

time.

6 Ambar N. Sengupta

Chapter 1

Ordered Fields and The Real

Number System

In this chapter we go over the essential, foundational, facts about the real number

system.

Positive real numbers arose from geometry in Greek mathematics, as ratios of

magnitudes, such as segments or planar regions or even angles. In the discussion

below we focus on segments.

In Euclid’s Elements, a segment EF is taken to exceed a segment GH, symbol-

ically

EF>GH

if EF is congruent to a segment GK, where K is some point between E and F. An

important feature of this order relation is encapsulated in the archimedean axiom:

given any two segments, some multiple of any one of them exceeds the other.

Then aAa pair PQ and RS if for any positive numbers n and m, the segment

nAB (which is n copies of AB laid contiguously) exceeds the segment mCD if

and only if the segment nPQ exceeds the segment mRS. The ratio

AB

CD

is then essentially the equivalence class of all segment pairs which are in the same

ratio as AB is to CD. Euclid also deﬁnes the ratio XY/ZW to be greater than the

ratio PQ/RS :

XY

ZW

>

PQ

RS

if they are unequal and if whenever mZW>nXY then also mRS>nPQ.

7

8 Ambar N. Sengupta

A special case is that of commensurate segments: if a whole multiple of AB,

say nAB, is congruent to a whole multiple of CD, say mCD, then the ratio

AB

CD

is

rational, and is denoted by

m

n

.

It is readily checked that

m

n

=

p

q

if and only if

qm = pn.

Such ratios are the rational numbers. Other ratios are irrational. In either case,

Euclid’s considerations suggest that a ratio of segments may be understood in

terms of a set of rational numbers, for example the set of all those rationals which

exceed the given ratio.

The axioms of geometry, and the Euclidean construction procedures, show

that ratios of segments can be added and multiplied and, when 0 and negatives

are included, an algebraic structure called a ﬁeld emerges (this is discussed at

length by Hilbert [3]). The maximal such ﬁeld, respecting the axioms of geometry

pertaining to the order relation and congruence, constitutes the real number system

R.

Leaving aside the historical background, the real number system may be con-

structed by starting with the empty set, constructing the natural numbers, then the

rationals, and then the real numbers by Dedekind’s method of identifying a real

number with a splitting of the rationals into two disjoint classes with members of

one class exceeding those of the other.

Dedekind’s method has beed generalized in a striking, and vastly more power-

ful way, by Conway [1], who shows how the Dedekind cut method can be applied

to abstract sets leading to the construction of all real numbers as well as tran-

scendentals and inﬁnitesimals. Knuth’s novel [4] is an unusual and entertaining

presentation of this construction.

1.1 Ordered Fields

In this section we deﬁne and prove simple properties of ﬁelds, ordered ﬁelds, and

absolute values. The reader wishing to move on to properties of the real numbers

may skim the contents of the ﬁrst few subsections, and proceed to subsection

1.1.4.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 9

1.1.1 Fields

A ﬁeld F is a set along with two binary operations

Addition : FF →F : (a, b) →a+b (1.1)

and

Multiplication : FF →F : (a, b) →ab (1.2)

satisfying the following axioms:

1. The associative law holds for addition

a+(b+c) = (a+b) +c for all a, b, c ∈ F (1.3)

2. There is an element 0 ∈ F, the zero or additive identity element, for which

a+0 = a = 0+a for all a ∈ F (1.4)

3. Every element a ∈ F has an additive inverse −a, called the negative of a:

a+(−a) = 0 = (−a) +a (1.5)

4. The commutative law holds for addition:

a+b = b+a for all a, b ∈ F (1.6)

5. The associative law holds for multiplication

6. The associative law holds for addition

a(bc) = (ab)c for all a, b, c ∈ F (1.7)

7. There is an element 1 ∈ F, the unit or multiplicative identity element, for

which

a1 = a = 1a for all a ∈ F (1.8)

8. Every non-zero element a ∈ F has an multiplicative inverse a

−1

, called the

reciprocal of a:

aa

−1

= 1 = a

−1

a for all non-zero a ∈ F (1.9)

10 Ambar N. Sengupta

9. The commutative law holds for multiplication:

ab = ba for all a, b ∈ F (1.10)

10. The distributive law holds:

a(b+c) = ab+ac, (b+c)a = ba+ca for all a, b, c ∈ F (1.11)

11. The element 1 is not equal to the element 0:

1 = 0

We have not attempted to provide a minimal axiomset, and some of the axioms

may be deduced from others. For instance, the commutativity of addition can be

deduced from the other axioms.

Because of the associative laws, we will just write

a+b+c

instead of a+(b+c), and

abc

instead of abc.

Let us note a few simple consequences:

Theorem 1 If x ∈ F is such that

a+x = a for some a ∈ F

and y ∈ F is such that

by = b for some non-zero b ∈ F

then

x = 0 and y = 1.

In particular, the additive identity and the multiplicative identity are unique. More-

over,

−0 = 0 and 1

−1

= 1

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 11

Proof. Adding −a to

a+x = a

shows that x is 0. Multiplying

by = b

by b

−1

shows that y is 1. The other claims follow from

0+0 = 0 and 1 1 = 1. QED

Theorem 2 If a, b ∈ F, and b = 0, then

−(−a) = a, and (b

−1

)

−1

= b.

Moreover,

(−a)b =−ab, and (−a)(−b) = ab.

The multiplicative inverse a

−1

is best written as the reciprocal:

1

b

= b

−1

,

and the product ab

−1

as

a

b

= ab

−1

There are many other easy consequences of the axioms which we will use

without comment.

We denote the set of natural numbers by P:

P =¦1, 2, 3, ...¦, (1.12)

and the set of integers by

Z =¦0, 1, −1, 2, −2, 3, −3, ...¦, (1.13)

We can multiply any element a ∈ F by an integer as follows. First deﬁne

1a = a,

where now 1 is the number one in Z. Next,

2a

def

= a+a,

12 Ambar N. Sengupta

and, inductively,

(n+1)a

def

= na+a (1.14)

for all a ∈ F and all n ∈ P. Next deﬁne negative multiples by

(−n)a =−(na) (1.15)

for all n ∈ P and all a ∈ F. Finally,

0a = a (1.16)

where 0 is the integer 0. The following facts can be readily veriﬁed:

x(ya) = (xy)a for all x, y ∈ Z and all a ∈ F (1.17)

x(a+b) = xa+xb for all x ∈ Z and all a, b ∈ F (1.18)

(x +y)a = xa+ya for all x, y ∈ Z and all a ∈ F (1.19)

There is a multiplicative analog of this given by powers of elements. If m is a

positive integer and a ∈ F we deﬁne

a

1

= a

and

a

m+1

= a

m

a.

We also deﬁne

a

0

= 1 for non-zero a ∈ F

and, for any positive integer m and non-zero a ∈ F,

a

−m

= (a

−1

)

n

=

1

a

m

We will use without comment simple facts such as

(a

m

)

n

= a

mn

,

valid for suitable a ∈ F and m, n ∈ Z.

The simplest example of a ﬁeld is the two-element ﬁeld

Z

2

=¦0, 1¦,

with addition and multiplication deﬁned modulo 2; for example,

1+1 = 0 in Z

2

We will, however, be concerned with ﬁelds which permit a consistent ordering of

their elements.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 13

1.1.2 Order Relations

An order relation on a set S is a set O of ordered pairs (x, y) of elements of S sat-

isfying the conditions O1 and O2 below. It is convenient to adopt the convention

that

x < y means (x, y) ∈ O

We also write

y > x

to mean x < y. The axioms of order are:

O1. For any x, y ∈ F exactly one of the following hold:

x = y, or x < y, or y < x.

O2. If x < y and y < z then x < z.

It is also convenient to use the notation:

x ≤y means x = y or x < y

and, similarly,

x ≥y means x = y or x > y

If T is a subset of an ordered set S then an element u ∈ S is said to be an upper

bound of T if

t ≤u for all t ∈ T (1.20)

If there is a least such upper bound then that element is called the supremum of T:

supT = the least upper bound of T (1.21)

We deﬁne similarly lower bounds and inﬁmums:

if l ≤t for every t ∈ T then l is called a lower bound of T (1.22)

and

inf T = the greatest lower bound of T (1.23)

Of course, the sup or the inf might not exist.

14 Ambar N. Sengupta

1.1.3 Ordered Fields

An ordered ﬁeld is a ﬁeld F with an order relation in which, in addition to the ﬁeld

and order axioms stated above, the following hold:

OF1. If x, y, z ∈ F and x < y then x +z < y +z:

x < y implies x +z < y +z for all x, y, z ∈ F (1.24)

OF2. If x, y, z ∈ F and x < y, and if also z > 0, then xz < yz:

x < y and z > 0 imply xz < yz for all x, y, z ∈ F. (1.25)

If x > 0 we say that x is positive. If x < 0 we say that x is negative.

We have the following simple observations for an ordered ﬁeld:

Theorem 3 Let F be an ordered ﬁeld. Then

(i) x > 0 if and only if −x < 0

(ii) For any non-zero x ∈ F we have x

2

> 0

(iii) 1 > 0

(iv) For any r ∈ Z the element r1 ∈ F is > 0 if r is a positive integer and is < 0

if r is a negative integer

(v) x > y holds if and only if x −y > 0

(vi) If x ∈ F and x > 0 then 1/x > 0

(vii) The product of two positive elements is positive

(viii) The product of a positive and negative is negative

(ix) The product of two negative elements is negative

(x) If x > y and z < 0 then xz < yz.

(xi) If x > y then −x <−y

(xii) If x > y > 0 then 1/x < 1/y

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 15

Proof. We prove some of the results.

(i) Suppose x > 0. Then we have

x +(−x) > 0+(−x),

and so

0 >−x.

Conversely, if −x < 0 then adding x to both sides shows that x > 0.

(ii) If x > 0 then, by OF2, we have

x

2

= xx > x0 = 0.

On the other hand, if x < 0 then we know that −x > 0 and so

x

2

= (−x)(−x) > (−x)0 = 0.

(iii) Since 1 is 1

2

, it follows that 1 > 0.

(vi) Suppose x > 0. Since x(1/x) = 1, and 1 = 0, it follows that 1/x cannot be

zero. If 1/x < 0 then, however, x(1/x) would have to be < 0, but we know that

1 > 0. Thus, 1/x > 0.

(xi) If x > y then, adding −x −y shows that −y <−x.

(xii) If x > y > 0 then xy > 0 and hence 1/(xy) > 0. Multiplying x > y by the

positive element 1/(xy) gives 1/y > 1/x. QED

Observe that if x > 0 then

2x = x +x > x +0 = x,

and

3x = 2x +x > 2x +0 = 2x,

and, proceeding inductively, we have

0 < x < 2x < 3x < < nx < (n+1)x < for all n ∈ P and x > 0 in F

(1.26)

In particular, inside the ordered ﬁeld F we have a copy of the natural numbers

1, 2, 3, ... on identifying n ∈ P with n1

F

, where 1

F

is the unit element in F. This

then leads to a copy of the integers inside F, and we can assume that

Z ⊂F (1.27)

16 Ambar N. Sengupta

Going further, if m, n ∈ Z, and n = 0, we have then the ratio

m

n

∈ F.

The set of all such ratios m/n is the set of rationals

Q⊂F (1.28)

and is an ordered subﬁeld of the ordered ﬁeld F.

1.1.4 The absolute value function

The absolute value [ [ function in an ordered ﬁeld F is deﬁned by

[x[ =

x if x ≥0

−x if x ≤0

(1.29)

For instance,

[1[ = 1, and [ −1[ = 1.

The deﬁnition of [x[ shows directly that

[ −x[ =[x[ ≥0 for all x ∈ F (1.30)

It is also useful to observe that

[x[ is the larger of x and −x (1.31)

We think of

[a−b[

as measuring the difference between a and b.

We have then

Theorem 4 For any a, b ∈ F we have:

(i) the triangle inequality

[a+b[ ≤[a[ +[b[ (1.32)

Equality holds if and only if a and b are both ≥0 or both ≤0.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 17

(ii) the absolute values differ by at most the difference in a and b:

[a[ −[b[

≤[a−b[ (1.33)

(iii) [ab[ =[a[[b[.

Proof. Recall that [x[ is the larger of x and −x. Therefore, [a[ +[b[ is greater or

equal to ±a+(±b); in particular, it is greater or equal to a+b and (−a) +(−b).

Consequently, [a[ +[b[ is greater or equal to a+b and −(a+b), and so

[a[ +[b[ ≥[a+b[.

Equality holds if and only if [a[ = a and [b[ = b or [a[ =−a and [b[ =−b. Thus,

equality holds if and only if a and b are either both ≥0 or both ≤0.

Next, using the triangle inequality we have

[a−b[ +[b[ ≥[a+b −b[ =[a[,

and so

[a−b[ ≥[a[ −[b[.

Interchanging a and b yields:

[b−a[ ≥[b[ −[a[.

Observe that

[b−a[ =[a−b[.

Thus,

[a−b[ is ≥ to both [a[ −[b[ and −([a[ −[b[).

Since the larger of the latter is

[a[ −[b[

, we have proved (1.33).

We know that [x[ is x or −x, whichever is ≥0. Consequently, the product [a[[b[

is one of the elements

ab, (−a)b, a(−b), (−a)(−b),

i.e. one of the elements ab and −ab. Thus, [a[[b[ is ab or −ab, whichever is ≥0,

and so it is [ab[. QED

18 Ambar N. Sengupta

1.1.5 The Archimedean Property

An ordered ﬁeld F is said to have the archimedean property if for any x, y ∈ F,

with x > 0, there exists a multiple of x which exceeds y:

nx > y for some n ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, ...¦ (1.34)

The ﬁeld Q of rationals is clearly archimedean:

Theorem 5 The ordered ﬁeld Q of rationals is acrhimedean.

Proof. Let x, y ∈ Q, with x > 0. If y ≥ 0 then we have 1x > y and we are done.

Now suppose x, y > 0. Then

x =

p

q

y =

r

s

,

where p, q, r, s ∈ P. Take

n = qr +1.

Then

nx = qr(p/q) + p/q > pr ≥

r

s

= y,

and we are done. QED

In an archimedean ordered ﬁeld there are no inﬁnities, and there are also no

inﬁnitesimals:

Theorem 6 If F is an archimedean ﬁeld then for any w > 0 in F there is an n ∈ P

such that

1

n

w < x.

Proof. Simply choose n for which nx is > w. QED

1.2 The Real Number System R

We shall work with the real number system in an axiomatic way. We will assume

that it is an ordered ﬁeld in which the completeness axiom of completeness holds.

Needless to say, it is essential to actually construct such a system so as to be

sure that there is no hidden contradiction between the axioms, but we shall not

describe a construction in these notes.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 19

1.2.1 Hilbert Maximality and the Completeness Property

As we have mentioned before, the structure of Euclidean geometry, as formalized

through the axioms of Hilbert, produces an archimedean ordered ﬁeld. To com-

plete the story, one can add to these axioms the further requirement that this ﬁeld

is maximal in the sense that it cannot be embedded inside any larger archimedean

ordered ﬁeld. It turns out then that any such ordered ﬁeld is isomorphic to any

other, and thus there is essentially one such ordered ﬁeld. This ordered ﬁeld is the

real number system R.

A crucial fact about R is the completeness property:

If L and U are non-empty subsets of R such that every element of L

is ≤ every element of U, then there is a real number m which lies

between L and U:

l ≤m ≤u for all l ∈ L and all u ∈U. (1.35)

This property is also often expressed as:

If R is partitioned into two disjoint subsets L and U whose union is

R, and if every element of L is ≤ every element of U then there is a

unique element x ∈ R which lies between L and U:

l ≤x ≤u for all l ∈ L and all u ∈U. (1.36)

It is useful to view the real numbers geometrically. Consider a line, with two

special points O and I marked on it. For any point P on the line on the same side of

O as P we think of the ratio OP/OI as a positive real number. Points on the other

side from I correspond to negative real numbers, and the point O itself should be

thought of as 0. The completebess property says that there are no ‘gaps’ in the

line.

The completeness property can be formulated equivalently as:

Every non-empty subset of R which has an upper bound has a least upper bound.

(1.37)

The completeness property implies the archimedean peoperty:

Theorem 7 If in an ordered ﬁeld the property (1.37) holds then the archimedean

property also holds.

20 Ambar N. Sengupta

A proof of this is outlined in an exercise below.

The modern understanding and point of view on completeness grew out of the

work of Richard Dedekind [2].

1.2.2 Completeness of R and measurement

Even in Euclid’s geometry, a real number was, implicitly, understood in terms of

all rationals which exceeded it and all rationals below it. However, the traditional

axioms of Euclidean geometry, with requirements on intersections of lines and

circles, can work with a ﬁeld which is larger than the rationals but smaller than R,

and completeness is not essential.

The simplest measurement problem is to devise a measure of sets of points

in the plane which are made up of a ﬁnite collection of segments constructed by

Euclidean geometry. Two such sets should have the same measure if they can be

decomposed into a ﬁnite collection of congruent segments. For this we would

not need the full complete system R of real numbers. Moving up a dimension,

with the task of measuring areas of polygonal regions constructed by Euclidean

geometry, one could still get away with a less-than-complete system of numbers.

However, it was shown by Max Dehn in 1900, in resolving Hilbert’s Third Prob-

lem, that there are polyedra in three dimensions which have equal volumes (as

deﬁned by requirements of ‘upper’ and ‘lower’ approximations) which cannot be

decomposed into congruent pieces. This, along with, of course, the utility of

measuring areas of curved regions even in two dimensions, makes it absolutely

essential to work with a notion of measure that goes beyond simply decomposing

into geometrically congruent ﬁgures. For a truly useful theory of measure, the

completeness of the number system is essential.

Capturing a real number between upper approximations and lower approxima-

tions proves to be very useful. Archimedes and others computed areas of curved

regions by such upper and lower approximations. In modern calculus, this method

lives on in the Riemann integral, as we shall see later.

Problem Set 1

1. Prove that in any ordered ﬁeld, between any two distinct elements there is

at least one other element.

2. Prove that in any ordered ﬁeld, between any two distinct element lie in-

ﬁnitely many elements.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 21

3. If F is an archimedean ordered ﬁeld, such as R, show that between any two

distinct elements there is a rational element.

4. Let F be an archimedean ordered ﬁeld, and let x, y ∈ F with x < y. If z ∈ F

show that there is a rational multiple qz of z for which x < qz < y.

5. Suppose x ∈ R is ≥all elements of a non-empty subset S ⊂R. Explain why

this implies x ≥supS.

6. Suppose S is a non-empty subset of R and x ∈ R is not an upper bound of

S. Show that there exists y > x which is also not an upper bound of S.

7. Prove that the completeness property (1.37) implies the property (1.36).

[Hint: Suppose (1.37) holds. If S ⊂R is a non-empty set which is bounded

above, then we can take U to be the set of all upper bounds of S and L to be

the complement, i.e. all real numbers which are < some element of S. Let

x ∈ F be provided by (1.36). Show that x is the least upper bound of S.]

8. Prove that (1.36) implies the completeness property (1.37).

9. Prove that the completeness property implies the archimdean propery. [Hint:

Suppose F is an ordered ﬁeld in which (1.37) holds. Let x, y ∈ F, with

x > 0. Suppose that no positive integral multiple of x exceeds y, and let

S = ¦nx : n ∈ P¦. Then y is, by assumption, an upper bound for S. Let

u = supS, the least upper bound of S. Consider the element u −

1

2

x. This,

being < u, is not an upper bound. Use this to produce an element of S

greater than u, thus reaching a contradiction.]

10. Suppose L and U are non-empty subsets of R such that (i) every element

of L is ≤ every element of R, and (ii) for any ε > 0 there is an element

l ∈ L and an element u ∈U with u−l < ε. Prove that there is a unique real

number which is ≤ all elements of U and ≥ all elements of L.

22 Ambar N. Sengupta

Chapter 2

The Extended Real Line and Its

Topology

In this chapter we study topological concepts in the context of the real line. For

technical purposes, it will be convenient to extend the real line R by adjoining

to it a largest element ∞ and a smallest element −∞. No metaphysical meaning

need be attached to these inﬁnities. The primary reason for introducing them is to

simplify the statements of several theorems.

2.1 The extended real line

The extended real line is obtained by a largest element ∞, and a smallest element

−∞, to the real line R:

R

∗

=R∪¦−∞, ∞¦ (2.1)

Here ∞ and −∞ are abstract elements. We extend the order relation to R by

declaring that

−∞ < x < ∞ for all x ∈ R (2.2)

Much of our work will be on R

∗

, instead of just R.

We deﬁne addition on R

∗

as follows:

x +∞ = ∞ = ∞+x for all x ∈ R

∗

with x >−∞ (2.3)

y +(−∞) = −∞ = (−∞) +y for all y ∈ R

∗

with y < ∞. (2.4)

Note that

∞+(−∞) is not deﬁned,

23

24 Ambar N. Sengupta

i.e. there is no useful or consistent deﬁnition for it.

The following algebraic facts continue to hold in R

∗

:

x +y = y +x, x +(y +z) = (x +y) +z, (2.5)

whenever either side of these equations holds (i.e. if one side is deﬁned then so is

the other and the equality

2.2 Neighborhoods

A neighborhood of a point p ∈ R is an interval of the form

(p−δ, p+δ)

where δ > 0 is any positive real number. Thus, the neighborhood consists of all

points distance less than δ from p:

(p−δ, p+δ) =¦x ∈ R : [x −p[ < δ¦. (2.6)

For example,

(1.2, 1.8)

is a neighborhood of 2.

A typical neighborhood of 0 is of the form

(−ε, ε)

for any positive real number ε.

A neighborhood of ∞ in R

∗

=R∪¦−∞, ∞¦ is a ray of the form

(t, ∞] =¦x ∈ R

∗

: x >t¦

with t any real number. For example,

(5, ∞]

is a neigborhood of ∞.

A neighborhood of −∞ in R

∗

is a ray of the form

[−∞, s) =¦x ∈ R

∗

: x < s¦

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 25

where s ∈ R. An example is

[−∞, 4)

Observe that if U and V are neighborhoods of p then U∩V is also a neighbor-

hood of p. In fact, either U contains V as a subset of vice versa, and so U ∩V is

just the smaller of the two neighborhoods.

Observe also that if N is a neighborhood of a point p, and if q ∈ N then q had

a neighborhood lying entirely inside N. For example, the neighborhood (2, 4) of 3

contains 2.5, and we can form the neighborhood (2, 3) of 2.5 lying entirely inside

(2, 4).

Here is a simple but fundamental observation:

Distinct points of R

∗

have disjoint neighborhoods. (2.7)

This is called the Hausdorff property of R

∗

.

For example, 3 and 5 have the neighborhoods

(2, 4) and (4.5, 5.5)

The points 2 and ∞ have disjoint neighborhoods, such as

(−1, 5) and (12, ∞]

Exerise Give examples of disjoint neighborhoods of

(i) 2 and −4

(ii) −∞ and 5

(iii) ∞ and −∞

(iv) 1 and −1

2.3 Types of points for a set

Consider a set

S ⊂R

∗

.

A point p ∈ R

∗

is said to be an interior point of S if it has a neighborhood U lying

entirely inside S, i.e. with

U ⊂S.

26 Ambar N. Sengupta

For example, for the set

E = (−4, 5] ∪¦6, 8¦∪[9, ∞],

the points −2, 3, 11 are interior points. The point ∞ is also an interior point of E.

A point p is an exterior point if it has a neighborhood U lying entirely outside

S, i.e.

U ⊂S

c

.

For example, for the set E above, points −5, 7, and −∞ are exterior to E.

A point which is neither interior to S nor exterior to S is a boundary point of

S. Thus p is a boundary point of S if every neighborhood of p intersects both S

and S

c

.

In the example above, the boundary points of E are

−4, 5, 6, 8, 9, ∞.

Next consider the set

¦3¦∪(5, ∞)

The boundary points are 3, 5, and ∞. It is important to observe that if we work

with the real line R instead of the extended line R

∗

then we must exclude ∞ as a

boundary point, because it doesn’t exist as far as R is concerned.

Example For the set A = [−∞, 4) ∪¦5, 9¦ ∪[6, 7), decide which of the following are

true and which false:

(i) −6 is an interior point (T)

(ii) 6 is an interior point (F)

(iii) 9 is a boundary point (T)

(iv) 5 is an interior point (F)

Exerise For the set B = [−∞, −5) ∪¦2, 5, 8¦∪[4, 7), decide which of the following

are true and which false:

(i) −6 is an interior point

(ii) −5 is an interior point

(iii) 5 is a boundary point

(iv) 4 is an interior point

(v) 7 is a boundary point.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 27

2.4 Interior, Exterior, and Boundary of a Set

The set of all interior points of a set S is denoted

S

0

and is called the interior of S.

The set of all boundary points of S is denoted

∂S

and is called the boundary of S.

The set of all points exterior to S is the exterior of S, and we shall denote it

S

ext

.

Thus, the whole extended line R

∗

is split up into three disjoint pieces:

R

∗

= S

0

∪∂S∪S

ext

(2.8)

Recall that a point p is on the boundary of S if every neighborhood of the

point intersects both S and S

c

. But this is exactly the condition for p to be on the

boundary of S

c

. Thus

∂S = ∂S

c

. (2.9)

The interior of the entire extended line R

∗

is all of R

∗

. So

∂R

∗

= / 0.

Example For the set A = [−∞, 4) ∪¦5, 9¦∪[6, 7),

(i) A

0

= [−∞, 4) ∪(6, 7)

(ii) ∂A =¦4, 5, 9, 7, 6¦

(iii) A

c

= [4, 5) ∪(5, 6) ∪[7, 9) ∪(9, ∞]

(iv) the interior of the complement A

c

is

(A

c

)

0

= (4, 5) ∪(5, 6) ∪(7, 9) ∪(9, ∞]

28 Ambar N. Sengupta

For the set

G = (3, ∞)

the boundary of G, when viewed as a subset of R

∗

, is

∂G =¦3, ∞¦.

But if we decide to work only inside R then the boundary of G is just ¦3¦.

Exerise For the set B =¦−4, 8¦∪[1, 7) ∪[9, ∞),

(i) B

0

=

(ii) ∂B =

(iii) B

c

=

(iv) the interior of the complement B

c

is

(B

c

)

0

=

2.5 Open Sets and Topology

We say that a set is open if it does not contain any of its boundary points. For

example,

(2, 3) ∪(5, 9)

is open.

Also

(4, ∞]

is open.

But

(3, 4]

is not open, because the point 4 is a boundary point.

The entire extended line R

∗

is open, because it has no boundary points.

Moreove, the empty set / 0 is open, because, again, it doesn’t have any boundary

points.

Notice then that every point of an open set is an interior point. Thus, a set S is

open means that

S

0

= S.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 29

Thus for an open set S each point has a neighborhood contained entirely inside

S. In other words, S is made up of a union of neighborhoods.

Viewed in this way, it becomes clear that the union of open sets is an open set.

Now consider two open sets A and B. We will show that A∩B is open. Take

any point

p ∈ A∩B.

Then p is in both A and B. Since p ∈A and since A is open, there is a neighborhood

U of p which is a subset of A:

U ⊂A.

Similarly there is a neighborhood V of p which is a subset of B:

V ⊂B

But then U ∩V is a neighborhood of p which is a subset of both A and B:

U ∩V ⊂A∩B.

Thus every point in A∩B has a neighborhood lying inside A∩B. Consequently,

A∩B is open.

Now consider three open sets A, B,C. The intersection

A∩B∩C

can be viewed as

(A∩B) ∩C

But here both A∩B and C are open, and hence so is their intersection. Thus,

A∩B∩C

is open. This type of argument works for any ﬁnite number of open sets. Thus:

The intersection of a ﬁnite number of open sets is open.

Exerise Check that the intersection of the sets (4, ∞) and (−35) and (2, 6) is open.

The collection of all open subsets of R is called the topology of R.

The set of all open subsets of R

∗

is called the topology of R

∗

.

30 Ambar N. Sengupta

2.6 Closed Sets

A set S is said to be closed if it contains all its boundary points.

In other words, S is closed if

∂S ⊂S

Thus,

[4, 8] ∪[9, ∞]

is closed.

But

[4, 5)

is not closed because the boundary point 5 is not in this set.

The set

[3, ∞)

is not closed (as a subset of R

∗

) because the boundary point ∞ is not inside the

set. But, viewed as a subset of R it is closed. So we need to be careful in deciding

what is close and what isn’t: a set may be closed viewed as a subset of R but not

as a subset of R

∗

.

The full extended line R

∗

is closed.

The empty set / 0 is also closed.

Note that the sets R

∗

and / 0 are both open and closed.

2.7 Open Sets and Closed Sets

Consider a set S ⊂R

∗

.

If S is open then its boundary points are all outside S:

∂S ⊂S

c

.

But recall that the boundary of S is the same as the boundary of the complement

S

c

. Thus, for S to be open we must have

∂(S

c

) ⊂S

c

,

which means that S

c

contains all its boundary points. But this means that S

c

is

closed.

Thus, if a set is open then its complement is closed.

The converse is also true: if a set is closed then its complement is open. Thus,

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 31

Theorem 8 A subset of R

∗

is open if and only if its complement is closed.

Exercise. Consider the open set (1, 5). Check that its complement if closed.

Exercise. Consider the closed set [4, ∞]. Show that its complement is open.

2.8 Closed sets in R and in R

∗

The set

[3, ∞)

is closed in R, but is not closed in R

∗

. This is because in Rit has only the boundary

point 3, which it contains; in contrast, in R

∗

the point ∞ is also a boundary point

and is not in the set. Thus, when working with closed sets it is important to bear

in mind the distinction between being closed in R and being closed in R

∗

. There

is no such distinction for open sets.

2.9 Closure of a set

The closure of a set S is obtained by throwing in all its boundary points:

S = S∪∂S (2.10)

Of course, if S is closed then its closure is itself.

For example, the closure of (3, 5) is [3, 5]. The closure of

(3, ∞)

is [3, ∞]. (But, in R the closure of (3, ∞) is [3, ∞).)

Let us see what the closure of Q is. Now every point in R

∗

is a boundary point

of Q:

∂Q =R

∗

,

because any neighborhood of any point contains both rationals (points in Q) and

irrationals (points outside Q).

It is useful to think of the closure

S = S∪∂S

in this way:

A point p is in S if and only if every neighborhood of p intersects S.

32 Ambar N. Sengupta

2.10 The closure of a set is closed

Consider the closure S of a set S. We will show that S is a closed set.

Take any boundary point p ∈ ∂S. We have to show that p is actually in S. Now

let N be any neighborhood of p. Then N contains a point q in S. Choose (as we

may) a neighborhood W of q lying entirely inside N. Since q ∈ S it follows that W

contains a point of S. Thus, N contains a point of S. So we have seen that every

neighborhood of p contains a point of S. This means p ∈ S. Thus, we have shown

that every boundary point of S is in S, and so S is closed.

2.11 S is the smallest closed set containing S

Consider any closed set K with

S ⊂K

Take any p ∈ S. Then every neighborhood of p intersects S, and hence also K.

Thus every neighborhood of p intersects K. So, either p is in the interior of K or

on its boundary. But K is closed, and so in either case p is in K. Thus,

S ⊂K

What we hae shown then is that S is the smallest closed set containing S as a

subset.

2.12 R

∗

is compact

There is a special property of R

∗

whose full signiﬁcance is best appreciated at a

later stage. However, we have the language and tools to state and prove it now

and shall do so.

An open cover of R

∗

is a collection U of open sets whose union covers all of

R

∗

. For example,

¦[−∞, 5), (−1, 8), (7, 9) ∪(11, 15), (8, ∞]¦

is an open cover of R

∗

. It is best to draw a picture for yourself to make this clear.

More formaly, an open cover of R

∗

is a set U of open subsets of R

∗

such that

every point x ∈ R

∗

falls inside some open set U in the collection U, i.e. for each

x ∈ R

∗

there exists U ∈ U such that

x ∈U ∈ U.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 33

Another example of an open cover of R

∗

is

¦[−∞, 50), (2, 100), (8, 200) ∪(701, 800), (150, 750), (760, ∞]¦.

The examples of open covers of R

∗

given above are both ﬁnite collections of

sets. Let us look at an example of a cover which uses inﬁnitely many sets.

We start with an open cover of R, as opposed to R

∗

: take all intervals of the

form (a, a+2), where a runs over all integers:

..., (−8, −6), (−7, −5), ...(−2, 0), (−1, 1), (0, 2), (1, 3), ...

In short we are looking at the collection

U

/

=¦(a, a+2) : a ∈ Z¦,

where, recall that Z is the set of all integers. This collection fails to include −∞

and ∞.

To obtain an open cover of R

∗

from U

/

we could, for example, just throw in

the open sets [−∞, −4) and (5, ∞]. Thus, this gives us an open cover of R

∗

:

U =¦[−∞, −4), (5∞]¦∪¦(a, a+2) : a ∈ Z¦.

If you look at this, however, you realize that even though this collection does

contain inﬁnitely many open sets, we don’t reall need all of them to cover R

∗

.

Indeed, we could just use the sub-collection

V =¦[−∞, −4), (−3, −1), (−2, 0), (−1, 1), (0, 2), (1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5), (4, 6), (5, ∞]¦

and this would cover all of R

∗

.

This is not just a feature of one particular example. It turns out that

Every open cover of R

∗

has a ﬁnite subcover.

This property is called compactness, and so

Theorem 9 R

∗

is compact.

We can prove the compactness of R

∗

using the completeness of the real line.

Proof of compactness of R

∗

. Let U be an open cover of R

∗

. This is a collection

of open sets such that every point of R

∗

falls inside some set in the collection. In

particular, −∞ is in some open set W ∈ U. Thus W contains a neighborhood of

−∞, i.e.

[−∞, t) ⊂W

34 Ambar N. Sengupta

for some t ∈ R. So, for one thing, all the elements of R

∗

less than t are covered

by just the one set W in U; we would not need any other set from the cover if we

are to stick to points to the left of t. Now let

S =¦x ∈ R

∗

: ﬁnitelymanysetsinUcover [−∞, x]¦

This set is not empty because −∞∈ S. In fact, t −1 is also in S. By completeness,

the set S has a supremum supS. Let

m = supS.

We will argue in three steps:

(i) First we explain that m isn’t −∞.

(ii) Next we prove that m is in fact, ∞.

(iii) Finally we prove that [∞, m], i.e. all of R

∗

, can be covered by just ﬁnitely

many sets in U.

For (i), note, as before, that there is a real number t such that t −1 is in S, and

so m (being an upper bound of S) has to be ≥t −1. In particular, m is certainly

not −∞.

Now we show that m = ∞. Suppose to the contrary that m < ∞. Now there is

some open set U ∈ U such that m ∈U, because U covers all points of R

∗

. Since

m is not −∞, and is being assumed to be also not ∞, it is in R and so there is some

neighborhood

(m−ε, m+ε) ⊂U,

where ε is a positive real number. Now m−ε being less than the least upper bound

m of S, there has to be some x ∈ S which is greater than m−ε. Thus

m−ε < x ≤m for some x ∈ S.

So, x being in S, there are ﬁnitely many sets, say U

1

, ...,U

N

, in U, which cover the

ray segment [−∞, x]. The set U covers (m−ε, m+ε). Thus, the collection

¦U

1

, ...,U

N

,U¦

covers all of

[−∞, m+ε).

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 35

But this means that, for example, m+

1

2

ε is in S, for the ray segment [−∞, m+1/2]

is covered by the ﬁnite collection U

1

, ...,U

N

,U. But now we have a contradiction,

because we have found a number, m+ε/2, greater than m, which is in S. Thus,

our original hypothesis concerning m must have been wrong. So m = ∞.

Finally we prove that R

∗

is covered by ﬁnitely many sets in U. The element

∞ ∈ R

∗

falls inside some open set V in the collection U. Therefore, there is some

‘ray-neighborhood’ of ∞

(r, ∞] ⊂V,

for some real number r. Now r being less than m = ∞, and the latter being the

least upper bound of S, there must be some y ∈ (r, ∞] which is in S. Thus,

[−∞, y]

is covered by ﬁnitely many open sets, say V

1

, ...,V

k

, in U. Note that

[−∞, y] ∪(r, ∞] =R

∗

.

But then

V

1

, ...,V

k

,V

cover all of [−∞, ∞], since V covers the segment (r, ∞]. This prove that ﬁnitely

many sets from U cover all of R

∗

.

2.13 Compactness of closed subsets of R

∗

.

Consider now any closed subset D of R

∗

. We will prove that it is compact, i.e.

that any open cover of D has a ﬁnite sub-cover.

Consider any open cover U of D. This is a collection of open sets such that

every point of D is covered by some set in the collection. Now the set D

c

, being

the complement of a closed set, is an open set. Throw this into the collection, and

consider

U

/

=U∪¦D

c

¦.

This covers all of R

∗

: any point of D would be covered by a set in U while any

point in D

c

is, of course, covered by D

c

. Then we know that there has to be a ﬁnite

sub-collection

V

/

⊂U

/

36 Ambar N. Sengupta

which covers R

∗

. Now throw out D

c

from V

/

in case it is there, and consider the

collection

V =V

/

`¦D

c

¦.

Of course, this is a ﬁnite subcollection of U. Moreover, it covers all points of D,

because no point in D could have been covered by the ‘rejected’ set D

c

. Thus, D

is covered by a ﬁnite sub-collection of sets from U.

Thus, every closed subset of R

∗

is compact. The converse is also true, and we

can state:

Theorem 10 A subset of R

∗

is compact if and only if it is closed.

We will leave out the proof of the converse part of this result.

2.14 The Heine-Borel Theorem: Compact subsets

of R

A subset B of R is said to be bounded if

B ⊂[−N, N]

for some real number N. Thus, for B to be bounded, there should exist a real

number N such that

[x[ < N for all x ∈ B.

Recall that a subset of Ris closed in Rif it contains no boundary point. Equiv-

alently, if a subset of R is closed if its complement in R is open.

Consider, for instance, the set

[4, ∞) ⊂R.

This is a closed subset of R because, in R, its only boundary point is 4, and this

point lies in the set. Note that [4, ∞) is not closed when considered as a subset of

R

∗

.

We can now state the Heine-Borel theorem:

Theorem 11 Every closed and bounded subset of R is compact. Conversely, ev-

ery compact subset of R is closed and bounded.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 37

We shall prove half of this. Suppose K ⊂R is closed and bounded as a subset

of R. Boundedness implies that

K ⊂[−N, N]

for some real number N. Then K is closed also as a subset of R

∗

. Let’s check

this. We will show that the complement U of K in R

∗

is open. Consider any

point p ∈ U. If p ∈ R then we already know, by closedness of K, that p has a

neighborhood lying inside U. If p = ∞ then the neighborhood of p given by

(N+1, ∞]

lies entirely outside K. If p =−∞ then the neighborhood

[−∞, −N−1)

is entirely outside K. Thus, in all cases, p has a neighborhood outside K in R

∗

. So

the complement of K in R

∗

is open, and hence K is closed in R

∗

. We know that

then K must be compact.

2.15 Sequences

A sequence of elements in a set A is a string

a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, ...

of elements of A.

More precisely, the sequence is actually a mapping

a : P →A : n →a

n

.

We will often be concerned with sequences in R

∗

.

Sometimes out sequence will be speciﬁed explicitly as a string of numbers;

for example,

−5, −3, 5, 6, 9, 12, ...

Sometimes we may have a formula for the n-th term:

a

n

=

(−1)

n

n+1

.

38 Ambar N. Sengupta

Sometimes we have a sequence speciﬁed recursively. For example, we might

know that

b

1

= 1, b

2

= 1

and then

b

n

= b

n−1

+b

n−2

,

for all n ≥3. This generates the Fibonacci numbers

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ...

Sometimes it is better to label a sequence starting with the index 0:

a

0

, a

1

, a

2

, ...

For example, for a ﬁxed real number r we can form the sequence

r

0

= 1, r

1

= r, r

2

, r

3

, ...

2.16 Limits points of a sequence

Consider a sequence

x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, ....

in R

∗

. A point p ∈ R

∗

is said to be a limit point of this sequence if every neigh-

borhood of p is visited inﬁnitely often by the sequence.

For example, for the sequence

1

2

, 4,

1

3

, 4+

1

3

,

1

4

, 4+

1

4

,

1

5

, 4+

1

5

,

1

6

, 4+

1

6

, ...

it is intuitively clear that both 0 and 4 are limit points.

Suppose a sequence (x

n

) lies entirely inside a set S ⊂R:

x

n

∈ S, for all n ∈ P

Consider then any limit point p of this sequence. Let U be any neighborhood of

p. We know that this neighborhood is visited inﬁnitely often by the sequence.

Therefore, at least one point of S must be in U. Thus, every neigborhood of p

contains a point of S, and so

p ∈ S.

Thus, any limit point of a sequence which lies always in a set S must be in the

closure of S.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 39

2.17 Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem

Consider any sequence in R

∗

. We shall prove that it must have at least one limit

point.

Suppose to the contrary that no point is a limit of the given sequence. Then

each point p of R

∗

has a neighborhood U

p

which is visited only ﬁnitely often by

the sequence. The neighborhoods U

p

form an open cover of all of R

∗

. Then, by

compactness of R

∗

, there are ﬁnitely many of them, say

U

p

1

, ...,U

p

N

which cover all of R

∗

. But this is impossible: we have covered all of the extended

real line R

∗

with ﬁnitely many sets each of which is visited only ﬁnitely many

times by the sequence! Thus, we have a contradiction and so there exist a limit of

the sequence.

Notice that all we needed above was the compactness of R

∗

. Thus, we have

the more general Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem:

Theorem 12 Every sequence in a compact set has at least one limit point.

Of course, we have seen that a sequence may well have more than one limit

point. For example, the sequence,

1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...

visits every natural number inﬁnitely often and so every natural number is a limit

point of the sequence.

In the next subsection we will show how to actually obtain a limit point of a

sequence.

2.18 Limit points and suprema and inﬁma

Consider a sequence

x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, ...

Let p be any limit point of this sequence.

Now let S

1

be the least upper bound of the set ¦x

1

, x

2

, ...¦:

S

1

= sup¦x

1

, x

2

, ...¦

40 Ambar N. Sengupta

In particular,

S

1

≥x

n

for each n.

Then it is clear that no point ‘to the right’ of S

1

could possibly be a limit of the

sequence: indeed any point r > S

1

would have a neighborhood lying entirely to

the ‘right’ of S

1

and this would never be visited by the sequence. Thus, p cannot

be > S

1

. So

p ≤S

1

Now we can apply the same argument to

S

2

= sup¦x

2

, x

3

, x

4

, ...¦

Again, p could not be greater than S

2

for then it would have a neighborhood to the

right of S

2

and this would have to be visited inﬁnitely often by x

1

, x

2

, ... and so at

least once by x

2

, x

3

, .... Thus,

p ≤S

2

In this way, we can form

S

3

= sup¦x

3

, x

4

, ...¦

and have again

p ≤S

3

. Thus, p is a lower bound for all the S

k

’s:

p ≤S

k

for all k.

Now the inf of a set is the greatest lower bound of the set. Therefore,

p ≤inf¦S

1

, S

2

, S

3

, ...¦.

The infemum on the right is an important object and is called the limsup of the

given sequence:

limsup

n→∞

x

n

def

= inf¦sup

n≥k

x

n

¦ : k ∈ P¦ (2.11)

So we have proved that

Every limit point is ≤ the limsup

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 41

for any sequence.

Similarly, we have the notion of liminf: it is the supermum of the sequence of

infemums:

liminf

n→∞

x

n

def

= sup¦inf

n≥k

x

n

¦ : k ∈ P¦ (2.12)

In just the same way as before, we can prove

Every limit point is ≥ the limsup

Thus, for any limit point p if any sequence (x

n

) we have

liminf

n→∞

x

n

≤anylimit point ≤limsup

n→∞

x

n

. (2.13)

In fact, the limsup and liminf of the sequence are also limit points, but we won’t

prove this here.

2.19 Limit of a sequence

A sequence (s

n

) is said to lie in a set S eventually if after a certain value of n, all

the s

n

lie in S. Put another way, we say that s

n

lies in S for large n, if s

n

∈ S for all

values of n beyond some value, say n

0

.

For example, the sequence

−5, −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

will lie in the set (20, ∞) eventually.

Let us note again: a sequence (s

n

) lies in a set S eventually if there is an n

0

∈P

such that

s

n

∈ S

for all n ∈ P with n ≥n

0

.

A sequence (x

n

) in R

∗

is said to have limit L ∈ R

∗

if for any neighborhood U

of L the sequence lies in this neighborhood eventually.

We denote this symbolically as

x

n

→L, as n →∞.

42 Ambar N. Sengupta

We shall see later that if a limit exists then it is unique; the limit L is denoted

lim

n→∞

x

n

.

The notion of limit is one of the central notions in mathematics.

For example, the sequence

1, 2, 3, 4, ....

has limit ∞. For, if we take any neighborhood of ∞, say

(t, ∞]

then eventually n will exceed t (by the archimidean property) and so the sequence

will stay in (t, ∞] from the n-th term onwards.

The sequence

1,

1

2

,

1

3

,

1

4

, ...

has limit 0. We will look at this more carefully soon.

2.20 Simple Examples of limits

Let us look at some examples of sequences and try to see what their limits are.

The simplest sequence is a constant sequence which keeps repeating the same

value. For example,

3, 3, 3, 3, ....

The limit of the this sequence is 3: clearly every neighborhood of 3 is hit even-

tually by the sequence (indeed it is hit every time, since the sequence is stuck at

3).

The sequence

−1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, ....

which eventually stabilizes at the constant value 8 has limit 8. For, again, given

any neighborhood of 8 the sequence falls inside this neighborhood eventually and

stays there.

In contrast, the sequence

1, 3, 4, 1, 3, 4, 1, 3, 4, 1, 3, 4, ...

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 43

does not have a limit. For example, the point 3 cannot be the limit of the sequence

because, for instance,

(2.5, 3.5)

is a neighborhood of 3, but the sequence keeps falling outside this neighborhood

(when it hits 1 or 4).

The sequence

1, 3, 5, 7, ...

has limit ∞. If you take any neighborhood of ∞, an interval of the form

(t, ∞]

then eventually the sequence falls inside the nighborhood and stays in there.

2.21 The sequence 1/n

Consider again the sequence

1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, ...

It is intuitively clear that this sequence has limit 0. But let us prove this.

Note ﬁrst that the n-th term of the sequence is

x

n

= 1/n.

We have to show that given any neighborhood of 0, our sequence will eventu-

ally lie inside this neighborhood. So consider any neighborhood of 0:

(−ε, ε),

where ε is a positive real number. We have to show that x

n

lies in (−ε, ε) for all n

beyond some value. Thus we should show that

1

n

< ε

for all n beyond some initial value. Now the condition 1/n < ε is equivalent to

nε > 1.

44 Ambar N. Sengupta

The archimedean property guarantees the existence of an n

0

∈ P for which

n

0

ε > 1.

Therefore, nε > 1 for all integers n ≥ n

0

. This proves that the sequence does

indeed tend to the limit 0:

1

n

→0, as n →∞

2.22 The sequence R

n

Consider the sequence

3

0

, 3

1

, 3

2

, 3

3

, ...

It is clear that in this sequence the terms get large very quickly, and intuitively it

is clear that the sequence has limit ∞.

Consider now the sequence of powers

R

n

where R > 1.

Let us see by how much each term exceeds the preceding:

R

n

−R

n−1

= R

n−1

(R−1)

But R is > 1, and so the multiplier R

n−1

is ≥1 (it is equal to 1 when n is actually

1). Thus,

R

n

−R

n−1

≥R−1.

Let us write x for R−1, and note that

x > 0

and we have

R

n

−R

n−1

> x.

Now it takes n ‘steps’ to climb from R

0

to R

n

, and so

R

n

≥1+nx,

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 45

because each step is at least x. Now it is clear that R

n

→∞ as n →∞. We just have

to show that for any given t,

1+nx >t

when n is large enough. But this is just Archimedes again: some multiple n

0

x of

xexceeds t −1, and then

nx >t −1

for all n ≥ n

0

. Note again that it is important that x > 0, and this comes from the

fact that R > 1.

Thus,

lim

n→∞

R

n

= ∞ for all R > 1.

Now consider the case R = 1. In this case the sequence is just all powers of 1,

and so it is

1, 1, 1, 1, ....

Thus

lim

n→∞

R

n

= 1 if R = 1.

Next consider the case

0 < R < 1.

As an example, we have R = 1/3 and the sequence

1,

1

3

,

1

3

2

,

1

3

3

, ...

We have here a sequence with denomiantor going to ∞ and numerator ﬁxed at 1.

It seems then clear that the sequence goes to 0. Indeed, for any real ε > 0 we just

have to wait till

3

n

> 1/ε

and this would ensure that

1

3

n

< ε,

and so

1

3

n

∈ (−ε, ε) for large n.

Now consider the general case of

R

n

46 Ambar N. Sengupta

where R > 1. Observe that

R =

1

r

,

where r = R

−1

is > 1. Thus

R

n

=

1

r

n

,

where r > 1. Now, as we have seen above, the denominator r

n

goes to inﬁnity,

and so it seems clear that 1/r

n

should decrease to 0. So we will prove that

R

n

→0

in this case. Consider any neighborhood of 0:

(−ε, ε)

where ε > 0 is a positive real number. We want R

n

to be in this neighborhood, i.e.

R

n

should be < ε. But this means we should show that r

n

is > 1/ε for all n large

enough. But we know that

r

n

→∞

So, after some n

0

, we have

r

n

> ε

−1

for all n ≥n

0

. Consequently,

R

n

=

1

r

n

< ε

and so

R

n

∈ (ε, ε),

for all n ≥n

0

. Thus

lim

n→∞

R

n

= 0 if 0 < R < 1.

Now it is also clear that

lim

n→∞

R

n

= 0 if R = 0.

Next consider negative values. Suppose

−1 < R < 0.

For example, for R =−1/3 we have the sequence

1, −

1

3

,

1

3

2

, −

1

3

3

,

1

3

4

, ...

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 47

It is clear that this is the same sequence as 1/3

n

except it swings back and forth

between negative and positive values. Thus, this sequence has limit 0.

More generally, if

−1 < R < 0

we can look at the distance between R

n

and 0:

[R

n

−0[ =[R

n

[ =[R[

n

and

[R[

n

→0 as n →∞,

because

0 <[R[ < 1.

Thus, the conclusion is that

lim

n→∞

R

n

= 0 if −1 < R < 0.

In short,

lim

n→∞

R

n

= 0 if [R[ < 1. (2.14)

Lastly, one should look at the case

R ≤−1.

You should examine a few examples and convince yourself that then there is no

limit, for the sequence swings back and forth between widely separated positive

and negative values.

Exerise Examine the sequence given by powers of −2:

1, −2, 4, −8, 16, ...

Does this sequence visit every neighborhood of ∞? Does it visit every

neighborhood of −∞?

48 Ambar N. Sengupta

2.23 Monotone Sequences

A sequence such as

1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 11, ...

where each term is ≥ the preceding term is said to be monotone increasing. An-

other example is the sequence

1, 1.1, 1.11, 1.111, 1.1111, ...

Thus, a sequence (x

n

) is

monotone increasing if x

n

≤x

n+1

for all n ∈ P (2.15)

We say that (x

n

) is

monotone decreasing if x

n

≥x

n+1

for all n ∈ P (2.16)

An example of a monotone decreasing sequence is

1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, ...

It is intuitively clear that a monotone increasing sequence (x

n

) will tend to the

limit sup¦x

1

, x

2

, ...¦. This is indeed true:

If (x

n

) is a monotone increasing sequence then

lim

n→∞

x

n

= sup

n≥1

x

n

.

To prove this let

L = sup

n≥1

x

n

.

The most extreme case is when L is −∞; as will become clear shortly, we need to

take care of this case separately. If L =−∞ each x

n

must be −∞. But in this case

lim

n→∞

x

n

=−∞,

since x

n

is just stuck at −∞. Now consider the other situation: L is not −∞. We

will show again that x

n

→L, i.e. we will show that for any neigborhood U of L, the

sequence (x

n

) falls eventually in U and stays there. So consider any neighborhood

U of L. Pick a point t of U to the left of L, i.e.

t < L and t ∈U.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 49

(Note that there would be no such t if L is −∞.) Since L is the least upper bound

of ¦x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, ...¦, the number t can’t be an upper bound, and so some x

n

0

is >t:

x

n

0

>t.

But recall that we are dealing with a monotone increasing sequence. Conse-

quently,

x

n

>t for all n ≥n

0

.

But recall that L is an upper bound of ¦x

1

, x

2

, ...¦; therefore,

all the x

n

are ≤t.

Those x

n

which are >t but ≤L are, of course, in the neighborhood U of L. Thus,

x

n

∈U for all n ≥n

0

.

This proves that L is indeed the limit of the sequence (x

n

).

In a similar way, if x

n

is a monotone decreasing sequence then

lim

n→∞

x

n

= inf

n≥1

x

n

.

2.24 The limit of a sequence is unique

Now we shall prove that a sequence can have at most one limit.

Consider a sequence (x

n

) and suppose both L and L

/

are limits of the sequence,

and L =L

/

. We will arrive at a contradiction. Since L and L

/

are distinct, they have

disjoint neighborhoods U and U

/

respectively. Since x

n

→L we know that x

n

∈U

eventually. But x

n

→L

/

, and so x

n

∈U

/

eventually. But this is impossible since U

and U

/

are disjoint and thus have no element in common.

Thus, a sequence which has a limit must have a unique limit.

2.25 Convergent sequences and Cauchy sequences

A sequence (x

n

) in R is said to be convergent if it has a limit and the limit is a real

number. If x

n

→L, and L ∈ R, we also say that the sequence x

n

converges to L.

Note that x

n

→L ∈ R if for any real r > 0 there is an n

0

∈ P such that

[x

n

−L[ < r

50 Ambar N. Sengupta

for all natural numbers n > n

0

.

This has a consequence: since the x

n

’s are all accumulating to L they are also

getting close to each other. More precisely, for any ε > 0 we can ﬁnd N ∈ P such

that

[x

n

−x

m

[ < ε for all natural numbers n, m > N.

To prove this, observe that there is some N ∈ P such that

[x

k

−L[ < ε/2

for all k ∈ P with k > N. But then for any n, m ∈ P with n, m > N we have

[x

n

−x

m

[ = [x

n

−L + L−x

m

[

≤ [x

n

−L[ + [L−x

m

[

= [x

n

−L[ + [x

m

−L[

< ε/2+ε/2

= ε.

A sequence (x

n

) in R which bunches up on itself in the sense above is said to

be a Cauchy sequence, i.e. if for any δ > 0 there is an N ∈ P such that

[x

n

−x

m

[ < ε for all natural numbers n, m > N.

2.26 Every Cauchy sequence is bounded

Consider a Cauchy sequence (x

n

) in R. Then, eventually the points of this se-

quence are at most distance 1 from each other; in fact, there is an N ∈ P such

that

[x

n

−x

m

[ < 1

for all natural numbers n, m > N. In particular, ﬁxing a particular j > N we have

x

n

∈ (x

j

−1, x

j

+1),

for all n ≥N. So

x

j

−1 < x

n

< x

j

+1

for all n ∈ ¦N +1, N +2, ...¦. Thus, at least from the (N +1)-th term on, the

sequence is bounded. But the terms not counted here,

x

1

, ..., x

N

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 51

are just ﬁnitely many, and so they have a largest B and a smallest A among them.

Thus,

every x

n

is ≤max¦B, x

j

+1¦

and

every x

n

is ≥min¦B, x

j

−1¦

Thus the entire sequence is bounded.

2.27 Every Cauchy sequence is convergent

The completeness property of the real line R has an equivalent formulation:

Theorem 13 Every Cauchy sequence in R converges.

Let us prove this.

Consider a Cauchy sequence (x

n

) in R. We have seen that it is bounded. Thus,

a ≤x

n

≤b for all n ∈ P

for some real numbers a and b.

We know that a sequence always has a limit point in R

∗

. Let L be a limit point

of (x

n

). We will prove that L is a real number and x

n

→L.

First it is clear that L must also be in [a, b]. Therefore, L is not ∞ or −∞, and

is a real number.

Take any neighborhood

(L−δ, L+δ)

of L, where δ > 0 is a real number.

The sequence (x

n

) visits the neighborhood

(L−

δ

2

, L+

δ

2

)

inﬁnitely often. Now we also know that eventually, the terms of the sequence vary

from each other by < δ/2, i.e. there is some N ∈ P such that

[x

n

−x

m

[ < δ/2 for all n, m ∈ P with n, m > N.

52 Ambar N. Sengupta

We can choose some j > N such that

x

j

∈ (L−

δ

2

, L+

δ

2

)

because the sequence visits this neighborhood inﬁnitely often. Then

[x

n

−L[ = [x

n

−x

j

+ x

j

−L[

≤ [x

n

−x

j

[ + [x

j

−L[

<

δ

2

+

δ

2

= δ.

This means that

x

n

∈ (L−δ, L+δ)

for all n > N. Thus,

x

n

→L.

2.28 The rationals are countable

A set is set to be countable if it is ﬁnite or if its elements can be enumerated in a

sequence. Thus, S is countable if there is a sequence x

1

, x

2

, ... such that

S =¦x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, ...¦

For example, the even numbers form a countable set:

¦2, 4, 6, 8, ...¦

It may seem at ﬁrst that the set Z of integers is not countable, but we can certainly

lay out all the integers in a sequence:

0, 1, −1, 2, −2, 3, −3, ...

It is much harder to see that the rationals Q are also countable. This is what we

shall prove now.

We will constuct a sequence which enumerates all the rationals, i.e. a sequence

r

1

, r

2

, ... such that

¦r

1

, r

2

, r

3

, ...¦ = Q.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 53

Put another way, we will encode each rational by a unique natural number; thus

to each natural number n we would associate a rational r

n

, and in this way we will

cover all rationals.

There can be many such encoding schemes. Here is one: Take any rational

x ≥0 and write it as

p

q

where p and q are non-negative integers (of course q ≥1)

and q is the smallest possible denominator among all such ways of writing x. (For

example, 0.6 can be written as both 6/10 and 3/5, but we would take 3/5 as our

representation.) We know that every non-negative rational can be represented in

this way uniquely. Associate to this x the natural number

f (x) = 2

q

3

p

For example,

f (0) = f (0/1) = 2

1

3

0

= 2

f (1) = f (1/1) = 2

1

3

1

= 6, f (4/5) = 2

5

3

4

= 3281 = 2592.

This associates a unique natural number f (x) to each non-negative rational x. If

x ∈ Q is negative, x < 0, let us deﬁne f (x) to be just 5 times f (−x):

f (x) = f (−x) 5 if x < 0

Now we have labeled each rational by a unique natural number. To enumerate the

rationals in a sequence all we have to do then is to run this in reverse: let r

1

be

the rational number x with the smallest value for f (x) (so r

1

is in fact 0 because

f (0) = 2 is the lowest value possible for f ); let r

2

be the rational number with the

next lowest value for f (x), and so on. Thus, r

n

is the rational for which f (r

n

) is

the ﬁrst value of f (x) greater than f (r

1

), ..., f (r

n−1

). For example,

r

1

= 0

and

r

2

= 1 because f (1) = 2

1

3

1

= 6, the next value for f (x) after 2

Thus we have produced a sequence of distinct elements r

1

, r

2

, ... such that

¦r

1

, r

2

, ...¦ = Q

54 Ambar N. Sengupta

2.29 The real numbers are uncountable

We will prove that R is not countable, i.e. there is no sequence which touches on

all the real numbers.

In fact we will show that even the real numbers between 0 and 1 cannot be

enumerated in a sequence.

The argument used here is the celebrated diagonal method due to Georg Can-

tor (1845-1912). The strategy is to make a list of strings, then take the main

diagonal string, and then form a new string by altering each element of the diago-

nal.

Consider any sequence x

1

, x

2

, ... lying in (0, 1). Now each real number y in

(0, 1) can be expressed uniquely in the form

y = 0.y

1

y

2

y

3

... =

y

1

10

+

y

2

10

2

+

y

3

10

3

+ ,

where y

1

, y

2

, ... ∈ ¦0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 9¦ and we exclude all such representations which

use an inﬁnite string of 9’s at the end (for example, instead of 0.19999.... we would

use 0.20000....). Thus each of the numbers x

1

, x

2

, also has such an expansion:

x

1

= 0.x

11

x

12

x

13

. . .

x

2

= 0.x

21

x

22

x

23

. . .

x

3

= 0.x

31

x

32

x

33

. . .

.

.

. =

Now form a number

w = 0.w

1

w

2

w

3

...

as follows: take w

1

to be any number in ¦1, 2, ..., 8¦ other than x

11

; then choose

w

2

∈ ¦1, 2, ..., 8¦ other than x

22

, and so on. This way we make the n-th decimal

place of w different from the n-th decimal place of x

n

, for every n. Then w cannot

be equal to any of the x

n

, and w ∈ (0, 1). Thus the original sequence cannot

possibly have covered all of (0, 1). [The reason we excluded 0 and 9 from our

choices for w

n

was to avoid ending up at 0 or 1.]

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 55

2.30 Connected Sets

Consider a subset S of R

∗

. If U is an open set then the part of U in S, i.e. U ∩S is

said to be open in S.

For example, in [2, 5] the set

[2, 4)

is open because, for example,

[2, 4) = (1, 4) ∩[2, 5]

Put another way, a subset J of S is said to be open in S if every p ∈ J has a

neighborhood N such that every point of N which is in S is in fact in J, i.e.

N∩J ⊂S

A set S is said to be connected if it cannot be split into two non-empty disjoint

pieces A and B each of which is open in S. The main result for connected sets is:

Theorem 14 A subset of R, or of R

∗

, is connected if and only if it is an interval.

56 Ambar N. Sengupta

Chapter 3

Integration

Modern integration theory was built from the works of Newton, Riemann, and

Lebesgue, but the origins of integration theory lie in the computation of areas

and volumes. The idea of measuring area of a curved region by lower and upper

bounds is present even Archimedes’ study of the area enclosed by a circle.

The area of a rectangle whose sides are 2 units and 3 units is 6 square units,

because if you tile the rectangle with unit squares you will need three rows of such

squares, each row having 2 tiles. By extension, the area of a rectangle of sides 1/4

unit and 1/5 unit should be 1/20 square units because we would need 20 of these

rectangles to cover a unit square. Thus, it is clear that the area enclosed by a

rectangle whose sides are a units and b units, where a and b are rational numbers,

is ab square units. Consider now a rectangle R whose sides a and b are possibly

not rational. Take any rationals a

/

, a

//

, and b

/

, b

//

with

a

/

< a < a

//

, and b

/

< b < b

//

.

Then a rectangle R

/

of sides a

/

by b

/

sits inside R, while a rectangle R

//

of sides a

//

by b

//

contains R. Thus, it makes sense to suppose that

area of R

/

≤area of R ≤area of R

//

which is to say:

a

/

b

/

≤area of R ≤a

//

b

//

It is intuitively clear, and not hard to prove, that ab is the unique real number that

lies between all the possible values of a

/

b

/

and a

//

b

//

. Thus,

area of R = ab

57

58 Ambar N. Sengupta

The rectangle R is made up of two congruent right angled triangles, and so each

of these would have area (ab)/2. This makes it possible to compute the areas of

all kinds of polygonal ﬁgures but cutting up these fgures into right angled trian-

gles. However, this strategy fails when we try to compute the area enclosed by a

circle. No amount of cutting would turn a disc into a ﬁnite number of right angled

triangles.

Archimedes computed area enclosed by a circle C by consider polygons P

/

and P

//

, where P lies inside the circle C and P

//

encloses the circle C; thus

area A

/

enclosed by P

/

≤area enclosed by C ≤area A

//

enclosed by P

//

Some computation shows that for any ε > 0 there are such polygons P

/

and P

//

such that

A

//

−A

/

< ε

This implies that there is a unique real number A which lies between the area of

all the polygons P

/

and the polygons P

//

. Clearly then this number should be the

area enclosed by the circle C.

Our development of the theory of the Riemann integrals is based on these

ideas.

3.1 Approaching the Riemann Integral

Consider a function

f : [a, b] →R

and think of its graph. Assume, for convenience of visualization, that f ≥0. Then

f speciﬁes a region which lies below its graph and above the x-axis. In general,

this is a region whose upper boundary, given by the graph of f , is curved. The

integral

Z

b

a

f

which is also, conveniently, written as

Z

b

a

f (x)dx

measures the area of this region.

The strategy used for computing the area is to cut up the region into vertical

slices. The area of each such slice is between the area of a larger ‘upper’ rectangle

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 59

and a smaller ‘lower’ rectangle. Thus we should expect the actual area to be the

unique real number lying between these ‘upper rectangle’ areas and the ‘lower

rectangle’ areas.

3.2 Riemann Sums

We will work with functions on an interval

[a, b] ⊂R

] where < b.

A partition X of [a, b] is speciﬁed by a sequence

X = (x

0

, x

1

, ..., x

N

)

of points x

0

, x

1

, ..., x

N

∈ [a, b] with

a = x

0

< x

1

< < x

N

= b

Here N ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, ...¦.

We will often use the notation

∆x

j

def

= x

j

−x

j−1

(3.1)

to denote the length of the j-th interval

[x

j−1

, x

j

]

marked out by the partition X.

The width or norm of the partition X is the maximum size of these intervals:

[[X[[ = max

j∈¦1,...,N¦

∆x

j

(3.2)

Consider a function

f : [a, b] →R

on an interval [a, b] ⊂R, where a < b.

Let

M

j

( f ) = sup

x∈[x

j−1

,x

j

]

f (x) (3.3)

60 Ambar N. Sengupta

and

m

j

( f ) = inf

x∈[x

j−1

,x

j

]

f (x) (3.4)

Thus, if A

j

were the area of the region under the graph of f over [x

j−1

, x

j

] then

m

j

( f )∆x

j

≤A

j

≤M

j

( f )∆x

j

.

Our objective is to specify the actual area A under the graph of f , and this would

be the sum of the A

j

.

The upper Riemann sumU( f , X) is deﬁned to be

U( f , X)

def

=

N

∑

j=1

M

j

( f )∆x

j

(3.5)

and the lower Riemann sum L( f , X) is

L( f , X)

def

=

N

∑

j=1

m

j

( f )∆x

j

(3.6)

Note that

L( f , X) ≤U( f , X) (3.7)

We will show later that in fact every lower sum if less or equal to every upper sum,

i.e. L( f , X) is less or equal to U( f ,Y) for every partitions X and Y of [a, b].

Now consider a sequence

X

∗

= (x

∗

1

, ..., x

∗

N

)

obtained by picking a point from each interval [x

j−1

, x

j

]::

x

∗

j

∈ [x

j−1

, x

j

]

We shall indicate this by writing

X

∗

< X

The Riemann sum S( f , X, X

∗

) is

S( f , X, X

∗

) =

N

∑

j=1

f (x

∗

j

)∆x

j

(3.8)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 61

Note that the upper sum is ∞ if and only if one of the M

j

is ∞, and this occurs

if and only if the superemum of f is ∞:

U( f , X) = ∞ if and only if sup

x∈[a,b]

f (x) = ∞ (3.9)

However, U( f , X) cannot be −∞, because that would mean that at least one of

the M

j

is −∞ which can only be if f is equal to −∞ on that interval [x

j−1

, x

j

]

which contradicts the fact that f is real-valued. (Note that we are working with

non-empty intervals because x

j−1

< x

j

.)

Similarly,

L( f , X) =−∞ if and only if inf

x∈[a,b]

f (x) =−∞ (3.10)

and L( f , X) can never be ∞.

It is useful then to observe that the difference

U( f , X) −L( f , X)

is always deﬁned, i.e. we never have the ∞−∞ situation.

3.3 Deﬁnition of the Riemann Integral

Consider a function

f : [a, b] →R

on an interval [a, b] ⊂ R, where a < b. This function is said to be Riemann inte-

grable if there is a unique real number I lying between all the lower sums and all

the upper sums:

L( f , X) ≤I ≤U( f , X) (3.11)

for every partition X of [a, b]. This number I is the integral of f over [a, b] and

denoted

Z

b

a

f or

Z

b

a

f (x)dx (3.12)

The set of all Riemann integrable functions on [a, b] is denote

R [a, b] (3.13)

62 Ambar N. Sengupta

3.4 Reﬁning Partitions

We work with a function

f : [a, b] →R.

We use the notation

M( f , [s, t]) = sup

x∈[s,t]

f (x), and m( f , [s, t]) = inf

x∈[s,t]

f (x) (3.14)

Let

X = (x

0

, x

1

, ..., x

N

)

be a partition of the interval [a, b] and let X

/

be a partition obtained by adding one

more point x

/

to X. Let us say that x

/

lies in the j-th interval

x

/

∈ [x

j−1

, x

j

]

Thus, X

/

cuts up [x

j−1

, x − j] into two intervals

[x

j−1

, x

/

] and [x

/

, x

j

]

Let us compare the upper sums U( f , X) and U( f , X

/

). To this end, let us write

M

j

= M( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

]), M

/

j

= M( f , [x

j−1

, x

/

]), M

//

j

= M( f , [x

/

, x

j

])

It is important to observe that

M

j

≥M

/

j

, and M

j

≥M

//

j

(3.15)

These sums differ only in the contribution that comes from [x

j−1

, x

j

]:

U( f , X) −U( f , X

/

) = M

j

(x

j

−x

j−1

)

−

M

/

j

(x

/

−x

j−1

) +M

//

j

(x

j

−x

/

)

= (M

j

−M

/

j

)(x

/

−x

j−1

) +(M

j

−M

//

j

)(x

j

−x

/

)

≥ 0.

Thus

U( f , X

/

) ≤U( f , X), (3.16)

i.e. adding a point to a partition lowers upper sums.

If we keep adding points to the initial partition, we keep lower the upper sums.

Arguing similarly, it follows that adding points to a partition raises lower

sums.

This observation is important enough to state as a theorem:

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 63

Theorem 15 Adding points to a partition lowers upper sums and raises lower

sums. Thus if X and X

/

are partitions of [a, b], with X

/

containing all the points of

X and some more, then

L( f , X) ≤L( f , X

/

) ≤U( f , X

/

) ≤U( f , X) (3.17)

for every function f : [a, b] →R.

Using this we can prove that upper sums always dominate lower sums:

Theorem 16 If f : [a, b] →R is a function on an interval [a, b] ⊂R, where a < b,

and if X and Y are any partitions of [a, b] then

L( f , X) ≤U( f ,Y) (3.18)

Thus, every lower sum is dominated above by every upper sum.

Proof. Here is a useful trick: we can combine the partitions X and Y to form a

partition Z which contains all points of X and all the points of Y as well. Therefore,

U( f , Z) ≤U( f ,Y)

and

L( f , X) ≤L( f , Z)

Stringing these together we have

L( f , X) ≤L( f , Z) ≤U( f , Z) ≤U( f ,Y)

and this gives the desired result. QED

We have used the fact that adding a point to a partition lowers upper sums and

raises lower sums. It will be useful to take a closer look at this and estimate by

how much the upper and lower sums move as points are added to the partition.

Recall the formula

U( f , X) −U( f , X

/

) = (M

j

−M

/

j

)(x

/

−x

j−1

) +(M

j

−M

//

j

)(x

j

−x

/

) (3.19)

where X

/

is the partition obtained from X by adding the single point x

/

to the j-th

interval [x

j−1

, x

j

] of the partition X = (x

0

, ..., x

T

). Now suppose instead of adding

just the one point x

/

, we add m distinct points y

1

, ..., y

m

to the interval [x

j−1

, x

j

] to

form the new partition X

/

. We label the new points y

i

in increasing order

y

1

< < y

m

.

64 Ambar N. Sengupta

For convenience of notation we write y

0

for x

j−1

and y

m+1

for x

j

. Thus

x

j−1

= y

0

< y

1

< < y

m

< y

m+1

= x

j

The intervals

[y

k−1

, y

k

]

make up the interval

[x

j−1

, x

j

]

Then:

U( f , X)−U( f , X

/

) =

m+1

∑

k=1

M( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

]) −M( f , [y

k−1

, y

k

])

(y

k

−y

k−1

) (3.20)

Now

0 ≤M( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

]) −M( f , [y

k−1

, y

k

]) ≤2[[ f [[

sup

,

where [[ f [[

sup

is supremum of [ f [ over the full original interval [a, b]. The interval

lengths y

k

−y

k−1

add up to ∆x

j

. Consequently,

U( f , X) −U( f , X

/

) ≤2[[ f [[

sup

∆x

j

≤2[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[ (3.21)

This provides an upper bound for how much the upper sum is decreased by addi-

tion of points all in one single interval of the original partition X.

If we add points to each of N

/

intervals to create a new partition X

/

then

U( f , X) −U( f , X

/

) ≤2N

/

[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[ (3.22)

Similarly,

L( f , X

/

) −L( f , X) ≤2N

/

[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[ (3.23)

Note that

N

/

≤N,

where N is the total number of new points added. Consequently, we have

Lemma 1 If

X = (x

0

, ..., x

T

)

is a partition of the interval [a, b] ⊂ R, where a < b, and X

/

is a partition of the

same interval containing all the points of X and possibly some more, then

U( f , X

/

) −L( f , X

/

) ≤U( f , X) −L( f , X) (3.24)

but the decrease in the value of U −L is at most 2N[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[:

[U( f , X) −L( f , X)] −

U( f , X

/

) −L( f , X

/

)

≤2N[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[ (3.25)

where N is the number of new points added.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 65

3.5 The Darboux Criterion

Now that we know that the upper sums dominate the lower sums, it is clear that

there will be a unique real number between them if and only if the sup of the lower

sums equals the inf of the upper sums:

Theorem 17 A function f : [a, b] →R is Riemann integrable if and only if

sup¦U( f , X) : all partitions X of [a, b]¦ = inf¦L( f , X) : all partitions X of [a, b]¦

(3.26)

The common value is

R

b

a

f .

Thus, the function f is Riemann integrable if and only if there is no ‘gap’

between the lower sums and upper sums. Thus, another equivalent formulation is

the Darboux criterion:

Theorem 18 T:Darbouxcrit A function f : [a, b] →Ris Riemann integrable if and

only if for any ε > 0 there is a partition X of [a, b] for which

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε (3.27)

This is an extremely useful result: virtually all of our results on integrability

will use the Darboux criterion.

Proof. Suppose f is integrable. Then there is a unique real number I which

lies between all upper sums and all lower sums. Take any ε > 0. Consider the

interval

[I, I +ε/2)

All the lower sums lie to the left, i.e. ≤I. All upper sums lie to the right (≥) of I.

So since I is the only real number lying between the upper sums and lower sums,

there must be at least one upper sum which lies in [I, I +ε/2). Thus, there is a

partition Y for which

I ≤U( f ,Y) < I +ε/2

Similarly, there is a partition Z for which

I −ε/2 < L( f , Z) ≤I.

Let X be the partition obtained by pooling together Y and Z. Then

I −ε/2 < L( f , Z) ≤L( f , X) ≤U( f , X) ≤U( f , Z) < I +ε/2 (3.28)

66 Ambar N. Sengupta

Since both L( f , X) and U( f , X) lie in

(I −ε/2, I +ε/2)

it follows that

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε. (3.29)

Conversely, suppose that for every ε >0 there is a partition for which (3.29) holds.

Suppose that I and I

/

are distinct real numbers which both lie between all upper

sums and all lower sums. Let

ε =[I

/

−I[

We know that there is a partition X satifying (3.29). Now I and I

/

both lie between

U( f , X) and L( f , X). So the difference between I and I

/

is < ε:

[I

/

−I[ < ε

But this contradicts the deifnition of ε taken above. Thus I and I

/

must be equal.

So there is a unique real number between all the upper sums and all the lower

sums. Thus, f is integrable. QED

3.6 Integrable functions are bounded

Suppose f : [a, b] →R is integrable. We will prove that f must be bounded.

Theorem 19 Every Riemann integrable function is bounded.

Proof. Consider

f : [a, b] →R

where [a, b] ⊂R and a < b. Assume that f ∈ R [a, b].

Let us suppose that f is unbounded. Then we will reach a contradiction.

Suppose, for example, that f is not bounded above, i.e.

sup

x∈[a,b]

f (x) = ∞.

Consider any partition

X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 67

of [a, b]. Then there is some subinterval, say [x

j−1

, x

j

], on which f is not bounded

above, i.e.

M

j

= ∞.

But then the supper sum for f with this partition is also ∞:

U( f , X) =

N

∑

k=1

M

k

∆x

k

= ∞

Thus, every upper sum for f is ∞. Now let

I =

Z

b

a

f

and recall that this is the unique real number lying between all upper sums and all

lower sums. Then

L( f , X) ≤I < I +1 < ∞ =U( f , X) (3.30)

for every partition X. But then I +1 would also be a real number lying between

all upper sums and all lower sums. Thus, we have a contradiction. QED

3.7 Variation of a Function

For any non-empty subset S ⊂R the diameter of S is

diam(S) = sup¦a−b : a, b ∈ S¦ (3.31)

It is easy to believe and not hard to prove that the diameter of S is the difference

between supS and inf S:

diam(S) = supS−inf S (3.32)

Now consider a function f on an interval [s, t]. It will be useful to have a

measure of the ﬂuctuation of f over this interval.

The simplest such measure is given by the diameter of the range of f :

Var( f ) = diam(Rangeof f) (3.33)

More explicitly, the variation of f on the interval [s, t] is:

Var( f , [s, t]) = sup

x,y∈[s,t]

( f (x) − f (y)) (3.34)

68 Ambar N. Sengupta

It is also equal to

Var( f , [s, t]) = M( f , [s, t]) −m( f , [s, t]) (3.35)

Sometimes we may drop [s, t] and just write Var( f ):

Var( f ) = M( f ) −m( f ) (3.36)

We record the following algebraic facts about the variation of functions, which

will be very useful in proving corresponding facts about Riemann integration.

Lemma 2 For any functions f and g on an interval [a, b] ⊂ R with a < b, we

have:

(i) Var( f ) ≥0;

(ii) Var(k) = 0 if and only if k is constant;

(iii) the variation scales like length, i.e. the variation of a constant times a func-

tion is the absolute value of the function time the variation in the function:

Var(k f ) =[k[Var( f ) for any k ∈ R.

(iv) the variation satiﬁes the triangle inequality:

Var( f +g) ≤Var( f ) +Var(g) (3.37)

(v) the variation of the product of two functions is bounded above by the sum

of their variations, weighted by their sup-norms:

Var( f g) ≤[[ f [[

sup

Var(g) +[[g[[

sup

Var( f ) (3.38)

(vi) the variations in f and in g differ by at most the variation in [ f −g[:

Var( f ) −Var(g)

≤Var( f −g) (3.39)

(vii) if f is not equal to zero anywhere then

Var(1/ f ) ≤M([ f [

−1

)

2

Var( f ) (3.40)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 69

(viii) the variation of a function increases montonically with the interval of vari-

ation:

Var( f , [s, t]) ≤Var( f , [a, b]) if [s, t] ⊂[a, b] (3.41)

(ix) The variation in the absolute value of f is bounded by the variation in f :

Var([ f [) ≤Var( f ) (3.42)

(x) The variation of f is bounded above by twice [[ f [[

sup

:

Var( f ) ≤2[[ f [[

sup

(3.43)

(xi) If s, t, u ∈ [a, b] with s <t < u then

Var( f , [s, u]) ≤Var( f , [s, u]) +Var( f , [u, t]) (3.44)

(xii) If f is monotone on an interval [s, t] then

Var( f , [s, t]) =

f (t) − f (s) if f (t) ≥ f (s)

f (s) − f (t) if f (t) ≤ f (s)

(3.45)

We also record the following result on variations and partitions for continuous

functions:

Lemma 3 If f : [a, b] →R is continuous, where [a, b] ⊂R and a <b, then for any

ε > 0 there is a partition X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

) of [a, b] such that

Var( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

]) < ε

for every j ∈ ¦1, ..., N¦.

Proof. Since f is continuous on the compact set [a, b] it is uniformly continu-

ous. So for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that

[ f (x) − f (x

/

)[ < ε/2

whenever x, x

/

∈ [a, b] with [x −x

/

[ < δ. Take any partition X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

) with

all the intervals having length less than δ. Then, for each j ∈ ¦1, ..., N¦,

f (x) − f (x

/

) < ε/2

70 Ambar N. Sengupta

for every x, x

/

∈ [x

j−1

, x

j

] since these intervals all have length < δ. Consequently,

Var( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

]) ≤ε/2

and we are done. QED

The sup-norm bound on the variation has the following consequence:

Proposition 1 If f

1

, f

2

, ... : [a, b] →Rconverge uniformly to a function f : [a, b] →

R, then

lim

n→∞

Var( f

n

) = Var( f ) (3.46)

It will be convenient to use the notation

Var

j

( f )

def

= Var( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

]) (3.47)

The reason why we are interested in the variation is summarized by

Theorem 20 For any function f : [a, b] → R, where [a, b] ⊂ R and a < b, and

every partition X of [a, b] we have

U( f , X) −L( f , X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f )∆x

j

(3.48)

Proof. Observe that

Var

j

( f ) = M

j

( f ) −m

j

( f ). (3.49)

Multiplying this by ∆x

j

and adding up over all j ∈ ¦1, ..., N¦ gives the result

(3.48). QED

3.8 The algebra R [a, b]

Recall that

R [a, b]

is the set of all Riemann integrable functions on [a, b].

Our main objective now is

Theorem 21 The set R [a, b] has the following properties:

(i) Every constant function belongs to R [a, b]

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 71

(ii) If f , g ∈ R [a, b] then f +g ∈ R [a, b]

(iii) If f , g ∈ R [a, b] then f g ∈ R [a, b]

(iv) If f ∈ R [a, b], and f is never equal to zero and 1/ f is bounded, then 1/ f ∈

R [a, b].

(v) If f ∈ R [a, b] then [ f [ ∈ R [a, b] and

Z

b

a

f

≤

Z

b

a

[ f [ (3.50)

Properties (i)-(iii) say that R [a, b] is an algebra under pointwise addition and

multiplication of functions. It is important to note that the converse of (v) does not

hold, i.e. there are functions which are not Riemann integrable but whose absoulte

values are Riemann integrable.

Proof For a constant function k on [a, b] we have

L( f , X) = k(b−a) =U( f , X)

for every partition X and so k(b−a) is the unique real number lying between all

upper sums and all lower sums. Thus

Z

b

a

k = k(b−a)

Now supppose f , g ∈ R [a, b]. Let ε > 0. By the Darboux condition, there are

partitions Y and Z of [a, b] such that

U( f ,Y) −L( f ,Y) < ε/2 and U(g, Z) −L(g, Z) < ε/2

Let X be the partition obtained by combining Y and Z. Then, because upper sums

decrease and lower sums increase when points are added to a partition, we have

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε/2 and U(g, X) −L(g, X) < ε/2

Then, with X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

),

72 Ambar N. Sengupta

U( f +g, X) −L( f +g, X) =

N

∑

j=1

M

j

( f +g) −m

j

( f +g)

∆x

j

=

N

∑

j=1

Var( f +g, [x

j−1

, x

j

])∆x

j

≤

N

∑

j=1

Var( f , [x

j−1

, x

j

])∆x

j

+

N

∑

j=1

Var(g, [x

j−1

, x

j

])∆x

j

(by Lemma 2 (ii))

= U( f , X) −L( f , X) + U(g, X) −L(g, X) by (3.48)

< ε/2+ε/2 = ε.

Thus, by the Darbox criterion, f +g is Riemann integrable.

The other results follow in a similar way by applying other parts of Lemma

2. QED

Consider the function g on [0, 1] given by

g(x) =

1 if x is rational

−1 if x is irrational

Then g is not Riemann integrable, because no matter what partition X we take of

[0, 1] the upper sum is always

U(g, X) = 1

and the lower sum is always

L(g, X) =−1

But the absolute value of g is the constant function 1:

[g[ = 1

and so [g[ is Riemann integrable.

3.9 C[a, b] ⊂R [a, b]

Every continuous function on a compact interval is integrable. This is a central

result of integration theory.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 73

Theorem 22 For any interval [a, b] ⊂R, with a < b, the set C[a, b] of continuous

functions on [a, b] is contained in the set R [a, b] of Riemann integrable functions

on [a, b]:

C[a, b] ⊂R [a, b]

The proof has been presented in class. The key result used is Lemma 3 which says

that the variation of a continuous function can be controlled suitably to apply the

Darboux criterion for integrability.

It should be noted that discontinuous functions might also be integrable. In-

deed, any function which is dicontinuous at only ﬁnitely many points is integrable.

3.10 The Integral as a Non-negative Linear Func-

tional

We have seen that the set

R [a, b]

of all Riemann integrable functions on a compact interval [a, b] ⊂ R, with a < b,

is a linear space, i.e. that sums and constant multiples of Riemann integrable

functions are again Riemann integrable. Our next objective is to show that the

Riemann integral viewed as a function

R [a, b] →R : f →

Z

b

a

f (3.51)

is linear:

Theorem 23 For interval [a, b] ⊂R, where a <b, and any f , g ∈R [a, b], we have

Z

b

a

( f +g) =

Z

b

a

f +

Z

b

a

g (3.52)

and, for any k ∈ R,

Z

b

a

(k f ) = k

Z

b

a

f (3.53)

Thus, the Riemann integral

R [a, b] →R : f →

Z

b

a

f (3.54)

is a linear functional on the linear space R [a, b].

74 Ambar N. Sengupta

Proof Let f , g ∈ R [a, b], and k ∈ R. We have already seen, in Theorem 21,

that f +g and k f are also in R [a, b]. Now let

X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

)

be any partition of [a, b]. As usual, let Var

k

(h) denote the variation of a function h

over the interval [x

j−1

, x

j

]:

Var

k

(h) = sup

s,t∈[x

j−1

,x

j

]

(h(s) −h(t)) = M

j

(h) −m

j

(h) (3.55)

Then

U( f +g, X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

k

( f +g)∆

j

x

≤

N

∑

j=1

Var

k

( f )∆

j

x +

N

∑

j=1

Var

k

(g)∆

j

x

= U( f , X) +U(g, X)

Similarly,

L( f +g, X) ≥L( f , X) +L(g, X) (3.56)

Thus, L( f +g, X) and U( f +g, X) are squeezed into the interval

[L( f , X) +L(g, X),U( f , X) +U(g, X)] (3.57)

Now let ε > 0. By the usual trick of combining partitions, there is a partition X of

[a, b] such that

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε/2

and

U(g, X) −L(g, X) < ε/2

So

U( f +g, X)−L( f +g, X) ≤U( f , X)+U(g, X) −[L( f , X) +L(g, X)] <ε (3.58)

which, by the Darboux criterion implies that f +g ∈ R [a, b]. (Of course, we have

just repeated the proof of Theorem 21 (ii).)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 75

Let

I( f ) =

Z

b

a

f , I(g) =

Z

b

a

g, (3.59)

I( f +g) =

Z

b

a

( f +g) (3.60)

Then I( f ) lies between U( f , X) and L( f , X), and I(g) lies between U(g, X) and

L(g, X). Consequently,

L( f , X) +L(g, X) ≤I( f ) +I(g) ≤U( f , X) +U(g, X)

Moreover,

L( f +g, X) ≤I( f +g) ≤U( f +g, X)

Putting all this together, we see that I( f +g) and the sum I( f ) +I(g) both lie in

the interval

[L( f , X) +L(g, X),U( f , X) +U(g, X)] (3.61)

and the width of this interval is < ε. Therefore, I( f ) +I(g) and I( f +g) differ by

less than ε. But ε is any positive real number. Therefore,

I( f +g) = I( f ) +I(g) (3.62)

Next, consider the function k f , where k ∈ R. Let

X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

)

be a partition of [a, b] such that

U( f , X) −L( f , X) <

ε

1+[k[

(3.63)

(The 1+ in the denominator is to avoid trouble if k happens to be 0.) Then

U(k f , X) −L(k f , X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

(k f )∆x

j

=

N

∑

j=1

[k[Var

j

( f )∆x

j

(by Lemma 2 (iii))

= [k[ [U( f , X) −L( f , X)]

≤ [k[

ε

1+[k[

< ε.

76 Ambar N. Sengupta

Thus, the interval

[L(k f , X),U(k f , X)]

has width less than ε. The Darboux criterion implies that k f is integrable. Let

I(k f ) =

Z

b

a

(k f ) (3.64)

Now for k ≥0 we have

M(k f , [s, t]) = sup

x∈[s,t]

k f (x) = k sup

x∈[a,b]

f (x) = kM( f , [s, t]) (3.65)

and for k < 0 we have

M(k f , [s, t]) = sup

x∈[s,t]

k f (x) = k inf

x∈[a,b]

f (x) = km( f , [s, t]), (3.66)

because multiplying by a negative number reverses inequalities and transforms

sup into inf, and inf into sup. Thus, also

m(k f , [s, t]) = km( f , [s, t]) if k ≥0 (3.67)

m(k f , [s, t]) = kM( f , [s, t]) if k ≤0 (3.68)

(3.69)

Doing this for each interval [x

j−1

, x

j

], and mutiplying everything by ∆x

j

and

adding up, we see that I(k f ) lies in the interval

[kL( f , X), kU( f , X)] if k ≥0

and it lies in

[kU( f , X), kL( f , X)] if k ≤0

Now I( f ) lies between L( f , X) and U( f , X), and so kI( f ) lies in the same interval

mentioned above as I(k f ) does. Consequently,

I(k f ) −kI( f )

≤[k[ [U( f , X) −L( f , X)] < ε, (3.70)

as before. Now since ε > 0 is any positive real number we have

I(k f ) = kI( f ).

This completes the proof. QED

The Riemann integral is a non-negative linear functional in the sense that it

carried non-negative functions into non-negative numbers:

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 77

Theorem 24 If [a, b] ⊂R with a < b, and f ∈ R [a, b] is non-negative, i.e. f (x) ≥

0 for all x ∈ [a, b] then

R

b

a

f ≥0:

f ∈ R [a, b] and f ≥0 imply that

R

b

a

f ≥0 (3.71)

Consequently, the integral is order-preserving

f , ∈ R [a, b] and f ≥g imply that

R

b

a

f ≥

R

b

a

g (3.72)

Proof. This is simply because if f ≥0 then all the lower sums are ≥0 and so the

integral

R

b

a

f , being ≥ all lower sums, is also ≥0.

Next, suppose f , g ∈ R [a, b] and f ≥g. Observe that

f −g = f +(−1)g

is also in R [a, b], and is, of course, ≥0. Thus,

f = ( f −g) +g

and so, by linearity,

Z

b

a

f =

Z

b

a

( f −g) +

Z

b

a

g

Now we have just shown that the ﬁrst term on the right is ≥0. Therefore,

Z

b

a

f ≥

Z

b

a

g. QED

The linear functional given by the Riemann integral is a bounded linear func-

tional on R [a, b] for the sup-norm in the following sense:

Theorem 25 For any compact interval [a, b] ⊂ R, with a < b, and for any f ∈

R [a, b] we have

Z

b

a

f

≤[[ f [[

sup

(b−a) (3.73)

Proof We know that if f ∈ R [a, b] then [ f [ ∈ R [a, b] and

Z

b

a

f

≤

Z

b

a

[ f [ (3.74)

78 Ambar N. Sengupta

Now the function [ f [ is bounded above by the constant [[ f [[

sup

(recall from Theo-

rem 19 that this is ﬁnite.) Therefore,

Z

b

a

[ f [ ≤

Z

b

a

[[ f [[

sup

=[[ f [[

sup

(b−a)

and we are done. QED

A useful but simple consequence of this result is:

Theorem 26 For any compact interval [a, b] ⊂R, with a <b, if f

1

, f

2

, ... ∈R [a, b]

converge uniformly to a function f on [a, b] then f ∈ R [a, b] and

lim

n→∞

Z

b

a

f

n

=

Z

b

a

f (3.75)

Proof First let us show that f ∈ R [a, b]. Let ε > 0. By uniform convergence, we

have an n ∈ P such that

[[ f

n

− f [[

sup

<

ε

4(b−a)

(3.76)

By integrability of f

n

we know that there is a partition X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

) of [a, b]

such that

U( f

n

, X) −L( f

n

, X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f

n

)∆x

j

<

ε

2

(3.77)

Now

Var

j

( f

n

) −Var

j

( f )

≤ Var

j

( f

n

− f )

≤ 2[[ f

n

− f [[

sup

< 2

ε

4(b−a)

=

ε

2(b−a)

and so

Var

j

( f ) ≤Var

j

( f

n

) +

ε

2(b−a)

(3.78)

Therefore,

U( f , X) −L( f , X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f )∆x

j

≤

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f

n

)∆x

j

+

ε

2(b−a)

N

∑

j=1

∆x

j

<

ε

2

+

ε

2

= ε.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 79

Thus, f ∈ R [a, b].

Next, we have

Z

f

n

−

Z

f

≤[[ f

n

− f [[

sup

(b−a) →0, as n →∞. QED

3.11 Additivity of the Integral

We will show that the integral of a function over an interval [a, b] is the sum of the

integrals of the function over [a, c] and [c, b] for any point c ∈ (a, b).

If

F : S →U

is a function, and T is a non-empty subset of S, then

F[T

denotes the restriction of F to the smaller domain T, i.e. F[T is the function

whose domain is T and whse values are given through F:

(F[T)(x) = F(x) for all x ∈ T (3.79)

Theorem 27 Let a, c, b be real numbers with a <c <b, and consider any function

f : [a, b] →R

which is intergable over [a, c] and over [c, b]. Then f ∈ R [a, b], and

Z

b

a

f =

Z

c

a

f +

Z

b

c

f (3.80)

Proof. Let ε > 0. By Darboux, there is a partition Y of [a, c] and a partition Z of

[c, b] such that

U( f [[a, c],Y) −L( f [[a, c],Y) < ε/2 (3.81)

and

U( f [[c, b], Z) −L( f [[c, b], Z) < ε/2 (3.82)

Now put together the points of Y and Z. This yields a partition X of the combined

interval [a, b]. Then,

U( f , X) =U( f [[a, c],Y) +U( f [[c, b], Z) ≥

Z

c

a

f +

Z

b

c

f (3.83)

80 Ambar N. Sengupta

and

L( f , X) = L( f [[a, c],Y) +L( f [[c, b], Z) ≤

Z

c

a

f +

Z

b

c

f (3.84)

Consequently,

U( f , X) −L( f , X) = U( f [[a, c],Y) +U( f [[c, b], Z) − [L( f [[a, c],Y) +L( f [[c, b], Z)]

= U( f [[a, c],Y) −L( f [[a, c],Y) + U( f [[c, b], Z) −L( f [[c, b], Z)

< ε/2+ε/2

= ε

Therefore, by Darboux, f ∈ R [a, b].

Now from (3.83) and (3.84) it follows that the sum

Z

c

a

f +

Z

b

c

f

lies between L( f , X) and U( f , X), and, of course, so does

R

b

a

f . Therefore,

R

c

a

f +

R

b

c

f and

R

b

a

f differ by less than ε.

Since ε > 0 is arbitrary, it follows that

Z

b

a

f =

Z

c

a

f +

Z

b

c

f . QED

Now we prove that if a function is ingtergable on an interval then it is inte-

grable on any sub-interval:

Theorem 28 If [a, b] ⊂ R, with a < b, and if s, t ∈ [a, b] with s < t then for any

function f ∈ R [a, b] we have f [[s, t] ∈ R [s, t].

Proof This is, as always, a matter of applying Darboux using one of the properties

of Var. Let ε > 0. Since f ∈ R [a, b] there is a partition Y of [a, b] such that

U( f ,Y) −L( f ,Y) < ε.

Add to Y the points s and t, in case they are not in Y, to obtain a partition

Z = (z

0

, ..., z

M

)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 81

of [a, b]. We know that this lowers the upper sum and raises the lower sum and so

U( f , Z) −L( f , Z) < ε.

Now let X be the partition of [s, t] obtained by taking the points of Z which are in

[s, t]. Then

U( f , Z) −L( f , Z) =U( f [[s, t], X) −L( f [[s, t], X) +

∑

j∈J

M

j

( f ) −m

j

( f )

∆x

j

(3.85)

where J consists of those j ∈ ¦1, ..., M¦ for which the interval [z

j−1

, z

j

] is not

contained in [s, t]. Therefore,

U( f , Z) −L( f , Z) ≤U( f [[s, t], X) −L( f [[s, t], X) < ε,

and we are done. QED

3.12 Monotone Functions are Riemann Integrable

We have made the remark that not every Riemann integrable function is continu-

ous. We will now prove that every monotone function is Riemann integrable on

any compact interval.

Let

f : [a, b] →R

be a monotone function, where [a, b] ⊂R and a < b. Let

X = (x

0

, x

1

, ..., x

N

)

be any partition of [a, b]. Then

U( f , X) −L( f , X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f )∆x

j

≤

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f )

[[X[[

where

[[X[[ = max

1≤j≤N

∆x

j

,

82 Ambar N. Sengupta

is the maximum width of the intervals making up the partition.

Suppose for convenience that f is monotone non-decreasing, i.e.

f (x) ≤ f (y) for all x, y ∈ [a, b] with x ≤y

Then, by the property of Var for monotone functions given in (3.41) we have

Var

j

( f ) = f (x

j

) − f (x

j−1

) for all j ∈ ¦1, ..., N¦

Therefore, the sum of the variations over all the intervals is simply the variation

over the full interval:

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f ) = Var( f , [a, b]) (3.86)

The same conclusion holds even if f is monotone non-increasing, i.e. if

f (x) ≤ f (y) for all x, y ∈ [a, b] with x ≥y

Thus, in either case, we have

U( f , X) −L( f , X) = Var( f , [a, b])[[X[[ (3.87)

To make this less than any chosen ε > 0 all we have to do is take a partition X

with all the interval sizes less than

ε/[1+Var( f , [a, b])].

For example, we could divide [a, b] into N equal pieces, with N chosen large

enough that

b−a

N

<

ε

1+Var( f , [a, b])

.

Thus we have proved:

Theorem 29 If f is a monotone function on a compact interval [a, b] ⊂ R, with

a < b, then f ∈ R [a, b].

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 83

3.13 Riemann Sums and the Riemann Integral

We have used the Archimedean strategy of capturing the value of the integral

between upper sums and lower sums. This approach led to a smooth development

of the central results of the theory. However, this method is not the most intuitive

in understanding concepts such as arc length. It is therefore useful to understand

the Riemann integral in terms of Riemann sums as well. This method is also

amenable to generalizations such as the notion of line integrals. Furthermore, the

Riemann sum approach motivates the construction of more advanced notions such

as the stochastic integral of Itô.

So consider a function

f : [a, b] →R

where [a, b] ⊂R with a < b. Let

X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

)

be any partition of [a, b]. Recall that the norm or width of X is the length of the

largest interval

[[X[[ = max

j

∆x

j

Now consider any sequence

X

∗

= (x

∗

1

, ..., x

∗

N

)

subordinate to X, i.e. with x

∗

j

∈ [x

j−1

, x

j

] for each j. We denote this by

X

∗

< X

Recall the Riemann sum

S( f , X, X

∗

) =

N

∑

j=1

f (x

∗

j

)∆x

j

(3.88)

Now

m

j

≤ f (x

∗

j

) ≤M

j

,

for each j, and so

L( f , X) ≤S( f , X, X

∗

) ≤U( f , X) (3.89)

If f is integrable, with I =

R

b

a

, then for any ε > 0 we can choose partition X such

that

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε.

84 Ambar N. Sengupta

Since both I and S( f , X, X

∗

) are squeezed in between the upper and lower sums,

it follows that

[S( f , X, X

∗

) −I[ < ε (3.90)

The following result is is often used to deﬁne the Riemann integral in alterna-

tive approaches to the theory.

Theorem 30 A function f : [a, b] →R is Riemann integrable if and only if there

is a real number I such that for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that

[S( f , X, X

∗

) −I[ < ε (3.91)

for every partition X of norm < δ and every X

∗

< X. In this case,

I =

Z

b

a

f

Proof. Suppose the given condition holds. Then there is a real number I such

that for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 for which the condition

[S( f , X, X

∗

) −I[ < ε/4 (3.92)

holds for all partitions X of [a, b] of width < δ and all X

∗

< X. Thus,

I −ε/4 <

N

∑

j=1

f (x

∗

j

)∆x

j

< I +ε/4

for every sequence X

∗

< X. Then, taking the supremum over all possible x

∗

1

in the

ﬁrst interval [x

0

, x

1

], we see that

M

1

∆x

1

+

N

∑

j=2

f (x

∗

j

)∆x

j

≤I +ε/4

and, taking the inﬁmum over all possible x

∗

1

in [x

0

, x

1

], we have

I −ε/4 ≤m

1

∆x

1

+

N

∑

j=2

f (x

∗

j

)∆x

j

Carrying this successively for j = 2, 3, ..., N, we conclude that

I −ε/4 ≤L( f , X) ≤U( f , X) ≤I +ε/4

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 85

Consequently,

U( f , X) −L( f , X) ≤ε/2 < ε

and so, by Darboux, f ∈ R [a, b]. Moreover, since both I and the integral

R

b

a

f

are trapped in the interval [L( f , X),U( f , X)] whose width is ε it follows that I and

R

b

a

f differ by less than ε. But, ε is any positive real number. Thus,

I =

Z

b

a

f .

For the converse, suppose f ∈ R [a, b]. Let ε > 0. By Darboux, there is a

partition

Y = (y

0

, ..., y

N

)

of [a, b] such that U( f ,Y) and L( f ,Y) differ by less than ε:

U( f ,Y) −L( f ,Y) < ε/2 (3.93)

Now let

δ =

ε/2

1+2N[[ f [[

sup

. (3.94)

(Where we get this from will be clear later.) Consider any partition

X = (x

0

, ..., x

T

)

of [a, b] of norm less than δ:

[[X[[ < δ

We will compare U −L for X with that for Y and conclude that U −L for X is

indeed less than ε. Using our standard trick, let Z be the partition of [a, b] obtained

by combining X and Y. Then

U( f , Z) −L( f , Z) ≤U( f ,Y) −L( f ,Y) < ε/2 (3.95)

We also know by Lemma 1 that U −L for Z differs from that for X by at most

2N[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[, because at most N points were added to X to obtain Z. Thus, the

most U −L for X could be is

U( f , Z) −L( f , Z) +2N[[ f [[

sup

[[X[[ (3.96)

Thus,

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε/2+2N[[ f [[

sup

δ (3.97)

86 Ambar N. Sengupta

In (3.94) we chose δ just so this right side now works out to ε:

U( f , X) −L( f , X) < ε/2+ε/2 = ε (3.98)

Now take any X

∗

<X. Then the Riemann sum S( f , X, X

∗

) is sandwiched between

the lower sum L( f , X) and the upper sum U( f , X), and so it the integral

R

b

a

f .

Therefore, S( f , X, X

∗

) and

R

b

a

f both lie in the interval

[L( f , X),U( f , X)]

whose width is < ε. Thus,

S( f , X, X

∗

) −

Z

b

a

f

< ε (3.99)

We have shown that for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that (3.99) holds for any

partition X of width < δ and any X

∗

< X. QED

Bibliography

[1] Conway, John H. 2001. On Numbers and Games. (Second Edition) A.K.

Peters.

[2] Dedekind, Richard. 1901. Essays on the Theory of Numbers. The

Open Court Publishing Company. Online at http://www.gutenberg.org/

etext/21016

[3] Hilbert, David. 1956. Grundlagen der Geometrie. (Eight Edition, with

supplementary material and revisions by Paul Bernays.) H.G. Verlagsge-

sellschaft mbH, Stuttgart.

[4] Knuth, Donald.1974. Surreal Numbers. Addison-Wesley Professional.

[5] Rudin, Walter. 1976. Principles of Mathematical Analysis. (Third Edition.)

McGraw-Hill.

87

88 Ambar N. Sengupta

Appendix A

Question Bank

Set 1

1. Prove that there is no rational number whose square is 7.

89

90 Ambar N. Sengupta

2. Let ε be any positive real number.

(i) Show that there is an n

0

∈ N such that

1

n

2

< ε

for all n ∈ N with n ≥n

0

.

(ii) Let a be any real number. Show that there is some n

1

∈ N such that

2a

1

n

< ε

for all n ∈ N with n ≥n

1

.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 91

3. Suppose a is a positive real number with a

2

< 7. Show that

a+

1

n

2

< ε

for all n ∈ N large enough (i.e. there is some n

/

∈ N such that the preceding

inequality holds for all natural numbers n ≥n

/

).

92 Ambar N. Sengupta

4. Let

S =¦x ∈ R : x > 0andx

2

< 7¦.

(i) Show that S = / 0.

(ii) Show that S is bounded above in R.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 93

(iii) Let a = supS. Prove that a

2

≥7. (Hint: Suppose a

2

were less than 7.

Then use the result of Problem 3.)

(iv) Prove that a

2

is, in fact, equal to 7. Thus, there is a real number whose

square is 7.

94 Ambar N. Sengupta

Set 2

1. For the set B =¦−4, 8¦∪[1, 7) ∪[9, ∞), viewed as a subset of R

∗

:

(i) B

0

=

(ii) ∂B =

(iii) B

c

=

(iv) the interior of the complement B

c

is

(B

c

)

0

=

(v) (B

0

)

c

=

(vi) B =

(vii) ∂B =

(viii) ∂B

0

=

(ix) The interior of (B

0

)

c

is:

(x) The closure of B

c

is:

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 95

2. Provide brief explanations/answers for the following:

(i) If U is an open set then U

0

=

(ii) For any set A, the interior of the interior of A is the interior of A, i.e.

(A

0

)

0

= A

0

.

(iii) The set [0, ∞) is closed as a subset of R.

(iv) If S is closed then its closure S is S itself, i.e. S = S.

(v) Is there a subset of R whose boundary in R is all of R?

96 Ambar N. Sengupta

3. Give an example of an open cover of (−1, 1) which does not have a ﬁnite

subcover.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 97

Set 5

1. Consider the partition

X = (.25, .5, .75, 1)

of [0, 1]. For the function f on [0, 1] given by

f (x) = x

2

for all x ∈ [0, 1]

(i) Work out the upper sumU( f , X)

(ii) Work out the Riemann sum S( f , X, X

∗

), where

X

∗

= (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8)

98 Ambar N. Sengupta

2. Consider the partition

X =

1

N

,

2

N

, ...,

N

N

**of [0, 1]. For the function f on [0, 1] given by
**

f (x) = x

2

for all x ∈ [0, 1]

(i) Show that

U( f , X) =

1

6

1+

1

N

2+

1

N

**[Hint: Use the sum formula 1
**

2

+2

2

+ +k

2

= k(k +1)(2k +1)/6.]

(ii) Show that

L( f , X) =

1

6

1−

1

N

2−

1

N

**Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 99
**

(iii) Assuming that f is integrable, prove that

Z

1

0

x

2

dx =

1

3

using the deﬁnition of the Riemann integral and the results of (i) and

(ii).

100 Ambar N. Sengupta

3. Consider the function g on [0, 1] given by

g(x) =

1 if x is rational

−1 if x is irrational

Prove that g is not Riemann integrable.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 101

4. Prove that, for a, b ∈ R with a < b, if f , g ∈ R [a, b], then f +g ∈ R [a, b].

102 Ambar N. Sengupta

Set 6

1. Write out in a complete and neat way the proof that every continuous func-

tion on a compact interval is Riemann integrable.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 103

2. For a function

f : [a, b] →R

we deﬁne the variation Var( f ) by

Var( f ) = sup

x,y∈[a,b]

( f (x) − f (y)) = M( f ) −m( f ),

where

M( f ) = sup

x∈[a,b]

f (x), andm( f ) = inf

x∈[a,b]

f (x).

Prove that for functions f and g on [a, b],

Var( f g) ≤M([ f [)Var(g) +m([g[)Var( f )

104 Ambar N. Sengupta

3. Explain the notion of the Riemann integral by clearly stating the deﬁnitions

of upper sums and lower sums, all properly explained in your own terms,

and then stating and explaining the deﬁnition of the Riemann integral. Work

out a simple integral in such a way as to illustrate the deﬁnition of the Rie-

mann integral. Clearly explain, in your own words, the Darboux criterion.

(Please note that every piece of notation you bring in must explained.)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 105

Test 1

1. Mark True or False:

(i) If S is a bounded subset of R then it contains a largest element

(ii) If S is a bounded, non-empty subset of R then it has a least upper

bound in R

(iii) The point ∞ is a boundary point of [1, ∞]

(iv) The point 1 is an interior point of [0, 1]

(v) The point 4 is a boundary point of [0, 4)

(vi) The set [0, ∞) is a closed subset of R

∗

(vii) The set [0, ∞) is a closed subset of R

(viii) Every real number is a boundary point of Q

(ix) The set ¦1, 2, 3¦ is compact

(x) The set (1, 5] is compact

106 Ambar N. Sengupta

2. Prove one of the following statements:

(i) The union of any collection of open sets is open.

(ii) The complement of a closed set is open.

(ii) If S is a non-empty subset of R

∗

then supS is in the closure S.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 107

3. State

(i) the Heine-Borel Theorem

(ii) the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem.

108 Ambar N. Sengupta

4. State the deﬁnitions of the following:

(i) Limit point of a sequence (x

n

) in R

∗

.

(ii) Limit of a sequence (x

n

)in R

∗

.

(iii) A Cauchy sequence in R.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 109

Test 2

1. Mark True or False:

(i) A continuous function on any subset of R is bounded.

(ii) A continuous function on any closed subset of R is bounded.

(iii) A continuous function on a compact set is bounded.

(iv) A continuous function on a compact set attains a mimimum value at

some point in the set.

(v) If a sequence of functions converges to a function pointwise then it

converges uniformly.

(vi) If a sequence of functions converges to a function unformly then it

converges pointwise.

(vii) If f

n

: [0, 1] →R is a sequence of functions, and f

n

→ f , as n →∞,

pointwise, and if each f

n

is continuous at a point p ∈ [0, 1], then f is

continuous at p.

(viii) Every uniformly Cauchy sequence of functions converges uniformly.

(ix) Every uniformly convergent sequence of functions is uniformly Cauchy.

(x) The uniform limit of a sequence of continuous functions is continuous.

110 Ambar N. Sengupta

2. Suppose f : [0, 1] →Ris continuous, and f (p) >0 for some p ∈[0, 1]. Show

that there is a neighborhood U of p such that f (x) > 0 for all x ∈U ∩[0, 1].

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 111

3. State

(i) the Intermediate Value Theorem

(ii) the Extreme Value theorem.

112 Ambar N. Sengupta

4. Show that the equation

x

3

+5x −2 = 0

has a solution in the interval (0, 1).

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 113

Test 3

1. Consider a function f on an interval [a, b] ⊂R, where a < b,:

f : [a, b] →R.

(i) Let X = (a, b) be the simplest partition of [a, b]. Write down an ex-

pression for L( f , X), explaining your notation clearly. (5pts)

(ii) Now consider a partition X

/

which contains one addtional point t, i.e.

X

/

= (a, t, b),

where a < t < b. Write down an expression for L( f , X

/

), again ex-

plaining the notation clearly. (5pts)

114 Ambar N. Sengupta

(iii) Show that (5pts)

L( f , X

/

) ≥L( f , X).

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 115

2. Consider a function f : [a, b] →R, where [a, b] ⊂R and a < b. Let X and Y

be partitions of [a, b] with Y containing all the points of X and some more.

Prove that (5pts)

U( f ,Y) −L( f ,Y) ≤U( f , X) −L( f , X)

116 Ambar N. Sengupta

3. If f ∈ R [a, b] and [c, d] ⊂[a, b] prove that f ∈ R [c, d]. (5pts)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 117

4. Mark TRUE or FALSE: (10pts)

a. For any function f : [a, b] → R and any partition X = (x

0

, ..., x

N

) of

[a, b],

U( f , X) −L( f , X) =

N

∑

j=1

Var

j

( f )∆x

j

,

where Var

j

( f ) = sup

x∈[x

j−1

,x

j

]

f (x) −inf

x∈[x

j−1

,x

j

]

f (x), and ∆x

j

= x

j

−

x

j−1

.

b. Every Riemann integrable function is bounded.

c. Every bounded function is Riemann integrable.

d. Every monotone function is Riemann integrable.

e. Every continuous function is Riemann integrable.

f. Every Riemann integrable function is continuous.

g. If f ∈ R [a, b] and f is never zero then 1/ f ∈ R [a, b].

h. For a bounded function on an interval [a, b] ⊂R, there is always a real

number which is ≥ all the lower sums and ≤ all the upper sums.

i. If [ f [ ∈ R [a, b] then f ∈ R [a, b].

j. If f ∈ R [a, b] then [ f [ ∈ R [a, b].

118 Ambar N. Sengupta

Cumulative Question Set

1. Consider the set

S = [2, 4) ∪(5, 6) ∪¦1, 8¦.

Mark True or False:

(i) 2 is an interior point of S.

(ii) 4 is an interior point of S.

(iii) 4 is a boundary point of S.

(iv) 9 is an isolated point of S.

(v) 1 is an isolated point of S.

(vi) S is an open set.

(vii) S is a closed set.

(viii) S is compact.

(ix) Every sequence in S has a subsequence which is convergent.

(x) Every sequence in S has a subsequence converging to a point in S.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 119

2. Let S be a non-empty subset of R.

(i) If t a real number with t < supS. Explain why there exists x ∈ S with

x >t.

(ii) Show that there is a sequence of elements s

n

∈ S such that s

n

→supS.

[Hint: Let U = supS. First assume that S is bounded above; in this

case U ∈ R. Now apply (i) to produce an s

n

using 1/n for t. If you

have time, try also the case U = ∞.]

120 Ambar N. Sengupta

3. Suppose f is continuous at a point p, and f (p) > 2. Prove that there is

a δ > 0 such that f (x) > 0 for all x in the domain of f which lie in the

neighborhood (p−δ, p+δ).

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 121

4. Let f be a continuous function on a closed and bounded set S ⊂ R. Prove

that f reaches its maximum value on S, i.e. there is a point p ∈ S such that

f (p) = sup

x∈S

f (x). [Hint: Let U = sup

x∈S

f (x). Then choose a sequence

of points s

n

∈ S such that f (s

n

) →U. Apply Bolzano-Weierstrass.]

122 Ambar N. Sengupta

5. Let a, b ∈ R, with a < b. Let ( f

n

) be a sequence of functions on [a, b]. Mark

True or False:

(i) If there is a function f on [a, b] such that f

n

(x) → f (x) for all x ∈ [a, b]

then f

n

→ f uniformly.

(ii) If f

n

→ f uniformly then f

n

(x) → f (x) for all x ∈ [a, b].

(iii) If ( f

n

) is Cauchy in sup-norm then f

n

→ f uniformly, for some func-

tion f on [a, b].

(iv) If f

n

→ f uniformly and each f

n

is continuous then f is continuous.

(v) If f

n

(x) → f (x) for every x ∈ [a, b], and if each f

n

is continuous, then

f is continuous.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 123

6. Consider an interval [a, b] ⊂R. Mark true or false.

(i) C[a, b] ⊂R[a, b].

(ii) If f ∈ R[a, b] then

Z

b

a

f

≤

Z

b

a

[ f [

(iii) If f

n

∈ R[a, b], for n ∈ N, and f

n

(x) → f (x) for every x ∈ [a, b] then

R

b

a

f

n

→

R

b

a

f .

(iv) If X is a partition of [a, b], and f ∈ R[a, b], then

L( f , X) ≤

Z

b

a

f

(v) If f is a function on [a, b], and X and Y are partitions of [a, b] with

X ⊂Y then

U( f , X) <U( f ,Y)

2

Ambar N. Sengupta

Contents

Introductory Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ordered Fields and The Real Number System 1.1 Ordered Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Order Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Ordered Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4 The absolute value function . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5 The Archimedean Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The Real Number System R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Hilbert Maximality and the Completeness Property 1.2.2 Completeness of R and measurement . . . . . . . Problem Set 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Extended Real Line and Its Topology 2.1 The extended real line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Neighborhoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Types of points for a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Interior, Exterior, and Boundary of a Set . . . . . 2.5 Open Sets and Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Open Sets and Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 Closed sets in R and in R∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 Closure of a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 The closure of a set is closed . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11 S is the smallest closed set containing S . . . . . 2.12 R∗ is compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13 Compactness of closed subsets of R∗ . . . . . . . 2.14 The Heine-Borel Theorem: Compact subsets of R 3 5 7 8 9 13 14 16 18 18 19 20 20 23 23 24 25 27 28 30 30 31 31 32 32 32 35 36

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2

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sengupta . . . . . .1 Approaching the Riemann Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . b] ⊂ R [a. . . . .19 2. . . . . . . . 3. . . The sequence Rn . . . . . . . .27 2. .13 Riemann Sums and the Riemann Integral . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . 3.21 2. . . . . .6 Integrable functions are bounded . . . . .28 2. . Connected Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ambar N. . . . b] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Deﬁnition of the Riemann Integral . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . The sequence 1/n . . . . . . .4 Reﬁning Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 2. . 3. . Simple Examples of limits . . . . . . . Limit points and suprema and inﬁma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The rationals are countable . . . . . . A Question Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .30 Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 2. . . 37 38 39 39 41 42 43 44 48 49 49 50 51 52 54 55 57 58 59 61 62 65 66 67 70 72 73 79 81 83 86 89 3 Integration 3. . . . . . . . . . . .20 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2. . . . .8 The algebra R [a. . .15 2. . . . . . . . . . . .24 2. . 3. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 C[a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convergent sequences and Cauchy sequences Every Cauchy sequence is bounded . . . . . . . .23 2.22 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monotone Sequences . . . . . .29 2. . Every Cauchy sequence is convergent . Limit of a sequence . . . . . . .7 Variation of a Function . . . . . Limits points of a sequence . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . The real numbers are uncountable . .11 Additivity of the Integral . . . . .5 The Darboux Criterion . . . . . . . . . .18 2. . .12 Monotone Functions are Riemann Integrable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 The Integral as a Non-negative Linear Functional 3.2 Riemann Sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The limit of a sequence is unique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b] .

There are several different ideologies that would guide the presentation of concepts and proofs in any course in real analysis: (i) the historical way (ii) the most natural way (iii) the most efﬁcient way (iv) a comprehensive way. The downside is that there is little possibility of conveying any insights or intuition. a choice has to be made whether to treat the Cauchy sequence point of view or the existence of suprema as fundamental. In addition to these notes. In studying the notion of completeness. explaining the insights from several different approaches The reality of constraints of time makes (iii) the most convenient approach. The notes here do not include a chapter on continuous functions. it conforms to the classical geometric notion of a positive real number being speciﬁed by quantities greater than it and those less than it. the Riemann integral of a function is the unique real number lying between the upper Riemann sums and lower Riemann sums. for which we followed the Richardson notes. . This point of view also guides the choice of approach in the treatment of the Riemann integral. at LSU in the Fall of 2006. I have chosen the latter. Math 4031. I will update them time to time.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 5 Introductory Remarks These notes were written for an introductory real analysis class. Richardson were used. a set of notes by Professor L. These notes have not been proof read carefully. and perhaps the best example of this approach is Rudin’s Principles of Mathematical Analysis [5].

6 Ambar N. Sengupta .

the segment nAB (which is n copies of AB laid contiguously) exceeds the segment mCD if and only if the segment nPQ exceeds the segment mRS. such as segments or planar regions or even angles. symbolically EF>GH if EF is congruent to a segment GK. as ratios of magnitudes. foundational. In the discussion below we focus on segments. An important feature of this order relation is encapsulated in the archimedean axiom: given any two segments.Chapter 1 Ordered Fields and The Real Number System In this chapter we go over the essential. The ratio AB CD is then essentially the equivalence class of all segment pairs which are in the same ratio as AB is to CD. In Euclid’s Elements. a segment EF is taken to exceed a segment GH. Positive real numbers arose from geometry in Greek mathematics. 7 . where K is some point between E and F. facts about the real number system. some multiple of any one of them exceeds the other. Then aAa pair PQ and RS if for any positive numbers n and m. Euclid also deﬁnes the ratio XY/ZW to be greater than the ratio PQ/RS : XY PQ > ZW RS if they are unequal and if whenever mZW>nXY then also mRS>nPQ.

and absolute values. and proceed to subsection 1. Dedekind’s method has beed generalized in a striking. constitutes the real number system R. is congruent to a whole multiple of CD. .8 Ambar N. then the rationals.4. and then the real numbers by Dedekind’s method of identifying a real number with a splitting of the rationals into two disjoint classes with members of one class exceeding those of the other. Leaving aside the historical background. and the Euclidean construction procedures. say nAB. The maximal such ﬁeld. when 0 and negatives are included. Such ratios are the rational numbers. and is denoted by m . Euclid’s considerations suggest that a ratio of segments may be understood in terms of a set of rational numbers. for example the set of all those rationals which exceed the given ratio.1 Ordered Fields In this section we deﬁne and prove simple properties of ﬁelds. Sengupta A special case is that of commensurate segments: if a whole multiple of AB. constructing the natural numbers. respecting the axioms of geometry pertaining to the order relation and congruence. and vastly more powerful way. ordered ﬁelds. the real number system may be constructed by starting with the empty set. The axioms of geometry. who shows how the Dedekind cut method can be applied to abstract sets leading to the construction of all real numbers as well as transcendentals and inﬁnitesimals. an algebraic structure called a ﬁeld emerges (this is discussed at length by Hilbert [3]). then the ratio AB is CD rational.1. show that ratios of segments can be added and multiplied and. n It is readily checked that m p = n q if and only if qm = pn. Other ratios are irrational. The reader wishing to move on to properties of the real numbers may skim the contents of the ﬁrst few subsections. Knuth’s novel [4] is an unusual and entertaining presentation of this construction. say mCD. In either case. by Conway [1]. 1.

7) 7. There is an element 0 ∈ F. c ∈ F (1.6) (1.3) (1. b. for which a+0 = a = 0+a for all a ∈ F (1.4) 3.1. for which a1 = a = 1a for all a ∈ F (1. the unit or multiplicative identity element.1 Fields A ﬁeld F is a set along with two binary operations Addition : F × F → F : (a.2) (1. Every non-zero element a ∈ F has an multiplicative inverse a−1 . b) → ab satisfying the following axioms: 1. c ∈ F (1. The associative law holds for addition a(bc) = (ab)c for all a. The associative law holds for addition a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c for all a. b) → a + b and Multiplication : F × F → F : (a.9) .5) 5. The associative law holds for multiplication 6. called the reciprocal of a: aa−1 = 1 = a−1 a for all non-zero a ∈ F (1. the zero or additive identity element. b ∈ F (1.8) 8. The commutative law holds for addition: a+b = b+a for all a. There is an element 1 ∈ F. b. Every element a ∈ F has an additive inverse −a.1) 2.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 9 1. called the negative of a: a + (−a) = 0 = (−a) + a 4.

10 9.11) 11. the additive identity and the multiplicative identity are unique. The commutative law holds for multiplication: ab = ba 10. b ∈ F Ambar N. −0 = 0 and 1−1 = 1 . Moreover. (b + c)a = ba + ca for all a. Sengupta (1. For instance. c ∈ F (1. and abc instead of abc. The element 1 is not equal to the element 0: 1=0 We have not attempted to provide a minimal axiom set. The distributive law holds: a(b + c) = ab + ac. we will just write a+b+c instead of a + (b + c). and some of the axioms may be deduced from others.10) for all a. Let us note a few simple consequences: Theorem 1 If x ∈ F is such that a + x = a for some a ∈ F and y ∈ F is such that by = b for some non-zero b ∈ F then x=0 and y = 1. In particular. b. the commutativity of addition can be deduced from the other axioms. Because of the associative laws.

Next. The multiplicative inverse a−1 is best written as the reciprocal: 1 = b−1 .}.. QED 11 Theorem 2 If a. and b = 0. (−a)b = −ab. . def . (1. −3.. 2. The other claims follow from 0+0 = 0 and 1 · 1 = 1.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Proof. −1.13) (1. 2. We can multiply any element a ∈ F by an integer as follows. Multiplying by = b by b−1 shows that y is 1. . −2.12) and (b−1 )−1 = b. b and the product ab−1 as a = ab−1 b There are many other easy consequences of the axioms which we will use without comment. First deﬁne 1a = a. 2a = a + a. and (−a)(−b) = ab. where now 1 is the number one in Z. We denote the set of natural numbers by P: P = {1. b ∈ F. Moreover. 3.. then −(−a) = a. 1.. Adding −a to a+x = a shows that x is 0.}. 3. and the set of integers by Z = {0.

y ∈ Z and all a ∈ F (1. We also deﬁne a0 = 1 for non-zero a ∈ F and. valid for suitable a ∈ F and m. (n + 1)a = na + a for all a ∈ F and all n ∈ P.15) (1. be concerned with ﬁelds which permit a consistent ordering of their elements. for any positive integer m and non-zero a ∈ F. . The simplest example of a ﬁeld is the two-element ﬁeld Z2 = {0. 0a = a def Ambar N. Finally.14) (1. The following facts can be readily veriﬁed: x(ya) = (xy)a for all x. however. 1}. b ∈ F (x + y)a = xa + ya for all x.12 and. y ∈ Z and all a ∈ F x(a + b) = xa + xb for all x ∈ Z and all a. 1+1 = 0 in Z2 We will. with addition and multiplication deﬁned modulo 2. for example. inductively. Next deﬁne negative multiples by (−n)a = −(na) for all n ∈ P and all a ∈ F. n ∈ Z.16) where 0 is the integer 0. 1 am We will use without comment simple facts such as a−m = (a−1 )n = (am )n = amn .18) (1. Sengupta (1.19) There is a multiplicative analog of this given by powers of elements. If m is a positive integer and a ∈ F we deﬁne a1 = a and am+1 = am a.17) (1.

or y < x.1.22) (1. It is also convenient to use the notation: x ≤ y means x = y or x < y and. y ∈ F exactly one of the following hold: x = y. The axioms of order are: O1.23) (1. y) of elements of S satisfying the conditions O1 and O2 below.21) .20) If there is a least such upper bound then that element is called the supremum of T : sup T = the least upper bound of T We deﬁne similarly lower bounds and inﬁmums: if l ≤ t for every t ∈ T then l is called a lower bound of T and inf T = the greatest lower bound of T Of course. the sup or the inf might not exist. x ≥ y means x = y or x > y If T is a subset of an ordered set S then an element u ∈ S is said to be an upper bound of T if t ≤ u for all t ∈ T (1. If x < y and y < z then x < z. (1. similarly. or x < y. O2. For any x.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 13 1. y) ∈ O We also write y>x to mean x < y.2 Order Relations An order relation on a set S is a set O of ordered pairs (x. It is convenient to adopt the convention that x < y means (x.

If x.24) . We have the following simple observations for an ordered ﬁeld: Theorem 3 Let F be an ordered ﬁeld. z ∈ F and x < y then x + z < y + z: x < y implies x + z < y + z for all x. z ∈ F. and if also z > 0. y. Then (i) x > 0 if and only if −x < 0 (ii) For any non-zero x ∈ F we have x2 > 0 (iii) 1 > 0 (iv) For any r ∈ Z the element r1 ∈ F is > 0 if r is a positive integer and is < 0 if r is a negative integer (v) x > y holds if and only if x − y > 0 (vi) If x ∈ F and x > 0 then 1/x > 0 (vii) The product of two positive elements is positive (viii) The product of a positive and negative is negative (ix) The product of two negative elements is negative (x) If x > y and z < 0 then xz < yz. If x > 0 we say that x is positive. (xi) If x > y then −x < −y (xii) If x > y > 0 then 1/x < 1/y (1. y.25) (1. z ∈ F OF2. If x < 0 we say that x is negative. y. in addition to the ﬁeld and order axioms stated above. If x. y. z ∈ F and x < y.14 Ambar N. then xz < yz: x < y and z > 0 imply xz < yz for all x.3 Ordered Fields An ordered ﬁeld is a ﬁeld F with an order relation in which. Sengupta 1. the following hold: OF1.1.

27) 0 < x < 2x < 3x < · · · < nx < (n + 1)x < · · · . Multiplying x > y by the positive element 1/(xy) gives 1/y > 1/x. we have for all n ∈ P and x > 0 in F (1. inside the ordered ﬁeld F we have a copy of the natural numbers 1. proceeding inductively. QED Observe that if x > 0 then 2x = x + x > x + 0 = x. if x < 0 then we know that −x > 0 and so x2 = (−x)(−x) > (−x)0 = 0. it follows that 1/x cannot be zero. (xi) If x > y then. x(1/x) would have to be < 0. by OF2. where 1F is the unit element in F.. and. 2. (i) Suppose x > 0. We prove some of the results. but we know that 1 > 0. This then leads to a copy of the integers inside F..Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Proof. . however. it follows that 1 > 0. 15 (iii) Since 1 is 12 . we have x2 = xx > x0 = 0. and 3x = 2x + x > 2x + 0 = 2x. Then we have x + (−x) > 0 + (−x). If 1/x < 0 then. 3. Since x(1/x) = 1. on identifying n ∈ P with n1F . adding −x − y shows that −y < −x. (vi) Suppose x > 0. Conversely. Thus. On the other hand. and 1 = 0. if −x < 0 then adding x to both sides shows that x > 0. and so 0 > −x. (ii) If x > 0 then. (xii) If x > y > 0 then xy > 0 and hence 1/(xy) > 0.26) In particular. 1/x > 0. and we can assume that Z⊂F (1.

1. we have then the ratio m ∈ F.16 Going further. Sengupta (1. n The set of all such ratios m/n is the set of rationals Q⊂F and is an ordered subﬁeld of the ordered ﬁeld F. b ∈ F we have: (i) the triangle inequality |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b| Equality holds if and only if a and b are both ≥ 0 or both ≤ 0.29) .32) (1. n ∈ Z.30) x −x if x ≥ 0 if x ≤ 0 (1.4 The absolute value function The absolute value | · | function in an ordered ﬁeld F is deﬁned by |x| = For instance.31) for all x ∈ F (1. The deﬁnition of |x| shows directly that | − x| = |x| ≥ 0 It is also useful to observe that |x| is the larger of x and −x We think of |a − b| as measuring the difference between a and b. (1. |1| = 1. Ambar N. and | − 1| = 1. if m. We have then Theorem 4 For any a. and n = 0.28) 1.

and so it is |ab|. Therefore. i. a(−b). Thus. Thus. Equality holds if and only if |a| = a and |b| = b or |a| = −a and |b| = −b.e. (−a)b. QED . Interchanging a and b yields: |b − a| ≥ |b| − |a|. 17 (1. (−a)(−b). Observe that |b − a| = |a − b|. one of the elements ab and −ab. Consequently. and so |a − b| ≥ |a| − |b|. |a||b| is ab or −ab. Consequently. |a − b| is ≥ to both |a| − |b| and −(|a| − |b|). whichever is ≥ 0. in particular.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis (ii) the absolute values differ by at most the difference in a and b: |a| − |b| ≤ |a − b| (iii) |ab| = |a||b|. |a| + |b| is greater or equal to ±a + (±b). we have proved (1. whichever is ≥ 0. equality holds if and only if a and b are either both ≥ 0 or both ≤ 0. Since the larger of the latter is |a| − |b| . Recall that |x| is the larger of x and −x. and so |a| + |b| ≥ |a + b|. the product |a||b| is one of the elements ab. Next. using the triangle inequality we have |a − b| + |b| ≥ |a + b − b| = |a|.33) Proof. Thus.33). We know that |x| is x or −x. it is greater or equal to a + b and (−a) + (−b). |a| + |b| is greater or equal to a + b and −(a + b).

Then nx = qr(p/q) + p/q > pr ≥ r = y. there exists a multiple of x which exceeds y: nx > y for some n ∈ {1. . y ∈ Q. y > 0.34) and we are done. 2. Sengupta 1. Simply choose n for which nx is > w. Then x= where p.} The ﬁeld Q of rationals is clearly archimedean: Theorem 5 The ordered ﬁeld Q of rationals is acrhimedean. Take n = qr + 1.. 3. with x > 0.2 The Real Number System R We shall work with the real number system in an axiomatic way. Let x. QED 1. with x > 0.18 Ambar N. q. If y ≥ 0 then we have 1x > y and we are done. and there are also no inﬁnitesimals: Theorem 6 If F is an archimedean ﬁeld then for any w > 0 in F there is an n ∈ P such that 1 w < x. but we shall not describe a construction in these notes.5 The Archimedean Property An ordered ﬁeld F is said to have the archimedean property if for any x. y ∈ F. Proof. s ∈ P. Now suppose x.. . s p q r y= . r. it is essential to actually construct such a system so as to be sure that there is no hidden contradiction between the axioms. n Proof. Needless to say. s (1. QED In an archimedean ordered ﬁeld there are no inﬁnities. We will assume that it is an ordered ﬁeld in which the completeness axiom of completeness holds.1.

This property is also often expressed as: If R is partitioned into two disjoint subsets L and U whose union is R. Consider a line. with two special points O and I marked on it. as formalized through the axioms of Hilbert.37) holds then the archimedean property also holds. and the point O itself should be thought of as 0. and if every element of L is ≤ every element of U then there is a unique element x ∈ R which lies between L and U: l ≤ x ≤ u for all l ∈ L and all u ∈ U. To complete the story. This ordered ﬁeld is the real number system R.37) The completeness property implies the archimedean peoperty: Theorem 7 If in an ordered ﬁeld the property (1. (1. The completebess property says that there are no ‘gaps’ in the line. The completeness property can be formulated equivalently as: Every non-empty subset of R which has an upper bound has a least upper bound. the structure of Euclidean geometry. produces an archimedean ordered ﬁeld. .1 Hilbert Maximality and the Completeness Property As we have mentioned before. For any point P on the line on the same side of O as P we think of the ratio OP/OI as a positive real number.35) It is useful to view the real numbers geometrically. and thus there is essentially one such ordered ﬁeld.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 19 1. then there is a real number m which lies between L and U: l ≤ m ≤ u for all l ∈ L and all u ∈ U.36) (1.2. Points on the other side from I correspond to negative real numbers. A crucial fact about R is the completeness property: If L and U are non-empty subsets of R such that every element of L is ≤ every element of U. It turns out then that any such ordered ﬁeld is isomorphic to any other. one can add to these axioms the further requirement that this ﬁeld is maximal in the sense that it cannot be embedded inside any larger archimedean ordered ﬁeld. (1.

between any two distinct elements there is at least one other element. as we shall see later. For a truly useful theory of measure. However. that there are polyedra in three dimensions which have equal volumes (as deﬁned by requirements of ‘upper’ and ‘lower’ approximations) which cannot be decomposed into congruent pieces. it was shown by Max Dehn in 1900. Archimedes and others computed areas of curved regions by such upper and lower approximations. the traditional axioms of Euclidean geometry. However.2 Completeness of R and measurement Even in Euclid’s geometry. In modern calculus. 2. Problem Set 1 1. This. and completeness is not essential. Moving up a dimension. understood in terms of all rationals which exceeded it and all rationals below it. with the task of measuring areas of polygonal regions constructed by Euclidean geometry. along with. makes it absolutely essential to work with a notion of measure that goes beyond simply decomposing into geometrically congruent ﬁgures. in resolving Hilbert’s Third Problem. implicitly. Two such sets should have the same measure if they can be decomposed into a ﬁnite collection of congruent segments. Prove that in any ordered ﬁeld. between any two distinct element lie inﬁnitely many elements. 1. Capturing a real number between upper approximations and lower approximations proves to be very useful.2. . with requirements on intersections of lines and circles. the completeness of the number system is essential. one could still get away with a less-than-complete system of numbers. this method lives on in the Riemann integral. The simplest measurement problem is to devise a measure of sets of points in the plane which are made up of a ﬁnite collection of segments constructed by Euclidean geometry. a real number was. can work with a ﬁeld which is larger than the rationals but smaller than R. For this we would not need the full complete system R of real numbers. The modern understanding and point of view on completeness grew out of the work of Richard Dedekind [2].20 Ambar N. of course. the utility of measuring areas of curved regions even in two dimensions. Prove that in any ordered ﬁeld. Sengupta A proof of this is outlined in an exercise below.

such as R. Prove that the completeness property (1. and (ii) for any ε > 0 there is an element l ∈ L and an element u ∈ U with u − l < ε. thus reaching a contradiction. by assumption.36) implies the completeness property (1.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 21 3. 9. Prove that there is a unique real number which is ≤ all elements of U and ≥ all elements of L.] 8. Then y is. with x > 0.36). Let x.37) implies the property (1. Show that there exists y > x which is also not an upper bound of S. Let F be an archimedean ordered ﬁeld. Suppose x ∈ R is ≥ all elements of a non-empty subset S ⊂ R. [Hint: Suppose F is an ordered ﬁeld in which (1. show that between any two distinct elements there is a rational element.36). If z ∈ F show that there is a rational multiple qz of z for which x < qz < y. Suppose S is a non-empty subset of R and x ∈ R is not an upper bound of S. y ∈ F with x < y. Show that x is the least upper bound of S. If S ⊂ R is a non-empty set which is bounded above. Explain why this implies x ≥ sup S. y ∈ F. i. 6. Suppose that no positive integral multiple of x exceeds y. Prove that the completeness property implies the archimdean propery. and let S = {nx : n ∈ P}.37) holds. Consider the element u − 2 x. This. being < u.e.37). Let x ∈ F be provided by (1. [Hint: Suppose (1. the least upper bound of S. Let 1 u = sup S. then we can take U to be the set of all upper bounds of S and L to be the complement. If F is an archimedean ordered ﬁeld. 4. and let x. all real numbers which are < some element of S. Use this to produce an element of S greater than u. 5. is not an upper bound.37) holds. 7. Prove that (1. Suppose L and U are non-empty subsets of R such that (i) every element of L is ≤ every element of R. an upper bound for S. .] 10.

Sengupta .22 Ambar N.

1) Here ∞ and −∞ are abstract elements. to the real line R: R∗ = R ∪ {−∞. We deﬁne addition on R∗ as follows: x + ∞ = ∞ = ∞ + x for all x ∈ R∗ with x > −∞ y + (−∞) = −∞ = (−∞) + y for all y ∈ R∗ with y < ∞. 2. 23 (2. ∞} (2. and a smallest element −∞. instead of just R. The primary reason for introducing them is to simplify the statements of several theorems.3) (2. it will be convenient to extend the real line R by adjoining to it a largest element ∞ and a smallest element −∞. No metaphysical meaning need be attached to these inﬁnities.2) Much of our work will be on R∗ . For technical purposes.Chapter 2 The Extended Real Line and Its Topology In this chapter we study topological concepts in the context of the real line.4) . We extend the order relation to R by declaring that −∞ < x < ∞ for all x ∈ R (2.1 The extended real line The extended real line is obtained by a largest element ∞. Note that ∞ + (−∞) is not deﬁned.

p + δ) = {x ∈ R : |x − p| < δ}.e. Ambar N. ε) for any positive real number ε.6) . (1.24 i. Thus.8) is a neighborhood of 2. there is no useful or consistent deﬁnition for it. For example. 1. the neighborhood consists of all points distance less than δ from p: (p − δ.2. A neighborhood of ∞ in R∗ = R ∪ {−∞. if one side is deﬁned then so is the other and the equality 2. A typical neighborhood of 0 is of the form (−ε. ∞] is a neigborhood of ∞. (5. The following algebraic facts continue to hold in R∗ : x + y = y + x. ∞] = {x ∈ R∗ : x > t} with t any real number.2 Neighborhoods A neighborhood of a point p ∈ R is an interval of the form (p − δ. (2. ∞} is a ray of the form (t. p + δ) where δ > 0 is any positive real number.5) whenever either side of these equations holds (i. A neighborhood of −∞ in R∗ is a ray of the form [−∞. For example. Sengupta x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z.e. s) = {x ∈ R∗ : x < s} (2.

3) of 2. and we can form the neighborhood (2. 4) and (4. 4) 25 Observe that if U and V are neighborhoods of p then U ∩V is also a neighborhood of p. 4). This is called the Hausdorff property of R∗ .5 lying entirely inside (2. For example.e. 5) and (12. Consider a set A point p ∈ R∗ is said to be an interior point of S if it has a neighborhood U lying entirely inside S. 4) of 3 contains 2. i. the neighborhood (2. An example is [−∞. 5. ∞] Exerise Give examples of disjoint neighborhoods of (i) 2 and −4 (ii) −∞ and 5 (iii) ∞ and −∞ (iv) 1 and −1 2. such as (−1. 3 and 5 have the neighborhoods (2. and if q ∈ N then q had a neighborhood lying entirely inside N. and so U ∩V is just the smaller of the two neighborhoods.5. Observe also that if N is a neighborhood of a point p. Here is a simple but fundamental observation: Distinct points of R∗ have disjoint neighborhoods.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis where s ∈ R.7) The points 2 and ∞ have disjoint neighborhoods. .3 Types of points for a set S ⊂ R∗ . with U ⊂ S. For example.5.5) (2. either U contains V as a subset of vice versa. In fact.

8} ∪ [9. ∞) The boundary points are 3. 7). 4) ∪ {5. For example. In the example above. 5] ∪ {6. Ambar N. because it doesn’t exist as far as R is concerned. i. the boundary points of E are −4. Next consider the set {3} ∪ (5. 7. Sengupta the points −2.26 For example. U ⊂ Sc . A point p is an exterior point if it has a neighborhood U lying entirely outside S. Example For the set A = [−∞. 8} ∪ [4. 5. −5) ∪ {2. ∞]. and ∞. 9} ∪ [6. 9. A point which is neither interior to S nor exterior to S is a boundary point of S. 5. for the set E = (−4. points −5.e. 7). 8. Thus p is a boundary point of S if every neighborhood of p intersects both S and Sc . ∞. 5. 11 are interior points. for the set E above. decide which of the following are true and which false: (i) −6 is an interior point (ii) −5 is an interior point (iii) 5 is a boundary point (iv) 4 is an interior point (v) 7 is a boundary point. decide which of the following are true and which false: (i) −6 is an interior point (T) (ii) 6 is an interior point (F) (iii) 9 is a boundary point (T) (iv) 5 is an interior point (F) Exerise For the set B = [−∞. . 6. 3. and −∞ are exterior to E. It is important to observe that if we work with the real line R instead of the extended line R∗ then we must exclude ∞ as a boundary point. The point ∞ is also an interior point of E.

8) Recall that a point p is on the boundary of S if every neighborhood of the point intersects both S and Sc . Thus. ∞] (2. 4) ∪ (6.9) . 5) ∪ (5. 6) ∪ (7. 9. 4) ∪ {5. 9) ∪ (9. The set of all boundary points of S is denoted ∂S and is called the boundary of S.4 Interior. Exterior. The set of all points exterior to S is the exterior of S. 9} ∪ [6. The interior of the entire extended line R∗ is all of R∗ .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 27 2. and we shall denote it Sext . 5) ∪ (5. 6} (iii) Ac = [4. 7). 7) (ii) ∂A = {4. 9) ∪ (9. 5. Thus ∂S = ∂Sc . But this is exactly the condition for p to be on the boundary of Sc . So / ∂R∗ = 0. (i) A0 = [−∞. ∞] (iv) the interior of the complement Ac is (Ac )0 = (4. and Boundary of a Set S0 The set of all interior points of a set S is denoted and is called the interior of S. 6) ∪ [7. Example For the set A = [−∞. 7. the whole extended line R∗ is split up into three disjoint pieces: R∗ = S0 ∪ ∂S ∪ Sext (2.

again. ∞). 8} ∪ [1. because the point 4 is a boundary point. it doesn’t have any boundary points.28 For the set G = (3.5 Open Sets and Topology We say that a set is open if it does not contain any of its boundary points. because. because it has no boundary points. 9) is open. Sengupta But if we decide to work only inside R then the boundary of G is just {3}. But (3. (2. Thus. 4] is not open. 7) ∪ [9. ∞] is open. Ambar N. 3) ∪ (5. Exerise For the set B = {−4. For example. is ∂G = {3. the empty set 0 is open. The entire extended line R∗ is open. ∞) the boundary of G. ∞}. . when viewed as a subset of R∗ . / Moreove. Also (4. Notice then that every point of an open set is an interior point. a set S is open means that S0 = S. (i) B0 = (ii) ∂B = (iii) Bc = (iv) the interior of the complement Bc is (Bc )0 = 2.

Viewed in this way. Thus every point in A ∩ B has a neighborhood lying inside A ∩ B. Similarly there is a neighborhood V of p which is a subset of B: V ⊂B But then U ∩V is a neighborhood of p which is a subset of both A and B: U ∩V ⊂ A ∩ B. Take any point p ∈ A ∩ B. In other words. Thus. Exerise Check that the intersection of the sets (4. Now consider three open sets A. ∞) and (−3 5) and (2. Consequently. Then p is in both A and B. S is made up of a union of neighborhoods. 6) is open. A ∩ B ∩C is open. it becomes clear that the union of open sets is an open set. This type of argument works for any ﬁnite number of open sets. We will show that A ∩ B is open. and hence so is their intersection. there is a neighborhood U of p which is a subset of A: U ⊂ A. B. The collection of all open subsets of R is called the topology of R. The set of all open subsets of R∗ is called the topology of R∗ .C. Since p ∈ A and since A is open. Thus: The intersection of a ﬁnite number of open sets is open. . Now consider two open sets A and B. A ∩ B is open.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 29 Thus for an open set S each point has a neighborhood contained entirely inside S. The intersection A ∩ B ∩C can be viewed as (A ∩ B) ∩C But here both A ∩ B and C are open.

6 Closed Sets A set S is said to be closed if it contains all its boundary points. Thus. if a set is open then its complement is closed. But [4. Sengupta 2. But recall that the boundary of S is the same as the boundary of the complement Sc . ∞) is not closed (as a subset of R∗ ) because the boundary point ∞ is not inside the set.30 Ambar N. In other words. But this means that Sc is closed. 8] ∪ [9. 5) is not closed because the boundary point 5 is not in this set. for S to be open we must have ∂(Sc ) ⊂ Sc . . Thus. [4. The converse is also true: if a set is closed then its complement is open. So we need to be careful in deciding what is close and what isn’t: a set may be closed viewed as a subset of R but not as a subset of R∗ . Thus. ∞] is closed. But. The full extended line R∗ is closed. viewed as a subset of R it is closed. / Note that the sets R∗ and 0 are both open and closed. 2. / The empty set 0 is also closed. The set [3. S is closed if ∂S ⊂ S Thus. If S is open then its boundary points are all outside S: ∂S ⊂ Sc .7 Open Sets and Closed Sets Consider a set S ⊂ R∗ . which means that Sc contains all its boundary points.

when working with closed sets it is important to bear in mind the distinction between being closed in R and being closed in R∗ . ∞]. if S is closed then its closure is itself. 5). 2.) Let us see what the closure of Q is. because any neighborhood of any point contains both rationals (points in Q) and irrationals (points outside Q). The closure of (3. Consider the open set (1. For example. Now every point in R∗ is a boundary point of Q: ∂Q = R∗ . the closure of (3. ∞) is closed in R. ∞) is [3. 2. which it contains. ∞]. ∞). in contrast. in R the closure of (3.9 Closure of a set The closure of a set S is obtained by throwing in all its boundary points: S = S ∪ ∂S Of course. 31 Exercise. It is useful to think of the closure S = S ∪ ∂S in this way: A point p is in S if and only if every neighborhood of p intersects S. (But. Check that its complement if closed. Consider the closed set [4. (2. Exercise. 5].8 The set Closed sets in R and in R∗ [3. There is no such distinction for open sets. ∞) is [3.10) . in R∗ the point ∞ is also a boundary point and is not in the set. Thus. 5) is [3. but is not closed in R∗ . Show that its complement is open. This is because in R it has only the boundary point 3.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Theorem 8 A subset of R∗ is open if and only if its complement is closed.

we have shown that every boundary point of S is in S. an open cover of R∗ is a set U of open subsets of R∗ such that every point x ∈ R∗ falls inside some open set U in the collection U . {[−∞. However. and so S is closed. either p is in the interior of K or on its boundary. and hence also K.32 Ambar N. We have to show that p is actually in S. . This means p ∈ S. It is best to draw a picture for yourself to make this clear. Sengupta 2. 2.11 S is the smallest closed set containing S S⊂K Consider any closed set K with Take any p ∈ S. 2. Thus. (−1. and so in either case p is in K. For example. (7. Thus. N contains a point of S. 5). So. An open cover of R∗ is a collection U of open sets whose union covers all of R∗ . Then N contains a point q in S. We will show that S is a closed set. But K is closed.e. we have the language and tools to state and prove it now and shall do so. Thus every neighborhood of p intersects K. Now let N be any neighborhood of p. ∞]} is an open cover of R∗ . i.12 R∗ is compact There is a special property of R∗ whose full signiﬁcance is best appreciated at a later stage. (8. S⊂K What we hae shown then is that S is the smallest closed set containing S as a subset. 9) ∪ (11. Choose (as we may) a neighborhood W of q lying entirely inside N. Thus.10 The closure of a set is closed Consider the closure S of a set S. for each x ∈ R∗ there exists U ∈ U such that x ∈ U ∈ U. More formaly. Take any boundary point p ∈ ∂S. 15). 8). Then every neighborhood of p intersects S. Since q ∈ S it follows that W contains a point of S. So we have seen that every neighborhood of p contains a point of S.

(−3. −1). In short we are looking at the collection U = {(a. 2). (−1. −5). (5. Let us look at an example of a cover which uses inﬁnitely many sets. Let U be an open cover of R∗ . recall that Z is the set of all integers. (150. (1.(−2. as opposed to R∗ : take all intervals of the form (a. we don’t reall need all of them to cover R∗ . 5). 2). . 3). ∞]}. If you look at this. Indeed. a + 2) : a ∈ Z}. (4. Thus. −6). (−8.. −∞ is in some open set W ∈ U . you realize that even though this collection does contain inﬁnitely many open sets. (−1. 0). 4). (2. This collection fails to include −∞ and ∞. −4). Proof of compactness of R∗ . In particular. −4). To obtain an open cover of R∗ from U we could. . a + 2)..Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Another example of an open cover of R∗ is {[−∞. for example... We start with an open cover of R.. (0. We can prove the compactness of R∗ using the completeness of the real line. 6). This is not just a feature of one particular example.. Thus W contains a neighborhood of −∞. ∞]. just throw in the open sets [−∞. 3). 200) ∪ (701. and so Theorem 9 R∗ is compact. (0. 1). where a runs over all integers: . ∞]} and this would cover all of R∗ . (1.t) ⊂ W . −4) and (5. 1). 800). where. (−2.. 750). 0). (8. a + 2) : a ∈ Z}. 50). we could just use the sub-collection V = {[−∞. i. this gives us an open cover of R∗ : U = {[−∞. This is a collection of open sets such that every point of R∗ falls inside some set in the collection. (5∞]} ∪ {(a. (−7. It turns out that Every open cover of R∗ has a ﬁnite subcover. 100). (2. (760. 33 The examples of open covers of R∗ given above are both ﬁnite collections of sets. [−∞.e. however. (3. This property is called compactness.

.e. The set U covers (m − ε.. m]. where ε is a positive real number. (ii) Next we prove that m is in fact. m + ε). t − 1 is also in S. m + ε). Now let S = {x ∈ R∗ : ﬁnitely many sets in U cover [−∞. Now there is some open set U ∈ U such that m ∈ U. x being in S. in U . Suppose to the contrary that m < ∞. can be covered by just ﬁnitely many sets in U . say U1 . By completeness. because U covers all points of R∗ . note. which cover the ray segment [−∞. it is in R and so there is some neighborhood (m − ε. m is certainly not −∞. there are ﬁnitely many sets. Sengupta for some t ∈ R..UN .. Thus m − ε < x ≤ m for some x ∈ S. Thus. Now m − ε being less than the least upper bound m of S.U} covers all of [−∞. Since m is not −∞.. m + ε) ⊂ U. as before. So. . In fact. We will argue in three steps: (i) First we explain that m isn’t −∞. ∞. Now we show that m = ∞.UN . x]} This set is not empty because −∞ ∈ S. In particular. . x]. (iii) Finally we prove that [∞.. the set S has a supremum sup S. we would not need any other set from the cover if we are to stick to points to the left of t. the collection {U1 . For (i). that there is a real number t such that t − 1 is in S.34 Ambar N. Let m = sup S. all the elements of R∗ less than t are covered by just the one set W in U .. So. all of R∗ . i. and so m (being an upper bound of S) has to be ≥ t − 1. and is being assumed to be also not ∞. there has to be some x ∈ S which is greater than m − ε. for one thing.

∞] ⊂ V. for example.. y] is covered by ﬁnitely many open sets. Consider any open cover U of D.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 35 1 But this means that. Then we know that there has to be a ﬁnite sub-collection V ⊂U . So m = ∞. Consider now any closed subset D of R∗ . Therefore. in U . Thus. being the complement of a closed set. y] ∪ (r. ∞].. for some real number r. which is in S. i. This prove that ﬁnitely many sets from U cover all of R∗ .. ∞]. This covers all of R∗ : any point of D would be covered by a set in U while any point in Dc is. covered by Dc .V cover all of [−∞.13 Compactness of closed subsets of R∗. our original hypothesis concerning m must have been wrong. We will prove that it is compact. This is a collection of open sets such that every point of D is covered by some set in the collection. ∞] which is in S. there is some ‘ray-neighborhood’ of ∞ (r. . say V1 .e. that any open cover of D has a ﬁnite sub-cover. m + 2 ε is in S.... Note that [−∞.U. m + 1/2] is covered by the ﬁnite collection U1 .Vk . Throw this into the collection.. ∞] = R∗ . greater than m. . Now r being less than m = ∞. The element ∞ ∈ R∗ falls inside some open set V in the collection U . [−∞.UN . . because we have found a number. there must be some y ∈ (r.. m + ε/2. of course.Vk . since V covers the segment (r.. But now we have a contradiction. Finally we prove that R∗ is covered by ﬁnitely many sets in U . for the ray segment [−∞. Thus. Now the set Dc . is an open set. and consider U = U ∪ {Dc }. and the latter being the least upper bound of S. 2. But then V1 .

and consider the collection V = V \ {Dc }. Equivalently. D is covered by a ﬁnite sub-collection of sets from U . this is a ﬁnite subcollection of U . its only boundary point is 4. . Moreover. because no point in D could have been covered by the ‘rejected’ set Dc . Recall that a subset of R is closed in R if it contains no boundary point. every closed subset of R∗ is compact. The converse is also true. We can now state the Heine-Borel theorem: Theorem 11 Every closed and bounded subset of R is compact. This is a closed subset of R because. for instance.36 Ambar N. Now throw out Dc from V in case it is there. and we can state: Theorem 10 A subset of R∗ is compact if and only if it is closed. Sengupta which covers R∗ . if a subset of R is closed if its complement in R is open. ∞) ⊂ R. for B to be bounded. Consider. We will leave out the proof of the converse part of this result. Thus.14 The Heine-Borel Theorem: Compact subsets of R A subset B of R is said to be bounded if B ⊂ [−N. in R. Note that [4. there should exist a real number N such that |x| < N for all x ∈ B. Thus. it covers all points of D. Thus. the set [4. 2. and this point lies in the set. ∞) is not closed when considered as a subset of R∗ . Of course. Conversely. every compact subset of R is closed and bounded. N] for some real number N.

for example. −5. .15 Sequences a1 . We will often be concerned with sequences in R∗ . We know that then K must be compact. ∞] lies entirely outside K. 6.. a3 . If p = −∞ then the neighborhood [−∞. 5. 12. N] for some real number N. the sequence is actually a mapping a : P → A : n → an . More precisely. Then K is closed also as a subset of R∗ . So the complement of K in R∗ is open. Thus. Sometimes out sequence will be speciﬁed explicitly as a string of numbers. −3.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 37 We shall prove half of this. Suppose K ⊂ R is closed and bounded as a subset of R. p has a neighborhood outside K in R∗ . n+1 . If p = ∞ then the neighborhood of p given by (N + 1. A sequence of elements in a set A is a string of elements of A. 9.. a2 . We will show that the complement U of K in R∗ is open.. . Let’s check this. that p has a neighborhood lying inside U. in all cases. Consider any point p ∈ U. −N − 1) is entirely outside K. If p ∈ R then we already know. and hence K is closed in R∗ . Sometimes we may have a formula for the n-th term: an = (−1)n . by closedness of K.. 2. Boundedness implies that K ⊂ [−N.

We know that this neighborhood is visited inﬁnitely often by the sequence.. . for a ﬁxed real number r we can form the sequence r0 = 1. For example. .16 Limits points of a sequence Consider a sequence x1 .. Therefore. For example. for all n ∈ P Consider then any limit point p of this sequence.. 8. Sengupta Sometimes we have a sequence speciﬁed recursively. and so p ∈ S. Sometimes it is better to label a sequence starting with the index 0: a0 .38 Ambar N. in R∗ . 3. at least one point of S must be in U. 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 it is intuitively clear that both 0 and 4 are limit points. 4+ . 2. 5. x3 . for all n ≥ 3. 1. Suppose a sequence (xn ) lies entirely inside a set S ⊂ R: xn ∈ S. Thus. a2 . A point p ∈ R∗ is said to be a limit point of this sequence if every neighborhood of p is visited inﬁnitely often by the sequence. . . r3 . 4+ . 21. Let U be any neighborhood of p. . 4. 13. x2 .. . any limit point of a sequence which lies always in a set S must be in the closure of S.. r2 . Thus. This generates the Fibonacci numbers 1. 4+ . a1 ... . for the sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 2. 4 + . . every neigborhood of p contains a point of S.. .. For example.. r1 = r. b2 = 1 and then bn = bn−1 + bn−2 .. . we might know that b1 = 1.

U pN which cover all of R∗ .. 4. 3. 2.} . 2.}: S1 = sup{x1 . 3. by compactness of R∗ . . 3.. we have the more general Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem: Theorem 12 Every sequence in a compact set has at least one limit point. there are ﬁnitely many of them. x2 . visits every natural number inﬁnitely often and so every natural number is a limit point of the sequence.18 Limit points and suprema and inﬁma x1 . But this is impossible: we have covered all of the extended real line R∗ with ﬁnitely many sets each of which is visited only ﬁnitely many times by the sequence! Thus. we have seen that a sequence may well have more than one limit point. We shall prove that it must have at least one limit point. Thus.. Notice that all we needed above was the compactness of R∗ .17 Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Consider any sequence in R∗ . 2. 2. Of course. the sequence... x2 . say U p1 . 1. 3. 2.. 1.. Then. Suppose to the contrary that no point is a limit of the given sequence. In the next subsection we will show how to actually obtain a limit point of a sequence. 4.. 1. we have a contradiction and so there exist a limit of the sequence.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 39 2. . x2 . 1. . 5.. Then each point p of R∗ has a neighborhood U p which is visited only ﬁnitely often by the sequence. . 1. The neighborhoods U p form an open cover of all of R∗ . For example.. Now let S1 be the least upper bound of the set {x1 . 2. x3 .. 1. Consider a sequence Let p be any limit point of this sequence. .

Thus.} Again. Now the inf of a set is the greatest lower bound of the set... we can form S3 = sup{x3 .} and have again p ≤ S3 . Therefore. Ambar N. x4 .11) .40 In particular. Thus. ... p ≤ S2 In this way..}. p is a lower bound for all the Sk ’s: p ≤ Sk for all k. p cannot be > S1 . S2 . The infemum on the right is an important object and is called the limsup of the given sequence: lim supn→∞ xn = inf{supn≥k xn } : k ∈ P} So we have proved that Every limit point is ≤ the limsup def (2. S3 ... p could not be greater than S2 for then it would have a neighborhood to the right of S2 and this would have to be visited inﬁnitely often by x1 . . Sengupta Then it is clear that no point ‘to the right’ of S1 could possibly be a limit of the sequence: indeed any point r > S1 would have a neighborhood lying entirely to the ‘right’ of S1 and this would never be visited by the sequence. and so at least once by x2 .. S1 ≥ xn for each n. x4 . ... Thus. p ≤ inf{S1 . x3 .. . x3 . So p ≤ S1 Now we can apply the same argument to S2 = sup{x2 . . x2 .

13) In fact. −1. Let us note again: a sequence (sn ) lies in a set S eventually if there is an n0 ∈ P such that sn ∈ S for all n ∈ P with n ≥ n0 . the sequence −5.. Put another way. for any limit point p if any sequence (xn ) we have def (2. all the sn lie in S.. . 2. (2. say n0 . −2. ∞) eventually. Similarly. but we won’t prove this here. . 2. will lie in the set (20. if sn ∈ S for all values of n beyond some value. as n → ∞. 0. For example.12) lim infn→∞ xn ≤ any limit point ≤ lim supn→∞ xn . we have the notion of liminf: it is the supermum of the sequence of infemums: lim infn→∞ xn = sup{infn≥k xn } : k ∈ P} In just the same way as before. −3. −4. we say that sn lies in S for large n.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 41 for any sequence. We denote this symbolically as xn → L. we can prove Every limit point is ≥ the limsup Thus. A sequence (xn ) in R∗ is said to have limit L ∈ R∗ if for any neighborhood U of L the sequence lies in this neighborhood eventually. 3. 1. the limsup and liminf of the sequence are also limit points.19 Limit of a sequence A sequence (sn ) is said to lie in a set S eventually if after a certain value of n.

In contrast. 1. 4. 4. the limit L is denoted n→∞ lim xn . 8. again. 4.. 3. The notion of limit is one of the central notions in mathematics.. . . say (t. The sequence 1 1 1 1.. The limit of the this sequence is 3: clearly every neighborhood of 3 is hit eventually by the sequence (indeed it is hit every time.. the sequence 1. The simplest sequence is a constant sequence which keeps repeating the same value. the sequence 1. 4. 8.. 3. 3. has limit ∞. Sengupta We shall see later that if a limit exists then it is unique. . . 4. 5... 3. . 2 3 4 has limit 0.20 Simple Examples of limits Let us look at some examples of sequences and try to see what their limits are. For example. For. For example. ∞] then eventually n will exceed t (by the archimidean property) and so the sequence will stay in (t. given any neighborhood of 8 the sequence falls inside this neighborhood eventually and stays there. if we take any neighborhood of ∞. 7. since the sequence is stuck at 3). 4. For. 3. which eventually stabilizes at the constant value 8 has limit 8. 1.. 2. 3. 8.42 Ambar N. . . 3. We will look at this more carefully soon.. . 3.. 2.. The sequence −1. 8. .. 3.. ∞] from the n-th term onwards. 8. 1.

21 The sequence 1/n 1. 5. Note ﬁrst that the n-th term of the sequence is xn = 1/n. .5.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 43 does not have a limit.. but the sequence keeps falling outside this neighborhood (when it hits 1 or 4). We have to show that xn lies in (−ε.. ∞] then eventually the sequence falls inside the nighborhood and stays in there. where ε is a positive real number. our sequence will eventually lie inside this neighborhood. 3. 2. . the point 3 cannot be the limit of the sequence because. If you take any neighborhood of ∞. 3. 7. But let us prove this.. . an interval of the form (t. Thus we should show that 1 <ε n for all n beyond some initial value. has limit ∞. We have to show that given any neighborhood of 0. For example. ε) for all n beyond some value. So consider any neighborhood of 0: (−ε. ε). Consider again the sequence It is intuitively clear that this sequence has limit 0. The sequence 1.5) is a neighborhood of 3. 1/4. Now the condition 1/n < ε is equivalent to nε > 1. for instance. (2. 1/3.. 1/2.

Therefore. 31 . Consider now the sequence of powers Rn where R > 1. Rn − Rn−1 ≥ R − 1. and so Rn ≥ 1 + nx. It is clear that in this sequence the terms get large very quickly. 32 .22 The sequence Rn Consider the sequence 30 . Thus. and intuitively it is clear that the sequence has limit ∞.. and so the multiplier Rn−1 is ≥ 1 (it is equal to 1 when n is actually 1). 33 . Now it takes n ‘steps’ to climb from R0 to Rn . n as n → ∞ 2.. Let us write x for R − 1. This proves that the sequence does indeed tend to the limit 0: 1 → 0. nε > 1 for all integers n ≥ n0 . Let us see by how much each term exceeds the preceding: Rn − Rn−1 = Rn−1 (R − 1) But R is > 1. and note that x>0 and we have Rn − Rn−1 > x.44 Ambar N. . . Sengupta The archimedean property guarantees the existence of an n0 ∈ P for which n0 ε > 1.

n→∞ Now consider the case R = 1. 3 3 3 We have here a sequence with denomiantor going to ∞ and numerator ﬁxed at 1... In this case the sequence is just all powers of 1.. 1 + nx > t when n is large enough. and so it is 1. . 3 . Thus. for any real ε > 0 we just have to wait till 3n > 1/ε and this would ensure that 1 < ε.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 45 because each step is at least x. Indeed.. . and then nx > t − 1 for all n ≥ n0 . 1. . 3n for large n. ε) 3n Now consider the general case of . But this is just Archimedes again: some multiple n0 x of xexceeds t − 1. and this comes from the fact that R > 1.. we have R = 1/3 and the sequence 1 1 1 1. Thus n→∞ lim Rn = 1 if R = 1. Now it is clear that Rn → ∞ as n → ∞. Note again that it is important that x > 0. 1. 1. Rn and so 1 ∈ (−ε. We just have to show that for any given t. As an example. It seems then clear that the sequence goes to 0. 2 . lim Rn = ∞ for all R > 1. Next consider the case 0 < R < 1.

So we will prove that Rn → 0 in this case. . − .e. rn where r > 1.. Consequently. Observe that where r = R−1 is > 1. and so it seems clear that 1/rn should decrease to 0. Suppose −1 < R < 0. 2 . 4 . ε) where ε > 0 is a positive real number. Rn = and so Rn ∈ (ε. lim Rn = 0 if R = 0. Thus Ambar N.. Now. for all n ≥ n0 . 3 3 3 3 .46 where R > 1. after some n0 . For example. Next consider negative values. i. Consider any neighborhood of 0: (−ε. we have for all n ≥ n0 . the denominator rn goes to inﬁnity. We want Rn to be in this neighborhood. for R = −1/3 we have the sequence 1 1 1 1 1. r Rn = 1 . − 3 . Rn should be < ε. But this means we should show that rn is > 1/ε for all n large enough. But we know that rn → ∞ So. Sengupta 1 R= . ε). as we have seen above. Thus Now it is also clear that n→∞ rn > ε−1 1 <ε rn n→∞ lim Rn = 0 if 0 < R < 1.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 47 It is clear that this is the same sequence as 1/3n except it swings back and forth between negative and positive values. lim Rn = 0 if −1 < R < 0. Thus. Does this sequence visit every neighborhood of ∞? Does it visit every neighborhood of −∞? if |R| < 1. −2. one should look at the case R ≤ −1. More generally. the conclusion is that n→∞ as n → ∞. You should examine a few examples and convince yourself that then there is no limit... if −1 < R < 0 we can look at the distance between Rn and 0: |Rn − 0| = |Rn | = |R|n and |R|n → 0 because 0 < |R| < 1.14) . limn→∞ Rn = 0 Lastly. (2. In short. −8. Exerise Examine the sequence given by powers of −2: 1. 4. this sequence has limit 0. for the sequence swings back and forth between widely separated positive and negative values. . Thus. 16.

i. Thus. 1.e. Now consider the other situation: L is not −∞. t < L and t ∈ U.11. It is intuitively clear that a monotone increasing sequence (xn ) will tend to the limit sup{x1 . 1/5. x2 . a sequence (xn ) is monotone increasing if xn ≤ xn+1 for all n ∈ P We say that (xn ) is monotone decreasing if xn ≥ xn+1 for all n ∈ P An example of a monotone decreasing sequence is 1. 1.111. If L = −∞ each xn must be −∞. But in this case n→∞ lim xn = −∞. 1. 1/3. as will become clear shortly. the sequence (xn ) falls eventually in U and stays there. 1/2.. 9. 2. . Pick a point t of U to the left of L.. we will show that for any neigborhood U of L.1111.. since xn is just stuck at −∞. So consider any neighborhood U of L.}. .e. . n≥1 To prove this let L = sup xn ..15) (2. where each term is ≥ the preceding term is said to be monotone increasing. .. . We will show again that xn → L. Sengupta 2. 11.1. n≥1 The most extreme case is when L is −∞. 1/4.. This is indeed true: If (xn ) is a monotone increasing sequence then n→∞ (2.. we need to take care of this case separately. Another example is the sequence 1. i. 5.48 Ambar N. 1.16) lim xn = sup xn . 8..23 Monotone Sequences A sequence such as 1.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 49 (Note that there would be no such t if L is −∞. Thus. Those xn which are > t but ≤ L are. n≥1 2. and so xn ∈ U eventually. But recall that we are dealing with a monotone increasing sequence. we also say that the sequence xn converges to L. But xn → L . . a sequence which has a limit must have a unique limit. Note that xn → L ∈ R if for any real r > 0 there is an n0 ∈ P such that |xn − L| < r . therefore. Consider a sequence (xn ) and suppose both L and L are limits of the sequence. and L = L .) Since L is the least upper bound of {x1 . .25 Convergent sequences and Cauchy sequences A sequence (xn ) in R is said to be convergent if it has a limit and the limit is a real number. if xn is a monotone decreasing sequence then n→∞ lim xn = inf xn . We will arrive at a contradiction. Thus.. If xn → L. of course. xn ∈ U for all n ≥ n0 .}. But this is impossible since U and U are disjoint and thus have no element in common.. Since L and L are distinct. and L ∈ R. This proves that L is indeed the limit of the sequence (xn ). and so some xn0 is > t: xn0 > t. xn > t for all n ≥ n0 . all the xn are ≤ t.. Consequently. they have disjoint neighborhoods U and U respectively. x2 .. in the neighborhood U of L. x3 . x2 . 2. In a similar way.}. Since xn → L we know that xn ∈ U eventually.24 The limit of a sequence is unique Now we shall prove that a sequence can have at most one limit. But recall that L is an upper bound of {x1 . the number t can’t be an upper bound.

eventually the points of this sequence are at most distance 1 from each other.26 Every Cauchy sequence is bounded Consider a Cauchy sequence (xn ) in R.}. for all n ≥ N. But the terms not counted here. 2. the sequence is bounded.. N + 2. ... m > N. Thus. So x j − 1 < xn < x j + 1 for all n ∈ {N + 1. m > N we have |xn − xm | = ≤ = < = |xn − L + L − xm | |xn − L| + |L − xm | |xn − L| + |xm − L| ε/2 + ε/2 ε. for any ε > 0 we can ﬁnd N ∈ P such that |xn − xm | < ε for all natural numbers n. A sequence (xn ) in R which bunches up on itself in the sense above is said to be a Cauchy sequence. Sengupta for all natural numbers n > n0 . m > N. Then. But then for any n. In particular. m ∈ P with n. More precisely.. This has a consequence: since the xn ’s are all accumulating to L they are also getting close to each other. observe that there is some N ∈ P such that |xk − L| < ε/2 for all k ∈ P with k > N. in fact.e. m > N. at least from the (N + 1)-th term on. if for any δ > 0 there is an N ∈ P such that |xn − xm | < ε for all natural numbers n. To prove this. xN .50 Ambar N. x j + 1).. x1 . there is an N ∈ P such that |xn − xm | < 1 for all natural numbers n. ﬁxing a particular j > N we have xn ∈ (x j − 1. . i.

27 Every Cauchy sequence is convergent The completeness property of the real line R has an equivalent formulation: Theorem 13 Every Cauchy sequence in R converges. Let us prove this. . L is not ∞ or −∞. Thus. x j − 1} Thus the entire sequence is bounded. The sequence (xn ) visits the neighborhood δ δ (L − . x j + 1} and every xn is ≥ min{B. L + ) 2 2 inﬁnitely often. the terms of the sequence vary from each other by < δ/2. Now we also know that eventually. We will prove that L is a real number and xn → L. m ∈ P with n.e. there is some N ∈ P such that |xn − xm | < δ/2 for all n. m > N. L + δ) of L. 2. Let L be a limit point of (xn ). We have seen that it is bounded. and so they have a largest B and a smallest A among them.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 51 are just ﬁnitely many. b]. Thus. Therefore. First it is clear that L must also be in [a. and is a real number. where δ > 0 is a real number. Consider a Cauchy sequence (xn ) in R. Take any neighborhood (L − δ. i. a ≤ xn ≤ b for all n ∈ P for some real numbers a and b. We know that a sequence always has a limit point in R∗ . every xn is ≤ max{B.

x2 . 6. r2 . such that S = {x1 .. It is much harder to see that the rationals Q are also countable. but we can certainly lay out all the integers in a sequence: 0. .. This means that xn ∈ (L − δ...52 We can choose some j > N such that δ δ x j ∈ (L − . . such that {r1 . This is what we shall prove now. .. 3. Thus.. xn → L. 4. L + ) 2 2 Ambar N. a sequence r1 . r3 .. x2 . Thus.. .. −1..e. −2.} = Q. S is countable if there is a sequence x1 .. r2 . 2. . . L + δ) for all n > N. 8. Then |xn − L| = |xn − x j + x j − L| ≤ |xn − x j | + |x j − L| δ δ < + 2 2 = δ. 2. the even numbers form a countable set: {2. Sengupta because the sequence visits this neighborhood inﬁnitely often. We will constuct a sequence which enumerates all the rationals.. x3 . −3. i.28 The rationals are countable A set is set to be countable if it is ﬁnite or if its elements can be enumerated in a sequence.} For example. .} It may seem at ﬁrst that the set Z of integers is not countable. 1.

r2 .6 can be written as both 6/10 and 3/5. such that {r1 . For example. rn is the rational for which f (rn ) is the ﬁrst value of f (x) greater than f (r1 ). Here is one: Take any rational p x ≥ 0 and write it as q where p and q are non-negative integers (of course q ≥ 1) and q is the smallest possible denominator among all such ways of writing x. This associates a unique natural number f (x) to each non-negative rational x. we will encode each rational by a unique natural number. thus to each natural number n we would associate a rational rn .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 53 Put another way. If x ∈ Q is negative...} = Q . (For example. . let us deﬁne f (x) to be just 5 times f (−x): f (x) = f (−x) × 5 if x < 0 Now we have labeled each rational by a unique natural number. but we would take 3/5 as our representation.. Thus. r1 = 0 and r2 = 1 because f (1) = 21 31 = 6. There can be many such encoding schemes. f (4/5) = 25 × 34 = 32 × 81 = 2592. Associate to this x the natural number f (x) = 2q × 3 p For example. and so on.. 0. x < 0. . To enumerate the rationals in a sequence all we have to do then is to run this in reverse: let r1 be the rational number x with the smallest value for f (x) (so r1 is in fact 0 because f (0) = 2 is the lowest value possible for f ). f (0) = f (0/1) = 21 × 30 = 2 f (1) = f (1/1) = 21 31 = 6. . and in this way we will cover all rationals.. r2 ... the next value for f (x) after 2 Thus we have produced a sequence of distinct elements r1 .) We know that every non-negative rational can be represented in this way uniquely. let r2 be the rational number with the next lowest value for f (x). f (rn−1 ).

y2 . . .19999. then choose w2 ∈ {1. In fact we will show that even the real numbers between 0 and 1 cannot be enumerated in a sequence. for every n.] . 9} and we exclude all such representations which use an inﬁnite string of 9’s at the end (for example. 2. also has such an expansion: x1 = 0.20000. x2 . 1. ... and so on. . . Sengupta 2. 1) can be expressed uniquely in the form y = 0.x21 x22 x23 ...).. ... x2 = 0. 1). and w ∈ (0. . . Then w cannot be equal to any of the xn .. . instead of 0. as follows: take w1 to be any number in {1.y1 y2 y3 .. x2 . 1).x31 x32 x33 . ∈ {0. [The reason we excluded 0 and 9 from our choices for wn was to avoid ending up at 0 or 1.54 Ambar N. 1). 8} other than x22 . x3 = 0. then take the main diagonal string.. This way we make the n-th decimal place of w different from the n-th decimal place of xn . Now each real number y in (0. and then form a new string by altering each element of the diagonal. Thus the original sequence cannot possibly have covered all of (0. 2.. . i. Thus each of the numbers x1 . 3. 8} other than x11 .e.. Consider any sequence x1 .x11 x12 x13 . there is no sequence which touches on all the real numbers. we would use 0. 2. Now form a number w = 0. The argument used here is the celebrated diagonal method due to Georg Cantor (1845-1912)... The strategy is to make a list of strings.w1 w2 w3 .. lying in (0. .. = ··· ... 10 10 10 where y1 ..29 The real numbers are uncountable We will prove that R is not countable. ... . = y2 y3 y1 + 2 + 3 +··· ...

in [2. U ∩ S is said to be open in S. 5] Put another way. [2. The main result for connected sets is: Theorem 14 A subset of R. i. If U is an open set then the part of U in S.30 Connected Sets Consider a subset S of R∗ . 5] the set [2. for example. or of R∗ . For example. 4) ∩ [2. . i.e. 4) is open because. 4) = (1. N ∩J ⊂ S A set S is said to be connected if it cannot be split into two non-empty disjoint pieces A and B each of which is open in S.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 55 2. a subset J of S is said to be open in S if every p ∈ J has a neighborhood N such that every point of N which is in S is in fact in J. is connected if and only if it is an interval.e.

56 Ambar N. Sengupta .

that ab is the unique real number that lies between all the possible values of a b and a b . the area of a rectangle of sides 1/4 unit and 1/5 unit should be 1/20 square units because we would need 20 of these rectangles to cover a unit square. a . it makes sense to suppose that area of R ≤ area of R ≤ area of R which is to say: a b ≤ area of R ≤ a b It is intuitively clear. Riemann. and Lebesgue. Thus. it is clear that the area enclosed by a rectangle whose sides are a units and b units. is ab square units. Thus. where a and b are rational numbers. each row having 2 tiles. and b . but the origins of integration theory lie in the computation of areas and volumes. The area of a rectangle whose sides are 2 units and 3 units is 6 square units. area of R = ab 57 . and b <b<b . b with a <a<a . Thus. and not hard to prove. because if you tile the rectangle with unit squares you will need three rows of such squares. Consider now a rectangle R whose sides a and b are possibly not rational. while a rectangle R of sides a by b contains R. By extension. Take any rationals a . Then a rectangle R of sides a by b sits inside R.Chapter 3 Integration Modern integration theory was built from the works of Newton. The idea of measuring area of a curved region by lower and upper bounds is present even Archimedes’ study of the area enclosed by a circle.

This makes it possible to compute the areas of all kinds of polygonal ﬁgures but cutting up these fgures into right angled triangles. where P lies inside the circle C and P encloses the circle C.1 Approaching the Riemann Integral Consider a function f : [a. this strategy fails when we try to compute the area enclosed by a circle. for convenience of visualization. and so each of these would have area (ab)/2. this is a region whose upper boundary. thus area A enclosed by P ≤ area enclosed by C ≤ area A enclosed by P Some computation shows that for any ε > 0 there are such polygons P and P such that A −A < ε This implies that there is a unique real number A which lies between the area of all the polygons P and the polygons P . However. The area of each such slice is between the area of a larger ‘upper’ rectangle . Sengupta The rectangle R is made up of two congruent right angled triangles. Archimedes computed area enclosed by a circle C by consider polygons P and P . Clearly then this number should be the area enclosed by the circle C. Assume. conveniently. The strategy used for computing the area is to cut up the region into vertical slices. written as Z b f (x) dx a measures the area of this region. b] → R and think of its graph.58 Ambar N. 3. that f ≥ 0. Our development of the theory of the Riemann integrals is based on these ideas. In general. Then f speciﬁes a region which lies below its graph and above the x-axis. No amount of cutting would turn a disc into a ﬁnite number of right angled triangles. given by the graph of f . is curved. The integral Z b f a which is also.

.N} def (3. Let M j( f ) = max j∈{1. ....3) .x j ] f (x) (3.. x1 . b] is speciﬁed by a sequence X = (x0 . xN ) of points x0 . 3. b] → R on an interval [a. x j ] marked out by the partition X.. where a < b.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 59 and a smaller ‘lower’ rectangle. 3. xN ∈ [a..2) sup x∈[x j−1 .}. Thus we should expect the actual area to be the unique real number lying between these ‘upper rectangle’ areas and the ‘lower rectangle’ areas.. We will often use the notation ∆x j = x j − x j−1 to denote the length of the j-th interval [x j−1 . .. b] ⊂ R.. 2. The width or norm of the partition X is the maximum size of these intervals: ||X|| = Consider a function f : [a.. A partition X of [a..2 Riemann Sums [a. b] ⊂ R We will work with functions on an interval ] where < b.1) ∆x j (3. b] with a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xN = b Here N ∈ {1. x1 . .

4) Thus. Now consider a sequence ∗ ∗ X ∗ = (x1 . i.8) .5) ∑ m j ( f )∆x j (3. x j ]:: x∗ ∈ [x j−1 . b]. X) ≤ U( f . Sengupta inf f (x) (3. X) = Note that L( f . X) is less or equal to U( f .60 and m j( f ) = x∈[x j−1 .7) We will show later that in fact every lower sum if less or equal to every upper sum. X) (3. X ∗ ) is S( f . x j ] then m j ( f )∆x j ≤ A j ≤ M j ( f )∆x j .6) obtained by picking a point from each interval [x j−1 . if A j were the area of the region under the graph of f over [x j−1 .Y ) for every partitions X and Y of [a. xN ) def N j=1 def N j=1 ∑ M j ( f )∆x j (3.. Our objective is to specify the actual area A under the graph of f . x j ] j We shall indicate this by writing X∗ < X The Riemann sum S( f . X. The upper Riemann sum U( f . X. X) is L( f ... and this would be the sum of the A j . X) is deﬁned to be U( f .e.x j ] Ambar N. L( f . X) = and the lower Riemann sum L( f . X ) = ∗ j=1 ∑ f (x∗j )∆x j N (3. .

x j ] which contradicts the fact that f is real-valued. b].3 Deﬁnition of the Riemann Integral f : [a. U( f .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 61 Note that the upper sum is ∞ if and only if one of the M j is ∞.9) However. b] (3. X) ≤ I ≤ U( f . L( f . b] and denoted Z Z b b f a or a f (x) dx (3. and this occurs if and only if the superemum of f is ∞: U( f . (Note that we are working with non-empty intervals because x j−1 < x j . b] → R Consider a function on an interval [a. X) can never be ∞. X) − L( f . i. we never have the ∞ − ∞ situation.11) for every partition X of [a. This function is said to be Riemann integrable if there is a unique real number I lying between all the lower sums and all the upper sums: L( f . X) = −∞ if and only if inf f (x) = −∞ x∈[a. 3. b] ⊂ R. X) is always deﬁned.10) and L( f .e. This number I is the integral of f over [a. because that would mean that at least one of the M j is −∞ which can only be if f is equal to −∞ on that interval [x j−1 .13) .) Similarly. X) = ∞ if and only if sup f (x) = ∞ x∈[a. It is useful then to observe that the difference U( f . X) cannot be −∞.b] (3. X) (3. where a < b.b] (3.12) The set of all Riemann integrable functions on [a. b] is denote R [a.

[x .15) M j = M( f . x j ] Let us compare the upper sums U( f .. Arguing similarly. X cuts up [x j−1 . Sengupta 3. . and M j ≥ M j (3. [s. b] and let X be a partition obtained by adding one more point x to X.4 Reﬁning Partitions We work with a function f : [a. [s. X) −U( f .14) Let X = (x0 . x∈[s. x j ]). M j = M( f . If we keep adding points to the initial partition. X ) = M j (x j − x j−1 ) − M j (x − x j−1 ) + M j (x j − x ) = (M j − M j )(x − x j−1 ) + (M j − M j )(x j − x ) ≥ 0. Thus U( f . [x j−1 . Let us say that x lies in the j-th interval x ∈ [x j−1 . x j ] Thus. x j ]: U( f . xN ) be a partition of the interval [a. We use the notation M( f . x j ]) These sums differ only in the contribution that comes from [x j−1 . x ] and [x . (3. it follows that adding points to a partition raises lower sums. x − j] into two intervals [x j−1 . x ]). b] → R. X) and U( f . X ) ≤ U( f .. X ). adding a point to a partition lowers upper sums.t]) = sup f (x). x1 ..t] and m( f .t]) = inf f (x) x∈[s.62 Ambar N. It is important to observe that M j ≥ M j. To this end.t] (3.e. X). let us write M j = M( f . we keep lower the upper sums.16) i. [x j−1 . This observation is important enough to state as a theorem: .

Therefore. b] → R. Z) ≤ U( f ..18) (3. b] → R is a function on an interval [a. Recall the formula U( f . X) ≤ L( f . We label the new points yi in increasing order y1 < · · · < ym . X) ≤ L( f .. Proof. X ) = (M j − M j )(x − x j−1 ) + (M j − M j )(x j − x ) (3. ym to the interval [x j−1 . ..Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 63 Theorem 15 Adding points to a partition lowers upper sums and raises lower sums. b] then L( f . b]. Here is a useful trick: we can combine the partitions X and Y to form a partition Z which contains all points of X and all the points of Y as well.17) where X is the partition obtained from X by adding the single point x to the j-th interval [x j−1 . then L( f . Using this we can prove that upper sums always dominate lower sums: Theorem 16 If f : [a.. .Y ) and L( f .. x j ] of the partition X = (x0 . X) for every function f : [a..Y ) Thus. x j ] to form the new partition X . with X containing all the points of X and some more. xT ). Z) ≤ U( f . Z) ≤ U( f . we add m distinct points y1 . X) ≤ U( f . QED We have used the fact that adding a point to a partition lowers upper sums and raises lower sums.Y ) and this gives the desired result. U( f . Z) Stringing these together we have L( f .19) (3. It will be useful to take a closer look at this and estimate by how much the upper and lower sums move as points are added to the partition. X ) ≤ U( f . Now suppose instead of adding just the one point x . X) −U( f . Thus if X and X are partitions of [a. every lower sum is dominated above by every upper sum. b] ⊂ R. X) ≤ L( f . and if X and Y are any partitions of [a. . X ) ≤ U( f . where a < b.

X ) − L( f . then U( f .64 Ambar N. . X ) ≤ 2N || f ||sup ||X|| Similarly. X) but the decrease in the value of U − L is at most 2N|| f ||sup ||X||: [U( f . where N is the total number of new points added. L( f . U( f . X) −U( f . x j ]) − M( f . If we add points to each of N intervals to create a new partition X then U( f .24) (3. where || f ||sup is supremum of | f | over the full original interval [a. Sengupta For convenience of notation we write y0 for x j−1 and ym+1 for x j . [x j−1 . X) −U( f . [x j−1 . X) −U( f . X ) − L( f . X ) ≤ 2N|| f ||sup ||X|| where N is the number of new points added. X) − L( f .. yk ]) ≤ 2|| f ||sup . X) ≤ 2N || f ||sup ||X|| Note that N ≤ N. [yk−1 . (3.22) . X ) ≤ 2|| f ||sup ∆x j ≤ 2|| f ||sup ||X|| (3. X ) − L( f .25) (3.21) This provides an upper bound for how much the upper sum is decreased by addition of points all in one single interval of the original partition X. X ) ≤ U( f . yk ]) (yk − yk−1 ) (3. x j ] Then: m+1 U( f . The interval lengths yk − yk−1 add up to ∆x j . Thus x j−1 = y0 < y1 < · · · < ym < ym+1 = x j The intervals [yk−1 .. X ) = Now ∑ k=1 M( f . Consequently. [yk−1 . X)] − U( f . we have Lemma 1 If X = (x0 . yk ] make up the interval [x j−1 . X) − L( f . x j ]) − M( f .. xT ) is a partition of the interval [a. b]. where a < b. b] ⊂ R. and X is a partition of the same interval containing all the points of X and possibly some more.20) 0 ≤ M( f . Consequently.23) (3.

the function f is Riemann integrable if and only if there is no ‘gap’ between the lower sums and upper sums.Y ) < I + ε/2 Similarly. Let X be the partition obtained by pooling together Y and Z. X) < ε (3. there is a partition Y for which I ≤ U( f . Consider the interval [I. b] → R is Riemann integrable if and only if sup{U( f . Suppose f is integrable. X) − L( f . I + ε/2) All the lower sums lie to the left. Then there is a unique real number I which lies between all upper sums and all lower sums. Thus. Take any ε > 0.27) This is an extremely useful result: virtually all of our results on integrability will use the Darboux criterion. Thus. it is clear that there will be a unique real number between them if and only if the sup of the lower sums equals the inf of the upper sums: Theorem 17 A function f : [a. X) ≤ U( f . Thus. Z) ≤ L( f . Proof. Then I − ε/2 < L( f . b] → R is Riemann integrable if and only if for any ε > 0 there is a partition X of [a. X) : all partitions X of [a. All upper sums lie to the right (≥) of I. b]} = inf{L( f . X) ≤ U( f . there must be at least one upper sum which lies in [I. there is a partition Z for which I − ε/2 < L( f . ≤ I. Z) < I + ε/2 (3. i. X) : all partitions X of [a.28) . b] for which U( f . So since I is the only real number lying between the upper sums and lower sums.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 65 3. I + ε/2). Z) ≤ I.26) R The common value is ab f . another equivalent formulation is the Darboux criterion: Theorem 18 T:Darbouxcrit A function f : [a.e. b]} (3.5 The Darboux Criterion Now that we know that the upper sums dominate the lower sums.

.29). x∈[a.29) Conversely. f is integrable. Let us suppose that f is unbounded. Suppose that I and I are distinct real numbers which both lie between all upper sums and all lower sums. Thus. QED 3.b] Consider any partition X = (x0 . X) and U( f . sup f (x) = ∞. Proof.e. X) lie in (I − ε/2. I + ε/2) it follows that U( f .29) holds. b]. X) − L( f . We will prove that f must be bounded. . for example. Sengupta (3.6 Integrable functions are bounded Suppose f : [a. X). suppose that for every ε > 0 there is a partition for which (3. Ambar N. Thus I and I must be equal.. b] → R is integrable. Then we will reach a contradiction.66 Since both L( f . Consider f : [a. that f is not bounded above. X) and L( f . So the difference between I and I is < ε: |I − I| < ε But this contradicts the deifnition of ε taken above.. Now I and I both lie between U( f . Suppose. Assume that f ∈ R [a. i. b] → R where [a. Theorem 19 Every Riemann integrable function is bounded. Let ε = |I − I| We know that there is a partition X satifying (3. xN ) . b] ⊂ R and a < b. X) < ε. So there is a unique real number between all the upper sums and all the lower sums.

X) = ∑ Mk ∆xk = ∞ k=1 Thus.t]) = sup ( f (x) − f (y)) x. It will be useful to have a measure of the ﬂuctuation of f over this interval.34) . But then I + 1 would also be a real number lying between all upper sums and all lower sums.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 67 of [a. on which f is not bounded above.30) for every partition X. The simplest such measure is given by the diameter of the range of f : Var( f ) = diam (Range of f) More explicitly. But then the supper sum for f with this partition is also ∞: N U( f . Thus.y∈[s. we have a contradiction. M j = ∞. x j ]. b]. Then there is some subinterval.32) Now consider a function f on an interval [s. say [x j−1 .t].33) (3. [s.31) For any non-empty subset S ⊂ R the diameter of S is It is easy to believe and not hard to prove that the diameter of S is the difference between sup S and inf S: diam(S) = sup S − inf S (3. X) ≤ I < I + 1 < ∞ = U( f . i. X) (3.7 Variation of a Function diam(S) = sup{a − b : a. QED 3.t] (3. Now let Z b I= a f and recall that this is the unique real number lying between all upper sums and all lower sums. Then L( f . every upper sum for f is ∞.t] is: Var( f .e. b ∈ S} (3. the variation of f on the interval [s.

t]) = M( f .38) .35) (3. [s.40) (3. [s.t]) − m( f .36) We record the following algebraic facts about the variation of functions.37) (v) the variation of the product of two functions is bounded above by the sum of their variations.68 It is also equal to Var( f . which will be very useful in proving corresponding facts about Riemann integration. i. (iii) the variation scales like length. b] ⊂ R with a < b.39) (3. Lemma 2 For any functions f and g on an interval [a. we have: (i) Var( f ) ≥ 0. the variation of a constant times a function is the absolute value of the function time the variation in the function: Var(k f ) = |k|Var( f ) for any k ∈ R. (ii) Var(k) = 0 if and only if k is constant. [s.t] and just write Var( f ): Var( f ) = M( f ) − m( f ) Ambar N.e. weighted by their sup-norms: Var( f g) ≤ || f ||sup Var(g) + ||g||sup Var( f ) (vi) the variations in f and in g differ by at most the variation in | f − g|: Var( f ) − Var(g) ≤ Var( f − g) (vii) if f is not equal to zero anywhere then Var(1/ f ) ≤ M(| f |−1 )2 Var( f ) (3.t]) Sometimes we may drop [s. (iv) the variation satiﬁes the triangle inequality: Var( f + g) ≤ Var( f ) + Var(g) (3. Sengupta (3.

where [a. . b] such that Var( f . u]) + Var( f . [s. [s. b] it is uniformly continuous. ... Then. xN ) with all the intervals having length less than δ.42) Var( f .. x ∈ [a..t] ⊂ [a. x j ]) < ε for every j ∈ {1. then for any ε > 0 there is a partition X = (x0 . b] ⊂ R and a < b.43) (3... f (x) − f (x ) < ε/2 . Since f is continuous on the compact set [a. . for each j ∈ {1. b] with s < t < u then Var( f .. N}. b] → R is continuous. So for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that | f (x) − f (x )| < ε/2 whenever x.41) (ix) The variation in the absolute value of f is bounded by the variation in f : Var(| f |) ≤ Var( f ) (x) The variation of f is bounded above by twice || f ||sup : Var( f ) ≤ 2|| f ||sup (xi) If s. u]) ≤ Var( f . . [a. [s. xN ) of [a. N}.t. [x j−1 . b] (3.. [u. b]) if [s.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 69 (viii) the variation of a function increases montonically with the interval of variation: Var( f .44) (3. [s.45) We also record the following result on variations and partitions for continuous functions: Lemma 3 If f : [a.t]) ≤ Var( f ..t]) (xii) If f is monotone on an interval [s.. u ∈ [a.. b] with |x − x | < δ.t]) = (3. Take any partition X = (x0 .t] then f (t) − f (s) if f (t) ≥ f (s) f (s) − f (t) if f (t) ≤ f (s) (3. Proof..

70

Ambar N. Sengupta

for every x, x ∈ [x j−1 , x j ] since these intervals all have length < δ. Consequently, Var( f , [x j−1 , x j ]) ≤ ε/2 and we are done. QED The sup-norm bound on the variation has the following consequence: Proposition 1 If f1 , f2 , ... : [a, b] → R converge uniformly to a function f : [a, b] → R, then lim Var( fn ) = Var( f ) (3.46)

n→∞

It will be convenient to use the notation Var j ( f ) = Var( f , [x j−1 , x j ]) The reason why we are interested in the variation is summarized by Theorem 20 For any function f : [a, b] → R, where [a, b] ⊂ R and a < b, and every partition X of [a, b] we have

N def

(3.47)

U( f , X) − L( f , X) = Proof. Observe that

j=1

∑ Var j ( f )∆x j

(3.48)

Var j ( f ) = M j ( f ) − m j ( f ).

(3.49)

Multiplying this by ∆x j and adding up over all j ∈ {1, ..., N} gives the result (3.48). QED

3.8 The algebra R [a, b]

Recall that

R [a, b]

is the set of all Riemann integrable functions on [a, b]. Our main objective now is Theorem 21 The set R [a, b] has the following properties: (i) Every constant function belongs to R [a, b]

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis (ii) If f , g ∈ R [a, b] then f + g ∈ R [a, b] (iii) If f , g ∈ R [a, b] then f g ∈ R [a, b]

71

**(iv) If f ∈ R [a, b], and f is never equal to zero and 1/ f is bounded, then 1/ f ∈ R [a, b]. (v) If f ∈ R [a, b] then | f | ∈ R [a, b] and
**

Z b

a

f ≤

Z b

a

|f|

(3.50)

Properties (i)-(iii) say that R [a, b] is an algebra under pointwise addition and multiplication of functions. It is important to note that the converse of (v) does not hold, i.e. there are functions which are not Riemann integrable but whose absoulte values are Riemann integrable. Proof For a constant function k on [a, b] we have L( f , X) = k(b − a) = U( f , X) for every partition X and so k(b − a) is the unique real number lying between all upper sums and all lower sums. Thus

Z b

a

k = k(b − a)

Now supppose f , g ∈ R [a, b]. Let ε > 0. By the Darboux condition, there are partitions Y and Z of [a, b] such that U( f ,Y ) − L( f ,Y ) < ε/2 and U(g, Z) − L(g, Z) < ε/2

Let X be the partition obtained by combining Y and Z. Then, because upper sums decrease and lower sums increase when points are added to a partition, we have U( f , X) − L( f , X) < ε/2 Then, with X = (x0 , ..., xN ), and U(g, X) − L(g, X) < ε/2

72

Ambar N. Sengupta

N

U( f + g, X) − L( f + g, X) = = ≤

j=1 N j=1 N j=1

∑

M j ( f + g) − m j ( f + g) ∆x j

∑ Var( f + g, [x j−1, x j ])∆x j

N j=1

**∑ Var( f , [x j−1, x j ])∆x j + ∑ Var(g, [x j−1, x j ])∆x j
**

by (3.48)

(by Lemma 2 (ii)) = U( f , X) − L( f , X) + U(g, X) − L(g, X) < ε/2 + ε/2 = ε.

Thus, by the Darbox criterion, f + g is Riemann integrable. The other results follow in a similar way by applying other parts of Lemma 2. QED Consider the function g on [0, 1] given by g(x) = 1 if x is rational −1 if x is irrational

Then g is not Riemann integrable, because no matter what partition X we take of [0, 1] the upper sum is always U(g, X) = 1 and the lower sum is always L(g, X) = −1 But the absolute value of g is the constant function 1: |g| = 1 and so |g| is Riemann integrable.

3.9 C[a, b] ⊂ R [a, b]

Every continuous function on a compact interval is integrable. This is a central result of integration theory.

the Riemann integral R [a. for any k ∈ R. is a linear space. 3.10 The Integral as a Non-negative Linear Functional R [a. b] is contained in the set R [a. where a < b. b]. b] ⊂ R. i. . that sums and constant multiples of Riemann integrable functions are again Riemann integrable. with a < b. It should be noted that discontinuous functions might also be integrable.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 73 Theorem 22 For any interval [a. Our next objective is to show that the Riemann integral viewed as a function R [a. g ∈ R [a. b]: C[a.53) Thus. Z b Z b (k f ) = k a a f (3. b] of Riemann integrable functions on [a. b] of continuous functions on [a.51) Theorem 23 For interval [a. The key result used is Lemma 3 which says that the variation of a continuous function can be controlled suitably to apply the Darboux criterion for integrability. b] ⊂ R. b] ⊂ R. and any f . b] → R : f → Z b f a (3.e. the set C[a. we have Z b Z b Z b ( f + g) = a a f+ a g (3. b] → R : f → is linear: Z b f a (3. b] The proof has been presented in class. any function which is dicontinuous at only ﬁnitely many points is integrable.54) is a linear functional on the linear space R [a.52) and. b] We have seen that the set of all Riemann integrable functions on a compact interval [a. Indeed. b] ⊂ R [a. with a < b. b].

and k ∈ R. that f + g and k f are also in R [a.56) Now let ε > 0.x j ] (h(s) − h(t)) = M j (h) − m j (h) (3. (Of course. X) − [L( f .58) which. X) + L(g. X) are squeezed into the interval [L( f . X)] < ε (3. by the Darboux criterion implies that f + g ∈ R [a. X)] (3. X) +U(g. g ∈ R [a. By the usual trick of combining partitions. b]. We have already seen. X) ≤ U( f . L( f + g. X) +U(g. b].) . .57) (3.. X) + L(g. X) − L( f + g.74 Ambar N. X) Similarly. X) ≥ L( f . b]. X) − L( f . L( f + g. X) and U( f + g. xN ) be any partition of [a. x j ]: Vark (h) = Then N sup s. X) + L(g. X) = ≤ j=1 N j=1 ∑ Vark ( f + g)∆ j x N j=1 ∑ Vark ( f )∆ j x + ∑ Vark (g)∆ j x = U( f . Now let X = (x0 . let Vark (h) denote the variation of a function h over the interval [x j−1 . X). X) +U(g.55) U( f + g. X) < ε/2 So U( f + g. we have just repeated the proof of Theorem 21 (ii). Sengupta Proof Let f . X) Thus. in Theorem 21. b] such that U( f . X) < ε/2 and U(g.. b]. there is a partition X of [a.. X) − L(g.t∈[x j−1 . As usual.U( f .

X) + L(g. X) ≤ I( f ) + I(g) ≤ U( f .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Let Z b Z b 75 I( f ) = a f. X) − L(k f . Let X = (x0 . X) + L(g. X). (3.. and I(g) lies between U(g. Consequently.62) (The 1+ in the denominator is to avoid trouble if k happens to be 0.U( f . X) = = j=1 N j=1 ∑ Var j (k f )∆x j (by Lemma 2 (iii)) ∑ |k|Var j ( f )∆x j = |k| [U( f . L( f . X) and L(g.. X) − L( f . X). X) Putting all this together. Therefore.. I( f + g) = I( f ) + I(g) Next.60) Z b I( f + g) = a ( f + g) Then I( f ) lies between U( f .61) and the width of this interval is < ε. X) +U(g. b] such that U( f . . we see that I( f + g) and the sum I( f ) + I(g) both lie in the interval [L( f . X). X) < ε 1 + |k| (3. xN ) be a partition of [a. I(g) = a g. X) − L( f . Therefore. X)] ε ≤ |k| 1 + |k| < ε. But ε is any positive real number.59) (3. L( f + g. X)] (3. X) Moreover. X) +U(g.) Then N U(k f . .63) (3. where k ∈ R. consider the function k f . X) ≤ I( f + g) ≤ U( f + g. I( f ) + I(g) and I( f + g) differ by less than ε. X) and L( f .

[s. and mutiplying everything by ∆x j and adding up. [s. QED The Riemann integral is a non-negative linear functional in the sense that it carried non-negative functions into non-negative numbers: (3. X)] and it lies in [kU( f . [s. Let Z b I(k f ) = a (k f ) (3.b] (3. X)] Ambar N. X).t]) if k ≤ 0 (3. Now since ε > 0 is any positive real number we have I(k f ) = kI( f ).66) because multiplying by a negative number reverses inequalities and transforms sup into inf. also m(k f . [s.68) (3.t]) = sup k f (x) = k inf f (x) = km( f .70) if k ≥ 0 .t]) if k ≥ 0 m(k f .t]) = sup k f (x) = k sup f (x) = kM( f . X)] < ε.65) and for k < 0 we have M(k f .64) Now for k ≥ 0 we have M(k f . X)] if k ≤ 0 Now I( f ) lies between L( f . Consequently. Sengupta has width less than ε. This completes the proof. [s. [s. and so kI( f ) lies in the same interval mentioned above as I(k f ) does.b] (3. the interval [L(k f .t]) = kM( f . Thus. X). X).t] x∈[a.t]) x∈[s. kL( f .t]). as before. X) and U( f . [s. X). x∈[s. and inf into sup.t] x∈[a.69) Doing this for each interval [x j−1 .t]) = km( f .76 Thus. I(k f ) − kI( f ) ≤ |k| [U( f .67) (3. kU( f . [s. we see that I(k f ) lies in the interval [kL( f .U(k f . The Darboux criterion implies that k f is integrable. X) − L( f . x j ].

is also ≥ 0. and is.73) Proof We know that if f ∈ R [a. being ≥ all lower sums. suppose f . b] ⊂ R.71) f≥ Rb a g (3. f (x) ≥ R 0 for all x ∈ [a. Z b Z b Z b f= a a ( f − g) + g a Now we have just shown that the ﬁrst term on the right is ≥ 0.74) . b] we have Z b a f ≤ || f ||sup (b − a) (3. the integral is order-preserving f .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 77 Theorem 24 If [a. b] then ab f ≥ 0: f ∈ R [a. g ∈ R [a. b] ⊂ R with a < b. and f ∈ R [a. b] and Z b a f ≤ Z b a |f| (3. i. with a < b. b] then | f | ∈ R [a.72) Proof. b] and f ≥ g imply that Rb a Rb a f ≥0 (3. b] for the sup-norm in the following sense: Theorem 25 For any compact interval [a. b] and f ≥ g. b]. b] and f ≥ 0 imply that Consequently. Therefore. of course. by linearity. Next. ∈ R [a. Z b a f≥ Z b g. f = ( f − g) + g and so. a QED The linear functional given by the Riemann integral is a bounded linear functional on R [a. and for any f ∈ R [a. Observe that f − g = f + (−1)g is also in R [a. ≥ 0. This is simply because if f ≥ 0 then all the lower sums are ≥ 0 and so the R integral ab f . Thus. b] is non-negative.e.

) Therefore.78) U( f . X) = ≤ < j=1 N j=1 ∑ Var j ( f )∆x j ε 2(b − a) N j=1 ∑ Var j ( fn)∆x j + ∑ ∆x j ε ε + = ε. Let ε > 0. . if f1 . b] then f ∈ R [a. By uniform convergence. Sengupta Now the function | f | is bounded above by the constant || f ||sup (recall from Theorem 19 that this is ﬁnite. X) − L( fn .77) 2 j=1 Now Var j ( fn ) − Var j ( f ) ≤ Var j ( fn − f ) ≤ 2|| fn − f ||sup ε ε < 2 = 4(b − a) 2(b − a) and so Var j ( f ) ≤ Var j ( fn ) + Therefore. we have an n ∈ P such that ε || fn − f ||sup < (3.75) Proof First let us show that f ∈ R [a. b] converge uniformly to a function f on [a. xN ) of [a. . 2 2 .78 Ambar N.. X) − L( f ..76) 4(b − a) By integrability of fn we know that there is a partition X = (x0 . b]. N ε 2(b − a) (3. b] ⊂ R. f2 . QED A useful but simple consequence of this result is: Theorem 26 For any compact interval [a.. b] and Z b n→∞ a Z b lim fn = f a (3. Z b a |f| ≤ Z b a || f ||sup = || f ||sup (b − a) and we are done. X) = ∑ Var j ( fn )∆x j < (3.. with a < b. b] such that N ε U( fn .. ∈ R [a.

c] and a partition Z of [c. then F|T denotes the restriction of F to the smaller domain T . b]. F|T is the function whose domain is T and whse values are given through F: (F|T )(x) = F(x) for all x ∈ T (3.81) and U( f |[c.Y ) < ε/2 (3.83) . c]. and consider any function f : [a. U( f . Then f ∈ R [a. c] and [c. i. c].11 Additivity of the Integral We will show that the integral of a function over an interval [a. there is a partition Y of [a. QED 3.Y ) − L( f |[a. b] such that U( f |[a. b). Next. b]. c] and over [c. b] → R which is intergable over [a. b] for any point c ∈ (a. b]. b be real numbers with a < c < b.Y ) +U( f |[c. If F :S →U is a function. b]. Then. c]. and Z b Z c Z b f= a a f+ c f (3. Z) ≥ Z c Z b f+ a c f (3. Let ε > 0. Z) < ε/2 (3.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Thus. This yields a partition X of the combined interval [a.e. we have Z 79 fn − Z f ≤ || fn − f ||sup (b − a) → 0.79) Theorem 27 Let a. c. f ∈ R [a. b]. By Darboux.80) Proof. as n → ∞. b]. b] is the sum of the integrals of the function over [a.82) Now put together the points of Y and Z. Z) − L( f |[c. b]. X) = U( f |[a. and T is a non-empty subset of S.

80 and L( f . b] there is a partition Y of [a. b]. Now from (3. c]. U( f . b] such that U( f . c]. and. X) = = < = Ambar N.Y ) < ε. b] with s < t then for any function f ∈ R [a. a matter of applying Darboux using one of the properties of Var. c].t] ∈ R [s.84) U( f |[a. as always.83) and (3. Since ε > 0 is arbitrary.t ∈ [a. f+ Rb c f and Rb a f differ by less than ε. zM ) . Z)] U( f |[a. b].Y ) + L( f |[c.Y ) + U( f |[c. b].. X).Y ) − L( f |[a. Since f ∈ R [a. Z) − [L( f |[a. Add to Y the points s and t. f ∈ R [a. .t].Y ) − L( f . b].Y ) + L( f |[c. to obtain a partition Z = (z0 .Y ) +U( f |[c. b]. it follows that Z b Z c Z b f= a a f+ c f. and if s. b] we have f |[s. so does Rc a f . Let ε > 0. X) and U( f .84) it follows that the sum Z c Z b f+ a c f Rb a lies between L( f . Z) − L( f |[c. Therefore. X) = L( f |[a. Z) ε/2 + ε/2 ε Therefore. Proof This is. X) − L( f . by Darboux. in case they are not in Y . QED Now we prove that if a function is ingtergable on an interval then it is integrable on any sub-interval: Theorem 28 If [a. b]. b] ⊂ R. of course. with a < b. c]. Z) ≤ Consequently. Sengupta Z c Z b f+ a c f (3.. c]..

Z) < ε. Let f : [a. Then U( f . b]. X) − L( f |[s.. QED 3. b].. Therefore. Z) − L( f . . X) = ≤ where j=1 ∑ Var j ( f )∆x j N j=1 ∑ Var j ( f ) ||X|| ||X|| = max ∆x j . . x1 .t].t]. b] ⊂ R and a < b. We will now prove that every monotone function is Riemann integrable on any compact interval. where [a.12 Monotone Functions are Riemann Integrable We have made the remark that not every Riemann integrable function is continuous. Now let X be the partition of [s. X) − L( f |[s. 1≤ j≤N . b] → R be a monotone function... xN ) be any partition of [a. We know that this lowers the upper sum and raises the lower sum and so U( f . X) − L( f . and we are done. X) < ε. Z) − L( f . X) + ∑ M j ( f ) − m j ( f ) ∆x j j∈J (3..t] obtained by taking the points of Z which are in [s.t]. M} for which the interval [z j−1 . Z) − L( f .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 81 of [a. Let X = (x0 .t].t]. z j ] is not contained in [s.85) where J consists of those j ∈ {1. Then N U( f . Z) ≤ U( f |[s. Z) = U( f |[s.t].. U( f .

we could divide [a. N} Therefore.82 Ambar N. i. b])||X|| (3. b]) Thus we have proved: Theorem 29 If f is a monotone function on a compact interval [a. b] with x ≥ y Thus. b] with x ≤ y Then.. y ∈ [a. we have U( f . [a.87) To make this less than any chosen ε > 0 all we have to do is take a partition X with all the interval sizes less than ε/[1 + Var( f . Sengupta is the maximum width of the intervals making up the partition. For example.. the sum of the variations over all the intervals is simply the variation over the full interval: N j=1 ∑ Var j ( f ) = Var( f . in either case. y ∈ [a. N 1 + Var( f .86) The same conclusion holds even if f is monotone non-increasing. then f ∈ R [a. [a. b] ⊂ R. [a. b]) (3. X) = Var( f .. i. b]. by the property of Var for monotone functions given in (3. . if f (x) ≤ f (y) for all x. b])]. [a. with a < b. Suppose for convenience that f is monotone non-decreasing. b] into N equal pieces.41) we have Var j ( f ) = f (x j ) − f (x j−1 ) for all j ∈ {1. . with N chosen large enough that b−a ε < .e. f (x) ≤ f (y) for all x.e. X) − L( f .

. xN ) subordinate to X. So consider a function f : [a.. xN ) be any partition of [a.. this method is not the most intuitive in understanding concepts such as arc length. . b] ⊂ R with a < b. X. However. We denote this by j X∗ < X Recall the Riemann sum S( f . . b] → R where [a. and so L( f . with x∗ ∈ [x j−1 . b]. with I = that Rb a... X ∗ ) ≤ U( f . X ∗ ) = Now m j ≤ f (x∗ ) ≤ M j . This method is also amenable to generalizations such as the notion of line integrals. X) ≤ S( f . . X) If f is integrable. X) < ε.89) then for any ε > 0 we can choose partition X such U( f . the Riemann sum approach motivates the construction of more advanced notions such as the stochastic integral of Itô. j for each j. It is therefore useful to understand the Riemann integral in terms of Riemann sums as well. Furthermore.. x j ] for each j. This approach led to a smooth development of the central results of the theory.88) (3. i.e.13 Riemann Sums and the Riemann Integral We have used the Archimedean strategy of capturing the value of the integral between upper sums and lower sums. X) − L( f .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 83 3. Recall that the norm or width of X is the length of the largest interval ||X|| = max ∆x j j Now consider any sequence ∗ ∗ X ∗ = (x1 . X. Let X = (x0 . j=1 ∑ f (x∗j )∆x j N (3.

X ∗ ) − I| < ε (3.91) I= a f Proof. Suppose the given condition holds. X) ≤ I + ε/4 . 3. b] of width < δ and all X ∗ < X. Then. X. X. N. Thus. X ∗ ) − I| < ε/4 holds for all partitions X of [a. X. Then there is a real number I such that for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 for which the condition |S( f . it follows that |S( f . x1 ]. In this case. taking the supremum over all possible x1 in the ﬁrst interval [x0 .. Sengupta Since both I and S( f . we have N I − ε/4 ≤ m1 ∆x1 + ∑ f (x∗ )∆x j j j=2 N Carrying this successively for j = 2.92) j=1 ∑ f (x∗j )∆x j < I + ε/4 N ∗ for every sequence X ∗ < X. .. I − ε/4 < (3. Z b (3. Theorem 30 A function f : [a. taking the inﬁmum over all possible x1 in [x0 . X ∗ ) − I| < ε for every partition X of norm < δ and every X ∗ < X.84 Ambar N.. X. X ∗ ) are squeezed in between the upper and lower sums. we see that M1 ∆x1 + ∑ f (x∗ )∆x j ≤ I + ε/4 j j=2 ∗ and. X) ≤ U( f . we conclude that I − ε/4 ≤ L( f .90) The following result is is often used to deﬁne the Riemann integral in alternative approaches to the theory. b] → R is Riemann integrable if and only if there is a real number I such that for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that |S( f . x1 ].

X). U( f . b] obtained by combining X and Y . . X) ≤ ε/2 < ε 85 and so. X) − L( f . since both I and the integral ab f are trapped in the interval [L( f ..95) We also know by Lemma 1 that U − L for Z differs from that for X by at most 2N|| f ||sup ||X||.Y ) − L( f . xT ) of [a.94) (3.97) (3. b] of norm less than δ: ||X|| < δ We will compare U − L for X with that for Y and conclude that U − L for X is indeed less than ε..U( f .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Consequently. R Z b I= a f. Moreover. because at most N points were added to X to obtain Z. 1 + 2N|| f ||sup (3. U( f . X)] whose width is ε it follows that I and Rb a f differ by less than ε. there is a partition Y = (y0 .. By Darboux.Y ) and L( f . suppose f ∈ R [a. Let ε > 0. Z) ≤ U( f . X) < ε/2 + 2N|| f ||sup δ (3. the most U − L for X could be is U( f . Using our standard trick...Y ) < ε/2 Now let δ= ε/2 . X) − L( f .Y ) − L( f . Z) + 2N|| f ||sup ||X|| Thus. f ∈ R [a. b].Y ) differ by less than ε: U( f .. . Then U( f . Thus. let Z be the partition of [a. by Darboux. ε is any positive real number. Z) − L( f . yN ) of [a. b] such that U( f . Z) − L( f . For the converse. b].93) (Where we get this from will be clear later. Thus.96) .) Consider any partition X = (x0 . But.Y ) < ε/2 (3.

X) − L( f .99) We have shown that for any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that (3. R Therefore. S( f . Thus. QED .98) Now take any X ∗ < X. and so it the integral ab f . X ) − ∗ Z b f <ε a (3. X) and the upper sum U( f . Then the Riemann sum S( f . X ∗ ) is sandwiched between R the lower sum L( f . X.86 Ambar N. S( f .U( f . X). X. X ∗ ) and ab f both lie in the interval [L( f .94) we chose δ just so this right side now works out to ε: U( f . X). X)] whose width is < ε. X) < ε/2 + ε/2 = ε (3. Sengupta In (3. X.99) holds for any partition X of width < δ and any X ∗ < X.

(Third Edition. Addison-Wesley Professional. 2001.gutenberg. Essays on the Theory of Numbers.1974. 1901. 1976. (Eight Edition. Stuttgart. 1956. Donald. John H. Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. On Numbers and Games. (Second Edition) A.K. Walter. [2] Dedekind. The Open Court Publishing Company. Online at http://www.) McGraw-Hill. 87 . Richard. Grundlagen der Geometrie.org/ etext/21016 [3] Hilbert. David. [5] Rudin. with supplementary material and revisions by Paul Bernays. Principles of Mathematical Analysis. Peters. Surreal Numbers.G. [4] Knuth.Bibliography [1] Conway.) H.

Sengupta .88 Ambar N.

89 .Appendix A Question Bank Set 1 1. Prove that there is no rational number whose square is 7.

(i) Show that there is an n0 ∈ N such that 1 <ε n2 for all n ∈ N with n ≥ n0 .90 2. Sengupta (ii) Let a be any real number. Let ε be any positive real number. Ambar N. Show that there is some n1 ∈ N such that 1 2a < ε n for all n ∈ N with n ≥ n1 . .

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 3. there is some n ∈ N such that the preceding inequality holds for all natural numbers n ≥ n ).e. Suppose a is a positive real number with a2 < 7. . Show that a+ 1 n 2 91 <ε for all n ∈ N large enough (i.

. Let S = {x ∈ R : x > 0 and x2 < 7}. Ambar N. Sengupta (ii) Show that S is bounded above in R.92 4. / (i) Show that S = 0.

there is a real number whose square is 7. equal to 7. in fact.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 93 (iii) Let a = sup S.) (iv) Prove that a2 is. Then use the result of Problem 3. . (Hint: Suppose a2 were less than 7. Prove that a2 ≥ 7. Thus.

viewed as a subset of R∗ : (i) B0 = (ii) ∂B = (iii) Bc = (iv) the interior of the complement Bc is (Bc )0 = (v) (B0 )c = (vi) B = (vii) ∂B = (viii) ∂B0 = (ix) The interior of (B0 )c is: (x) The closure of Bc is: . 7) ∪ [9. Sengupta 1.94 Set 2 Ambar N. ∞). For the set B = {−4. 8} ∪ [1.

(iv) If S is closed then its closure S is S itself. the interior of the interior of A is the interior of A. S = S. (iii) The set [0.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 2. ∞) is closed as a subset of R. i. Provide brief explanations/answers for the following: (i) If U is an open set then U 0 = 95 (ii) For any set A. (A0 )0 = A0 .e. (v) Is there a subset of R whose boundary in R is all of R? . i.e.

96

Ambar N. Sengupta 3. Give an example of an open cover of (−1, 1) which does not have a ﬁnite subcover.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Set 5 1. Consider the partition X = (.25, .5, .75, 1) of [0, 1]. For the function f on [0, 1] given by f (x) = x2 for all x ∈ [0, 1]

97

(i) Work out the upper sum U( f , X)

(ii) Work out the Riemann sum S( f , X, X ∗ ), where X ∗ = (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8)

98 2. Consider the partition X= 1 2 N , , ..., N N N

Ambar N. Sengupta

of [0, 1]. For the function f on [0, 1] given by f (x) = x2 for all x ∈ [0, 1]

(i) Show that U( f , X) = 1 1 1+ 6 N 2+ 1 N

[Hint: Use the sum formula 12 + 22 + · · · + k2 = k(k + 1)(2k + 1)/6.]

(ii) Show that L( f , X) = 1 1 1− 6 N 2− 1 N

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis (iii) Assuming that f is integrable. prove that Z 1 0 99 x2 dx = 1 3 using the deﬁnition of the Riemann integral and the results of (i) and (ii). .

Consider the function g on [0. Sengupta Prove that g is not Riemann integrable. 1] given by g(x) = 1 if x is rational −1 if x is irrational Ambar N.100 3. .

b]. b]. then f + g ∈ R [a.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 101 4. for a. . if f . g ∈ R [a. b ∈ R with a < b. Prove that.

Write out in a complete and neat way the proof that every continuous function on a compact interval is Riemann integrable. .102 Set 6 Ambar N. Sengupta 1.

b]. For a function f : [a.y∈[a. x.b] andm( f ) = inf f (x).b] 103 where M( f ) = sup f (x). Var( f g) ≤ M(| f |)Var(g) + m(|g|)Var( f ) . b] → R we deﬁne the variation Var( f ) by Var( f ) = sup ( f (x) − f (y)) = M( f ) − m( f ). x∈[a.b] Prove that for functions f and g on [a.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 2. x∈[a.

Clearly explain.104 Ambar N.) . Work out a simple integral in such a way as to illustrate the deﬁnition of the Riemann integral. Explain the notion of the Riemann integral by clearly stating the deﬁnitions of upper sums and lower sums. all properly explained in your own terms. the Darboux criterion. in your own words. and then stating and explaining the deﬁnition of the Riemann integral. (Please note that every piece of notation you bring in must explained. Sengupta 3.

2. ∞) is a closed subset of R∗ (vii) The set [0. 1] (v) The point 4 is a boundary point of [0. ∞) is a closed subset of R (viii) Every real number is a boundary point of Q (ix) The set {1. non-empty subset of R then it has a least upper bound in R (iii) The point ∞ is a boundary point of [1. ∞] (iv) The point 1 is an interior point of [0. 3} is compact (x) The set (1. 4) (vi) The set [0. Mark True or False: (i) If S is a bounded subset of R then it contains a largest element 105 (ii) If S is a bounded. 5] is compact .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Test 1 1.

106 2. Ambar N. Sengupta (ii) If S is a non-empty subset of R∗ then sup S is in the closure S. (ii) The complement of a closed set is open. Prove one of the following statements: (i) The union of any collection of open sets is open. .

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 3. State (i) the Heine-Borel Theorem 107 (ii) the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem. .

108 4. Sengupta (ii) Limit of a sequence (xn )in R∗ . . State the deﬁnitions of the following: (i) Limit point of a sequence (xn ) in R∗ . (iii) A Cauchy sequence in R. Ambar N.

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Test 2 1. Mark True or False: (i) A continuous function on any subset of R is bounded. 109 (iv) A continuous function on a compact set attains a mimimum value at some point in the set. (viii) Every uniformly Cauchy sequence of functions converges uniformly. (iii) A continuous function on a compact set is bounded. and if each fn is continuous at a point p ∈ [0. 1]. 1] → R is a sequence of functions. (x) The uniform limit of a sequence of continuous functions is continuous. as n → ∞. (vi) If a sequence of functions converges to a function unformly then it converges pointwise. (vii) If fn : [0. (ii) A continuous function on any closed subset of R is bounded. and fn → f . pointwise. then f is continuous at p. . (ix) Every uniformly convergent sequence of functions is uniformly Cauchy. (v) If a sequence of functions converges to a function pointwise then it converges uniformly.

and f (p) > 0 for some p ∈ [0. Show that there is a neighborhood U of p such that f (x) > 0 for all x ∈ U ∩ [0. Suppose f : [0. Sengupta 2. 1]. 1]. 1] → R is continuous.110 Ambar N. .

State (i) the Intermediate Value Theorem 111 (ii) the Extreme Value theorem. .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 3.

112 4. 1). Ambar N. Show that the equation x3 + 5x − 2 = 0 has a solution in the interval (0. Sengupta .

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis Test 3 1. Consider a function f on an interval [a, b] ⊂ R, where a < b,: f : [a, b] → R.

113

(i) Let X = (a, b) be the simplest partition of [a, b]. Write down an expression for L( f , X), explaining your notation clearly. (5pts)

(ii) Now consider a partition X which contains one addtional point t, i.e. X = (a,t, b), where a < t < b. Write down an expression for L( f , X ), again explaining the notation clearly. (5pts)

114

Ambar N. Sengupta

(iii) Show that L( f , X ) ≥ L( f , X).

(5pts)

Notes in Introductory Real Analysis

115

2. Consider a function f : [a, b] → R, where [a, b] ⊂ R and a < b. Let X and Y be partitions of [a, b] with Y containing all the points of X and some more. Prove that (5pts) U( f ,Y ) − L( f ,Y ) ≤ U( f , X) − L( f , X)

d]. b] and [c.116 3. Ambar N. Sengupta (5pts) . If f ∈ R [a. d] ⊂ [a. b] prove that f ∈ R [c.

X) − L( f . and ∆x j = x j − x j−1 . If f ∈ R [a. d. xN ) of [a. Every Riemann integrable function is bounded. Every Riemann integrable function is continuous.x j ] f (x) − infx∈[x j−1 . b] then f ∈ R [a. b] → R and any partition X = (x0 . b] then | f | ∈ R [a. b.x j ] f (x). where Var j ( f ) = supx∈[x j−1 . b]. j. there is always a real number which is ≥ all the lower sums and ≤ all the upper sums. b] and f is never zero then 1/ f ∈ R [a. b]. f. For any function f : [a.. b]. For a bounded function on an interval [a. . e.. N U( f . . c. Every monotone function is Riemann integrable. g.. Every bounded function is Riemann integrable. i. b]. b] ⊂ R. Every continuous function is Riemann integrable. h. If | f | ∈ R [a.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 4. If f ∈ R [a. Mark TRUE or FALSE: 117 (10pts) a. X) = j=1 ∑ Var j ( f )∆x j .

6) ∪ {1. Mark True or False: (i) 2 is an interior point of S. (iii) 4 is a boundary point of S. (viii) S is compact.118 Cumulative Question Set 1. Sengupta (ix) Every sequence in S has a subsequence which is convergent. (vii) S is a closed set. 8}. (ii) 4 is an interior point of S. 4) ∪ (5. Ambar N. (vi) S is an open set. (x) Every sequence in S has a subsequence converging to a point in S. (v) 1 is an isolated point of S. . (iv) 9 is an isolated point of S. Consider the set S = [2.

If you have time. 119 (i) If t a real number with t < sup S. (ii) Show that there is a sequence of elements sn ∈ S such that sn → sup S. [Hint: Let U = sup S. First assume that S is bounded above.] .Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 2. in this case U ∈ R. Explain why there exists x ∈ S with x > t. try also the case U = ∞. Now apply (i) to produce an sn using 1/n for t. Let S be a non-empty subset of R.

Sengupta 3. and f (p) > 2. p + δ). . Suppose f is continuous at a point p.120 Ambar N. Prove that there is a δ > 0 such that f (x) > 0 for all x in the domain of f which lie in the neighborhood (p − δ.

there is a point p ∈ S such that f (p) = supx∈S f (x). i. [Hint: Let U = supx∈S f (x). Then choose a sequence of points sn ∈ S such that f (sn ) → U.] .e. Prove that f reaches its maximum value on S.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 121 4. Let f be a continuous function on a closed and bounded set S ⊂ R. Apply Bolzano-Weierstrass.

122 Ambar N. b ∈ R. Let ( fn ) be a sequence of functions on [a. Sengupta 5. b]. b] then fn → f uniformly. (v) If fn (x) → f (x) for every x ∈ [a. for some function f on [a. and if each fn is continuous. then f is continuous. Mark True or False: (i) If there is a function f on [a. b]. with a < b. (ii) If fn → f uniformly then fn (x) → f (x) for all x ∈ [a. (iv) If fn → f uniformly and each fn is continuous then f is continuous. Let a. . b]. (iii) If ( fn ) is Cauchy in sup-norm then fn → f uniformly. b]. b] such that fn (x) → f (x) for all x ∈ [a.

b] then Z b a 123 f ≤ Z b a |f| (iii) If fn ∈ R[a. Mark true or false. and X and Y are partitions of [a. and f ∈ R[a. for n ∈ N. (i) C[a.Y ) . b]. X) ≤ Z b f a (v) If f is a function on [a. b]. (ii) If f ∈ R[a. b]. (iv) If X is a partition of [a. Consider an interval [a. b] with X ⊂ Y then U( f . b] ⊂ R[a.Notes in Introductory Real Analysis 6. b] then Rb Rb a fn → a f . b]. b]. and fn (x) → f (x) for every x ∈ [a. then L( f . X) < U( f . b] ⊂ R.

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